Title:
PROBIOTIC AND PREBIOTIC COMPOSITIONS, AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF FOR TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Probiotic compositions containing non-pathogenic microbial entities, e.g., bacterial or fungal entities, are described herein. The probiotic compositions may optionally contain or be used in conjunction with one or more prebiotics. Uses of the probiotic compositions to treat or prevent transplant disorders, e.g., graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), in a subject are also provided.



Inventors:
Berry, David (Waban, MA, US)
Afeyan, Noubar B. (Lexington, MA, US)
Kaplan, Johanne (Sherborn, MA, US)
Gordon, Neal (Brookline, MA, US)
Rahman, Shaila (Cambridge, MA, US)
Application Number:
14/952887
Publication Date:
07/07/2016
Filing Date:
11/25/2015
Assignee:
Epiva Biosciences, Inc. (Cambridge, MA, US)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
424/93.41, 424/93.4
International Classes:
A61K35/741; A61K31/7004
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
JOHNSON, KARA D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MCCARTER & ENGLISH, LLP BOSTON (Boston, MA, US)
Claims:
1. A method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the bacterial population is a human-derived bacterial population.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein administration of the probiotic composition reduces the likelihood that the subject will develop sepsis following the bone marrow transplant.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein administration of the probiotic composition reduces the likelihood that the subject will develop graft versus host disease (GVHD) following the bone marrow transplant.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the probiotic composition is administered to the subject prior to receiving the bone marrow transplant.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the probiotic composition is administered to the subject after receiving the bone marrow transplant.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the probiotic composition is administered to the subject concurrently with the bone marrow transplant.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the probiotic composition reduces intestinal permeability in the subject.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the probiotic composition comprises a bacterial population that produces short chain fatty acids.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein the bacterial population produces a short chain fatty acid selected from the group consisting of butyrate, acetate, propionate, valerate, and combinations thereof.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the probiotic composition reduces inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the probiotic composition comprises an anti-inflammatory bacterial population.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein the anti-inflammatory bacterial population decreases secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or increases secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the anti-inflammatory bacterial population decreases secretion of a pro-inflammatory cytokine selected from the group consisting of IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof.

15. The method of claim 13, wherein the anti-inflammatory bacterial population increases secretion of an anti-inflammatory cytokine selected from the group consisting of IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ and combinations thereof.

16. The method of claim 12, wherein the anti-inflammatory bacterial population produces short chain fatty acids.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the isolated bacterial population comprises one or more bacterial species of the order Clostridiales.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the bacterial species is from the genus Blautia, Clostridium, or Ruminococcus.

19. The method of claim 1, wherein the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1.

20. The method of claim 1, wherein the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1.

21. The method of claim 1, wherein the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F.

22. The method of claim 1, wherein the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F.

23. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject has a disorder selected from the group consisting of a hematopoietic neoplastic disorder, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein the probiotic composition does not significantly reduce or eliminate the graft versus tumor (GVT) effect of the bone marrow transplant.

25. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject has an autoimmune disorder.

26. The method of claim 25, wherein the autoimmune disorder is selected from the group consisting of lupus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, type I diabetes, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

27. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject has sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia.

28. The method of claim 1, further comprising administering a prebiotic to the subject.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of arabinoxylan, xylose, soluble fiber dextran, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, glucose, and combinations thereof.

30. The method of claim 28, wherein the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of galactose, fructose, rhamnose, mannose, uronic acids, 3′-fucosyllactose, 3′sialylactose, 6′-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 2′-2′-fucosyllactose, and combinations thereof.

31. The method of claim 28, wherein the prebiotic comprises a monosaccharide selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, and combinations thereof.

32. The method of claim 28, wherein the prebiotic comprises a disaccharide selected from the group consisting of xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, and combinations thereof.

33. The method of claim 28, wherein the prebiotic comprises a polysaccharide, wherein the polysaccharide is xylooligosaccharide.

34. (canceled)

35. A method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated population of anti-inflammatory bacteria capable of decreasing secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or increasing secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, in an amount effective to reduce inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased.

36. 36-61. (canceled)

62. A method of preventing or treating graft versus host disease (GVHD) in a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, such that GVHD is prevented or treated.

63. (canceled)

64. The method of claim 62, wherein the subject is receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

65. The method of claim 62, wherein the subject is receiving a bone marrow transplant.

66. The method of claim 62, wherein the subject is receiving a solid organ transplant.

67. The method of claim 66, wherein the solid organ transplant is selected from the group consisting of a kidney transplant, a heart transplant, a lung transplant, a skin transplant, a liver transplant, a pancreas transplant, an intestinal transplant, an endocrine gland transplant, a bladder transplant, and a skeletal muscle transplant.

68. 68-87. (canceled)

88. The method of claim 62, further comprising administering a prebiotic to the subject.

89. 89-94. (canceled)

95. A method of reducing inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated, anti-inflammatory bacterial population and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, such that inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject receiving the transplant is reduced.

96. 96-105. (canceled)

106. The method of claim 95, further comprising administering a prebiotic to the subject.

107. 107-112. (canceled)

113. A method of reducing intestinal permeability in a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, such that the intestinal permeability of the subject of the subject receiving the transplant is reduced.

114. 114-123. (canceled)

Description:

RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/084,536, filed Nov. 25, 2014; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/084,537, filed Nov. 25, 2014; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/084,540, filed Nov. 25, 2014; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/117,632, filed Feb. 18, 2015; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/117,637, filed Feb. 18, 2015; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/117,639, filed Feb. 18, 2015; U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/162,562, filed May 15, 2015; and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/257,714, filed Nov. 19, 2015. The entire contents of each of the foregoing applications are incorporated herein by reference.

SEQUENCE LISTING

The instant application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted electronically in ASCII format and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Said ASCII copy, created on Nov. 25, 2015, is named 126383_01902_SL.txt and is 4,147,472 bytes in size.

BACKGROUND

Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a common and devastating complication following a hematopoietic or tissue transplant and occurs in approximately 50% of transplant recipients. Acute GVHD is a major source of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Approximately 25,000 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (e.g., bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell [PBSC], or cord blood transplants) are performed annually worldwide. Over time, the number of transplants from unrelated donors, and in the number of allogeneic transplants for AML, ALL, MDS, and lymphomas, continues to rise. There is also an increase in the number of allogeneic transplantants for non-malignant diseases, and an increase in the number of transplant patients over 50 years of age. The global incidence of acute GVHD ranges from 26%-34% in recipients of fully matched, sibling donor grafts to 42%-52% in recipients of matched, unrelated donor grafts. Evidence from the US suggests that incidence ranges from 30% in recipients of fully histocompatible transplants to 60%-70% in recipients of mismatched hematopoietic cells or hematopoietic cells from an unrelated donor. There is no FDA approved treatment for either acute or chronic GVHD. Treatment strategies for acute GVHD aim to reduce the immune reaction of the donor T cells against host tissues and therefore includes immunosuppressive treatment like cyclosporine, high dose steroids, and methotrexate. The standard therapy for de novo acute GVHD is high dose methylprednisolone, with expected response rates of 18%-50%. For patients who develop steroid-refractory acute GVHD, there is no standard of care therapy, and expected survival is less than 30%. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed for the treatment and prevention of GVHD.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Disclosed herein are therapeutic compositions containing probiotic, non-pathogenic bacterial populations and networks thereof, for the prevention, control, and treatment of transplant disorders and conditions, in particular diseases associated with graft versus host disease (GVHD). In some embodiments, the therapeutic compositions contain prebiotics, e.g., carbohydrates, in conjunction with microbial populations and/or networks thereof. These compositions are advantageous in being suitable for safe administration to humans and other mammalian subjects and are efficacious in numerous dysbiotic diseases, disorders and conditions and in general nutritional health.

In one aspect, the instant invention provides a method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a transplant, e.g., a bone marrow transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population is a human-derived bacterial population.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, administration of the probiotic composition reduces the likelihood that the subject will develop sepsis following the bone marrow transplant. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, administration of the probiotic composition reduces the likelihood that the subject will develop graft versus host disease (GVHD) following the bone marrow transplant.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition is administered to the subject prior to receiving the bone marrow transplant. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition is administered to the subject after receiving the bone marrow transplant. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition is administered to the subject concurrently with the bone marrow transplant.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition reduces intestinal permeability in the subject.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition comprises a bacterial population that produces short chain fatty acids. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population produces a short chain fatty acid selected from the group consisting of butyrate, acetate, propionate, valerate, and combinations thereof.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition reduces inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition comprises an anti-inflammatory bacterial population. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population decreases secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or increases secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population decreases secretion of a pro-inflammatory cytokine selected from the group consisting of IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population increases secretion of an anti-inflammatory cytokine selected from the group consisting of IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population produces short chain fatty acids.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the isolated bacterial population comprises one or more bacterial species of the order Clostridiales. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial species is from the genus Blautia, Clostridium, or Ruminococcus. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F. In one embodiment, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 5. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F. In another embodiment, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 5.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has a disorder selected from the group consisting of a hematopoietic neoplastic disorder, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition does not significantly reduce or eliminate the graft versus tumor (GVT) effect of the bone marrow transplant. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has an autoimmune disorder. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the autoimmune disorder is selected from the group consisting of lupus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, type I diabetes, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia.

In embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the methods further comprise administering a prebiotic to the subject. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of arabinoxylan, xylose, soluble fiber dextran, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, glucose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of galactose, fructose, rhamnose, mannose, uronic acids, 3′-fucosyllactose, 3′ sialylactose, 6′-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 2′-2′-fucosyllactose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monosaccharide selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a disaccharide selected from the group consisting of xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a polysaccharide, wherein the polysaccharide is xylooligosaccharide. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a sugar selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, xylooligosaccharide, and combinations thereof.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated population of anti-inflammatory bacteria capable of decreasing secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or increasing secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, in an amount effective to reduce inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacteria decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or increase secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, wherein the probiotic composition reduces intestinal permeability in the subject; and administering to the subject a prebiotic that enhances the activity of the bacterial population, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the isolated bacterial population produces short chain fatty acids. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population produces a short chain fatty acid selected from the group consisting of butyrate, acetate, propionate, valerate, and combinations thereof.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the isolated bacterial population comprises one or more bacterial species of the order Clostridiales. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial species is from the genus Blautia, Clostridium, or Ruminococcus. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has a disorder selected from the group consisting of a hematopoietic neoplastic disorder, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition does not significantly reduce or eliminate the graft versus tumor (GVT) effect of the bone marrow transplant.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has an autoimmune disorder. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the autoimmune disorder is selected from the group consisting of lupus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, type I diabetes, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has sickle cell disease. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has sickle cell anemia.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of arabinoxylan, xylose, soluble fiber dextran, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, glucose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of galactose, fructose, rhamnose, mannose, uronic acids, 3′-fucosyllactose, 3′sialylactose, 6′-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 2′-2′-fucosyllactose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monosaccharide selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a disaccharide selected from the group consisting of xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a polysaccharide, wherein the polysaccharide is xylooligosaccharide. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a sugar selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, xylooligosaccharide, and combinations thereof.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of preventing or treating graft versus host disease (GVHD) in a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, such that GVHD is prevented or treated.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population is a human-derived bacterial population.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject is receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject is receiving a bone marrow transplant. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject is receiving a solid organ transplant. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the solid organ transplant is selected from the group consisting of a kidney transplant, a heart transplant, a lung transplant, a skin transplant, a liver transplant, a pancreas transplant, an intestinal transplant, an endocrine gland transplant, a bladder transplant, and a skeletal muscle transplant.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has a disorder selected from the group consisting of a hematopoietic neoplastic disorder, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition does not significantly reduce or eliminate the graft versus tumor (GVT) effect of the bone marrow transplant.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has an autoimmune disorder. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the autoimmune disorder is selected from the group consisting of lupus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, type I diabetes, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the subject has sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition reduces intestinal permeability in the subject. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition comprises a bacterial population that produces short chain fatty acids. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population produces a short chain fatty acid selected from the group consisting of butyrate, acetate, propionate, valerate, and combinations thereof.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition reduces inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the probiotic composition comprises an anti-inflammatory bacterial population. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population decreases secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or increases secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population decreases secretion of a pro-inflammatory cytokine selected from the group consisting of IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population increases secretion of an anti-inflammatory cytokine selected from the group consisting of IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population produces short chain fatty acids.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the isolated bacterial population comprises one or more bacterial species of the order Clostridiales. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial species is from the genus Blautia, Clostridium, or Ruminococcus. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F.

In embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the methods further comprise administering a prebiotic to the subject. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of arabinoxylan, xylose, soluble fiber dextran, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, glucose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of galactose, fructose, rhamnose, mannose, uronic acids, 3′-fucosyllactose, 3′ sialylactose, 6′-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 2′-2′-fucosyllactose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monosaccharide selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a disaccharide selected from the group consisting of xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a polysaccharide, wherein the polysaccharide is xylooligosaccharide. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a sugar selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, xylooligosaccharide, and combinations thereof.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of reducing inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated, anti-inflammatory bacterial population and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, such that inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject receiving the transplant is reduced.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population decreases secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or increases secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population decreases secretion of a pro-inflammatory cytokine selected from the group consisting of IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population increases secretion of an anti-inflammatory cytokine selected from the group consisting of IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the anti-inflammatory bacterial population produces short chain fatty acids.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the isolated bacterial population comprises one or more bacterial species of the order Clostridiales. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial species is from the genus Blautia, Clostridium, or Ruminococcus. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises a single bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population comprises two or more bacterial species set forth in Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, or Table 1F.

In embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the methods further comprising administering a prebiotic to the subject. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of arabinoxylan, xylose, soluble fiber dextran, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, glucose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, wherein the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of galactose, fructose, rhamnose, mannose, uronic acids, 3′-fucosyllactose, 3′ sialylactose, 6′-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 2′-2′-fucosyllactose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monosaccharide selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a disaccharide selected from the group consisting of xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a polysaccharide, wherein the polysaccharide is xylooligosaccharide. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a sugar selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, xylooligosaccharide, and combinations thereof.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of reducing intestinal permeability in a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, such that the intestinal permeability of the subject of the subject receiving the transplant is reduced.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the isolated bacterial population produces short chain fatty acids. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population produces a short chain fatty acid selected from the group consisting of butyrate, acetate, propionate, valerate, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the bacterial population produces butyrate.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the method further comprises administering a prebiotic to the subject. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of arabinoxylan, xylose, soluble fiber dextran, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, glucose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of galactose, fructose, rhamnose, mannose, uronic acids, 3′-fucosyllactose, 3′ sialylactose, 6′-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 2′-2′-fucosyllactose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a monosaccharide selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a disaccharide selected from the group consisting of xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a polysaccharide, wherein the polysaccharide is xylooligosaccharide. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the prebiotic comprises a sugar selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, xylooligosaccharide, and combinations thereof.

In one aspect, the instant invention provides a method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated, human-derived bacterial population, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, administration of the probiotic composition reduces the likelihood that the subject will develop sepsis following the bone marrow transplant. In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, administration of the probiotic composition reduces the likelihood that the subject will develop graft versus host disease (GVHD) following the bone marrow transplant.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, wherein the probiotic composition reduces intestinal permeability in the subject; and administering to the subject a prebiotic that enhances the activity of the bacterial population, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of preventing graft versus host disease (GVHD) in a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated, human-derived bacterial population, such that GVHD is prevented.

In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the subject is receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the subject is receiving a bone marrow transplant. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the subject is receiving a solid organ transplant. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the solid organ transplant is selected from the group consisting of a kidney transplant, a heart transplant, a lung transplant, a skin transplant, a liver transplant, a pancreas transplant, an intestinal transplant, an endocrine gland transplant, a bladder transplant, and a skeletal muscle transplant.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of reducing inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated, anti-inflammatory bacterial population, such that inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject receiving the transplant is reduced.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a method of reducing intestinal permeability in a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, such that the intestinal permeability of the subject receiving the transplant is reduced.

In another aspect, the instant invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an isolated anti-inflammatory bacterial population capable of decreasing secretion of a pro-inflammatory cytokine and/or increasing secretion of an anti-inflammatory cytokine by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

In one embodiment of the foregoing aspect, the composition further comprising a prebiotic.

In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Acidaminococcus intestine. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Acinetobacter baumannii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Acinetobacter lwoffii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Akkermansia muciniphila. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Alistipes putredinis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Alistipes shahii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Anaerostipes hadrus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Anaerotruncus colihominis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides caccae. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides dorei. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides eggerthii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides finegoldii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides fragilis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides massiliensis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides ovatus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides salanitronis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides salyersiae. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides sp. D20. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides uniformis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bacteroides vulgatus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bifidobacterium bifidum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bifidobacterium breve. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bifidobacterium faecale. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Bifidobacterium stercoris. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia faecis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia glucerasea. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia stercoris. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Blautia wexlerae. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium asparagiforme. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium bolteae. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium clostridioforme. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium histolyticum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium indolis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium leptum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium perfringens. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium scindens. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium sp. 14774. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium sp. HGF2. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Clostridium symbiosum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Collinsella aerofaciens. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Collinsella intestinalis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Coprobacillus sp. D7. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Coprococcus catus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Coprococcus comes. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Dorea formicigenerans. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Dorea longicatena. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Enterococcus faecalis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Enterococcus faecium. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Escherichia coli. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Escherichia coli S88. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Eubacterium eligens. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Eubacterium fissicatena. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Eubacterium ramulus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Eubacterium rectale. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Flavonifractor plautii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Fusobacterium mortiferum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Fusobacterium nucleatum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Holdemania filiformis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Klebsiella oxytoca. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Lactobacillus casei. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Lactobacillus ruminis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Lactococcus casei. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Odoribacter splanchnicus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Oscillibacter valericigenes. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Parabacteroides gordonii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Parabacteroides johnsonii. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Parabacteroides merdae. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Pediococcus acidilactici. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Propionibacterium granulosum. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Roseburia intestinalis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Roseburia inulinivorans. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Ruminococcus faecis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Ruminococcus gnavus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Ruminococcus torques. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Slackia piriformis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Staphylococcus epidermidis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Streptococcus cristatus. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Streptococcus infantis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Streptococcus oralis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Streptococcus sanguinis. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Streptococcus viridans. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Streptococcus thermophiles. In some embodiments of the foregoing aspects, the bacterial population comprises an isolated population of Veillonella dispar.

Brief Description of the Tables

Table 1 provides a list of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) with taxonomic assignments made to Genus, Species, and Phylogenetic Clade. Clade membership of bacterial OTUs is based on 16S sequence data. Clades are defined based on the topology of a phylogenetic tree that is constructed from full-length 16S sequences using maximum likelihood methods familiar to individuals with ordinary skill in the art of phylogenetics. Clades are constructed to ensure that all OTUs in a given clade are: (i) within a specified number of bootstrap supported nodes from one another, and (ii) within 5% genetic similarity. OTUs that are within the same clade can be distinguished as genetically and phylogenetically distinct from OTUs in a different clade based on 16S-V4 sequence data, while OTUs falling within the same clade are closely related. OTUs falling within the same clade are evolutionarily closely related and may or may not be distinguishable from one another using 16S-V4 sequence data. Members of the same clade, due to their evolutionary relatedness, play similar functional roles in a microbial ecology such as that found in the human gut. Compositions substituting one species with another from the same clade are likely to have conserved ecological function and therefore are useful in the present invention. All OTUs are denoted as to their putative capacity to form spores and whether they are a Pathogen or Pathobiont (see Definitions for description of “Pathobiont”). NIAID Priority Pathogens are denoted as ‘Category-A’, ‘Category-B’, or ‘Category-C’, and Opportunistic Pathogens are denoted as ‘OP’. OTUs that are not pathogenic or for which their ability to exist as a pathogen is unknown are denoted as ‘N’. The ‘SEQ ID Number’ denotes the identifier of the OTU in the Sequence Listing File and ‘Public DB Accession’ denotes the identifier of the OTU in a public sequence repository. See, e.g., WO2014/121304.

Table 1A provides a list of exemplary bacteria useful in the present invention.

Table 1B provides a list of exemplary bacteria useful in the present invention.

Table 1C provides a list of exemplary bacteria useful in the present invention.

Table 1D provides a list of exemplary bacteria useful in the present invention.

Table 1E provides a list of exemplary bacteria useful in the present invention. These bacteria are preferably down-modulated in a subject.

Table 1F provides a list of exemplary bacteria that may be used in the invention. These bacteria are preferably up-modulated in a subject.

Table 2A lists species identified as “germinable” and “sporulatable” by colony picking approach.

Table 2B lists species identified as “germinable” using 16S colony picking approach.

Table 2C lists species identified as “sporulatable” using 16s-V4 NGS approach. See, e.g., WO2014/121304.

Table 3 provides criteria for stages of acute GVHD.

Table 4 provides representative examples of microbial enzymes that allow utilization of prebiotics.

Table 5 provides a list of species enriched in alive GVHD patients.

Table 6 lists anaerobic bacterial species tested for carbon source usage.

Table 7 provides exemplary prebiotics/carbon sources for use in the compositions and methods of the invention.

Table 8 provides bacterial species detected at low frequency in vaginal samples from vancomycin-treated mice (day 6) that were not present in untreated mice (day 0).

