Title:
METHOD FOR ALTERING LIGHT INTERACTIONS WITH COMPLEX STRUCTURED LIGHT
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Structured beams, Bessel beams Laguerre beams, and focused Gaussian are used as a natural waveguide and its group velocity can be subluminal (slower than the speed of light) as compared to a Gaussian beam in free space. A free space dispersion relation for a Bessel beam, i.e., the dependence of its wavenumber on its angular frequency, is outlined from which the Bessel beam's subliminal group velocity is derived. For reasonable conditions a Bessel light beam has associated parameters that allow slowing near a critical frequency. The application of Bessel beams for a natural optical buffer in free space is presented. Optical transitions and selection rules in materials are altered by structured light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Nano antennas are used to enhance the interactions of structured light.



Inventors:
Alfano, Robert R. (Bronx, NY, US)
Nolan, Daniel (Painted Post, NY, US)
Application Number:
15/218602
Publication Date:
05/18/2017
Filing Date:
07/25/2016
Assignee:
Research Foundation of the City University of New York (New York, NY, US)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
G02B1/00; G02B6/28; G02B27/09
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Primary Examiner:
JONES, JAMES
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Schmeiser, Olsen & Watts, LLP/RO-CUNY (Latham, NY, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. An optical buffer comprising an optical beam generator configured to generating a nonplanar optical beam having an angular frequency (ω) and a constant beam diameter (a) between 0.1 μm and 10 μm; a medium through which the nonplanar optical beam is propagated, the medium having an index of refraction (n), wherein the angular frequency (ω) of the nonplanar optical beam is within 25% of a critical angular frequency (ωc) given by ωckn wherein k is a transverse wavenumber given by k=2πa, wherein the nonplanar optical beam is closed to a subluminal speed by propagating through the medium, thereby providing an optical buffer.

2. The optical buffer as recited in claim 1, wherein the medium is a fiber optic cable.

3. The optical buffer as recited in claim 1, wherein the medium is air.

4. A method for producing subluminal light, the method comprising steps of: generating a nonplanar optical beam having an angular frequency (ω) and a constant beam diameter (a) between 0.1 μm and 10 μm; propagating the nonplanar optical beam through a medium, the medium having an index of refraction (n), wherein the angular frequency (ω) of the nonplanar optical beam is within 25% of a critical angular frequency (ωc) given by ωcckn wherein kis a transverse wavenumber given by k=2πa.

5. The method as recited in claim 4, wherein the nonplanar optical beam is a Bessel beam.

6. The method as recited in claim 4, wherein the nonplanar optical beam is an Laguerre Gaussian beam.

7. The method as recited in claim 4, wherein the medium is air for free space.

8. The method as recited in claim 7, wherein the index of refraction (n) is 1.

9. The method as recited in claim 4, wherein the medium is a fiber optic cable.

10. The method as recited in claim 4, wherein the step of propagating confines the nonplanar optical beam in X and Y directions but permits propagation in a Z direction, thereby providing a waveguide.

11. The method as recited in claim 4, wherein the waveguide is a rectangular waveguide.

12. The method as recited in claim 11, wherein the nonplanar optical beam is slowed in the Z direction.

13. The method as recited in claim 11, wherein the nonplanar optical beam is an Laguerre Gaussian with a Rayleigh zone 2z0.

14. The method as recited in claim 4, further comprising exposing an antenna to the nonplanar optical beam after the step of propagating.

15. The method as recited in claim 14, wherein the antenna comprises a plurality of cavities, each cavity having a volume of less than 5 μm3.

16. The method as recited in claim 14, wherein the antenna provides a plurality of cavities, each cavity having a volume between 0.5 and 3 μm3.

17. The method as recited in claim 14, wherein the antenna is selected from the group consisting of an elongated box antenna, an antenna with a plurality of grating cones disposed on a planar surface; a nanoantenna, a fly eye antenna and a black silicon antenna.