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a graph depicting serum endotoxin levels (EU/ml) over time following treatment with xylose. Treatment of mice with xylose alone reduces basal levels of serum endotoxin (day 14 vs day 0). Antibiotic treatment (Ciprofloxacin (cipro) or enrofloxacin (enro)) leads to an increase in serum endotoxin levels (measured 2 days after a 5 day course, at day 0) with a return to baseline by day 14. Xylose counteracts the endotoxin increase caused by cipro but not enro antibiotic treatment.

FIG. 2 (a-o) is a panel of graphs showing the time course of Th1 related cytokines that were released by human peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs) incubated with Ruminococcus gnavus (Epv 1), Eubacterium rectale (Epv 2), Blautia luti (Epv 3), Blautia wexlerae (Epv 5) and Enterococcus faecalis (Epv 8), or combinations of each bacterium with E. faecalis. Amounts of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12p70, IL-6, IL-2 and TNFα that were released in culture supernatants by PBMCs were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. a) IFN-γ concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. b) IFN-γ concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. c) IFN-γ concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. d) IL-12p70 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. e) IL-12p70 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. f) IL-12p70 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. g) IL-6 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. h) IL-6 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. i) IL-6 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. j) IL-2 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. k) IL-2 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. l) IL-2 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. m) TNFα concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. n) TNFα concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. o) TNFα concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours.

FIG. 3 (a-i) is a panel of graphs showing the time course of Th2 related cytokines that were released by human PBMCs incubated with R. gnavus (Epv 1), E. rectale (Epv 2), B. luti (Epv 3), B. wexlerae (Epv 5) and E. faecalis (Epv 8), or combinations of each bacterium with E. faecalis. Amounts of IL-13, IL-4 and IL-5 that were released in culture supernatants by PBMCs were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. a) IL-13 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. b) IL-13 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. c) IL-13 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. d) IL-4 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. e) IL-4 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. f) IL-4 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. g) IL-5 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. h) IL-5 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. i) IL-5 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours.

FIG. 4 (a-i) is a panel of graphs showing the time course of Th9, Th17 and Treg cytokines that were released by human PBMCs incubated with R. gnavus (Epv 1), E. rectale (Epv 2), B. luti (Epv 3), B. wexlerae (Epv 5) and E. faecalis (Epv 8), or combinations of each bacterium with E. faecalis. Amounts of IL-9, IL-17 and IL-10 that were released in culture supernatants by PBMCs were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. a) IL-9 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. b) IL-9 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. c) IL-9 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. d) IL-17 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. e) IL-17 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. f) IL-17 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. g) IL-10 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. h) IL-10 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. i) IL-10 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours.

FIG. 5 (a-x) is a panel of graphs showing the time course of monocyte, macrophage and neutrophil-derived inflammatory cytokines that were released by human PBMCs incubated with R. gnavus (Epv 1), E. rectale (Epv 2), B. luti (Epv 3), B. wexlerae (Epv 5) and E. faecalis (Epv 8), or combinations of each bacterium with E. faecalis. Amounts of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1β, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α), regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-1β (IL1β, interferon α2 (IFN-α2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) that were released in culture supernatants by PBMCs were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. a) MCP-1 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. b) MCP-1 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. c) MCP-1 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. d) MIP1β concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. e) MIP1β concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. f) MIP1β concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. g) MIP1α concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. h) MIP1α concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. i) MIP1α concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. j) RANTES concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. k) RANTES concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. l) RANTES concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. m) IL-1α concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. n) IL-1α concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. o) IL-1α concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. p) IL1β concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. q) IL1β concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. r) IL1β concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. s) IFN-α2 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. t) IFN-α2 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. u) IFN-α2 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours. v) IL-8 concentration (pg/ml) after 24 hours. w) IL-8 concentration (pg/ml) after 48 hours. x) IL-8 concentration (pg/ml) after 72 hours.

FIG. 6 (a-d) is a panel of graphs showing the secreted levels of cytokines IFNγ (Ifng), IL-12p70, IL-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α (MIP1α), MIP1β (MIP1b), TNFα (TNFα), IL-10, IL-13, IL-9, IL-4, IL-5, IL-17α (IL-17A) and IL-2 produced by PBMCs in the presence of a) R. gnavus, b) B. wexlerae, c) E. rectale and d) B. luti, alone or in combination with E. faecalis (Epv 8), relative to levels secreted following treatment with E. faecalis alone for 24 hours (E. faecalis=100%).

FIG. 7 (a-p) is a panel of graphs that show the effect of R. gnavus (Epv1) on cytokine concentration (pg/ml) either alone or in combination with Epv 8 (E. faecalis) on cytokine production by human PBMCs (pg/ml). a) IL-6, b) IFN-γ, c) IL-13, d) IL-10, e) IL-12p70, f) MCP-1, g) IL-8, h) IL17A, i) IL-α, j) IL-9, k) IL-2, 1) IL-4, m) IL-5, n) MIP-1α, o) MIP-1β, p) TNF-α.

FIG. 8 (a-p) is a panel of graphs that show the effect of E. rectale (Epv2) on cytokine concentration (pg/ml) either alone or in combination with Epv 8 (E. faecalis) on cytokine production by human PBMCs (pg/ml). a) IL-6, b) IFN-γ, c) IL-13, d) IL-10, e) IL-12p70, f) MCP-1, g) IL-8, h) IL17A, i) IL-α, j) IL-9, k) IL-2, 1) IL-4, m) IL-5, n) MIP-1α, o) MIP-1β, p) TNF-α.

FIG. 9 (a-p) is a panel of graphs that show the effect of B. luti (Epv3) on cytokine concentration (pg/ml) either alone or in combination with Epv 8 (E. faecalis) on cytokine production by human PBMCs (pg/ml). a) IL-6, b) IFN-γ, c) IL-13, d) IL-10, e) IL-12p70, f) MCP-1, g) IL-8, h) IL17α, i) IL-α, j) IL-9, k) IL-2, 1) IL-4, m) IL-5, n) MIP-1α, o) MIP-1β, p) TNF-α.

FIG. 10 (a-p) is a panel of graphs that show the effect of B. wexlarae) on cytokine concentration (pg/ml) either alone or in combination with Epv 8 (E. faecalis) on cytokine production by human PBMCs (pg/ml). a) IL-6, b) IFN-γ, c) IL-13, d) IL-10, e) IL-12p70, f) MCP-1, g) IL-8, h) IL17α, i) IL-α, j) IL-9, k) IL-2, 1) IL-4, m) IL-5, n) MIP-1α, o) MIP-1β, p) TNF-α.

FIG. 11 (a-d) is a panel of graphs showing that (a-b) EPV3 is capable of inducing a desirable anti-inflammatory cytokine profile for treating or preventing GVHD and (c-d) EPV5 induces a suboptimal profile for GVHD.

FIG. 12 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv6 (Clostridium leptum).

FIG. 13 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv15 (Blautia faecis).

FIG. 14 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv20 (Blautia/Ruminococcus obeum ATCC 29174).

FIG. 15 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv21 (Blautia producta ATCC 27340).

FIG. 16 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv22 (Blautia coccoides ATCC 29236).

FIG. 17 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv23 (Blautia hydrogenotrophica ATCC BAA-2371).

FIG. 18 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv24 (Blautia Hansenii ATCC27752).

FIG. 19 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv35 (Eubacterium rectale).

FIG. 20 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv47 (previously uncultured Blautia, similar to GQ898099_s S1-5).

FIG. 21 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv51 (previously uncultured Blautia, similar to SJTU_C_14_16).

FIG. 22 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv52 (Blautia wexlerae (SJTU_B_09_77)).

FIG. 23 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv54 (Blautia luti ELU0087-T13-S-NI_000247).

FIG. 24 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv64 (Blautia wexlerae WAL 14507).

FIG. 25 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv78 (Blautia obeum).

FIG. 26 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv102 (Ruminococcus gnavus).

FIG. 27 (a-b) depicts the production of (a) pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and (b) anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines by human PBMCs following treatment with Epv114 (Blautia luti (BlnIX)).

FIG. 28 (a-d) presents results from flow cytometry analysis of T cell populations in human PBMCs incubated in the presence of various commensal bacteria, determined using flow cytometry. A) Proportion of Treg cells)(CD25+CD127lo; B) Proportion of Th17 cells (CXCR3 CCR6+); C) Proportion of Th1 cells (CXCR3+CCR6); D) Proportion of Th2 cells (CXCR3 CCR6). Bacterial strains are as follows: Epv 1: R. gnavus; Epv 3: B. luti; Epv 2: E. rectale; Epv 5: B. wexlerae; Epv. 8: E. faecalis; Epv 20: B. obeum; Epv 21: B. producta; Epv 24: B. hansenii. The results are shown as percent (%) of CD3ε+CD4+ cells.

FIG. 29 (a-u) presents the preferred carbon sources utilized by various commensal bacteria. (a) R. gnavus; (b) E. rectale; (c) C. leptum; (d) B. luti; (e) B. wexlerae; (f) B. faecis; (g) B. obeum; (h) B. producta; (i) B. coccoides; (j) B. hydrogenotrophica; (k) B. hansenii; (l) B. luti Blnl X; (m) B. luti ELU; (n) R. gnavus; (o) B. faecis; (p) R. torques; (q) B. wexlerae WAL14507; (r) B. wexlerae SJTU; (s) SJTU1416; (t) GQ8980099; (u) E. rectale.

FIG. 30 graphically depicts levels of serum IFNγ before, during, and after treatment with a prebiotic formulation containing xylose.

FIG. 31 is a graph that shows the change in Chao1 diversity (indicator of community richness) over time in subjects administered xylose three times per day (TID) at 1, 2, 8, 12.5 or 15 grams.

FIG. 32 depicts the impact of oral vancomycin on the microbiome of the gut and the vagina, by principal component analysis (PCA).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

I. Overview

Disclosed herein are therapeutic compositions containing bacterial entities (e.g., non-pathogenic germination-competent bacterial entities), fungal entities, and/or prebiotics for the prevention, control, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases, disorders and conditions, and for general nutritional health. These compositions are advantageous in being suitable for safe administration to humans and other mammalian subjects and are efficacious in treating or preventing numerous immune and inflammatory diseases and gastrointestinal diseases, disorders and conditions associated with a dysbiosis.

While spore-based compositions are known, these are generally prepared according to various techniques such as lyophilization or spray-drying of liquid bacterial cultures, resulting in poor efficacy, instability, substantial variability and lack of adequate safety and efficacy.

It has now been found that populations of bacterial entities can be obtained from biological materials obtained from mammalian subjects, including humans. These populations are formulated into compositions as provided herein, and can be administered to mammalian subjects in accordance with the methods described herein.

The microbes that inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract, skin, lungs, vagina, and other niches are starting to be understood and appreciated for their roles in human health and disease (e.g. see Human Microbiome Project Consortium 2012, Structure, function, and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486(7402):207-14). Aspects of the invention are based, in part, on the realization that, although autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are often attributed to genetic mutations, these conditions are also influenced by microbes. It is also appreciated that, because microbes not only interact with the host but with one another, the immunomodulatory behavior of microbes can depend on relationships between microbes. For example, a microbial network in a given niche may comprise diverse microbes that all accomplish one or more of the same functions, or may instead comprise diverse microbes that all individually contribute to accomplish one or more functions. In another example, microbes in a given niche may compete with one another for nutrients or space.

Microbes may influence the risk, progression, or treatment efficacy of an autoimmune or inflammatory disease. In certain aspects, microbes play a role in the prevention of an autoimmune or inflammatory disease or in the suppression of an innate or adaptive immune response. Conversely, in certain aspects, microbes may stimulate an inflammatory immune response and thereby contribute to, increase the risk of, or worsen the symptoms of an autoimmune or inflammatory disease. In certain aspects, some microbes may be associated with lower disease severity or mortality.

Accordingly, disclosed herein are compositions and methods for the prevention and/or treatment of disorders associated with disruptions of the systemic microbiome, e.g., autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, in human subjects.

II. Definitions

As used in the specification and the appended claims, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, “a compound” includes mixtures of compounds.

The term “about” or “approximately” means within an acceptable error range for the particular value as determined by one of ordinary skill in the art, which will depend in part on how the value is measured or determined, i.e., the limitations of the measurement system. For example, “about” can mean within 3 or more than 3 standard deviations, jper the practice in the art. Alternatively, “about” can mean a range of up to 20%, or up to 10%, or up to 5%, or up to 1% of a given value. Alternatively, particularly with respect to biological systems or processes, the term can mean within an order of magnitude, or within 5-fold, or within 2-fold, of a value.

As used herein, the term “purified bacterial preparation” refers to a preparation that includes “isolated” bacteria or bacteria that have been separated from at least one associated substance found in a source material or any material associated with the bacteria in any process used to produce the preparation.

A “bacterial entity” includes one or more bacteria. Generally, a first bacterial entity is distinguishable from a second bacterial entity.

As used herein, the term “formation” refers to synthesis or production.

As used herein, the term “inducing” means increasing the amount or activity of a given material as dictated by context.

As used herein, the term “depletion” refers to reduction in amount of.

As used herein, a “prebiotic” refers to an ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that may (or may not) confer benefits upon the host. In some embodiments, a prebiotic can be a comestible food or beverage or ingredient thereof. In some embodiments, a prebiotic may be a selectively fermented ingredient. Prebiotics may include complex carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, minerals, or other essential nutritional components for the survival of the bacterial composition. Prebiotics include, but are not limited to, amino acids, biotin, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharides, hemicelluloses (e.g., arabinoxylan, xylan, xyloglucan, and glucomannan), inulin, chitin, lactulose, mannan oligosaccharides, oligofructose-enriched inulin, gums (e.g., guar gum, gum arabic and carregenaan), oligofructose, oligodextrose, tagatose, resistant maltodextrins (e.g., resistant starch), trans-galactooligosaccharide, pectins (e.g., xylogalactouronan, citrus pectin, apple pectin, and rhamnogalacturonan-I), dietary fibers (e.g., soy fiber, sugarbeet fiber, pea fiber, corn bran, and oat fiber) and xylooligosaccharides.

As used herein, “predetermined ratios” refer to ratios determined or selected in advance.

As used herein, “germinable bacterial spores” are spores capable of forming vegetative cells in response to a particular cue (e.g., an environmental condition or a small molecule).

As used herein, “detectably present” refers to presence in an amount that can be detected using assays provided herein or otherwise known in the art that exist as of the filing date.

As used herein, “augmented” refers to an increase in amount and/or localization within to a point where it becomes detectably present.

As used herein, “fecal material” refers to a solid waste product of digested food and includes feces or bowel washes.

As used herein, the phrase “host cell response” refers to a response produced by a cell of a host organism.

As used herein, a “mammalian subject protein” refers to a protein produced by a mammalian subject and encoded by the mammalian subject genome. The term mammalian subject protein includes proteins that have been post-translationally processed and/or modified.

As used herein, the term “food-derived” refers to a protein or carbohydrate found in a consumed food.

As used herein, the term “biological material” refers to a material produced by a biological organism.

As used herein, the term “detection moiety” refers to an assay component that functions to detect an analyte.

As used herein, the term “incomplete network” refers to a partial network that lacks at least one of the entire set of components needed to carry out one or more network functions.

As used herein, the term “supplemental” refers to something that is additional and non-identical.

As used herein, a composition is “substantially free” of microbes when microbes are absent or undetectable as determined by the use of standard genomic and microbiological techniques. A composition is “substantially free” of a prebiotic or immunostimulatory carbohydrate when non-microbial carbohydrates are absent or undetectable as determined by the use of standard biochemical techniques, e.g., dye-based assays.

Microbial agents (individual or populations of microbes, microbial networks or parts of networks, or microbial metabolites) are considered to be “exogenous” to a subject (e.g., a human or non-human animal), a cell, tissue, organ or other environment of a human or non-human animal, if said subject, or said cell, tissue, organ or other environment of the subject, does not contain detectable levels of the microbial agent.

A microbial agent or population thereof is “heterologous” or “heterologously contained” on or in a host environment when, e.g., the microbial agent or population is administered or disposed on or in the host or host environment in a number, concentration, form or other modality that is not found in the host prior to administration of the microbial agent or population, or when the microbial agent or population contains an activity or structural component different from a host that does not naturally have the microbial agent within the target environment to which the microbe is administered or thereafter disposed.

As used herein, the term “antioxidant” is understood to include any one or more of various substances such as beta-carotene (a vitamin A precursor), vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) that inhibit oxidation or reactions promoted by Reactive Oxygen Species (“ROS”) and other radical and non-radical species. Additionally, antioxidants are molecules capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. Non-limiting examples of antioxidants include astaxanthin, carotenoids, coenzyme Q10 (“CoQ10”), flavonoids, glutathione, Goji (wolfberry), hesperidin, lactowolfberry, lignan, lutein, lycopene, polyphenols, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, zeaxanthin, or combinations thereof.

“Backbone Network Ecology” or simply “Backbone Network” or “Backbone” are compositions of microbes that form a foundational composition that can be built upon or subtracted from to optimize a Network Ecology or Functional Network Ecology to have specific biological characteristics or to comprise desired functional properties, respectively. Microbiome therapeutics can be comprised of these “Backbone Networks Ecologies” in their entirety, or the “Backbone Networks” can be modified by the addition or subtraction of “R-Groups” to give the network ecology desired characteristics and properties. “R-Groups” can be defined in multiple terms including, but not limited to: individual OTUs, individual or multiple OTUs derived from a specific phylogenetic clade or a desired phenotype such as the ability to form spores, or functional bacterial compositions. “Backbone Networks” can comprise a computationally derived Network Ecology in its entirety or can comprise subsets of the computed network that represent key nodes in the network that contribute to efficacy such as but not limited to a composition of Keystone OTUs. The number of organisms in a human gastrointestinal tract, as well as the diversity between healthy individuals, is indicative of the functional redundancy of a healthy gut microbiome ecology. See The Human Microbiome Consortia. 2012. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486: 207-214, This redundancy makes it highly likely that non-obvious subsets of OTUs or functional pathways (i.e. “Backbone Networks”) are critical to maintaining states of health and/or catalyzing a shift from a dysbiotic state to one of health. One way of exploiting this redundancy is through the substitution of OTUs that share a given clade (see below) or by adding members of a clade not found in the Backbone Network.

“Bacterial Composition” refers to a a composition comprising bacteria, and/or bacterial spores. In some embodiments, a bacterial composition includes a consortium of microbes comprising two or more OTUs, Backbone Network Ecologies. Functional Network Ecologies. Network Classes, and Core Ecologies are all types of bacterial compositions. As used herein. Bacterial Composition includes a therapeutic microbial composition, a prophylactic microbial composition, a Spore Population, a Purified Spore Population, or an ethanol treated spore population.

“Bacterial translocation” refers to the passage of one or more bacteria across the epithelial layer of any organ of a human or non-human animal.

“Clade” refers to the OTUs or members of a phylogenetic tree that are downstream of a statistically valid node in a phylogenetic tree. The clade comprises a set of terminal leaves in the phylogenetic tree (i.e. tips of the tree) that are a distinct monophyletic evolutionary unit and that share some extent of sequence similarity. Clades are hierarchical, in one embodiment, the node in a phylogenetic tree that is selected to define a clade is dependent on the level of resolution suitable for the underlying data used to compute the tree topology.

The “colonization” of a host organism includes the non-transitory residence of a bacterium or other microscopic organism. As used herein, “reducing colonization” of a host subject's gastrointestinal tract or vagina (or any other microbiota niche) by a pathogenic or non-pathogenic bacterium includes a reduction in the residence time of the bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract or vagina as well as a reduction in the number (or concentration) of the bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract or vagina, or adhered to the luminal surface of the gastrointestinal tract. The reduction in colonization can be permanent or occur during a transient period of time. Measuring reductions of adherent pathogens can be demonstrated directly, e.g., by determining pathogenic burden in a biopsy sample, or reductions may be measured indirectly, e.g., by measuring the pathogenic burden in the stool of a mammalian host.

A “Combination” of two or more bacteria includes the physical co-existence of the two bacteria, either in the same material or product or in physically connected products, as well as the temporal co-administration or co-localization of the two bacteria.

“Cytotoxic” activity of a bacterium includes the ability to kill a cell, e.g., a bacterial cell, such as a pathogenic bacterial cell, or a host cell. A “cytostatic” activity of a bacterium includes the ability to inhibit (e.g., partially or fully) the growth, metabolism, and/or proliferation of a cell, e.g., a bacterial cell, such as a pathogenic bacterial cell. Cytotoxic activity may also apply to other cell types such as but not limited to eukaryotic cells, e.g., host cells.

The term “distal” generally is used in relation to the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the intestinal lumen, of a human or other mammal. Thus, a “distal dysbiosis” includes a dysbiosis outside of the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract, and a “distal microbiota” includes a microbiota outside of the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. In specified instances, the term “distal” may be used in relation to the site of administration, engraftment, or colonization of a composition, e.g., a probiotic composition, of the invention. For example, if a probiotic composition is administered vaginally, a “distal” effect of the composition would occur outside the vagina.

“Dysbiosis” refers to a state of the microbiota or microbiome of the gut or other body area, including, e.g., mucosal or skin surfaces (or any other microbiota niche) in which the normal diversity and/or function of the ecological network is disrupted. Any disruption from the preferred (e.g., ideal) state of the microbiota can be considered a dysbiosis, even if such dysbiosis does not result in a detectable decrease in health. This state of dysbiosis may be unhealthy (e.g., result in a diseased state), or it may be unhealthy under only certain conditions, or it may prevent a subject from becoming healthier. Dysbiosis may be due to a decrease in diversity of the microbiota population composition, the overgrowth of one or more population of pathogens (e.g., a population of pathogenic bacteria) or pathobionts, the presence of and/or overgrowth of symbiotic organisms able to cause disease only when certain genetic and/or environmental conditions are present in a patient, or the shift to an ecological network that no longer provides a beneficial function to the host and therefore no longer promotes health. A “distal dysbiosis” includes, but is not limited to, a dysbiosis outside of the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract.

“Germinant” is a material or composition, or a physical-chemical process, capable of inducing the germination of vegetative bacterial cells from dormant spores, or the proliferation of vegetative bacterial cells, either directly or indirectly in a host organism and/or in vitro.

“Graft versus host disease” as used herein is an immunological disorder in which the immune cells of a transplant attack the tissues of a transplant recipient, potentially leading to organ dysfunction.

“Acute GVHD” as used herein is GVHD that presents within the first 100 days of transplant.

“Chronic GVHD” as used herein is GVHD that presents after the first 100 days of transplant.

“Inhibit,” “inhibiting,” and “inhibition” mean to decrease an activity, response, condition, disease, or other biological parameter. This can include but is not limited to the complete ablation of the activity, response, condition, or disease. This may also include, for example, a 10% reduction in the activity, response, condition, or disease as compared to the native or control level. Thus, the reduction can be a 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100%, or any amount of reduction in between as compared to native or control levels.

“Inhibition” of a pathogen or non-pathogen encompasses the inhibition of any desired function or activity of the pathogen or non-pathogen by the probiotic, e.g., bacterial, compositions of the present invention. Demonstrations of inhibition, such as a decrease in the growth of a pathogenic bacterial cell population or a reduction in the level of colonization of a pathogenic bacterial species are provided herein and otherwise recognized by one of ordinary skill in the art. Inhibition of a pathogenic or non-pathogenic bacterial population's “growth” may include inhibiting an increase in the size of a pathogenic or non-pathogenic bacterial cell population and/or inhibiting the proliferation (or multiplication) of a pathogenic or non-pathogenic bacterial cell population. Inhibition of colonization of a pathogenic or non-pathogenic bacterial species may be demonstrated by measuring and comparing the amount or burden of the bacterial species before and after a treatment. An “inhibition” or the act of “inhibiting” includes the total cessation and partial reduction of one or more activities of a pathogen, such as growth, proliferation, colonization, and function. As used herein, inhibition includes cytostatic and/or cytotoxic activities. Inhibition of function includes, for example, the inhibition of expression of a pathogenic gene product (e.g., the genes encoding a toxin and/or toxin biosynthetic pathway, or the genes encoding a structure required for intracellular invasion (e.g., an invasive pilus)) induced by the bacterial composition.

“Isolated” encompasses a bacterium or other entity or substance that has been (1) separated from at least some of the components with which it was associated when initially produced (whether in nature or in an experimental setting), and/or (2) produced, prepared, purified, and/or manufactured by the hand of man. Isolated bacteria includes, for example, those bacteria that are cultured, even if such cultures are not monocultures. Isolated bacteria may be separated from at least about 10%, about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, or more of the other components with which they were initially associated. In some embodiments, isolated bacteria are more than about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 91%, about 92%, about 93%, about 94%, about 95%, about 96%, about 97%, about 98%, about 99%, or more than about 99% pure. As used herein, a substance is “pure” if it is substantially free of other components. The terms “purify,” “purifying” and “purified” refer to a bacterium or other material that has been separated from at least some of the components with which it was associated either when initially produced or generated (e.g., whether in nature or in an experimental setting), or during any time after its initial production. A bacterium or a bacterial population may be considered purified if it is isolated at or after production, such as from a material or environment containing the bacterium or bacterial population, or by passage through culture, and a purified bacterium or bacterial population may contain other materials up to about 10%, about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, about 90%, or above about 90% o and still be considered “isolated.” In some embodiments, purified bacteria and bacterial populations are more than about 80% o, about 85%, about 90%, about 91%, about 92%, about 93%, about 94%, about 95%, about 96%, about 97%, about 98%, about 99%, or more than about 99% pure. In the instance of bacterial compositions provided herein, the one or more bacterial types present in the composition can be independently purified from one or more other bacteria produced and/or present in the material or environment containing the bacterial type. In some embodiments, bacterial compositions and the bacterial components thereof are purified from residual habitat products. In other embodiments, bacterial compositions contain a defined mixture of isolated bacteria. For example, in some embodiments, the probiotic composition contains no more than 100 bacterial species. For example, in some embodiments, the probiotic composition contains no more than 75 bacterial species. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains no more than 50 bacterial species, e.g., no more than 40 bacterial species, no more than 30 bacterial species, no more than 25 bacterial species, no more than 20 bacterial species, no more than 15 bacterial species, no more than 10 bacterial species, etc. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains no more than 10 bacterial species, e.g., 10 bacterial species, 9 bacterial species, 8 bacterial species, 7 bacterial species, 6 bacterial species, 5 bacterial species, 4 bacterial species, 3 bacterial species, 2 bacterial species, 1 bacterial species. In some embodiments, the probiotic composition contains defined quantities of each bacterial species. In an exemplary embodiment, the probiotic composition contains isolated bacterial populations that are not isolated from fecal matter.

“Keystone OTU” or “Keystone Function” refers to one or more OTUs or Functional Pathways (e.g. KEGG or COG pathways) that are common to many network ecologies or functional network ecologies and are members of networks that occur in many subjects (i.e. “are pervasive). Due to the ubiquitous nature of Keystone OTUs and their associated Functions Pathways, they are central to the function of network ecologies in healthy subjects and are often missing or at reduced levels in subjects with disease. Keystone OTUs and their associated functions may exist in low, moderate, or high abundance in subjects. A “non-Keystone OTU” or “non-Keystone Function” refers to an OTU or Function that is observed in a Network Ecology or a Functional Network Ecology and is not a keystone OTU or Function.

“Metabolism” or “metabolic reaction” as used herein refers to any and all biomolecular catabolic or anabolic processes occurring or potentially occurring in mammalian cells or in microbes.

“Metabolite” as used herein refers to any and all molecular compounds, compositions, molecules, ions, co-factors, catalysts or nutrients used as substrates in any cellular or microbial metabolic reaction or resulting as product compounds, compositions, molecules, ions, co-factors, catalysts or nutrients from any cellular or microbial metabolic reaction.

“Microbiota” refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit (sustainably or transiently) in and/or on a subject, (e.g, a mammal such as a human), including, but not limited to, eukaryotes (e.g., protozoa), archaea, bacteria, and viruses (including bacterial viruses, i.e., a phage).

“Microbiome” refers to the genetic content of the communities of microbes that live in and on the human body, both sustainably and transiently, including eukaryotes, archaea, bacteria, and viruses (including bacterial viruses (i.e., phage)), wherein “genetic content” includes genomic DNA, RNA such as ribosomal RNA, the epigenome, plasmids, and all other types of genetic information.

“Microbial Carriage” or simply “Carriage” refers to the population of microbes inhabiting a niche within or on a subject (e.g., a human subject). Carriage is often defined in terms of relative abundance. For example, OTU1 comprises 60% of the total microbial carriage, meaning that OTU1 has a relative abundance of 60% compared to the other OTUs in the sample from which the measurement is made. Carriage is most often based on genomic sequencing data where the relative abundance or carriage of a single OTU or group of OTUs is defined by the number of sequencing reads that are assigned to that OTU/s relative to the total number of sequencing reads for the sample.

“Microbial Augmentation” refers to the establishment or significant increase of a population of microbes that are (i) absent or undetectable (as determined by the use of standard genomic, biochemical and/or microbiological techniques) from the administered therapeutic microbial composition, and/or (ii) absent, undetectable, or present at low frequencies in the host niche (as an example: gastrointestinal tract, skin, anterior-nares, or vagina) before the delivery of the microbial composition; and (iii) are found, i.e, detectable, after the administration of the microbial composition or significantly increase, for instance increase in abundance by 2-fold, 5-fold, 1×102, 1×103, 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107, or greater than 1×108, in cases where they are present at low frequencies. The microbes that comprise an augmented ecology can be derived from exogenous sources such as food and the environment, or grow out from micro-niches within the host where they reside at low frequency.

The administration of the therapeutic composition can induce an environmental shift in the target niche that promotes favorable conditions for the growth of commensal microbes. In the absence of treatment with a therapeutic microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, the host can be constantly exposed to these microbes; however, sustained growth and the positive health effects associated with the stable population of increased levels of the microbes comprising the augmented ecology are not observed.

“Microbial Engraftment” or simply “engraftment” refers to the establishment of OTUs comprised in a therapeutic microbial composition in a target niche. In one embodiment, the OTUs are absent in the treated host prior to treatment. The microbes that comprise the engrafted ecology are found in the therapeutic microbial composition and establish as constituents of the host microbial ecology upon treatment. Engrafted OTUs can establish for a transient period of time, or demonstrate long-term stability in the microbial ecology that populates the host post-treatment with a therapeutic microbial composition. The engrafted ecology can induce an environmental shift in the target niche that promotes favorable conditions for the growth of commensal microbes capable of catalyzing a shift from a dysbiotic ecology to one representative of a healthy state.

As used herein, the term “minerals” is understood to include boron, calcium, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, silicon, tin, vanadium, zinc, or combinations thereof.

“Network Ecology” refers to a consortium of clades or OTUs that co-occur in some number of subjects. As used herein, a “network” is defined mathematically by a graph delineating how specific nodes (i.e. clades or OTUs) and edges (connections between specific clades or OTUs) relate to one another to define the structural ecology of a consortium of clades or OTUs. Any given Network Ecology will possess inherent phylogenetic diversity and functional properties.

A Network Ecology can also be defined in terms of its functional capabilities where for example the nodes would be comprised of elements such as, but not limited to, enzymes, clusters of orthologous groups (COGS; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov books/NBK21090/), or KEGG Orthology Pathways (www.genome.jp/kegg/); these networks are referred to as a “Functional Network Ecology”. Functional Network Ecologies can be reduced to practice by defining the group of OTUs that together comprise the functions defined by the Functional Network Ecology.

The terms “Network Class”, “Core Network” and “Network Class Ecology” refer to a group of network ecologies that in general are computationally determined to comprise ecologies with similar phylogenetic and/or functional characteristics. A Network Class therefore contains important biological features, defined either phylogenetically or functionally, of a group (i.e., a cluster) of related network ecologies. One representation of a Core Network Ecology is a designed consortium of microbes, typically non-pathogenic bacteria, that represents core features of a set of phylogenetically or functionally related network ecologies seen in many different subjects. In many occurrences, a Core Network, while designed as described herein, exists as a Network Ecology observed in one or more subjects. Core Network ecologies are useful for reversing or reducing a dysbiosis in subjects where the underlying, related Network Ecology has been disrupted.

“Ecological Niche” or simply “Niche” refers to the ecological space that an organism or group of organisms (e.g., a bacterial population) occupies. Niche describes how an organism or population or organisms responds to the distribution of resources, physical parameters (e.g., host tissue space) and competitors (e.g., by growing when resources are abundant, and/or when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (e.g., limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey).

To be free of “non-comestible products” means that a bacterial composition or other material provided herein does not have a substantial amount of a non-comestible product, e.g., a product or material that is inedible, harmful or otherwise undesired in a product suitable for administration, e.g., oral administration, to a human subject.

“Operational taxonomic units,” “OTU” (or plural, “OTUs”) refer to a terminal leaf in a phylogenetic tree and is defined by a nucleic acid sequence, e.g., the entire genome, or a specific genetic sequence, and all sequences that share sequence identity to this nucleic acid sequence at the level of species. In some embodiments the specific genetic sequence may be the 16S sequence or a portion of the 16S sequence. In other embodiments, the entire genomes of two entities are sequenced and compared. In another embodiment, select regions such as multilocus sequence tags (MLST), specific genes, or sets of genes may be genetically compared. In 16S embodiments, OTUs that share ≧97% average nucleotide identity across the entire 16S or some variable region of the 16S are considered the same OTU (see e.g. Claesson M J, Wang Q, O'Sullivan O, Greene-Diniz R, Cole J R, Ros R P, and O'Toole P W. 2010. Comparison of two next-generation sequencing technologies for resolving highly complex microbiota composition using tandem variable 16S rRNA gene regions. Nucleic Acids Res 38: e200. Konstantinidis K T, Ramette A, and Tiedje J M. 2006. The bacterial species definition in the genomic era. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361: 1929-1940.). In embodiments involving the complete genome, MLSTs, specific genes, or sets of genes OTUs that share ≧95% average nucleotide identity are considered the same OTU (see e.g. Achtman M, and Wagner M. 2008. Microbial diversity and the genetic nature of microbial species. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6: 431-440. Konstantinidis K T, Ramette A, and Tiedje J M. 2006. The bacterial species definition in the genomic era. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361: 1929-1940.). OTUs are frequently defined by comparing sequences between organisms. Generally, sequences with less than 95% sequence identity are not considered to form part of the same OTU. OTUs may also be characterized by any combination of nucleotide markers or genes, in particular highly conserved genes (e.g., “house-keeping” genes), or a combination thereof. Such characterization employs, e.g., WGS data or a whole genome sequence.

“Pathobionts” or “Opportunistic Pathogens” refers to symbiotic organisms able to cause disease only when certain genetic and/or environmental conditions are present in a subject.

The term “Phylogenetic Diversity” refers to the biodiversity present in a given Network Ecology. Core Network Ecology or Network Class Ecology based on the OTUs that comprise the network. Phylogenetic diversity is a relative term, meaning that a Network Ecology. Core Network or Network Class that is comparatively more phylogenetically diverse than another network contains a greater number of unique species, genera, and taxonomic families. Uniqueness of a species, genera, or taxonomic family is generally defined using a phylogenetic tree that represents the genetic diversity all species, genera, or taxonomic families relative to one another. In another embodiment phylogenetic diversity may be measured using the total branch length or average branch length of a phylogenetic tree.

Phylogenetic Diversity may be optimized in a bacterial composition by including a wide range of biodiversity.

“Phylogenetic tree” refers to a graphical representation of the evolutionary relationships of one genetic sequence to another that is generated using a defined set of phylogenetic reconstruction algorithms (e.g. parsimony, maximum likelihood, or Bayesian). Nodes in the tree represent distinct ancestral sequences and the confidence of any node is provided by a bootstrap or Bayesian posterior probability, which measures branch uncertainty.

As used herein “preventing” or “prevention” refers to any methodology where the disease state does not occur due to the actions of the methodology (such as, for example, administration of a probiotic and/or a prebiotic as described herein). In one aspect, it is understood that prevention can also mean that the disease is not established to the extent that occurs in untreated controls. For example, there can be a 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, or 100% reduction in the establishment of disease frequency relative to untreated controls. Accordingly, prevention of a disease encompasses a reduction in the likelihood that a subject will develop the disease, relative to an untreated subject (e.g. a subjece who does not receive a probiotic and/or a prebiotic as described herein).

“rDNA”, “rRNA”, “16S-rDNA”, “16S-rRNA”. “16S”, “16S sequencing”, “16S-NGS”, “18S”, “18S-rRNA”, “18S-rDNA”, “18S sequencing”, and “18S-NGS” refer to the nucleic acids that encode for the RNA subunits of the ribosome. rDNA refers to the gene that encodes the rRNA that comprises the RNA subunits. There are two RNA subunits in the ribosome termed the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU); the RNA genetic sequences (rRNA) of these subunits are related to the gene that encodes them (rDNA) by the genetic code. rDNA genes and their complementary RNA sequences are widely used for determination of the evolutionary relationships amount organisms as they are variable, yet sufficiently conserved to allow cross organism molecular comparisons.

Typically 16S rDNA sequence (approximately 1542 nucleotides in length) of the 30S SSU is used for molecular-based taxonomic assignments of Prokaryotes and the 18S rDNA sequence (approximately 1869 nucleotides in length) of 40S SSU is used for Eukaryotes. 16S sequences are used for phylogenetic reconstruction as they are in general highly conserved, but contain specific hypervariable regions that harbor sufficient nucleotide diversity to differentiate genera and species of most bacteria.

“Residual habitat products” refers to material derived from the habitat for microbiota within or on a human or animal. For example, microbiota live in feces in the gastrointestinal tract, on the skin itself, in saliva, mucus of the respiratory tract, or secretions of the genitourinary tract (i.e., biological matter associated with the microbial community). Substantially free of residual habitat products means that the bacterial composition no longer contains the biological matter associated with the microbial environment on or in the human or animal subject and is 100% free, 99% free, 98% free, 97% free, 96% free, or 95% free, 94% free, 93% free, 92% free, 91% free, 90% free, 85% free, 80% free, 75% free, 70% free, 65% free, or 60% free of any contaminating biological matter associated with the microbial community. Residual habitat products can include abiotic materials (including undigested food) or it can include unwanted microorganisms. Substantially free of residual habitat products may also mean that the bacterial composition contains no detectable cells from a human or animal and that only microbial cells are detectable. In one embodiment, substantially free of residual habitat products may also mean that the bacterial composition contains no detectable viral (including bacterial viruses (i.e., phage)), fungal, mycoplasmal contaminants. In another embodiment, it means that fewer than 1×10−2%, 1×10−3%, 1×10−4%, 1×10−5%, 1×10−6%, 1×10−7%, 1×10−8% of the viable cells in the bacterial composition are human or animal, as compared to microbial cells. There are multiple ways to accomplish this degree of purity, none of which are limiting. Thus, contamination may be reduced by isolating desired constituents through multiple steps of streaking to single colonies on solid media until replicate (such as, but not limited to, two) streaks from serial single colonies have shown only a single colony morphology. Alternatively, reduction of contamination can be accomplished by multiple rounds of serial dilutions to single desired cells (e.g., a dilution of 10−8 or 10−9), such as through multiple 10-fold serial dilutions. This can further be confirmed by showing that multiple isolated colonies have similar cell shapes and Gram staining behavior. Other methods for confirming adequate purity include genetic analysis (e.g. PCR, DNA sequencing), serology and antigen analysis, enzymatic and metabolic analysis, and methods using instrumentation such as flow cytometry with reagents that distinguish desired constituents from contaminants.

In microbiology, “16S sequencing” or “16S-rRNA” or “16S” refers to sequence derived by characterizing the nucleotides that comprise the 16S ribosomal RNA gene(s). The bacterial 16S rDNA is approximately 1500 nucleotides in length and is used in reconstructing the evolutionary relationships and sequence similarity of one bacterial isolate to another using phylogenetic approaches. 16S sequences are used for phylogenetic reconstruction as they are in general highly conserved, but contain specific hypervariable regions that harbor sufficient nucleotide diversity to differentiate genera and species of most bacteria.

The “V1-V9 regions” of the 16S rRNA refers to the first through ninth hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene that are used for genetic typing of bacterial samples. These regions in bacteria are defined by nucleotides 69-99, 137-242, 433-497, 576-682, 822-879, 986-1043, 1117-1173, 1243-1294 and 1435-1465 respectively using numbering based on the E. coli system of nomenclature. Brosius et al., Complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from Escherichia coli, PNAS 75(10):4801-4805 (1978). In some embodiments, at least one of the V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, and V9 regions are used to characterize an OTU. In one embodiment, the V1, V2, and V3 regions are used to characterize an OTU. In another embodiment, the V3, V4, and V5 regions are used to characterize an OTU. In another embodiment, the V4 region is used to characterize an OTU. A person of ordinary skill in the art can identify the specific hypervariable regions of a candidate 16S rRNA by comparing the candidate sequence in question to a reference sequence and identifying the hypervariable regions based on similarity to the reference hypervariable regions, or alternatively, one can employ Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) sequence characterization of microbes or a microbial community.

The term “subject” refers to any organism or animal subject that is an object of a method or material, including mammals, e.g., humans, laboratory animals (e.g., primates, rats, mice, rabbits), livestock (e.g., cows, sheep, goats, pigs, turkeys, and chickens), household pets (e.g., dogs, cats, and rodents), horses, and transgenic non-human animals. The subject may be suffering from a dysbiosis, including, but not limited to, an infection due to a gastrointestinal pathogen or may be at risk of developing or transmitting to others an infection due to a gastrointestinal pathogen. Synonyms used herein include “patient” and “animal.” In some embodiments, the subject or host may be suffering from a dysbiosis, that contributes to or causes a condition classified as an autoimmune or inflammatory disease, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn's disease, Celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus. Sjogren's syndrome, or type 1 diabetes. In some embodiments, the host may be suffering from including but not limited to mechanisms such as metabolic endotoxemia, altered metabolism of primary bile acids, immune system activation, or an imbalance or reduced production of short chain fatty acids including butyrate, propionate, acetate, and branched chain fatty acids.

The term “phenotype” refers to a set of observable characteristics of an individual entity. As example an individual subject may have a phenotype of “health” or “disease”. Phenotypes describe the state of an entity and all entities within a phenotype share the same set of characteristics that describe the phenotype. The phenotype of an individual results in part, or in whole, from the interaction of the entities genome and/or microbiome with the environment.

“Spore” or “endospore” refers to an entity, particularly a bacterial entity, which is in a dormant, non-vegetative and non-reproductive stage. Spores are generally resistant to environmental stress such as radiation, desiccation, enzymatic treatment, temperature variation, nutrient deprivation, and chemical disinfectants.

A “spore population” refers to a plurality of spores present in a composition. Synonymous terms used herein include spore composition, spore preparation, ethanol treated spore fraction and spore ecology. A spore population may be purified from a fecal donation, e.g. via ethanol or heat treatment, or a density gradient separation or any combination of methods described herein to increase the purity, potency and/or concentration of spores in a sample. Alternatively, a spore population may be derived through culture methods starting from isolated spore former species or spore former OTUs or from a mixture of such species, either in vegetative or spore form.