18. A method of enhancing an optical beam, the method comprising steps of: exposing an antenna to an optical beam with a wavelength (λ), the optical beam being selected from the group consisting of a Bessel beam, a Laguerre Gaussian beam, and a Gaussian beam, the optical beam having a constant beam diameter (a) between 0.1 μm and 10 μm, wherein the antenna comprises a plurality of cavities, each cavity having a volume (V) of less than 5 μm3; permitting the optical beam to interact with the cavity to produce an optical enhancement given by a Purcell Factor (Fp) where: Fp=3Qλ34π2V where Q is between 1 and 100 and V is a non-zero number that is less than 5 μm3.

19. The method as recited in claim 18, wherein the optical enhancement is an enhanced emission.

20. The method as recited in claim 18, wherein the optical enhancement is an enhanced absorption.

21. The method as recited in claim 18, wherein the optical enhancement is an alteration in selection rules, for dipole and quadruple transitions between states in materials, wherein the materials are bulk materials and nanoparticle materials or quantum dot materials.

22. The method as recited in claim 18, wherein the antenna is selected from the group consisting of an elongated box antenna, an antenna with a plurality of grating cones disposed on a planar surface; a nanoantenna, a fly eye antenna, a black silicon antenna and a cavity to trap radiation of nonplanar light.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to and is a non-provisional of U.S. Patent Application 62/282,021 (filed Jul. 23, 2015), the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.

STATEMENT OF FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

This invention was made with Government support under grant number 47221-00-01 awarded by the Army Research Office. The government has certain rights in the invention.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The subject matter disclosed herein relates to methods of using Structure Complex light from Special Functions, such as Bessel (B), Laguerre Gaussian (LG), and Gaussian(G), which satisfies Maxwell linear and nonlinear Polarization Wave equation for slowing light. In certain embodiments, the subject matter relates to an optical buffer that slows light and to a special small antenna to enhance the interactions and transitions in materials using the Special functions.

Light's salient degrees of freedom are the independent parameters that completely describe an electromagnetic wave (in the paraxial approximation) and include polarization, wavelength, and time. Light's space degree of freedom has received significant attention via the sub-discipline of optics that can be referred to as complex light or structured light. The study of complex light is a veritable renaissance of optics; using light's space degree of freedom many classical optics phenomena have been revisited with novel results, such as double slit diffraction, the mechanical Faraday effect, and Fermat's principle. Additionally, using light's space degree of freedom the fundamental limits of many optics applications have been addressed, e.g., the transmission data rate of optical fiber communication can potentially be increased beyond that single mode optical fibers via space division multiplexing, and it is possible to image below the diffraction limit via Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy.

There are several ways to slow light to store in a buffer: as optical fiber, grating, resonator cavity, and etalons. There are few new approaches, including electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT) and coupled resonator (CR). EIT slowing has been observed in metal vapor with large vg=10 m/s. CR delays light on the same time scale. It would be desirable to provide new methods of slowing light.

The discussion above is merely provided for general background information and is not intended to be used as an aid in determining the scope of the claimed subject matter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Structured beams, Bessel beams, Laguerre beams, and focused Gaussian are used as a natural waveguide and its group velocity can be subluminal (slower than the speed of light) as compared to a Gaussian beam in free space. A free space dispersion relation for a Bessel beam, i.e., the dependence of its wavenumber on its angular frequency, is outlined from which the Bessel beam's subliminal group velocity is derived. For reasonable conditions a Bessel light beam has associated parameters that allow slowing near a critical frequency. The application of Bessel beams for a natural optical buffer in free space is presented. Optical transitions and selection rules in materials are altered by structured light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Nano antennas are used to enhance the interactions of structured light. An advantage that may be realized in the practice of some disclosed embodiments of the method is that it provides an alternative method to produce subluminal light.

This disclosure provides a method of altering light-matter interactions through the use of structured light beams and structured materials. The method is useful in applications to enhance products such as optical buffers, solar cells, photodetectors, and lasers and enhance processes such as quantum effects and entanglement.