A “sporulation induction agent” is a material or physical-chemical process that is capable of inducing sporulation in a bacterium, either directly or indirectly, in a host organism and/or in vitro.

To increase production of bacterial entities includes an activity or a sporulation induction agent. Production includes conversion of vegetative bacterial cells into spores and augmentation of the rate of such conversion, as well as decreasing the germination of bacteria in spore form, decreasing the rate of spore decay in vivo, or ex vivo, or to increasing the total output of spores (e.g. via an increase in volumetric output of fecal material).

“Synergy” or “synergistic interactions” refers to the interaction or cooperation of two or more microbes to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects. In one embodiment, “synergy” between two or more microbes can result in the inhibition of a pathogens ability to grow.

“Treatment,” “treat,” or “treating” means a method of reducing the effects of a disease or condition. Treatment can also refer to a method of reducing the disease or condition itself rather than just the symptoms. The treatment can be any reduction from pre-treatment levels and can be but is not limited to the complete ablation of the disease, condition, or the symptoms of the disease or condition. Therefore, in the disclosed methods, treatment” can refer to a 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 100% reduction in the severity of an established disease or the disease progression. For example, a disclosed method for reducing the effects of GVHD is considered to be a treatment if there is a 10% reduction in one or more symptoms of the disease in a subject with GVHD when compared to pre-treatment levels in the same subject or control subjects. Thus, the reduction can be a 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100%, or any amount of reduction in between as compared to native or control levels. It is understood and herein contemplated that “treatment” does not necessarily refer to a cure of the disease or condition, but an improvement in the outlook of a disease or condition (e.g., GVHD).

As used herein the term “vitamin” is understood to include any of various fat-soluble or water-soluble organic substances (non-limiting examples include vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin or niacinamide), Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine, or pyridoxine hydrochloride), Vitamin B7 (biotin), Vitamin B9 (folic acid), and Vitamin B12 (various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin in vitamin supplements), vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, K1 and K2 (i.e. MK-4, MK-7), folic acid and biotin) essential in minute amounts for normal growth and activity of the body and obtained naturally from plant and animal foods or synthetically made, pro-vitamins, derivatives, analogs. As used herein, the term “recipient” refers to the subject receives a bone marrow or a solid organ transplantation.

III. Probiotic Compositions of the Invention

Disclosed herein are bacterial, e.g., probiotic, compositions comprising a non-pathogenic bacterial or fungal population, e.g., an immunomodulatory bacterial population, such as an anti-inflammatory bacterial population, with or without one or more prebiotics, for the prevention, control, and treatment of transplant disorders, and for general nutritional health in a subject receiving a transplant. These compositions are advantageous in being suitable for safe administration to humans and other mammalian subjects and are efficacious for the treatment, prevention, reduction and amelioration of graft versus host disease (GVHD), and complications associated therewith, such as transplant rejection. While spore-based compositions are known, these are generally prepared according to various techniques such as lyophilization or spray-drying of liquid bacterial cultures, resulting in poor efficacy, instability, substantial variability and lack of adequate safety and efficacy.

It has now been found that bacterial and fungal populations can be obtained from biological materials obtained from mammalian subjects, including humans. These populations are formulated into compositions as provided herein, and administered to mammalian subjects using the methods as provided herein.

As described in detail herein, alterations in the microbiota of a transplant recipient significantly impact the outcome for the subject. In particular, a dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract, or a dysbiosis distal to the gastrointestinal tract, can increase the likelihood that a subject will develop GVHD, and reduce the overall survival of the subject following the transplant. Outcome can be improved by administering a probiotic composition, optionally in combination with a prebiotic, to correct the dysbiosis. In particular, probiotic compositions that improve intestinal barrier integrity and/or reduce inflammation in the subject can treat or prevent GVHD in a subject receiving a transplant.

In one embodiment, therapeutic compositions are provided for the treatment, prevention, reduction of onset and amelioration of inflammation or one or more symptom of a transplant disorder, such as, for example, GVHD. As used herein, “therapeutic” compositions include compositions that function in a prophylactic (e.g., preventative) manner. Therapeutic compositions can contain one or more populations of immunomodulatory bacteria and/or fungi, alone or in combination with one or more prebiotics. In one embodiment, the microbial entities can be produced by isolation and/or culture, using, for example, the following steps: a) providing fecal material and b) subjecting the material to a culture step and/or a treatment step resulting in purification and/or isolation of immunomodulatory bacteria and, optionally, c) formulating the purified population for administration, wherein the purified population is present in the composition in an amount effective to engraft and/or colonize in the gastrointestinal tract in order to treat, prevent or reduce the severity of inflammation or one or more symptom of GVHD in a mammalian recipient subject to whom the therapeutic composition is administered. Generally, the population is provided in an amount effective to treat (including to prevent) a disease, disorder or condition associated with or characterized by inflammation or dysbiosis, e.g., transplant rejection or GVHD. Such treatment may be effective to reduce the severity of at least one symptom of the dysbiosis, e.g., gastrointestinal or distal dysbiosis, thereby improving survival of the transplant recipient. Such treatment may be effective to modulate the microbiota diversity present in the mammalian recipient.

In embodiments, the probiotic compositions contain immunomodulatory microbes, e.g., immunomodulatory bacteria, which are capable of altering the immune activity of a mammalian subject. In exemplary embodiments, the immunomodulatory bacteria are capable of reducing inflammation in a mammalian subject. Such immunomodulatory bacteria are referred to herein as anti-inflammatory bacteria. Immunomodulatory bacteria can act to alter the immune activity of a subject directly or indirectly. For example, immunomodulatory bacteria can act directly on immune cells through receptors for bacterial components (e.g. Toll-like receptors) or by producing metabolites such as immunomodulatory short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs produced by immunomodulatory bacteria can include, e.g., butyrate, acetate, propionate, or valerate, or combinations thereof. Such SCFAs can have many positive impacts on the health of the subject, by, for example, reducing inflammation, or improving intestinal barrier integrity. In one embodiment, the improvement of gut epithelium barrier integrity results in reduced trafficking of bacteria, bacterial components and/or bacterial metabolites into the blood. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition is administered to a subject in an amount effective to increase short chain fatty acid production by one or more organisms in the gut of a mammalian host. Immunomodulatory bacteria can also impact the immune activity of a subject by producing glutathione or gamma-glutamylcysteine. Probiotics containing such immunomodulatory bacteria can treat or prevent GVHD in a subject receiving a transplant.

Probiotic compositions containing immunomodulatory bacteria can additionally or alternatively impact the immune activity of a subject indirectly by modulating the activity of immune cells in the subject. For example, immunomodulatory bacteria may alter cytokine expression by host immune cells (e.g., macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, mast cells, peripherial blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), etc.) or other types of host cells capable of cytokine secretion (e.g., endothelia cells, fibroblasts, stromal cells, etc.). In an exemplary embodiment, probiotic compositions contain anti-inflammatory immunomodulatory bacteria that are capable of inducing secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by host cells. For example, anti-inflammatory bacteria can induce secretion of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines such as but not limited to IL-10, IL-13, IL-9, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ, and combinations thereof, by host cells (e.g., host immune cells). In another exemplary embodiment, probiotic compositions contain anti-inflammatory immunomodulatory bacteria that are capable of reducing secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines by host cells (e.g., host immune cells). For example, anti-inflammatory bacteria can reduce secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines such as but not limited to IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. Other cytokines that may be modulated by immunomodulatory bacteria include, for example, IL-17A, IL-2, and IL-9. In some embodiments, the induction and/or secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines may be induced by (e.g., in response to, either directly or indirectly) a bacteria (e.g., Enterococcus faecalis).

In some embodiments, immunomodulatory bacteria are selected for inclusion in a probiotic composition of the invention based on the desired effect of the probiotic composition on cytokine secretion by host cells, e.g., host immune cells. For example, in one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains anti-inflammatory bacteria that increase secretion of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, for example, IL-10, IL-13, IL-9, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory bacteria increase secretion of two or more anti-inflammatory cytokines. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory bacteria increase secretion of three or more anti-inflammatory cytokines. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory bacteria increase secretion of four or more anti-inflammatory cytokines. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory bacteria increase secretion of five or more anti-inflammatory cytokines. In exemplary embodiments, the increase is an increase of at least 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 80%, 100%, 200%, 300%, 500% or more. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains anti-inflammatory bacteria that decrease secretion of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, for example, IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory bacteria decrease secretion of two or more pro-inflammatory cytokines. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory bacteria decrease secretion of three or more pro-inflammatory cytokines. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory bacteria decrease secretion of four or more pro-inflammatory cytokines. In some embodiments, the anti-inflammatory bacteria decrease secretion of five or more pro-inflammatory cytokines. In exemplary embodiments, the decrease is a decrease of at least 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 80%, 100%, 200%, 300%, 500% or more. In another embodiment, the probiotic composition contains anti-inflammatory bacteria that increase secretion of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines and reduce secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in cytokine expression may occur locally, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract of a subject, or at a site distal to the gastrointestinal tract. Such anti-inflammatory bacteria may be used to treat or prevent GVHD in a transplant recipient.

In other embodiments, probiotics containing immunomodulatory bacteria impact the immune activity of a subject by promoting the differentiation and/or expansion of particular subpopulations of immune cells. For example, immunomodulatory bacteria can increase or decrease the proportion of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, or Th2 cells in a subject. The increase or decrease in the proportion of immune cell subpopulations may be systemic, or it may be localized to a site of action of the probiotic, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract or at the site of a distal dysbiosis. In some embodiments, immunomodulatory bacteria are selected for inclusion in a probiotic composition of the invention based on the desired effect of the probiotic composition on the differentiation and/or expansion of subpopulations of immune cells in the subject.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Treg cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Treg cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th17 cells in a subject (e.g., by inducing expansion of Th17 cells in the subject). In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th17 cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th1 cells in a subject (e.g., by inducing expansion of Th1 cells in the subject). In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th1 cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th2 cells in a subject (e.g., by inducing expansion of Th2 cells in the subject). In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th2 cells in a subject. The increase or decrease in the proportion of immune cell subpopulations (e.g., Th17 cells, Th1 cells and Th2 cells) may be localized or systemic.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria capable of modulating the proportion of one or more populations of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, Th2 cells, and combinations thereof in a subject. Certain immune cell profiles may be particularly desirable to treat or prevent particular disorders associated with a dysbiosis. For example, treatment or prevention of GVHD can be promoted by increased numbers of Treg cells and Th2 cells, and/or decreased numbers of Th17 cells and Th1 cells. Accordingly, probiotic compositions for the treatment or prevention of GVHD may contain probiotics capable of promoting Treg cells and Th2 cells, and reducing Th17 and Th1 cells.

In one embodiment, therapeutic probiotic compositions comprising a purified population of immunomodulatory microbes, e.g., bacteria, are provided, with or without one or more prebiotics, in an amount effective to i) treat or prevent dysbiosis, e.g., gastrointestinal or distal dysbiosis, inflammation, or an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder, and/or ii) augment at least one type of microbe, e.g., a bacterium, not present in the therapeutic composition in a mammalian recipient subject to whom the therapeutic composition is administered, and/or iii) engraft at least one type of microbe, e.g., a bacterium, present in the therapeutic composition but not present in a mammalian subject prior to treatment.

In another embodiment, therapeutic probiotic compositions comprising a purified population of immunomodulatory microbes are provided, in an amount effective to i) augment the microbiota diversity present in the mammalian recipient and/or ii) treat or prevent dysbiosis, e.g., gastrointestinal or distal dysbiosis, inflammation, or an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder in a mammalian recipient subject to whom the therapeutic composition is administered, wherein the purified population is obtained by separation of the population apart from at least one residual habitat product in a fecal material obtained from one or a plurality of mammalian donor subjects. In some embodiments, individual bacterial strains can be cultured from fecal material. These strains can then be purified or otherwise isolated and used singly or in combination. In one embodiment, the probiotic composition does not contain a fecal extract.

In one embodiment, the probiotic compositions described herein may be used to treat or correct a dysbiosis in a subject. The dysbiosis may be, for example, a local dysbiosis, or a distal dysbiosis. In another embodiment, the probiotic compositions described herein may be used to prevent a dysbiosis in a subject at risk for developing a dysbiosis.

In some embodiments, the purified population of immunomodulatory microbes described above is coadministered or coformulated with one or more prebiotics, e.g., carbohydrates.

In some embodiments, the purified population of immunomodulatory microbes described above is administered before one or more prebiotics are administered to a subject. In some embodiments the purified population of immunomodulatory microbes is administered after one or more prebiotics have been administered to a subject. In some embodiments, the purified population of immunomodulatory microbes is administered concurrently with one or more prebiotics. In other embodiments, the purified population of immunomodulatory microbes is administered sequentially with one or more prebiotics. In some embodiments, the purified population of immunomodulatory microbes is administered in a composition formulated to contain one or more pharmaceutical excipients, and optionally one or more prebiotics.

Microbes involved in modulation of the host immune system i) may be human commensals; ii) may be part of an organ's healthy-state microbiome; ii) may be part of a distal organ's healthy-state microbiome; iv) may be exogenous microbes; v) may be innocuous; vi) may be pathobionts; vii) may be pathogens; viii) may be opportunistic pathogens; or ix) any combination thereof. In some aspects, microbes are not required to be actively proliferating (e.g., spores, dormant cells, cells with reduced metabolic rate, or heat-killed cells) to have an immunomodulatory effect. In certain aspects, microbial cell components, rather than whole microbial cells, may have immunomodulatory effects. Non-limiting examples of microbial components are lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules.

Microbial compositions are provided herein, optionally comprising prebiotics, non-microbial immunomodulatory carbohydrates, or microbial immunomodulatory cell components, that are effective for the prevention or treatment of an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and/or a dysbiosis which contributes to GVHD.

In certain embodiments, the compositions comprise at least one type of microbe and at least one type of carbohydrate (a prebiotic), and optionally further comprise microbial immunomodulatory cell components or substrates for the production of immunomodulatory metabolites, that are effective for the prevention or treatment of an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Methods for the prevention and/or treatment of GVHD in human subjects are also disclosed herein.

In some embodiments, the bacterial, e.g., probiotic, compositions of the invention comprise purified spore populations. As described herein, purified spore populations contain commensal bacteria of the human gut microbiota with the capacity to meaningfully provide one or more functions of a healthy microbiota when administered to a mammalian subject. Without being limited to a specific mechanism, it is thought that such compositions inhibit the growth of pathogens such as C. difficile, Salmonella spp., enteropathogenic E. coli, Fusobacterium spp., Klebsiella spp. and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., so that a healthy, diverse and protective microbiota can be maintained or, in the case of pathogenic bacterial infections, repopulate the intestinal lumen to reestablish ecological control over potential pathogens. In some embodiments, yeast spores and other fungal spores are also purified and selected for therapeutic use.

In one embodiment, the purified spore populations can engraft in the host and remain present for 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 10 days, 14 days, 21 days, 25 days, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, or longer than 90 days. Additionally, the purified spore populations can induce other healthy commensal bacteria found in a healthy gut to engraft in the host that are not present in the purified spore populations or present at lesser levels. Therefore, these species are considered to “augment” the delivered spore populations. In this manner, commensal species augmentation of the purified spore population in the recipient's gut leads to a more diverse population of gut microbiota than present initially.

In some embodiments, a probiotic composition of the invention contains a single species of bacteria. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains two or more species of bacteria, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 500, 1000 or more species of bacteria. In one embodiment, the probiotic composition contains no more than 20 species of bacteria, e.g., 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 species of bacteria. In exemplary embodiments, the probiotic composition contains 8 bacterial species. In other exemplary embodiments, the probiotic composition contains 9 bacterial species. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains or is administered in conjunction with a prebiotic, as described herein.

Preferred bacterial genera include Acetanaerobacterium, Acetivibrio, Alicyclobacillus, Alkaliphilus, Anaerofustis, Anaerosporobacter, Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Blautia, Brachyspira, Brevibacillus, Bryantella, Bulleidia, Butyricicoccus, Butyrivibrio, Catenibacterium, Chlamydiales, Clostridiaceae, Clostridiales, Clostridium, Collinsella, Coprobacillus, Coprococcus, Coxiella, Deferribacteres, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfotomaculum, Dorea, Eggerthella, Erysipelothrix, Erysipelotrichaceae, Ethanoligenens, Eubacterium, Faecalibacterium, Filifactor, Flavonifractor, Flexistipes, Fulvimonas, Fusobacterium, Gemmiger, Geobacillus, Gloeobacter, Holdemania, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, Kocuria, Lachnobacterium, Lachnospira, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillus, Lactonifactor, Leptospira, Lutispora, Lysinibacillus, Mollicutes, Moorella, Nocardia, Oscillibacter, Oscillospira, Paenibacillus, Papillibacter, Pseudoflavonifractor, Robinsoniella, Roseburia, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcus, Saccharomonospora, Sarcina, Solobacterium, Sporobacter, Sporolactobacillus, Streptomyces, Subdoligranulum, Sutterella, Syntrophococcus, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermobifida, and Turicibacter.

Preferred bacterial genera also include Acetonema, Alkaliphilus, Amphibacillus, Ammonifex, Anaerobacter, Caldicellulosiruptor, Caloramator, Candidatus, Carboxydibrachium, Carboxydothermus, Cohnella, Dendrosporobacter Desulfitobacterium, Desulfosporosinus, Halobacteroides, Heliobacterium, Heliophilum, Heliorestis, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Lysinibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Orenia (S.), Oxalophagus, Oxobacter, Pelospora, Pelotomaculum, Propionispora, Sporohalobacter, Sporomusa, Sporosarcina, Sporotomaculum, Symbiobacterium, Syntrophobotulus, Syntrophospora, Terribacillus, Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermosinus.

In another embodiment, a probiotic composition of the invention consists essentially of Blautia.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition of the invention does not comprise Blautia alone.

As provided herein, therapeutic compositions comprise, or in the alternative, modulate, the colonization and/or engraftment, of the following exemplary bacterial entities: Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus villorum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Staphylococcus cohnii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus sinensis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sp. SCA22, Streptococcus sp. CR-3145, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus mutans, Coprobacillus cateniformis, Clostridium saccharogumia, Eubacterium dolichum DSM 3991, Clostridium sp. PPf35E6, Clostridium sordelli ATCC 9714, Ruminococcus torques, Ruminococcus gnavus, Clostridium clostridioforme, Ruminococcus obeum, Blautia producta, Clostridium sp. ID5, Megasphaera micronuciformis, Veillonella parvula, Clostridium methylpentosum, Clostridium islandicum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides uniformmis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides fragilis, Parabacteroides distasonis, Propinionibacteirum propionicum, Actinomycs hyovaginalis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Rothia aeria, Bifidobacterium breve, Scardovia inopinata and Eggerthella lenta.

Preferred bacterial species are provided in Table 1, Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, Table 1F, and Table 5. Optionally, in some embodiments, preferred bacterial species are spore formers. Where specific strains of a species are provided, one of skill in the art will recognize that other strains of the species can be substituted for the named strain.

In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Veillonella dispar.

In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Veillonella dispar.

In some embodiments, the therapeutic composition comprises engineered microbes. For example, engineered microbes include microbes harboring i) one or more genetic changes, such change being an insertion, deletion, translocation, or substitution, or any combination thereof, of one or more nucleotides contained on the bacterial chromosome or on an endogenous plasmid, wherein the genetic change may result in the alteration, disruption, removal, or addition of one or more protein coding genes, non-protein-coding genes, gene regulatory regions, or any combination thereof, and wherein such change may be a fusion of two or more separate genomic regions or may be synthetically derived; ii) one or more foreign plasmids containing a mutant copy of an endogenous gene, such mutation being an insertion, deletion, or substitution, or any combination thereof, of one or more nucleotides; and iii) one or more foreign plasmids containing a mutant or non-mutant exogenous gene or a fusion of two or more endogenous, exogenous, or mixed genes. The engineered microbe(s) may be produced using techniques including but not limited to site-directed mutagenesis, transposon mutagenesis, knock-outs, knock-ins, polymerase chain reaction mutagenesis, chemical mutagenesis, ultraviolet light mutagenesis, transformation (chemically or by electroporation), phage transduction, or any combination thereof. Suitable microbes for engineering are known in the art. For example, as described in PCT Publications Nos. WO/93/18163, DELIVERY AND EXPRESSION OF A HYBRID SURFACE PROTEIN ON THE SURFACE OF GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA; WO/03/06593, METHODS FOR TREATING CANCER BY ADMINISTERING TUMOR-TARGETTED BACTERIA AND AN IMMUNOMODULATORY AGENT; and WO/2010/141143, ENGINEERED AVIRULENT BACTERIA STRAINS AND USE IN MEDICAL TREATMENTS.

In some embodiments, the engineered microbes are natural human commensals. In other embodiments, the engineered microbes are attenuated strains of pathogens, and may include, but are not limited to, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella species, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycoplasma hominis, Escherichia coli, Shigella species, and Streptococcus species, see, e.g. PCT Publications No. WO/03/06593, METHODS FOR TREATING CANCER BY ADMINISTERING TUMOR-TARGETTED BACTERIA AND AN IMMUNOMODULATORY AGENT. Attenuated strains of pathogens will lack all or parts of virulence operons, may lack immune-stimulatory surface moieties (e.g. lipopolysaccharide for Gram-negative bacteria), and may contain one or more nutrient auxotrophies. In specific embodiments, the engineered microbes are attenuated intracellular pathogens, such as avirulent strains of Listeria monocytogenes.