This brief description of the invention is intended only to provide a brief overview of subject matter disclosed herein according to one or more illustrative embodiments, and does not serve as a guide to interpreting the claims or to define or limit the scope of the invention, which is defined only by the appended claims. This brief description is provided to introduce an illustrative selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the detailed description. This brief description is not intended to identify key features or essential features of the claimed subject matter, nor is it intended to be used as an aid in determining the scope of the claimed subject matter. The claimed subject matter is not limited to implementations that solve any or all disadvantages noted in the background.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

So that the manner in which the features of the invention can be understood, a detailed description of the invention may be had by reference to certain embodiments, some of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. It is to be noted, however, that the drawings illustrate only certain embodiments of this invention and are therefore not to be considered limiting of its scope, for the scope of the invention encompasses other equally effective embodiments. The drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis generally being placed upon illustrating the features of certain embodiments of the invention. In the drawings, like numerals are used to indicate like parts throughout the various views. Thus, for further understanding of the invention, reference can be made to the following detailed description, read in connection with the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a graph depicting group velocity of a Bessel light beam as a function of angular frequency;

FIG. 2 is a graph depicting group index of a Bessel light beam as a function of angular frequency;

FIGS. 3A to 3F depict various dipoles (e.g. quantum dots, dyes, molecules, atoms) in different structures where the density of states resonance modes are changed from free space;

FIG. 4 is a graph depicting a Bessel band gap; and

FIG. 5 is a schematic depiction of diffraction of a 2D structure grating, such as black silicon.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Light propagates in well-defined so-called available modes or density of states in air and material medium. The modes can be controlled by alteration of the material's structure into antennas, cavities, and waveguides. This, in turn, alters the available and resonant modes and available states of light within the material resulting in many novel phenomena and light-material interactions such as subluminal light propagation (slow light), enhanced light emission and absorption, reduced reflection, alteration of energy pathways, and non-radiative as well as radiative processes. The underlying mechanism responsible for this is a change in the available modes within the medium due to the specific structure of the material.

A Bessel light beam is an example of a nonplanar light beam described by a special function. A Bessel beam is a light beam that, in contrast to more conventional Gaussian beams, possesses noteworthy properties, such as, “self-healing” and diffraction-limited propagation associated with a pencil-like beam profile. Due to these properties, Bessel beams have been extensively studied and used for a number of applications. When using a Bessel beam for optical trapping it is possible to simultaneously trap multiple particles in well-separated planes, and make a particle tractor beam. Also, when using a Bessel beam's line profile for light sheet microscopy it is possible to rapidly image biological samples (e.g. tissue) in three-dimensions.

The wave equation in cylindrical coordinates is:


(∇2(r,φ,z)−k2)φ(r,φ,z)=0 (1)

where (r,φ,z) are cylindrical coordinates,

k=2πλ

is the wavenumber, λ is light's wavelength.

As a solution to the wave equation, a Bessel beam is derived via separation of variables where φ(r,φ,z)=Φ(φ)Z(z):


φ(r,φ,z)=J0(kr)exp(ikzz)exp(−iωt) (2)

where k, and kz are the transverse and axial propagation wavenumbers, respectively.

The relationship between the transverse (k) and axial wave (kz) numbers is:


kz2(ω)+k2=k2(ω) (3)

The propagation constant k(ω) of the beam is given by dispersion relationship:

k(ω)=ωn(ω)c(4)

where n(ω) is the index of refraction of the medium in which the Bessel light beam propagates, c is the speed of the light and ω is the light's angular frequency.

By combining the above equations, the relationship between the transverse (k) and axial wave (kz) numbers can be rewritten as:

ω2(kz)=c2n2kz2+c2n2k2(5)ω(kz)=(c2n2kz2+c2n2k2)1/2and(6)ω(kz)=(c2n2kz2+ωc2)1/2(7)

The critical frequency (ωc) is defined as:

ωcckn(8)

which represents the frequency of the number of standing waves in perpendicular transverse direction. In one embodiment, the angular frequency (ω) is within 25% of the critical frequency (ωc). In another embodiment, the angular frequency (ω) is within 10% of the critical frequency (ωc). In another embodiment, the angular frequency (ω) is within 5% of the critical frequency (ωc).