In some embodiments, the composition of the invention comprises one or more types of microbe capable of producing butyrate in a mammalian subject. Butyrate-producing microbes may be identified experimentally, such as by NMR or gas chromatography analyses of microbial products or colorimetric assays (Rose I A. 1955. Methods Enzymol. Acetate kinase of bacteria. 1: 591-5). Butyrate-producing microbes may also be identified computationally, such as by the identification of one or more enzymes involved in butyrate synthesis. Non-limiting examples of enzymes found in butyrate-producing microbes include butyrate kinase, phosphotransbutyrylase, and butyryl CoA:acetate CoA transferase (Louis P., et al. 2004. Restricted Distribution of the Butyrate Kinase Pathway among Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Colon. J Bact. 186(7): 2099-2106). Butyrate-producing strains include, but are not limited to, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Eubacterium spp., Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Roseburia intestinalis, Clostridium spp., Anaerostipes caccae, and Ruminococcus spp. In some embodiments, the composition comprises two or more types of microbe, wherein at least two types of microbe are capable of producing butyrate in a mammalian subject. In other embodiments, the composition comprises two or more types of microbe, wherein two or more types of microbe cooperate (i.e., cross-feed) to produce an immunomodulatory SCFA (e.g., butyrate) in a mammalian subject. In a preferred embodiment, the composition comprises at least one type of microbe (e.g., Bifidobacterium spp.) capable of metabolizing a prebiotic, including but not limited to, inulin, inulin-type fructans, or oligofructose, such that the resulting metabolic product may be converted by a second type of microbe (e.g., a butyrate-producing microbe such as Roseburia spp.) to an immunomodulatory SCFA such as butyrate (Falony G., et al. 2006. Cross-Feeding between Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Acetate-Converting, Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria during Grown on Oligofructose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72(12): 7835-7841.) In other aspects, the composition comprises at least one acetate-producing microbe (e.g., Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) and at least one acetate-consuming, butyrate-producing microbe (e.g., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii).

In some embodiments, the composition comprises one or more types of microbe capable of producing propionate in a mammalian subject, optionally further comprising a prebiotic or substrate appropriate for proprionate biosynthesis. Examples of prebiotics or substrates used for the production of propionate include, but are not limited to, L-rhamnose, D-tagalose, resistant starch, inulin, polydextrose, arabinoxylans, arabinoxylan oligosaccharides, mannooligosaccharides, and laminarans (Hosseini E., et al. 2011. Propionate as a health-promoting microbial metabolite in the human gut. Nutrition Reviews. 69(5): 245-258). Propionate-producing microbes may be identified experimentally, such as by NMR or gas chromatography analyses of microbial products or colorimetric assays (Rose I A. 1955. Methods Enzymol. Acetate kinase of bacteria. 1: 591-5). Propionate-producing microbes may also be identified computationally, such as by the identification of one or more enzymes involved in propionate synthesis. Non-limiting examples of enzymes found in propionate-producing microbes include enzymes of the succinate pathway, including but not limited to phophoenylpyrvate carboxykinase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, succinate dehydrogenase, succinyl CoA synthetase, methylmalonyl Coa decarboxylase, and propionate CoA transferase, as well as enzymes of the acrylate pathway, including but not limited to L-lactate dehydrogenase, propionate CoA transferase, lactoyl CoA dehydratase, acyl CoA dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and propionate kinase. Non-limiting examples of microbes that utilize the succinate pathway are Bacteroides fragilis and other species (including B. vulgatus), Propionibacterium spp. (including freudenrichii and acidipropionici), Veillonella spp. (including gazogenes), Micrococcus lactilyticus, Selenomonas ruminantium, Escherichia coli, and Prevotella ruminocola. Non-limiting examples of microbes that utilize the acrylate pathway are Clostridium neopropionicum X4, and Megasphaera elsdenii.

In preferred embodiments, the combination of a microbe or microbial composition and a prebiotic is selected based on the fermentation or metabolic preferences of one or more microbes capable of producing immunomodulatory SCFAs (e.g., preference for complex versus simple sugar or preference for a fermentation product versus a prebiotic). For example, M. eldsenii prefers lactate fermentation to glucose fermentation, and maximization of propionate production by M. eldsenii in a mammalian subject may therefore be achieved by administering along with M. eldsenii a favored substrate (e.g., lactate) or one or more microbes capable of fermenting glucose into lactate (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) (Hosseini E., et al. 2011. Propionate as a health-promoting microbial metabolite in the human gut. Nutrition Reviews. 69(5): 245-258). Thus, in some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one type of SCFA-producing microbe and a sugar fermentation product (e.g., lactate). In other embodiments, the composition comprises at least one type of SCFA-producing microbe and at least one type of sugar-fermenting microbe, wherein the fermentation product of the second, sugar-fermenting microbe is the preferred substrate of the SCFA-producing microbe.

Immunomodulation can also be achieved by the microbial production of glutathione or gamma-glutamylcysteine. Thus, in certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe capable of producing glutathione and/or gamma-glutamylcysteine in a mammalian subject. In some aspects, the composition comprises one or more microbes selected for the presence of glutamate cysteine ligase (e.g., Lactobacillus fermentum) and/or L-proline biosynthesis enzymes (e.g., E. coli) (Peran et al., 2006. Lactobacillus fermenum, a probiotic capable to release glutathione, prevents colonic inflammation in the TNBS model of rat colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 21(8): 737-746; Veeravalli et al., 2011. Laboratory evolution of glutathione biosynthesis reveals naturally compensatory pathways. Nat Chem Bio. 7(2): 101-105). In a preferred embodiment, at least one microbe in the composition is L. fermentum.

para-cresol (p-cresol) is a microbial product, via the fermentation of tyrosine or phenylalanine. Sulfated in the liver or colon to p-cresyl sulfate, this molecule reduces Th1-mediated responses (Shiba T. et al. 2014. Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro. Tox and Applied Pharm. 274(2): 191-199). In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one type of microbe capable of fermenting tyrosine and/or phenylalanine to p-cresol in a mammalian subject. Non-limiting examples of such microbes include Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacillus sp. Strain #11198-11201 (Yokoyama M T and Carlson J R. 1981. Production of Skatole and para-Cresol by a Rumen Lactobacillus sp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 41(1): 71-76.), and other microbes with p-hydroxylphenyl acetate decarboxylase activity.

IV. Methods of Making/Isolating Probiotic Compositions

In one embodiment, provided herein are therapeutic compositions containing a purified population of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities. The purified population can contain a single species, or multiple species. As used herein, the terms “purify”, “purified” and “purifying” refer to the state of a population (e.g., a plurality of known or unknown amount and/or concentration) of desired bacterial entities and/or fungal entities, that have undergone one or more processes of purification, e.g., a selection or an enrichment of the desired bacterial, or alternatively a removal or reduction of residual habitat products as described herein. In some embodiments, a purified population has no detectable undesired activity or, alternatively, the level or amount of the undesired activity is at or below an acceptable level or amount. In other embodiments, a purified population has an amount and/or concentration of desired bacterial entities and/or fungal entities at or above an acceptable amount and/or concentration. In other embodiments, the ratio of desired-to-undesired activity (e.g., spores compared to vegetative bacteria), has changed by 2-, 5-, 10-, 30-, 100-, 300-, 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107, 1×108, or greater than 1×108. In other embodiments, the purified population of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities is enriched as compared to the starting material (e.g., a fecal material) from which the population is obtained. This enrichment may be by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999%, 99.9999%, 99.9999%, or greater than 99.999999% as compared to the starting material.

In certain embodiments, the purified populations of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities have reduced or undetectable levels of one or more pathogenic activities, such as toxicity, an ability to cause infection of the mammalian recipient subject, an undesired immunomodulatory activity, an autoimmune response, a metabolic response, or an inflammatory response or a neurological response. Such a reduction in a pathogenic activity may be by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999%, 99.9999%, or greater than 99.9999% as compared to the starting material. In other embodiments, the purified populations of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities have reduced sensory components as compared to fecal material, such as reduced odor, taste, appearance, and umami.

In another embodiment, the invention provides purified populations of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities that are substantially free of residual habitat products. In certain embodiments, this means that the bacterial composition no longer contains a substantial amount of the biological matter associated with the microbial community while living on or in the human or animal subject, and the purified population of spores may be 100% free, 99% free, 98% free, 97% free, 96% free, 95% free, 94% free, 93% free, 92% free, 91% free, 90% free, 85% free, 80% free, 75% free, 70% free, 60% free, or 50% free of any contamination of the biological matter associated with the microbial community. Substantially free of residual habitat products may also mean that the bacterial composition contains no detectable cells from a human or animal, and that only microbial cells are detectable, in particular, only desired microbial cells are detectable. In another embodiment, it means that fewer than 1×10−2%, 1×10−3%, 1×10−4%, 1×10−5%, 1×10−6%, 1×10−7%, 1×10−8% of the cells in the bacterial composition are human or animal, as compared to microbial cells. In another embodiment, the residual habitat product present in the purified population is reduced at least a certain level from the fecal material obtained from the mammalian donor subject, e.g., reduced by at least about 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999%, 99.9999%, or greater than 99.9999%.

In one embodiment, substantially free of residual habitat products or substantially free of a detectable level of a pathogenic material means that the bacterial composition contains no detectable viral (including bacterial viruses (i.e., phage)), fungal, or mycoplasmal or toxoplasmal contaminants, or a eukaryotic parasite such as a helminth. Alternatively, the purified spore populations are substantially free of an acellular material, e.g., DNA, viral coat material, or non-viable bacterial material. Alternatively, the purified spore population may processed by a method that kills, inactivates, or removes one or more specific undesirable viruses, such as an enteric virus, including norovirus, poliovirus or hepatitis A virus.

As described herein, purified spore populations can be demonstrated by, for example, genetic analysis (e.g., PCR, DNA sequencing), serology and antigen analysis, microscopic analysis, microbial analysis including germination and culturing, or methods using instrumentation such as flow cytometry with reagents that distinguish desired bacterial entities and/or fungal entities from non-desired, contaminating materials.

In one embodiment, the spore preparation comprises spore-forming species wherein residual non-spore forming species have been inactivated by chemical or physical treatments including ethanol, detergent, heat, sonication, and the like; or wherein the non-spore forming species have been removed from the spore preparation by various separations steps including density gradients, centrifugation, filtration and/or chromatography; or wherein inactivation and separation methods are combined to make the spore preparation. In yet another embodiment, the spore preparation comprises spore-forming species that are enriched over viable non-spore formers or vegetative forms of spore formers. In this embodiment, spores are enriched by 2-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 50-fold, 100-fold, 1000-fold, 10,000-fold or greater than 10,000-fold compared to all vegetative forms of bacteria. In yet another embodiment, the spores in the spore preparation undergo partial germination during processing and formulation such that the final composition comprises spores and vegetative bacteria derived from spore forming species.

In another embodiment, provided herein are methods for production of a composition, e.g., a probiotic composition, comprising a bacterial population, e.g., an anti-inflammatory bacterial population, or a fungal population, with or without one or more prebiotic, suitable for therapeutic administration to a mammalian subject in need thereof. In one embodiment, the composition can be produced by generally following the steps of: (a) providing a fecal material obtained from a mammalian donor subject; and (b) subjecting the fecal material to at least one purification treatment or step under conditions such that a population of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities is produced from the fecal material.

Individual bacterial strains can also be isolated from stool samples using culture methods. For example, 5 mls of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) is added to 1 mg of frozen stool sample and homogenized by vortexing in an anaerobic chamber for isolation of anaerobic bacteria. The suspension is then serially diluted ten-fold (e.g. 10−1 to 10−9 dilutions) and 100 □l aliquots of each dilution are spread evenly over the surface of agar plates containing different formulations e.g. anaerobic blood agar plates, Bacteroides bile esculin plates, laked kanamycin vancomycin plates, egg yolk agar plates and de Man Rogosa and Sharpe agar plates. Inverted plates are incubated in an anaerobic chamber for 48 hr+/−4 hours. Colonies with different morphologies are picked and replated on anaerobic blood agar plates for further testing, PCR analysis and 16 S sequencing. Selected bacterial strains can be grown for therapeutic use singly or in combination.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition of the invention is not a fecal transplant. In some embodiments all or essentially all of the bacterial entities present in a purified population are originally obtained from a fecal material and subsequently, e.g., for production of pharmaceutical compositions, are grown in culture as described herein or otherwise known in the art. In one embodiment, the bacterial cells are cultured from a bacterial stock and purified as described herein. In one embodiment, each of the populations of bacterial cells are independently cultured and purified, e.g., each population is cultured separately and subsequently mixed together. In one embodiment, one or more of the populations of bacterial cells in the composition are co-cultured.

Donor Materials and Screening

Typically, bacteria and fungi are derived from biological samples, which may include one or more micriobiotal populations. Exemplary biological samples include fecal materials such as feces or materials isolated from the various segments of the small and large intestine. Fecal materials are obtained from a mammalian donor subject, or can be obtained from more than one donor subject, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 75, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 750, 1000 or from greater than 1000 donors, where such materials are then pooled prior to purification of the desired bacterial entities and/or fungal entities. In another embodiment, fecal materials can be obtained from a single donor subject over multiple times and pooled from multiple samples, e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 32, 35, 40, 45, 48, 50, 100 samples from a single donor.

In alternative embodiments, the desired bacterial entities and/or fungal entities are purified from a single fecal material sample obtained from a single donor, and after such purification are combined with purified spore populations from other purifications, either from the same donor at a different time, or from one or more different donors, or both.

In some embodiments, all or essentially all of the bacterial entities and/or fungal entities present in a purified population are obtained from a fecal material treated as described herein or otherwise known in the art. In some embodiments all or essentially all of the bacterial entities and/or fungal entities present in a purified population are obtained from a fecal material and subsequently are grown in culture as described herein or otherwise known in the art. In alternative embodiments, one or more than one bacterial entities and/or fungal entities or types of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities are generated in culture and combined to form a purified spore population. In other alternative embodiments, one or more of these culture-generated spore populations are combined with a fecal material-derived spore population to generate a hybrid spore population.

Preferably the biological sample includes a fecal material, such as obtained from a healthy mammalian donor subject or a plurality of mammalian donor subjects. In some embodiments, the biological material is not a fecal sample. Other appropriate biological samples include, but are not limited to, vaginal or cervical swabs, skin swabs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).

In some embodiments, mammalian donor subjects are generally of good health and have microbiota consistent with such good health. In one embodiment, the donor subjects have not been administered antibiotic compounds within a certain period prior to the collection of the fecal material. In certain embodiments, the donor subjects are not obese or overweight, and may have body mass index (BMI) scores of below 25, such as between 18.5 and 24.9. In other embodiments, the donor subjects are not mentally ill or have no history or familial history of mental illness, such as anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, panic disorders, attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorders, eating disorders or mood disorders. In other embodiments, the donor subjects do not have Irritable Bowel Disease (e.g., crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, colorectal cancer or a family history of these diseases. In other embodiments, donors have been screened for blood borne pathogens and fecal transmissible pathogens using standard techniques known to one in the art (e.g., nucleic acid testing, serological testing, antigen testing, culturing techniques, enzymatic assays, assays of cell free fecal filtrates looking for toxins on susceptible cell culture substrates).

In some embodiments, donors are also selected for the presence of certain genera and/or species that provide increased efficacy of therapeutic compositions containing these genera or species. In other embodiments, donors are preferred that produce relatively higher concentrations of spores in fecal material than other donors. In further embodiments, donors are preferred that provide fecal material from which spores having increased efficacy are purified; this increased efficacy is measured using in vitro or in animal studies as described below. In some embodiments, the donor may be subjected to one or more pre-donation treatments in order to reduce undesired material in the fecal material, and/or increase desired spore populations.

In one embodiment, it is advantageous to screen the health of the donor subject prior to and optionally, one or more times after, the collection of the fecal material. Such screening identifies donors carrying pathogenic materials such as viruses (HIV, hepatitis, polio) and pathogenic bacteria. Post-collection, donors are screened about one week, two weeks, three weeks, one month, two months, three months, six months, one year or more than one year, and the frequency of such screening may be daily, weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, bi-monthly, semi-yearly or yearly. Donors that are screened and do not test positive, either before or after donation or both, are considered “validated” donors.

Methods for Purifying Spores

In one embodiment, treatment of fecal sample includes heating the material, e.g., above 25 degrees Celsius for at least 30 seconds, and/or contacting the material with a solvent, and/or and or contacting a chemical or providing a physical manipulation of the material. Culture of fecal material includes replicating the purified population in a liquid suspension and/or a solid medium. Optionally, one removes at least a portion of an acellular component of the fecal material, thereby separating immunomodulatory bacteria from acellular material. The treatment step may also include depleting or inactivating a pathogenic material.

Solvent Treatments.

The bacteria and/or fungi may contain a purified population obtained from a miscible solvent treatment of the fecal material or a fraction or derivative thereof. In one embodiment, to purify the bacterial entities and/or fungal entities, the fecal material can be subjected to one or more solvent treatments. A solvent treatment is a miscible solvent treatment (either partially miscible or fully miscible) or an immiscible solvent treatment. Miscibility is the ability of two liquids to mix with each to form a homogeneous solution. Water and ethanol, for example, are fully miscible such that a mixture containing water and ethanol in any ratio will show only one phase. Miscibility is provided as a wt/wt %, or weight of one solvent in 100 g of final solution. If two solvents are fully miscible in all proportions, their miscibility is 100%. Provided as fully miscible solutions with water are alcohols, e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol, propanediol, butanediol, etc. The alcohols can be provided already combined with water; e.g., a solution containing 10%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 89%, 85%, 90%, 95% or greater than 95% water. Other solvents are only partially miscible, meaning that only some portion will dissolve in water. Diethyl ether, for example, is partially miscible with water. Up to 7 grams of diethyl ether will dissolve in 93 grams of water to give a 7% (wt/wt %) solution. If more diethyl ether is added, a two-phase solution will result with a distinct diethyl ether layer above the water. Other partially miscible materials include ethers, propanoate, butanoate, chloroform, dimethoxyethane, or tetrahydrofuran. In contrast, an oil such as an alkane and water are immiscible and form two phases. Further, immiscible treatments are optionally combined with a detergent, either an ionic detergent or a non-ionic detergent. Exemplary detergents include Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 80, Nonidet P40, a pluronic, or a polyol.

In one embodiment, the solvent treatment steps reduces the viability of non-spore forming bacterial species by 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999%, or 99.9999%, and it may optionally reduce the viability of contaminating protists, parasites and/or viruses.

Chromatography Treatments.

To purify spore populations, the fecal materials may be subjected to one or more chromatographic treatments, either sequentially or in parallel. In a chromatographic treatment, a solution containing the fecal material is contacted with a solid medium containing a hydrophobic interaction chromatographic (HIC) medium or an affinity chromatographic medium. In an alternative embodiment, a solid medium capable of absorbing a residual habitat product present in the fecal material is contacted with a solid medium that adsorbs a residual habitat product. In certain embodiments, the HIC medium contains sepharose or a derivatized sepharose such as butyl sepharose, octyl sepharose, phenyl sepharose, or butyl-s sepharose. In other embodiments, the affinity chromatographic medium contains material derivatized with mucin type I, II, III, IV, V, or VI, or oligosaccharides derived from or similar to those of mucins type I, II, III, IV, V, or VI. Alternatively, the affinity chromatographic medium contains material derivatized with antibodies that recognize immunomodulatory bacteria.

Mechanical Treatments.

In one embodiment, the fecal material can be physically disrupted, particularly by one or more mechanical treatment such as blending, mixing, shaking, vortexing, impact pulverization, and sonication. As provided herein, the mechanical disrupting treatment substantially disrupts a non-spore material present in the fecal material and does not substantially disrupt a spore present in the fecal material, or it may disrupt the spore material less than the non-spore material, e.g., 2-fold less, 5-, 10-, 30-, 100-, 300-, 1000- or greater than 1000-fold less. Furthermore, mechanical treatment homogenizes the material for subsequent sampling, testing, and processing. Mechanical treatments optionally include filtration treatments, where the desired spore populations are retained on a filter while the undesirable (non-spore) fecal components to pass through, and the spore fraction is then recovered from the filter medium. Alternatively, undesirable particulates and eukaryotic cells may be retained on a filter while bacterial cells including spores pass through. In some embodiments the spore fraction retained on the filter medium is subjected to a diafiltration step, wherein the retained spores are contacted with a wash liquid, typically a sterile saline-containing solution or other diluent such as a water compatible polymer including a low-molecular polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, in order to further reduce or remove the undesirable fecal components.

Thermal Treatments.

In another embodiment, thermal disruption of the fecal material may be utilized. Generally, in one embodiment, the fecal material is mixed in a saline-containing solution such as phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and subjected to a heated environment, such as a warm room, incubator, water-bath, or the like, such that efficient heat transfer occurs between the heated environment and the fecal material. Preferably the fecal material solution is mixed during the incubation to enhance thermal conductivity and disrupt particulate aggregates. Thermal treatments can be modulated by the temperature of the environment and/or the duration of the thermal treatment. For example, the fecal material or a liquid comprising the fecal material is subjected to a heated environment, e.g., a hot water bath of at least about 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100 or greater than 100 degrees Celsius, for at least about 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45 seconds, or 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, or 50 minutes, or 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more than 10 hours. In certain embodiments the thermal treatment occurs at two different temperatures, such as 30 seconds in a 100 degree Celsius environment followed by 10 minutes in a 50 degree Celsius environment. In preferred embodiments the temperature and duration of the thermal treatment are sufficient to kill or remove pathogenic materials while not substantially damaging or reducing the germination-competency of the spores. In other preferred embodiments, the temperature and duration of the thermal treatment is short enough to reduce the germination of the spore population.