Equation 7 embodies a free space dispersion relationship ω vs k for a Bessel light beam in free space (i.e. the dependence of its angular frequency on its axial wave vector).

The group velocity of a Bessel light beam can then be derived from this dispersion relation via the definition of group velocity:

vg,z=ω(kz)kz(9)

Subsequently, vg becomes

vg,z=12c2n22kz(c2n2kz2+ωc2)-12 and(10)vg,z=c2n2kz(c2n2kz2+ωcz)12(11)

Using equation 3, equation 11 can be rewritten as:

vg,z=c2n2(k2-k2)(c2n2k2+c2n2k2+ωc2)12(12)

Using equation 8, equation 12 can be rewritten as:

vg,z=c2n2(k2-k2)12(k2)12(13)

Using equation 4, and again 8, equation 13 can be written for vg,z as:

vg,z=cn[1-(ωcω)2]12(14)

From equation 14, when ω approaches the critical frequency ωc, then vg,z=0 and the Bessel beam stops. See FIG. 1 where a graph of vg,z vs ω is shown. For ω=ωc, the beam is frozen.

The critical frequency ωc is defined via the transverse wavenumber and diameter of the Bessel light beam to form a set of standing waves:

k=2πa(15)

where a is the beam diameter of the central lope Bessel light beam. In one embodiment, the diameter is between 0.1 μm and 10 μm. Consider a Bessel light beam with a beam diameter of a=0.63 μm propagating in air (n=1). The corresponding transverse wavenumber is given by k≈10 μm−1. Then the Bessel light beam's critical frequency corresponds to a wavelength λc≈632 nm (red light).

An effective group index of refraction ng can also be defined from equation 14:

ng=cvg,z and(16)ng=n[1-(ωcω)2]-12(17)

A plot of the group index ng (equation 17) for the same example shown in FIG. 2. The group index ng becomes large as ω→ωc; at ω=ωc, ng→∞.

The natural slowing of a Bessel light beam in free space can be used as a free space delay line or an optical buffer. As examples, consider Bessel light beams whose wavelengths are given by λ≈632 nm and λ≈800 nm.

The parameters for λ≈632 nm become k=2π/a, a(λ)≈0.63 μm and k=10 μm−1 for n=1 (air) such that

ωc=kcn=3fs-1.

The laser λ≈632 nm, ωL≈2.98 fs−1, slowing will occur; where ω=2πv and c=λv.

The parameters for λ≈800 nm become k=2π/a, a(λ)≈1 μm and k=6.3 μm−1 for n=1 (air) such that

ωc=kcn=2.4fs-1.

The laser λ≈800 nm, ωL≈2.4 fs−1, slowing will occur. In other embodiments, the medium is a fiber optic cable.

Consider the time it takes that Bessel light beam propagate over a distance given by t=l/vg as compared to a Gaussian light beam propagating over the same distance using an axicon lens or SLM over beam length of =1 cm and beam waist of a≈1 μm. For ng˜3 the time delay is given y 100 ps to 200 ps. Otherwise the delay will be on order of 100 fs scale.

As mentioned above, the Bessel light is a “natural time delay line” for slowing light in n from the diffraction induced energy gap ωc arising from the transverse k component. See FIG. 4. Depending on ωc relative to ω, ng can be changed from, i.e., ng=5 to 1000. As ω→ωc, the group velocity becomes subliminal, slowing down vg→0.

Additional Embodiments

From Fermi's Golden rule the transition probability is governed by the transition matrix under the interaction Hamiltonian that includes the inner product {right arrow over (A)}·{right arrow over (ρ)} of the incident light's vector potential {right arrow over (A)} and the material's momentum operator

ρ_(ρ_=i)

between an initial |icustom-character and final |fcustom-character material states, respectively and is proportional to the material's density of states ρ(ω). The vector potential {right arrow over (A)} is not restricted to conventional plane wave front light beams, such as the fundamental TEM00 Gaussian(G) laser mode, but also higher order Laguerre-Gaussian (LG), Bessel (B) and Bessel-Gaussian nonplanar front solutions to the wave equation with a characteristic helical twisted nonplanar wave front instead of plane wave front called an optical vortex. This additional properly allows light to carry a well-defined and higher dimensional orbital angular momentum (OAM) and the possibility of changing the selection rules governing the dipole transition from states |icustom-character to |fcustom-character.

Electromagnetic waves with a vector potential {right arrow over (A)} can occupy a number of modes within a volume of space V in a range of frequencies. There are a finite number of states allowed by the dispersion curves and the corresponding density of states ρ(ω). In free space the plane waves fit into space that are normal modes within a cube of length L. The number of wavelengths that fit in the cube's length are L/2, 2L/2, . . . nL/2. This gives the density of modes of the electromagnetic waves referred to as the photon's density of states in free space per volume:

ρ(ω)=ω2π2c3(18)

where ω is the light's angular frequency and c is the speed of light.

The spontaneous rate (A coefficient) from Einstein is:

A=(8πv2c3)hv(8πρ23h2)[s-1](19)

where ρ is the dipole moment. The density of states is:

ρ(v)=8πv2c3numberofstatesperVandfrequency(20)

For a resonant cavity of volume V the Q=v0/Δv and the spontaneous rate is changed by the Purcell factor Fp given by:

Fp=3Qλ34π2V(21)

For a dipole in a small volume V=(1 μm)3, k=1 μm, and Q=100, Fp is:


Fp=75 (22)

If λ=½ μm, the enhancement F is 8×, even if Q=1 due to confinement. The emission is stronger by Fp. In one embodiment, the volume is less than 5 μm3. In another embodiment, the volume is between 0.5 and 3 μm3. Note, density of photon states:

ρ(v)=8πv2c3[cm-3eV]perVperenergy(23)

Note, density of photon states:

ρ(hv)=8πv2hc3[cm-3]perVperenergy(24)

The dispersion curve ω vs. k or n(ω) vs. ω of quasi particles (e.g. photons, plasmons, phonons, excitons, polaritons) travel with velocity determined by ω vs. k via Ug=∂w/∂k. At ω, k various hybrids can be formed called polaritons.

Optical Buffers

An optical buffer (OB) is one of the key components in photonics, such as a fiber loop. An optical buffer is used to time delay the optical pulse information in a communication signal and computation processing system so it can be read. The purpose of an optical buffer is to store and then release the data in optical format with the needed conversion into electrical format. Using an optical buffer, one can slow down optical data and/or store it.

One practical optical buffer is a fiber loop. The optical data is delayed in a fiber loop. For example, the optical data may be needed for a time of length of bit information (e.g. 1000 bits at a rate of 10 gigbits/s). Therefore the optical fiber loop needed is about 33 meter long (10−10 s/bit×1000 bit=10−7=3.3 ns/m×30 m). For most applications this is too long of a fiber to be pragmatic. To reduce the length of the optical buffer fiber to the centimeter scale and keep the delay time of 10−7 s one needs to reduce the group velocity vg→0. To this end the disclosed Bessel beam ω near ωc is used.

Antenna

Referring to FIGS. 3A to 3G, the dipole emission into available states from each atomic or molecular center, such as quantum dot, is changed due to antenna and cavities as evident in its dispersion ω vs k characteristics and special designed optical antennas. The special function beams B, LG and G are trapped in these antenna to maximize the interaction by the Purcell factor. FIGS. 3A to 3G show different antenna or cavity structures with an emitting dipole {right arrow over (ρ)}. The dipole emission {right arrow over (ρ)} can be altered by the different antenna and cavity structures, which change the available modes and density of states of light. Structural light dispersion from waveguides, rectangular waveguides, 1D/2D fibers, and 2D/3D gratings allow for subluminal and enhanced emission/absorption/reflection as well as propagation and generation of light. In one embodiment, the beam is an LG beam with a Rayleigh zone 2z0.