Irradiation Treatments.

In another embodiment, methods of treating the fecal material or separated contents of the fecal material with ionizing radiation, typically gamma irradiation, ultraviolet irradiation or electron beam irradiation provided at an energy level sufficient to kill pathogenic materials while not substantially damaging the desired spore populations may be used. For example, ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm provided at an energy level below about 22,000 microwatt seconds per cm2 will not generally destroy desired spores.

Centrifugation and Density Separation Treatments.

In one embodiment, desired spore populations may be separated from the other components of the fecal material by centrifugation. For example, a solution containing the fecal material can be subjected to one or more centrifugation treatments, e.g., at about 200×g, 1000×g, 2000×g, 3000×g, 4000×g, 5000×g, 6000×g, 7000×g, 8000×g or greater than 8000×g. Differential centrifugation separates desired spores from undesired non-spore material; at low forces the spores are retained in solution, while at higher forces the spores are pelleted while smaller impurities (e.g., virus particles, phage, microscopic fibers, biological macromolecules such as free protein, nucleic acids and lipids) are retained in solution. For example, a first low force centrifugation pellets fibrous materials; a second, higher force centrifugation pellets undesired eukaryotic cells, and a third, still higher force centrifugation pellets the desired spores while smaller contaminants remain in suspension. In some embodiments density or mobility gradients or cushions (e.g., step cushions), such as CsCl, Percoll, Ficoll, Nycodenz, Histodenz or sucrose gradients, are used to separate desired spore populations from other materials in the fecal material.

Also provided herein are methods of producing spore populations that combine two or more of the treatments described herein in order to synergistically purify the desired spores while killing or removing undesired materials and/or activities from the spore population. It is generally desirable to retain the spore populations under non-germinating and non-growth promoting conditions and media, in order to minimize the growth of pathogenic bacteria present in the spore populations and to minimize the germination of spores into vegetative bacterial cells.

The bacteria and/or fungi may contain a spore population, e.g., spores and/or spore-formers, or a population containing vegetative cells.

Methods for Preparing a Bacterial Composition for Administration to a Subject.

In one embodiment, methods for producing bacterial compositions can include three main processing steps, combined with one or more mixing steps. For example, the steps can include organism banking, organism production, and preservation.

For banking, the strains included in the bacterial composition may be (1) isolated directly from a specimen or taken from a banked stock, (2) optionally cultured on a nutrient agar or broth that supports growth to generate viable biomass, and (3) the biomass optionally preserved in multiple aliquots in long-term storage.

In embodiments that use a culturing step, the agar or broth can contain nutrients that provide essential elements and specific factors that enable growth. An example includes a medium composed of 20 g/L glucose, 10 g/L yeast extract, 10 g/L soy peptone, 2 g/L citric acid, 1.5 g/L sodium phosphate monobasic, 100 mg/L ferric ammonium citrate, 80 mg/L magnesium sulfate, 10 mg/L hemin chloride, 2 mg/L calcium chloride, 1 mg/L menadione. A variety of microbiological media and variations are well known in the art (e.g. R. M. Atlas, Handbook of Microbiological Media (2010) CRC Press). Medium can be added to the culture at the start, may be added during the culture, or may be intermittently/continuously flowed through the culture. The strains in the bacterial composition may be cultivated alone, as a subset of the bacterial composition, or as an entire collection comprising the bacterial composition. As an example, a first strain may be cultivated together with a second strain in a mixed continuous culture, at a dilution rate lower than the maximum growth rate of either cell to prevent the culture from washing out of the cultivation.

The inoculated culture may be incubated under favorable conditions for a time sufficient to build biomass. For bacterial compositions for human use, this may be at 37° C., with pH, and other parameters having values similar to the normal human niche. The environment can be actively controlled, passively controlled (e.g., via buffers), or allowed to drift. For example, for anaerobic bacterial compositions (e.g., gut microbiota), an anoxic/reducing environment can be employed. This can be accomplished by addition of reducing agents such as cysteine to the broth, and/or stripping it of oxygen. As an example, a culture of a bacterial composition can be grown at 37° C., pH 7, in the medium above, pre-reduced with 1 g/L cysteine-HCl.

In one embodiment, when the culture has generated sufficient biomass, it can be preserved for banking. The organisms can be placed into a chemical milieu that protects from freezing (adding ‘cryoprotectants’), drying (‘lyoprotectants’), and/or osmotic shock (‘osmoprotectants’), dispensing into multiple (optionally identical) containers to create a uniform bank, and then treating the culture for preservation. In one embodiment, containers can be generally impermeable and have closures that assure isolation from the environment. Cryopreservation treatment can be accomplished by freezing a liquid at ultra-low temperatures (e.g., at or below −80° C.). Dried preservation removes water from the culture by evaporation (in the case of spray drying or ‘cool drying’) or by sublimation (e.g., for freeze drying, spray freeze drying). Removal of water improves long-term bacterial composition storage stability at temperatures elevated above cryogenic. If the bacterial composition comprises spore forming species and results in the production of spores, the final composition can be purified by additional means, such as density gradient centrifugation preserved using the techniques described above. Bacterial composition banking can be done by culturing and preserving the strains individually, or by mixing the strains together to create a combined bank. As an example of cryopreservation, a bacterial composition culture can be harvested by centrifugation to pellet the cells from the culture medium, the supernate decanted and replaced with fresh culture broth containing 15% glycerol. The culture can then be aliquoted into 1 mL cryotubes, sealed, and placed at −80° C. for long-term viability retention. This procedure achieves acceptable viability upon recovery from frozen storage.

Organism production can be conducted using similar culture steps to banking, including medium composition and culture conditions. In one embodiment, it can be conducted at larger scales of operation, especially for clinical development or commercial production. At larger scales, there can be several subcultivations of the bacterial composition prior to the final cultivation. At the end of cultivation, the culture can be harvested to enable further formulation into a dosage form for administration. This can involve concentration, removal of undesirable medium components, and/or introduction into a chemical milieu that preserves the bacterial composition and renders it acceptable for administration via the chosen route. For example, a bacterial composition can be cultivated to a concentration of 1010 CFU/mL, then concentrated 20-fold by tangential flow microfiltration; the spent medium can be exchanged by diafiltering with a preservative medium consisting of s2% gelatin, 100 mM trehalose, and 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer. The suspension can then be freeze-dried to a powder and titrated.

In one embodiment, after drying, the powder can be blended to an appropriate potency, and mixed with other cultures and/or a filler such as microcrystalline cellulose for consistency and ease of handling, and the bacterial composition formulated as provided herein.

Methods of Characterization of Compositions

In certain embodiments, methods are provided for testing certain characteristics of compositions comprising microbes or microbes and prebiotics. For example, the sensitivity of bacterial compositions to certain environmental variables is determined, e.g., in order to select for particular desirable characteristics in a given composition, formulation and/or use. For example, the bacterial constituents of the composition can be tested for pH resistance, bile acid resistance, and/or antibiotic sensitivity, either individually on a constituent-by-constituent basis or collectively as a bacterial composition comprised of multiple bacterial constituents (collectively referred to in this section as bacterial composition).

pH Sensitivity Testing.

If a microbial composition, with or without prebiotic, will be administered other than to the colon or rectum (i.e., for example, an oral route), optionally testing for pH resistance enhances the selection of microbes or therapeutic compositions that will survive at the highest yield possible through the varying pH environments of the distinct regions of the GI tract or vagina. Understanding how the bacterial compositions react to the pH of the GI tract or vagina also assists in formulation, so that the number of microbes in a dosage form can be increased if beneficial and/or so that the composition may be administered in an enteric-coated capsule or tablet or with a buffering or protective composition.

As the pH of the stomach can drop to a pH of 1 to 2 after a high-protein meal for a short time before physiological mechanisms adjust it to a pH of 3 to 4 and often resides at a resting pH of 4 to 5, and as the pH of the small intestine can range from a pH of 6 to 7.4, bacterial compositions can be prepared that survive these varying pH ranges (specifically wherein at least 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or as much as 100% of the bacteria can survive gut transit times through various pH ranges). This can be tested by exposing the bacterial composition to varying pH ranges for the expected gut transit times through those pH ranges. Therefore, as a nonlimiting example only, 18-hour cultures of compositions comprising one or more bacterial species or strains can be grown in standard media, such as gut microbiota medium (“GMM”, see Goodman et al., Extensive personal human gut microbiota culture collections characterized and manipulated in gnotobiotic mice, PNAS 108(15):6252-6257 (2011)) or another animal-products-free medium, with the addition of pH adjusting agents for a pH of 1 to 2 for 30 minutes, a pH of 3 to 4 for 1 hour, a pH of 4 to 5 for 1 to 2 hours, and a pH of 6 to 7.4 for 2.5 to 3 hours. An alternative method for testing stability to acid is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,839,281. Survival of bacteria may be determined by culturing the bacteria and counting colonies on appropriate selective or non-selective media.

Bile Acid Sensitivity Testing.

Additionally, in some embodiments, testing for bile-acid resistance enhances the selection of microbes or therapeutic compositions that will survive exposures to bile acid during transit through the GI tract or vagina. Bile acids are secreted into the small intestine and can, like pH, affect the survival of bacterial compositions. This can be tested by exposing the compositions to bile acids for the expected gut exposure time to bile acids. For example, bile acid solutions can be prepared at desired concentrations using 0.05 mM Tris at pH 9 as the solvent. After the bile acid is dissolved, the pH of the solution may be adjusted to 7.2 with 10% HCl. Bacterial components of the therapeutic compositions can be cultured in 2.2 ml of a bile acid composition mimicking the concentration and type of bile acids in the patient, 1.0 ml of 10% sterile-filtered feces media and 0.1 ml of an 18-hour culture of the given strain of bacteria. Incubations may be conducted for from 2.5 to 3 hours or longer. An alternative method for testing stability to bile acid is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,839,281. Survival of bacteria may be determined by culturing the bacteria and counting colonies on appropriate selective or non-selective media.

Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing.

As a further optional sensitivity test, the bacterial components of the microbial compositions, with or without prebiotics, can be tested for sensitivity to antibiotics. In one embodiment, the bacterial components can be chosen so that they are sensitive to antibiotics such that if necessary they can be eliminated or substantially reduced from the patient's gastrointestinal tract or vagina by at least one antibiotic targeting the bacterial composition.

Adherence to Gastrointestinal Cells.

The compositions may optionally be tested for the ability to adhere to gastrointestinal cells. A method for testing adherence to gastrointestinal cells is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,839,281.

Identification of Immunomodulatory Bacteria.

In some embodiments, immunomodulatory bacteria are identified by the presence of nucleic acid sequences that modulate sporulation. In particular, signature sporulation genes are highly conserved across members of distantly related genera including Clostridium and Bacillus. Traditional approaches of forward genetics have identified many, if not all, genes that are essential for sporulation (spo). The developmental program of sporulation is governed in part by the successive action of four compartment-specific sigma factors (appearing in the order σF, σE, σG and σK), whose activities are confined to the forespore (σF and σG) or the mother cell (σE and σK). In other embodiments, immunomodulatory bacteria are identified by the biochemical activity of DPA producing enzymes or by analyzing DPA content of cultures. As part of the bacterial sporulation, large amounts of DPA are produced, and comprise 5-15% of the mass of a spore. Because not all viable spores germinate and grow under known media conditions, it is difficult to assess a total spore count in a population of bacteria. As such, a measurement of DPA content highly correlates with spore content and is an appropriate measure for characterizing total spore content in a bacterial population.

In other embodiments, immunomodulatory bacteria are identified by screening bacteria to determine whether the bacteria induce secretion of pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines by host cells. For example, human or mammalian cells capable of cytokine secretion, such as immune cells (e.g., PBMCs, macrophages, T cells, etc.) can be exposed to candidate immunomodulatory bacteria, or supernatants obtained from cultures of candidate immunomodulatory bacteria, and changes in cytokine expression or secretion can be measured using standard techniques, such as ELISA, immunoblot, Luminex, antibody array, quantitative PCR, microarray, etc. Bacteria can be selected for inclusion in a probiotic composition based on the ability to induce a desired cytokine profile in human or mammalian cells. For example, anti-inflammatory bacteria can be selected for inclusion in a probiotic composition based on the ability to induce secretion of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines, and/or the ability to reduce secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-inflammatory cytokines include, for example, IL-10, IL-13, IL-9, IL-4, IL-5, and combinations thereof. Other inflammatory cytokines include, for example, TGFβ. Pro-inflammatory cytokines include, for example, IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, anti-inflammatory bacteria may be selected for inclusion in a probiotic composition based on the ability to modulate secretion of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines and/or the ability to reduce secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines by a host cell induced by a bacteria of a different type (e.g., a bacteria from a different species or from a different strain of the same species).

In other embodiments, immunomodulatory bacteria are identified by screening bacteria to determine whether the bacteria impact the differentiation and/or expansion of particular subpopulations of immune cells. For example, candidate bacteria can be screened for the ability to promote differentiation and/or expansion of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells and/or Th2 cells from precursor cells, e.g. naive T cells. By way of example, naïve T cells can be cultured in the presence of candidate bacteria or supernatants obtained from cultures of candidate bacteria, and numbers of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells and/or Th2 cells can be determined using standard techniques, such as FACS analysis. Markers indicative of Treg cells include, for example, CD25+CD127lo. Markers indicative of Th17 cells include, for example, CXCR3CCR6+. Markers indicative of Th1 cells include, for example, CXCR3+CCR6. Markers indicative of Th2 cells include, for example, CXCR3CCR6. Other markers indicative of particular T cells subpopulations are known in the art, and may be used in the assays described herein, e.g., to identify populations of immune cells impacted by candidate immunomodulatory bacteria. Bacteria can be selected for inclusion in a probiotic composition based on the ability to promote differentiation and/or expansion of a desired immune cell subpopulation.

In other embodiments, immunomodulatory bacteria are identified by screening bacteria to determine whether the bacteria secrete short chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as, for example, butyrate, acetate, propionate, or valerate, or combinations thereof. For example, secretion of short chain fatty acids into bacterial supernatants can be measured using standard techniques. In one embodiment, bacterial supernatants can be screened to measure the level of one or more short chain fatty acids using NMR, mass spectrometry (e.g., GC-MS, tandem mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, etc.), ELISA, or immunoblot. Expression of bacterial genes responsible for production of short chain fatty acids can also be determined by standard techniques, such as Northern blot, microarray, or quantitative PCR.

V. Mixtures of Bacteria and Microbial Networks

In one embodiment, provided herein are spore populations containing more than one type of bacterium. As used herein, a “type” or more than one “types” of bacteria may be differentiated at the genus level, the species level, the sub-species level, the strain level or by any other taxonomic method, as described herein and otherwise known in the art.

In one embodiment, the microbial, e.g., probiotic, population comprises a single microbial preparation or a combination of microbial preparations, wherein each microbial preparation can be purified from a fecal material obtained from a single mammalian donor subject, or from two or more donor subjects.

In some embodiments, all or essentially all of the bacterial entities and/or fungal entities present in an isolated population are obtained from a fecal material treated as described herein or otherwise known in the art. In alternative embodiments, one or more than one bacterial entities and/or fungal entities or types of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities are generated in culture and combined to form a purified spore population. In other alternative embodiments, one or more of these culture-generated spore populations are combined with one or more fecal material-derived spore population to generate a hybrid spore population.

In a preferred embodiment, a bacterial, e.g., probiotic, composition may contain one or at least two types of preferred bacteria, including strains of the same species or of different species. For instance, a bacterial composition may comprise 1, at least 2, at least 3, or at least 4 types of bacteria. In another embodiment, a bacterial composition may comprise at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 11, at least 12, at least 13, at least 14, at least 15, at least 16, at least 17, at least 18, at least 19, or at least 20 or more than 20 types of bacteria, as defined by species or operational taxonomic unit (OTU) encompassing such species. In a preferred embodiment, a bacterial composition comprises from 2 to no more than 40, from 2 to no more than 30, from 2 to no more than 20, from 2 to no more than 15, from 2 to no more than 10, from 2 to no more than 5, types of bacteria. In another preferred embodiment, a bacterial composition comprises a single type of bacteria.

In one embodiment, bacterial compositions may comprise two types of bacteria (termed “binary combinations” or “binary pairs”) or greater than two types of bacteria. Bacterial compositions that comprise three types of bacteria are termed “ternary combinations”.

Microbial compositions can comprise two types of microbes or a large number of microbe types. As used herein, a “type” or more than one “types” of microbes may be differentiated at the genus level, the species level, the sub-species level, the strain level or by any other taxonomic method, as described herein and otherwise known in the art. For instance, a microbial composition can comprise at least 2, at least 3, at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 11, at least 12, at least 13, at least 14, at least 15, at least 16, at least 17, at least 18, at least 19, at least 20, or at least 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, or at least 40, at least 50 or greater than 50 types of microbes, e.g. as defined by species or operational taxonomic unit (OTU), or otherwise as provided herein. In some embodiments, the microbial composition includes at least 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, or greater numbers of types of microbes.

Alternatively, the number of types of microbes present in a microbial composition is at or below a known value. For example, the microbial composition comprises 1000, 900, 800, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100, 50 or fewer types of microbes, such as 49, 48, 47, 46, 45, 44, 43, 42, 41, 40, 39, 38, 37, 36, 35, 34, 33, 32, 31, 30, 29, 28, 27, 26, 25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, or 10 or fewer, or 9 or fewer types of microbes, 8 or fewer types of microbes, 7 or fewer types of microbes, 6 or fewer types of microbes, 5 or fewer types of microbes, 4 or fewer types of microbes, or 3 or fewer types of microbes. In a preferred embodiment, a bacterial composition comprises from 2 to no more than 40, from 2 to no more than 30, from 2 to no more than 20, from 2 to no more than 15, from 2 to no more than 10, from 2 to no more than 5, types of microbes. In another preferred embodiment, a bacterial composition comprises a single type of microbe.

In a preferred embodiment, the composition comprises about 20 or fewer isolated populations of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises about 15 or fewer isolated populations of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises about 10 or fewer isolated populations of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises about 5 or fewer isolated populations of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises about 4 or fewer isolated populations of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises about 3 or fewer isolated populations of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises about 2 isolated populations of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises between about 12 and 20 isolated populations of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises a single isolated population of bacterial cells. In another embodiment, the composition comprises at least two isolated populations of bacterial cells. In yet another embodiment, the composition comprises about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 isolated populations of bacterial cells.

Aspects of the invention relate to microbial compositions that are reconstituted from purified strains. Provided are microbial compositions comprising at least one, at least two or at least three microbes that are not identical and that are capable of decreasing the risk and/or severity of an autoimmune or inflammatory disease, symptom, condition, or disorder, or dysbiosis. In an embodiment, the microbial composition comprises at least about 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 types of isolated microbes. In one embodiment, the microbial composition comprises at least about 4 types of isolated microbes or at least about 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 or more types of isolated microbes. In some embodiments, the above invention relates to microbial compositions further comprising one or more prebiotics.

Bacterial Compositions can be Described by Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs).

Bacterial compositions may be prepared comprising one or at least two types of isolated bacteria, wherein a first type and a second type are independently chosen from the species or OTUs listed in Table 1. Certain embodiments of bacterial compositions with at least two types of isolated bacteria containing binary pairs are reflected herein. Additionally, a bacterial composition may be prepared comprising at least two types of isolated bacteria, wherein a first OTU and a second OTU are independently characterized by, i.e., at least 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or including 100% sequence identity to, sequences listed.

Bacterial compositions may be prepared comprising one or at least two types of isolated bacteria, chosen from the species in Table 1, Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, Table 1F, or Table 5. Generally, the first bacteria and the second bacteria are not the same. The sequences provided in the sequencing listing file for OTUs in Table 1 are full 16S sequences. Therefore, in one embodiment, the first and/or second OTUs may be characterized by the full 16S sequences of OTUs listed in Table 1. In another embodiment, the first and/or second OTUs may be characterized by one or more of the variable regions of the 16S sequence (V1-V9). These regions in bacteria are defined by nucleotides 69-99, 137-242, 433-497, 576-682, 822-879, 986-1043, 1117-1173, 1243-1294 and 1435-1465 respectively using numbering based on the E. coli system of nomenclature. (See, e.g., Brosius et al., Complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from Escherichia coli, PNAS 75(10):4801-4805 (1978)). In some embodiments, at least one of the V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, and V9 regions are used to characterize an OTU. In one embodiment, the V1, V2, and V3 regions are used to characterize an OTU. In another embodiment, the V3, V4, and V5 regions are used to characterize an OTU. In another embodiment, the V4 region is used to characterize an OTU.

OTUs may be defined either by full 16S sequencing of the rRNA gene, by sequencing of a specific hypervariable region of this gene (i.e., V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, or V9), or by sequencing of any combination of hypervariable regions from this gene (e.g. V1-3 or V3-5). The bacterial 16S rDNA is approximately 1500 nucleotides in length and is used in reconstructing the evolutionary relationships and sequence similarity of one bacterial isolate to another using phylogenetic approaches. 16S sequences are used for phylogenetic reconstruction as they are in general highly conserved, but contain specific hypervariable regions that harbor sufficient nucleotide diversity to differentiate genera and species of most microbes.