FIG. 3A depicts omnidirectional light producing an emitting dipole {right arrow over (ρ)} without an antenna. FIG. 3B shows an antenna that provides a cavity to shape the emitting dipole {right arrow over (ρ)}. The antenna of FIG. 3B is an elongated box formed by at least four walls. FIG. 3C depicts a surface of an, antenna that comprises a plurality of grating cones. The cones have a predetermined size and are spaced from one another at a predetermined pitch. FIG. 3D depicts a quantum dot and a nanoantenna. The length of the nanoantenna is 50% the wavelength of light. FIG. 3E depicts a fly eye antenna comprising multiple curved surfaces, each with a plurality of elongated protections. In the embodiment of FIG. 3E each protection is 120 nm long and spaced from one another with a pitch of 350 nm. The curved surface has a depth of curvature of 9 μm and a diameter of 21 μm. FIG. 3F depicts Black silicon cones on top of a plate to form a nano cone grating.

This disclosure provides a method of creating Bessel beams using spatial light modulator (SLM), superposition of Bessel beams Jo, J1, J2 . . . , SC Bessel beams (400 nm to 900 nm). The vg can be measured using a streak camera at different ω (e.g. from 400 nm to 900 nm) of SC Bessel beam focused to ½ to 10 μm spot size.

Waveguides Dispersion for Slow Light

Similar effects of slowing can be achieved in structures such as waveguides and even its own beam size for Bessel, LG, and Gaussian beams obey dispersion curves of available modes in spatial structure. For any waveguides in xyz, the beam is confined in x and y direction and travels in z direction. The momentum dispersion equation is:


k2=kx2+ky2+kz2 (25)

where ki=niω/c(i=x,y,z)

The confinement in x and y directions in a waveguide (see FIG. 3D) of size d gives standing waves of wavelength d=λ/2 such as

k=2πλ=πd,

kd==π. Therefore for standing waves in a waveguide of size a and b kd==kxa=mπ and kd==kya=nπ′ where m and n are mode numbers for the light states. The confinement on x and y from equation 18 and 19 and 20 gives:

kz2=n2ω2c2-(mπa)2+(nπa)2(26)

The cutoff frequency, when ω=ωckz=0 (propagation is frozen, vg=0) causes a natural gap where vg→0 as ω→ωc.

The kz for waveguides is:

kz=n2ω2c2-((mπa)2+(nπa)2)(27)

The inverse group velocity is

υg-1=kzω=(ωn2c2)(ωn2c2-(mπa)2+(nπa)2)1/2(28)

The group velocity in waveguide is

υg=cn(1-c2ω2n2)((mπa)2+(nπa)2)1/4 where(29)υg=cn(1-ωc2ω2)1/2; ωc=cn(mπa)2+(nπa)2(30)

with modes m, n=0, 1, 2, . . .

υg(ω)=cn(1-ωc2ω2)1/2cng(31)

Enhancement of Optical Properties of Absorption and Emission in Structures with Structured Light

The key behind transitions in materials in energy states of dipoles is governed by Fermi's golden rule. The spontaneous transition emission rate depends on multi-pole transitions between final |fcustom-character and initial |icustom-character states.


Ki→f2π|custom-characteri|Hint|fcustom-character|2ρ(ω) (32)

where transition matrix Mif=custom-characteri|Hint|fcustom-character, Hint− interaction Hamiltonian, and ρ(ω) is density of available states.

The vector potential {right arrow over (A)} of light has transverse spatial profiles of planar-Gaussian (G) and nonplanar twisted wavefronts, such as Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) and Bessel (B) alters the transition strength and OAM allowed L and S transitions. The latter two LG and B are structured light beams, which are nonplanar twisted wave fronts which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM).

The equations denoting the structured light's vector potential {right arrow over (A)} of LG and B beams for the transition matrix M are:

ALG(ρ,θ,z)=ɛ^A0ρ2ω2Lpl(2ρ2ω2)lθ(kz-ωt) and(33)AB(ρ,θ,z)=ɛ^A0Jl(kρρ)lθɛ(kz-ωt)(34)

where J1-Bessel and Lpl-Laguerre polynomal of order p angular order l. The disclosed structured light alters the transition matrix for optical properties.

These {right arrow over (A)} beams given by LG equations 33 and 34 alter the optical transition strength (M)2 and selection rules for Δl and Δm quantum number for states custom-characteri| and |fcustom-character and with angular polarization of different spin ±σ states. The use of LG, Δl=l±1, while for standard G, Δl=±1.

For absorption/emission where Hint is an interaction such as {right arrow over (p)}·{right arrow over (A)}· or dipole momentum d=qcustom-character→{right arrow over (rE)}. The keys are ρ(ω) the density of final states p·{right arrow over (A)}. For free space:


ρ(ω)=(ω22c3)V (35)

For free space for two energy levels E1 and E2 the K12 is:

K12=43(14πɛ0)p2(1h)ω03c3=(13ɛ0)p2(w0h)πc3ρ(ω)(36)

For dipole ρ, ω0=(E1−E2)/h.

The spontaneous emission rate in a cavity is enhanced for free space by the relationship:

kcavity=34π2λ3VQk(freespace)(37)

where

34π2λ3VQ=Fp

is the Purcell factor.

The Purcell factor Fp enhances the spontaneous emission and absorption rates for large Q small volume and large λ. The resonance modes for a dipole depends on different structures can lead to larger absorption and emission.

For {right arrow over (p)}·{right arrow over (A)} term in transition matrix element, the vector potential {right arrow over (A)} is usually a plane wave (Gaussian) which causes selection rules (Δl=±1) for transitions and strength of interaction using structured light when {right arrow over (A)} is nonplanar wave with helicoidal “twisting” wave front, it introduces extra azimuthal phase eilφ and radial ρ dependence of Laguene-Gaussian (LG) or Bessel beams. Therefore, structured light (LG) A has an extra term ρl and eilφ which changes matrix element custom-characteri|{right arrow over (p)}·{right arrow over (A)}|fcustom-character values in strength and selection rules Δl=l±1 for materials i.e. QDs, QWs, semiconductors and organics for changes in spin polarization and non-allowed dipole transitions for LG and Bessel beams, for example in non-dipole n=1 absorption transitions in Cu2O at 607 nm.

The absorption and reflection of light can be changed by nm and μm structures. The fly eye is an example to change the available modes to decrease the reflection by 7 fold acting like an AR coating (See FIG. 1E).

Nano and μm cones on silicon (called black silicon) produced by femtosecond laser ablation with chemical etching can lead to a change in absorption, making it absorb more light and extend the absorption into NIR for both solar collectors and solar cells. The absorption in black silicon is enhanced and reflection is reduced.

Structured surface like nm and μm cones up top of solar cells and silicon or addition of strips and tips alters the absorption by changing the resonance modes. The absorption enhancement by increasing the number of modes is F=3.14n for 1D grating and F=8n2 for 2D grating.

For black silicon n=3.4 with nano and micro cones 2D array F=93× increase in absorption.

This enhancement will increase absorption in Si at λ>1000 nm to 1500 nm for better energy collection in solar cells via photo conduction. FIG. 5 shows diffraction of 2D grating for theta=90 giving larger path lengths.

This written description uses examples to disclose the invention, including the best mode, and also to enable any person skilled in the art to practice the invention, including making and using any devices or systems and performing any incorporated methods. The patentable scope of the invention is defined by the claims, and may include other examples that occur to those skilled in the art. Such other examples are intended to be within the scope of the claims if they have structural elements that do not differ from the literal language of the claims, or if they include equivalent structural elements with insubstantial differences from the literal language of the claims.