Using well known techniques, in order to determine the full 16S sequence or the sequence of any hypervariable region of the 16S sequence, genomic DNA is extracted from a bacterial sample, the 16S rDNA (full region or specific hypervariable regions) amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR products cleaned, and nucleotide sequences delineated to determine the genetic composition of 16S gene or subdomain of the gene. If full 16S sequencing is performed, the sequencing method used may be, but is not limited to, Sanger sequencing. If one or more hypervariable regions are used, such as the V4 region, the sequencing may be, but is not limited to being, performed using the Sanger method or using a next-generation sequencing method, such as an Illumina (sequencing by synthesis) method using barcoded primers allowing for multiplex reactions.

OTUs can be defined by a combination of nucleotide markers or genes, in particular highly conserved genes (e.g., “house-keeping” genes), or a combination thereof, full-genome sequence, or partial genome sequence generated using amplified genetic products, or whole genome sequence (WGS). Using well defined methods DNA extracted from a bacterial sample will have specific genomic regions amplified using PCR and sequenced to determine the nucleotide sequence of the amplified products. In the whole genome shotgun (WGS) method, extracted DNA will be directly sequenced without amplification. Sequence data can be generated using any sequencing technology including, but not limited to Sanger, Illumina, 454 Life Sciences, Ion Torrent, ABI, Pacific Biosciences, and/or Oxford Nanopore.

VI. Prebiotic Compositions

A prebiotic allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota, that confers benefits upon host well-being and health. Prebiotics can include complex carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, or other nutritional components useful for the survival of the bacterial composition. Prebiotics include, but are not limited to, amino acids, biotin, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharides, inulin, lactulose, mannan oligosaccharides, oligofructose-enriched inulin, oligofructose, oligodextrose, tagatose, trans-galactooligosaccharide, and xylooligosaccharides.

Suitable prebiotics are usually plant-derived complex carbohydrates, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Generally, prebiotics are indigestible or poorly digested by humans and serve as a food source for bacteria. Prebiotics which can be used in the pharmaceutical dosage forms, pharmaceutical compositions, and kits provided herein include, without limitation, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), trans-galactooligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides or oligofructose (FOS), inulin, oligofructose-enriched inulin, lactulose, arabinoxylan, xylooligosaccharides (XOS), mannooligosaccharides, gum guar, gum Arabic, tagatose, amylose, amylopectin, xylan, pectin, and the like and combinations of thereof. Prebiotics can be found in certain foods, e.g. chicory root, Jerusalem artichoke, Dandelion greens, garlic, leek, onion, asparagus, wheat bran, wheat flour, banana, milk, yogurt, sorghum, burdock, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, kale, radish and rutabaga, and miso. Alternatively, prebiotics can be purified or chemically or enzymatically synthesized.

Prebiotics of the Invention

In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one prebiotic. In one embodiment, the prebiotic is a carbohydrate. In some embodiments, the composition of the present invention comprises a prebiotic mixture, which comprises at least one carbohydrate. A “carbohydrate” refers to a sugar or polymer of sugars. The terms “saccharide,” “polysaccharide,” “carbohydrate,” and “oligosaccharide” may be used interchangeably. Most carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups, usually one on each carbon atom of the molecule. Carbohydrates generally have the molecular formula (CH2O)n. A carbohydrate can be a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, trisaccharide, oligosaccharide, or polysaccharide. The most basic carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, such as glucose, sucrose, galactose, mannose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, and fructose. Disaccharides are two joined monosaccharides. Exemplary disaccharides include sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, and lactose. Typically, an oligosaccharide includes between three and six monosaccharide units (e.g., raffinose, stachyose), and polysaccharides include six or more monosaccharide units. Exemplary polysaccharides include starch, glycogen, and cellulose. Carbohydrates can contain modified saccharide units, such as 2′-deoxyribose wherein a hydroxyl group is removed, 2′-fluororibose wherein a hydroxyl group is replace with a fluorine, or N-acetylglucosamine, a nitrogen-containing form of glucose (e.g., 2′-fluororibose, deoxyribose, and hexose). Carbohydrates can exist in many different forms, for example, conformers, cyclic forms, acyclic forms, stereoisomers, tautomers, anomers, and isomers. Carbohydrates may be purified from natural (e.g., plant or microbial) sources (i.e., they are enzymatically synthesized), or they may be chemically synthesized or modified. Such prebiotics can optionally be used in conjunction with one or more probiotics in the compositions and methods of the invention. Exemplary prebiotics are provided in Table 7.

Suitable prebiotic carbohydrates can include one or more of a carbohydrate, carbohydrate monomer, carbohydrate oligomer, or carbohydrate polymer. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe and at least one type of non-digestible saccharide, which includes non-digestible monosaccharides, non-digestible oligosaccharides, or non-digestible polysaccharides. In one embodiment, the sugar units of an oligosaccharide or polysaccharide can be linked in a single straight chain or can be a chain with one or more side branches. The length of the oligosaccharide or polysaccharide can vary from source to source. In one embodiment, small amounts of glucose can also be contained in the chain. In another embodiment, the prebiotic composition can be partially hydrolyzed or contain individual sugar moieties that are components of the primary oligosaccharide (see U.S. Pat. No. 8,486,668, PREBIOTIC FORMULATIONS AND METHODS OF USE).

Prebiotic carbohydrates may include, but are not limited to monosaccharaides (e.g., trioses, tetroses, pentoses, aldopentoses, ketopentoses, hexoses, cyclic hemiacetals, ketohexoses, heptoses) and multimers thereof, as well as epimers, cyclic isomers, stereoisomers, and anomers thereof. Nonlimiting examples of monosaccharides include (in either the L- or D-conformation) glyceraldehyde, threose, ribose, altrose, glucose, mannose, talose, galactose, gulose, idose, lyxose, arabanose, xylose, allose, erythrose, erythrulose, tagalose, sorbose, ribulose, psicose, xylulose, fructose, dihydroxyacetone, and cyclic (alpha or beta) forms thereof. Multimers (disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides) thereof include but are not limited to sucrose, lactose, maltose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, kojibiose, nigerose, isomaltose, sophorose, laminaribiose, gentioboise, turanose, maltulose, palatinose, gentiobiulose, mannobiose, melibiulose, rutinose, rutinulose, xylobiose, primeverose, amylose, amylopectin, starch (including resistant starch), chitin, cellulose, agar, agarose, xylan, glycogen, bacterial polysaccharides such as capsular polysaccharides, LPS, and peptodglycan, and biofilm exopolysaccharide (e.g., alginate, EPS), N-linked glycans, and O-linked glycans. Prebiotic sugars may be modified and carbohydrate derivatives include amino sugars (e.g., sialic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, galactosamine), deoxy sugars (e.g., rhamnose, fucose, deoxyribose), sugar phosphates, glycosylamines, sugar alcohols, and acidic sugars (e.g., glucuronic acid, ascorbic acid).

In one embodiment, the prebiotic carbohydrate component of the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit consists essentially of one or more non-digestible saccharides. In one embodiment, non-digestible oligosaccharides the non-digestible oligosaccharides are galactooligosaccharides (GOS). In another embodiment, the non-digestible oligosaccharides are fructooligosaccharides (FOS).

In one embodiment, the prebiotic carbohydrate component of the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit allows the commensal colonic microbiota, comprising microorganisms associated with a healthy-state microbiome or presenting a low risk of a patient developing an autoimmune or inflammatory condition, to be regularly maintained. In one embodiment, the prebiotic carbohydrate allows the co-administered or co-formulated microbe or microbes to engraft, grow, and/or be regularly maintained in a mammalian subject. In some embodiments, the mammalian subject is a human subject. In preferred embodiments, the mammalian subject suffers from or is at risk of developing an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder.

In some embodiments, the prebiotic favors the growth of an administered microbe, wherein the growth of the administered microbe and/or the fermentation of the administered prebiotic by the administered microbe slows or reduces the growth of a pathogen or pathobiont. For example, FOS, neosugar, or inuliri promotes the growth of acid-forming bacteria in the colon such as bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidus can play a role in reducing the number of pathogenic bacteria in the colon (see U.S. Pat. No. 8,486,668, PREBIOTIC FORMULATIONS AND METHODS OF USE). Other polymers, such as various galactans, lactulose, and carbohydrate based gums, such as psyllium, guar, carrageen, gellan, and konjac, are also known to improve gastrointestinal (GI) health.

In some embodiments, the prebiotic composition of the invention comprises one or more of GOS, lactulose, raffinose, stachyose, lactosucrose, FOS (i.e., oligofructose or oligofructan), inulin, isomalto-oligosaccharide, xylo-oligosaccharide, paratinose oligosaccharide, transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (i.e., transgalacto-oligosaccharides), transgalactosylate disaccharides, soybean oligosaccharides (i.e., soyoligosaccharides), gentiooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, pecticoligosaccharides, palatinose polycondensates, difructose anhydride III, sorbitol, maltitol, lactitol, polyols, polydextrose, reduced paratinose, cellulose, β-glucose, β-galactose, β-fructose, verbascose, galactinol, and β-glucan, guar gum, pectin, high, sodium alginate, and lambda carrageenan, or mixtures thereof. The GOS may be a short-chain GOS, a long-chain GOS, or any combination thereof. The FOS may be a short-chain FOS, a long-chain FOS, or any combination thereof.

In some embodiments, the prebiotic composition comprises two carbohydrate species (nonlimiting examples being a GOS and FOS) in a mixture of at least 1:1, at least 2:1, at least 5:1, at least 9:1, at least 10:1, about 20:1, or at least 20:1.

In some embodiments, the prebiotic composition of the invention comprises a mixture of one or more non-digestible oligosaccharides, non-digestible polysaccharides, free monosaccharides, non-digestible saccharides, starch, or non-starch polysaccharides. In one embodiment, a prebiotic component of a prebiotic composition is a GOS composition. In one embodiment, a prebiotic composition is a pharmaceutical composition. In one embodiment, a pharmaceutical composition is a GOS composition.

Oligosaccharides are generally considered to have a reducing end and a non-reducing end, whether or not the saccharide at the reducing end is in fact a reducing sugar. Most oligosaccharides described herein are described with the name or abbreviation for the non-reducing saccharide (e.g., Gal or D-Gal), preceded or followed by the configuration of the glycosidic bond (α or β), the ring bond, the ring position of the reducing saccharide involved in the bond, and then the name or abbreviation of the reducing saccharide (e.g., Glc or D-Glc). The linkage (e.g., glycosidic linkage, galactosidic linkage, glucosidic linkage) between two sugar units can be expressed, for example, as 1,4, 1->4, or (1-4).

Both FOS and GOS are non-digestible saccharides. β glycosidic linkages of saccharides, such as those found in, but not limited to, FOS and GOS, make these prebiotics mainly non-digestible and unabsorbable in the stomach and small intestine α-linked GOS (α-GOS) is also not hydrolyzed by human salivary amylase, but can be used by Bifidobacterium bifidum and Clostridium butyricum (Yamashita A. et al., 2004. J. Appl. Glycosci. 51:115-122). FOS and GOS can pass through the small intestine and into the large intestine (colon) mostly intact, except where commensal microbes and microbes administered as part of a pharmaceutical composition are able to metabolize the oligosaccharides.

GOS (also known as galacto-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, trans-oligosaccharide (TOS), trans-galacto-oligosaccharide (TGOS), and trans-galactooligosaccharide) are oligomers or polymers of galactose molecules ending mainly with a glucose or sometimes ending with a galactose molecule and have varying degree of polymerization (generally the DP is between 2-20) and type of linkages. In one embodiment, GOS comprises galactose and glucose molecules. In another embodiment, GOS comprises only galactose molecules. In a further embodiment, GOS are galactose-containing oligosaccharides of the form of [β-D-Gal-(1-6)]n-β-D-Gal-(1-4)-D-Glc wherein n is 2-20. In another embodiment, GOS are galactose-containing oligosaccharides of the form Glc α1-4-[β Gal 1-6)]n where n=2-20. In another embodiment, GOS are in the form of α-D-Glc (1-4)-[β-D-Gal-(1-6)-]n where n=2-20. Gal is a galactopyranose unit and Glc (or Glu) is a glucopyranose unit.

In one embodiment, a prebiotic composition comprises a GOS-related compound. A GOS-related compound can have the following properties: a) a “lactose” moiety; e.g., GOS with a gal-glu moiety and any polymerization value or type of linkage; or b) be stimulatory to “lactose fermenting” microbes in the human GI tract; for example, raffinose (gal-fru-glu) is a “related” GOS compound that is stimulatory to both lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.

In one embodiment, a prebiotic composition comprises GOS with a low degree of polymerization. In one embodiment a prebiotic composition comprising GOS with a low degree of polymerization increases growth of probiotic and select commensal bacteria to a greater extent than an equivalent amount of a prebiotic composition comprising GOS with a high degree of polymerization. In one embodiment, a prebiotic composition comprising a high percentage of GOS with a low degree of polymerization increases growth of probiotic and beneficial commensal bacteria to a greater extent than an equivalent amount of a prebiotic composition comprising a low percentage of GOS with a low degree of polymerization (DP). In one embodiment a prebiotic composition comprises GOS with a DP less than 20, such as less than 10, less than 9, less than 8, less than 7, less than 6, less than 5, less than 4, or less than 3. In another embodiment a prebiotic composition comprising GOS with a low DP increases growth of co-formulated or co-administered microbes and/or beneficial commensal microbes in the GI tract of a subject.

Linkages between the individual sugar units found in GOS and other oligosaccharides include β-(1-6), β-(1-4), β-(1-3) and β-(1-2) linkages. In one embodiment, the administered oligosaccharides (e.g., GOS) are branched saccharides. In another embodiment, the administered oligosacchardies (e.g, GOS) are linear saccharides.

In some embodiments, the GOS comprises a disaccharide Gala (1-6) Gal, at least one trisaccharide selected from Gal β (1-6)-Gal β (1-4)-Glc and Gal β (1-3)-Gal β (1-4)-Glc, the tetrasaccharide Gal β(1-6)-Gal β (1-6)-Gal β (1-4)-Glc and the pentasaccharide Gal β (1-6)-Gal β (1-6)-Gal β (1-6)-Gal β (1-4)-Glc.

In one embodiment, a GOS composition is a mixture of 10 to 45% w/v disaccharide, 10 to 45% w/v trisaccharide, 10 to 45% w/v tetrasaccharide and 10 to 45% w/v pentasaccharide. In another embodiment, a GOS composition is a mixture of oligosaccharides comprising 20-28% by weight of β (1-3) linkages, 20-25% by weight of β (1-4) linkages, and 45-55% by weight of β (1-6) linkages. In one embodiment, a GOS composition is a mixture of oligosaccharides comprising 26% by weight of β (1-3) linkages, 23% by weight of β (1-4) linkages, and 51% by weight of β (1-6) linkages.

Alpha-GOS (also called alpha-bond GOS or alpha-linked GOS) are oligosaccharides having an alpha-galactopyranosyl group. Alpha-GOS comprises at least one alpha glycosidic linkage between the saccharide units. Alpha-GOS are generally represented by α-(Gal)n (n usually represents an integer of 2 to 10) or α-(Gal)n Glc (n usually represents an integer of 1 to 9). Examples include a mixture of α-galactosylglucose, α-galactobiose, α-galactotriose, α-galactotetraose, and higher oligosaccharides. Additional non-limiting examples include melibiose, manninootriose, raffinose, stachyose, and the like, which can be produced from beat, soybean oligosaccharide, and the like.

Commercially available and enzyme synthesized alpha-GOS products are also useful for the compositions described herein. Synthesis of alpha-GOS with an enzyme is conducted utilizing the dehydration condensation reaction of α-galactosidase with the use of galactose, galactose-containing substance, or glucose as a substrate. The galactose-containing substance includes hydrolysates of galactose-containing substances, for example, a mixture of galactose and glucose obtained by allowing beta-galactosidase to act on lactose, and the like. Glucose can be mixed separately with galactose and be used as a substrate with α-galactosidase (see e.g., WO 02/18614). Methods of preparing alpha-GOS have been described (see e.g., EPI 514551 and EP2027863).

In one embodiment, a GOS composition comprises a mixture of saccharides that are alpha-GOS and saccharides that are produced by transgalactosylation using β-galactosidase. In another embodiment, GOS comprises alpha-GOS. In another embodiment, alpha-GOS comprises α-(Gal)2 from 10% to 100% by weight. In one embodiment, GOS comprises only saccharides that are produced by transgalactosylation using β-galactosidase.

In one embodiment, a GOS composition can comprise GOS with alpha linkages and beta linkages.

In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises, in addition to one or more microbes, an oligosaccharide composition that is a mixture of oligosaccharides comprising 1-20% by weight of di-saccharides, 1-20% by weight tri-saccharides, 1-20% by weight tetra-saccharides, and 1-20% by weight penta-saccharides. In another embodiment, an oligosaccharide composition is a mixture of oligosaccharides consisting essentially of 1-20% by weight of di-saccharides, 1-20% by weight tri-saccharides, 1-20% by weight tetra-saccharides, and 1-20% by weight penta-saccharides.

In one embodiment, a prebiotic composition is a mixture of oligosaccharides comprising 1-20% by weight of saccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 1-3, 1-20% by weight of saccharides with DP of 4-6, 1-20% by weight of saccharides with DP of 7-9, and 1-20% by weight of saccharides with DP of 10-12, 1-20% by weight of saccharides with DP of 13-15.

In another embodiment, a prebiotic composition comprises a mixture of oligosaccharides comprising 50-55% by weight of di-saccharides, 20-30% by weight tri-saccharides, 10-20% by weight tetra-saccharide, and 1-10% by weight penta-saccharides. In one embodiment, a GOS composition is a mixture of oligosaccharides comprising 52% by weight of di-saccharides, 26% by weight tri-saccharides, 14% by weight tetra-saccharide, and 5% by weight penta-saccharides. In another embodiment, a prebiotic composition comprises a mixture of oligosaccharides comprising 45-55% by weight tri-saccharides, 15-25% by weight tetra-saccharides, 1-10% by weight penta-saccharides.

In certain embodiments, the composition according to the invention comprises a mixture of neutral and acid oligosaccharides as disclosed in WO 2005/039597 (N.V. Nutricia) and US Patent Application 20150004130, which are hereby incorporated by reference. In one embodiment, the acid oligosaccharide has a degree of polymerization (DP) between 1 and 5000. In another embodiment, the DP is between 1 and 1000. In another embodiment, the DP is between 2 and 250. If a mixture of acid oligosaccharides with different degrees of polymerization is used, the average DP of the acid oligosaccharide mixture is preferably between 2 and 1000. The acid oligosaccharide may be a homogeneous or heterogeneous carbohydrate. The acid oligosaccharides may be prepared from pectin, pectate, alginate, chondroitine, hyaluronic acids, heparin, heparane, bacterial carbohydrates, sialoglycans, fucoidan, fucooligosaccharides or carrageenan, and are preferably prepared from pectin or alginate. The acid oligosaccharides may be prepared by the methods described in WO 01/60378, which is hereby incorporated by reference. The acid oligosaccharide is preferably prepared from high methoxylated pectin, which is characterized by a degree of methoxylation above 50%. As used herein, “degree of methoxylation” (also referred to as DE or “degree of esterification”) is intended to mean the extent to which free carboxylic acid groups contained in the polygalacturonic acid chain have been esterified (e.g. by methylation). In some embodiments, the acid oligosaccharides have a degree of methoxylation above about 10%, above about 20%, above about 50%, above about 70%. In some embodiments, the acid oligosaccharides have a degree of methylation above about 10%, above about 20%, above about 50%, above about 70%.

The term neutral oligosaccharides as used in the present invention refers to saccharides which have a degree of polymerization of monose units exceeding 2, exceeding 3, exceeding 4, or exceeding 10, which are not or only partially digested in the intestine by the action of acids or digestive enzymes present in the human upper digestive tract (small intestine and stomach) but which are fermented by the human intestinal flora and preferably lack acidic groups. The neutral oligosaccharide is structurally (chemically) different from the acid oligosaccharide. The term neutral oligosaccharides as used herein preferably refers to saccharides which have a degree of polymerization of the oligosaccharide below 60 monose units. The term monose units refers to units having a closed ring structure e.g., the pyranose or furanose forms. In come embodiments, the neutral oligosaccharide comprises at least 90% or at least 95% monose units selected from the group consisting of mannose, arabinose, fructose, fucose, rhamnose, galactose, -D-galactopyranose, ribose, glucose, xylose and derivatives thereof, calculated on the total number of monose units contained therein. Suitable neutral oligosaccharides are preferably fermented by the gut flora. Nonlimiting examples of suitable neutral oligosaccharides are cellobiose (4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose), cellodextrins ((4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)n-D-glucose), B-cyclo-dextrins (Cyclic molecules of α-1-4-linked D-glucose; α-cyclodextrin-hexamer, β-cyclodextrin-heptamer and γ-cyclodextrin-octamer), indigestible dextrin, gentiooligosaccharides (mixture of β-1-6 linked glucose residues, some 1-4 linkages), glucooligosaccharides (mixture of α-D-glucose), isomaltooligosaccharides (linear α-1-6 linked glucose residues with some 1-4 linkages), isomaltose (6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose); isomaltriose (6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose), panose (6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucose), leucrose (5-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructopyranoside), palatinose or isomaltulose (6-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-D-fructose), theanderose (O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-B-D-fructo furanoside), D-agatose, D-lyxo-hexylose, lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)-β-D-fructofuranoside), α-galactooligosaccharides including raffinose, stachyose and other soy oligosaccharides (O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-fructofuranoside), β-galactooligosaccharides or transgalacto-oligosaccharides (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-6)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]n-(1-4) α-D glucose), lactulose (4-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-fructose), 4′-galatosyllactose (O-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranose), synthetic galactooligosaccharide (neogalactobiose, isogalactobiose, galsucrose, isolactose I, II and III), fructans-Levan-type (β-D-(2→6)-fructofuranosyl)n α-D-glucopyranoside), fructans-Inulin-type (β-D-((2→1)-fructofuranosyl)n α-D-glucopyranoside), 1 f-β-fructofuranosylnystose (β-D-((2→1)-fructofuranosyl)n B-D-fructofuranoside), xylooligo-saccharides (B-D-((1→4)-xylose)n, lafinose, lactosucrose and arabinooligosaccharides.

In some embodiments, the neutral oligosaccharide is selected from the group consisting of fructans, fructooligosaccharides, indigestible dextrins galactooligo-saccharides (including transgalactooligosaccharides), xylooligosaccharides, arabinooligo-saccharides, glucooligosaccharides, mannooligosaccharides, fucooligosaccharides and mixtures thereof.

Suitable oligosaccharides and their production methods are further described in Laere K. J. M. (Laere, K. J. M., Degradation of structurally different non-digestible oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria: glycosylhydrolases of Bi. adolescentis. PhD-thesis (2000), Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands), the entire content of which is hereby incorporated by reference. Transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) are for example sold under the trademark Vivinal™ (Borculo Domo Ingredients, Netherlands). Indigestible dextrin, which may be produced by pyrolysis of corn starch, comprises α(1→4) and α(1→6) glucosidic bonds, as are present in the native starch, and contains 1→2 and 1→3 linkages and levoglucosan. Due to these structural characteristics, indigestible dextrin contains well-developed, branched particles that are partially hydrolysed by human digestive enzymes. Numerous other commercial sources of indigestible oligosaccharides are readily available and known to skilled persons in the art. For example, transgalactooligosaccharide is available from Yakult Honsha Co., Tokyo, Japan. Soybean oligosaccharide is available from Calpis Corporation distributed by Ajinomoto U.S.A. Inc., Teaneck, N.J.

In a further preferred embodiment, the prebiotic mixture of the pharmaceutical composition described herein comprises an acid oligosaccharide with a DP between 1 and 5000, prepared from pectin, alginate, and mixtures thereof; and a neutral oligosaccharide, selected from the group of fructans, fructooligosaccharides, indigestible dextrins, galactooligosaccharides including transgalacto-oligosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides, arabinooligosaccharides, glucooligosaccharides, manno-oligosaccharides, fucooligosaccharides, and mixtures thereof.

In certain embodiments, the prebiotic mixture comprises xylose. In other embodiments, the prebiotic mixture comprises a xylose polymer (i.e. xylan). In some embodiments, the prebiotic comprises xylose derivatives, such as xylitol, a sugar alcohol generated by reduction of xylose by catalytic hydrogenation of xylose, and also xylose oligomers (e.g., xylooligosaccharide). While xylose can be digested by humans, via xylosyltransferase activity, most xylose ingested by humans is excreted in urine. In contrast, some microorganisms are efficient at xylose metabolism or may be selected for enhanced xylose metabolism. Microbial xylose metabolism may occur by at least four pathways, including the isomerase pathway, the Weimburg pathway, the Dahms pathway, and, for eukaryotic microorganisms, the oxido-reductase pathway.

The xylose isomerase pathway involves the direct conversion of D-xylose into D-xylulose by xylose isomerase, after which D-xylulose is phosphorylated by xylulose kinase to yield D-xylolose-5-phosphate, an intermediate of the pentose phosphate pathway.

In the Weimberg pathway, D-xylose is oxidized to D-xylono-lactone by a D-xylose dehydrogenase. Then D-xylose dehydrogenase is hydrolyzed by a lactonase to yield D-xylonic acid, and xylonate dehydratase activity then yields 2-keto-3-deoxy-xylonate. The final steps of the Weimberg pathway are a dehydratase reaction to form 2-keto glutarate semialdehyde and an oxidizing reaction to form 2-ketoglutarate, an intermediate of the Krebs cycle.

The Dahms pathway follows the same mechanism as the Weimberg pathway but diverges once it has yielded 2-keto-3-deoxy-xylonate. In the Dahms pathway, an aldolase splits 2-keto-3-deoxy-xylonate into pyruvate and glycolaldehyde.

The xylose oxido-reductase pathway, also known as the xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase pathway, begins by the reduction of D-xylose to xylitol by xylose reductase followed by the oxidation of xylitol to D-xylulose by xylitol dehydrogenase. As in the isomerase pathway, the next step in the oxido-reductase pathway is the phosphorylation of D-xylulose by xylulose kinase to yield D-xylolose-5-phosphate.

Xylose is present in foods like fruits and vegetables and other plants such as trees for wood and pulp production. Thus, xylose can be obtained in the extracts of such plants. Xylose can be obtained from various plant sources using known processes including acid hydrolysis followed by various types of chromatography. Examples of such methods to produce xylose include those described in Maurelli, L. et al. (2013), Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 170:1104-1118; Hooi H. T et al. (2013), Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 170:1602-1613; Zhang H-J. et al. (2014), Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 37:2425-2436.

Preferably, the metabolism of xylose and/or the shift in microbiota due to the metabolism of the xylose provided in a pharmaceutical composition of the invention confers a benefit to a host, e.g. immunological tolerance. For example, in aspects in which the patient is at risk or suffering from GVHD, the immunological tolerance may reduce graft-versus-host activity while maintaining graft-versus-leukemia activity. The xylose may be, e.g. i) cytotoxic for an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated associated pathogen or pathobiont, ii) cytostatic for an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, iii) capable of decreasing the growth of autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, iv) capable of inhibiting the growth of an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, v) capable of decreasing the colonization of an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, vi) capable of inhibiting the colonization of an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, vii) capable of eliciting an immunomodulatory response in the host that reduces the risk of an autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorder, viii), capable of eliciting an immunomodulatory response in the host that reduces the severity of an autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorder, ix) capable of promoting barrier integrity directly or indirectly through its impact on microbiota, or x) any combination of i)-ix).

In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition or dosage form comprises a bacterial population and xylose in an amount effective to promote the growth of select bacteria of the family Clostridiacea, including members of the genus Clostridium, Ruminococcus, or Blautia or relatives thereof in a host. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition or dosage form is further effective to promote the proliferation of select bacteria of the family Clostridiacea, including members of the genus Clostridium, Ruminococcus, or Blautia or relatives thereof in a host. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition or dosage form comprises a bacterial population and xylose in an amount effective to promote the colonization and/or engraftment of select bacteria of the family Clostridiacea, including members of the genus Clostridium, Ruminococcus, or Blautia or relatives thereof in a host. In preferred embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition or dosage form is further capable of altering a dysbiotic state such that the growth, proliferation, colonization, and/or engraftment of a host by a pathogen, pathobiont, disease-associated microbe, or a combination thereof such that the population of at least one pathogen, pathobiont, or disease-associated microbe is decreased 2-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 50-fold, 100-fold, 200-fold, 500-fold, 1000-fold, 10000-fold, or over 10000-fold. In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition or dosage form is capable of locally or systemically eliminating at least one pathogen, pathobiont, or disease-associated microbe from a host.

In some embodiments, the prebiotic mixture comprises a carbohydrate monomer or polymer that has been modified i.e., substituted with other substituents (e.g., acetyl group, glucuronic acid residue, arabinose residue, or the like) (see US Patent Application 20090148573, hereby incorporated by reference). The term “modified”, as used herein, refers to a molecule modified from a reference molecule, and includes not only artificially produced molecules but also naturally occurring molecules. In preferred embodiments, the modification occurs at one or more hydroxyl groups of the reference carbohydrate. In some embodiments, the modification occurs at carbon-2 (C2), the modification occurs at carbon-6 (C6), or a combination thereof.

In some embodiments, a carbohydrate (a monomer or, preferably, a polymer) is modified with one or more hydrophilic groups. Nonlimiting examples of the hydrophilic groups include an acetyl group, a 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid residue, an L-arabinofuranose residue, an L-arabinose residue, and an α-D-glucuronic acid residue. In some embodiments, the modification is the replacement of one or more hydroxyl groups with —H, —CH2OH, —CH3, or —NH2.

In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one carbohydrate that elicits an immunomodulatory response. Exemplary immunomodulary carbohydrates include (but are not limited to) fructo-oligosaccharides, glycosaminoglycans (e.g., heparin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate A, hyaluronan), O-glycans, and carrageenan oligosaccharides, and galacto-oligosaccharides. Immunomodulatory carbohydrates may be purified from plants or microbes or may be synthetically derived. Immunomodulatory carbohydrates may be effective to, for example, prevent disease, suppress symptoms, treat disease, or any combination thereof.

In some embodiments, immunomodulatory carbohydrates are C-type lectin receptor ligands. In preferred embodiments, the C-type lectin receptor ligands are produced by one or more fungal species. In other embodiments, the immunomodulatory carbohydrates are bacterial exopolysaccharides, such as (but not limited to) the exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by Bacillus subtilis, Bifidobacterium breve, or Bacteroides fragilis. In some aspects, immunomodulatory carbohydrates are zwitterionic polysaccharides. In some aspects, immunomodulatory carbohydrates modulate toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and/or toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) responses in a host. For example, autoimmune or inflammatory diseases characterized by intestinal inflammation may be prevented by a TLR4 agonist such as but not limited to B. subtilis EPS (Jones S, Paynich M L, Kearns D B, Knight K L, 2014. Protection from Intestinal Inflammation by Bacterial Exopolysaccharides. The Journal of Immunology. 192:4813-4820). Immunomodulatory carbohydrates may also activate CD4+×T cells and/or lead to an upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (Mazmanian S K, Kasper D L, 2006. The love-hate relationship between bacterial polysaccharides and the host immune system. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6: 849-858). Immunomodulatory carbohydrates may be selected for administration to a patient based on the presence, abundance, distribution, modification and/or linkages of sugar residues. For example, immunomodulatory carbohydrates used in the prevention of intestinal disorders or autoimmune conditions that manifest in the gut (non-limiting examples being IBD and GVHD) may be selected based on i) a high abundance of mannose residues; ii) the presence of terminal mannopyransosyl (t-Man) residues and/or 2,6 linked mannopyranosyl residues (2,6-Man), iii) a ratio of mannose to glucose residues in the approximate range of 8:2 to 9:1, iv) the presence of galactose residues, v) areas of positive charge, or vi) a combination thereof.

Carbohydrates may be selected according to the fermentation or metabolic preferences of a microbe selected for administration to a mammalian subject. Selection criteria include but are not limited to sugar complexity (e.g., monosaccharides, including but not limited to glucose, versus oligosaccharides or starches) as well as by desired end-product. Non-limiting examples include the fermentation products ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO2) (e.g., via ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces sp. Zymomonas sp.), lactate (e.g., via homolactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Pediococcus sp. and some species Lactobacillus), lactate, ethanol, and CO2 (e.g., via heterolactic acid fermentation (which includes the phosphoketolase pathway) by some species of Lactobacillus as well as Leuconostoc sp., Oenococcus sp., and Weissella sp.), butanol, acetone, CO2 and H2 (via acetone-butanol fermentation by some Clostridium sp.), and short chain fatty acids (with or without the production of other products) (Muller V, 2011. Bacterial Fermentation. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences). Examples of fermentation leading to short chain fatty acid production include homoacetic acid fermentation (e.g., by Acetobacterium sp., and resulting in acetate), propionic acid fermentation (e.g., by Propionibacterium sp., and resulting in propionate, acetate and CO2) mixed acid fermentation (e.g., by Escherichia sp., and resulting in ethanol, lactate, acetate, succinate, formate, CO2, and H2), butyrate fermentation (e.g., by some Clostridium sp., resulting in butyrate, CO2, and H2), and 2,3-butanediol fermentation (e.g., by Enterobacter sp., resulting in ethanol, butanediol, lactate, formate, CO2, and H2). In some embodiments, selection of carbohydrates for co-formulation of co-administration with a type of microbe or types of microbe may be achieved by computational analysis of microbial enzymatic pathways, including but not limited to the presence of metabolic/fermentation pathway enzymes including but not limited to the enzymes provided in Table 4.

Other prebiotics include molecules capable of selective or semi-selective utilization by microbes of the composition contained herein. The ability of a microbe to utilize a metabolite of interest is determined by the genomic capacity of that microbe. Public databases have characterized many microbes and automate the annotation of the genome to allow a computational analysis of the metabolites a microbe is potentially able to utilize. Databases such as the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COGs) database characterize genomes from a variety of species in this manner and are capable of characterizing newly sequenced genomes as well (e.g. see in this fashion (Tatusov et al 2000. Nucl Acid Res). Furthermore, pathway analysis classifies COGs into different categories with associated one letter codes including J, translation; L replication, recombination, and repair, K transcription; O molecular chaperones and related functions, M, cell wall structure and biogenesis and outer membrane, N secretion motility and chemotaxis; T signal Transduction; P inorganic ion transport and metabolism; C energy production and conversion; G, carbohydrate metabolism and transport; E amino acid metabolism and transport; F, nueclotide metabolism and transport; D cell Division and chromosome partitioning; R general functional prediction. In preferred embodiments, COGs of the categories, N, M, P, C, G, E, and F are selected as preferred COGs to both provide enhanced growth on specific substrates and modified behaviors relevant for anti-tumor properties. Other preferred embodiments, include COGs for C, G, E, and specific COG functions are listed in Table 4.

COGs are selected to be specific or semi enriched in the host or other microbes within a host by searching for specific functions present in the microbe of interest but absent from a large set of other competition organisms. Tissue specific analysis of the host for enzymes expressed within a tissue is performed to identify tissue specific enzymatic activities in the host. Specific functions are absent from at least 90%, at least 80%, at least 70%, at least 60%, at least 50%, at least 40%, at least 30% at least 20% or at least 10% of the other organisms selected from the group of the host, the host tissue, the disease-associated microbiota, the host gut microbiota, the host niche specific to the engraftment of the microbial composition (e.g. GI tract, skin).

Once these COGs are identified, databases like KEGG were used to link the enzymatic functions to identify the metabolites that are substrates for these selective COGs. Furthermore, the selective analysis to generate selective metabolites is repeated on the set of substrate of COGs to validate that the pathways and metabolites are selective to the desired microbial composition.

Also provided are co-formulations of microbial populations and carbohydrates or other materials that foster desired microbial growth while, optionally, inhibiting undesired microbial growth. For example, one or more bacterial entities are encapsulated in a carbohydrate layer or coating (exemplary formulations include xylose-PEG and or xylose-PEG-PLGA).

Selecting Prebiotics for Particular Probiotics

It is well known that organisms, including bacteria, show a preferential and hierarchical utilization of different carbohydrates. Some bacteria will not respond at all to a sugar, while some bacterial will use a sugar preferentially. The metabolic effects of a sugar on a bacteria reflect how the bacteria senses and responds to its environment. Providing a sugar to a bacteria that has preferential utilization can encourage its growth/selection. Conversely, providing a sugar to a bacteria that is not preferred may lead to its down selection. For example, a particular sugar may not be a preferred substrate for metabolism, and thus may be utilized to bias for or enhance the growth and/or proliferation of particular microbial (e.g., bacterial) species or strains. Further, a particular sugar or the metabolism thereof may act as a selector to promote the survival, colonization, and/or engraftment of a desired microbial population in a host. Alternatively or simultaneously, a particular sugar or the metabolism thereof may act as a selector to reduce or eliminate the survival, colonization, and/or engraftment of an undesired microbial population in host.

Carbohydrates may be selected according to the fermentation or metabolic preferences of a microbe selected for administration to a mammalian subject. Selection criteria include but are not limited to sugar complexity (e.g., monosaccharides, including but not limited to glucose, versus oligosaccharides or starches) as well as by desired end-product. Non-limiting examples include the fermentation products ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO2) (e.g., via ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces sp. Zymomonas sp.), lactate (e.g., via homolactic acid fermentation by Lactococcus sp., Streptococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Pediococcus sp. and some species Lactobacillus), lactate, ethanol, and CO2 (e.g., via heterolactic acid fermentation (which includes the phosphoketolase pathway) by some species of Lactobacillus as well as Leuconostoc sp., Oenococcus sp., and Weissella sp.), butanol, acetone, CO2 and H2 (via acetone-butanol fermentation by some Clostridium sp.), and short chain fatty acids (with or without the production of other products) (Muller V, 2011. Bacterial Fermentation. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences). Examples of fermentation leading to short chain fatty acid production include homoacetic acid fermentation (e.g., by Acetobacterium sp., and resulting in acetate), propionic acid fermentation (e.g., by Propionibacterium sp., and resulting in propionate, acetate and CO2) mixed acid fermentation (e.g., by Escherichia sp., and resulting in ethanol, lactate, acetate, succinate, formate, CO2, and H2), butyrate fermentation (e.g., by some Clostridium sp., resulting in butyrate, CO2, and H2), and 2,3-butanediol fermentation (e.g., by Enterobacter sp., resulting in ethanol, butanediol, lactate, formate, CO2, and H2). In some embodiments, selection of carbohydrates for co-formulation or co-administration with a type of microbe or types of microbe may be achieved by computational analysis of microbial enzymatic pathways, including but not limited to the presence of metabolic/fermentation pathway enzymes including but not limited to the enzymes provided in Table 4.

In preferred embodiments, the combination of a type of microbe or microbial composition and type of prebiotic mixture is selected based on the fermentation or metabolic preferences of one or more microbes capable of producing immunomodulatory SCFAs (e.g., preference for complex versus simple sugar or preference for a fermentation product versus a prebiotic). For example, M. eldsenii prefers lactate fermentation to glucose fermentation, and maximization of propionate production by M. eldsenii in a mammalian subject may therefore be achieved by administering along with M. eldsenii a favored substrate (e.g., lactate) or one or more microbes capable of fermenting glucose into lactate (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) (Hosseini E., et al. 2011. Propionate as a health-promoting microbial metabolite in the human gut. Nutrition Reviews. 69(5): 245-258).

Immunomodulation can also be achieved by the microbial production of glutathione or gamma-glutamylcysteine. Thus, in certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe capable of producing glutathione and/or gamma-glutamylcysteine

In some aspects, the composition, dosage form, or kit comprises one or more microbes selected for the presence of glutamate cysteine ligase (e.g., Lactobacillus fermentum) and/or L-proline biosynthesis enzymes (e.g., E. coli) (Peran et al., 2006. Lactobacillus fermenum, a probiotic capable to release glutathione, prevents colonic inflammation in the TNBS model of rat colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 21(8): 737-746; Veeravalli et al., 2011. Laboratory evolution of glutathione biosynthesis reveals naturally compensatory pathways. Nat Chem Bio. 7(2): 101-105). In a preferred embodiment, at least one microbe in the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit is L. fermentum.

VII. Methods of Altering the Microbiome Using Prebiotics and/or Probiotics

Disclosed herein are therapeutic compositions containing non-pathogenic, germination-competent bacterial entities and/or fungal entities, for the prevention, control, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases, disorders and conditions and for general nutritional health. These compositions are advantageous in being suitable for safe administration to humans and other mammalian subjects and are efficacious in numerous immune and inflammatory diseases, disorders and conditions and in general nutritional health. While spore-based compositions are known, these are generally prepared according to various techniques such as lyophilization or spray-drying of liquid bacterial cultures, resulting in poor efficacy, instability, substantial variability and lack of adequate safety.

It has now been found that populations of bacterial entities and/or fungal entities can be obtained from biological materials obtained from mammalian subjects, including humans. These populations are formulated into compositions as provided herein, and administered to mammalian subjects using the methods as provided herein.

Purified Spore Populations.

In some embodiments, the bacterial compositions comprise purified spore populations. As described herein, purified spore populations contain combinations of commensal bacteria of the human gut microbiota with the capacity to meaningfully provide functions of a healthy microbiota when administered to a mammalian subject. Without being limited to a specific mechanism, it is thought that such compositions inhibit the growth of a pathogen such as C. difficile, Salmonella spp., enteropathogenic E. coli, Fusobacterium spp., Klebsiella spp. and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., so that a healthy, diverse and protective microbiota can be maintained or, in the case of pathogenic bacterial infections, repopulate the intestinal lumen to reestablish ecological control over potential pathogens. In one embodiment, the purified spore populations can engraft in the host and remain present for 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 10 days, 14 days, 21 days, 25 days, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, or longer than 90 days. Additionally, the purified spore populations can induce other healthy commensal bacteria found in a healthy gut to engraft in the host that are not present in the purified spore populations or present at lesser levels and therefore these species are considered to “augment” the delivered spore populations. In this manner, commensal species augmentation of the purified spore population in the recipient's gut leads to a more diverse population of gut microbiota then present initially.

Preferably, the one or more microbes provided in a therapeutic composition act additively, more preferably synergistically to confer a benefit to a host, e.g. immunological tolerance. For example, in aspects in which the patient is at risk or suffering from GVHD, the immunological tolerance may reduce graft-versus-host activity while maintaining graft-versus-leukemia activity. In another example, in aspects in which the patient suffers from Celiac disease, the immunological tolerance prevents an inappropriate immune response to gluten. The microbes may additively or synergistically be, e.g. i) cytotoxic for an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated associated pathogen or pathobiont, ii) cytostatic for an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, iii) capable of decreasing the growth of autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, iv) capable of inhibiting the growth of an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, v) capable of decreasing the colonization of an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, vi) capable of inhibiting the colonization of an autoimmune disease- and/or inflammatory disease-associated pathogen or pathobiont, vii) capable of eliciting an immunomodulatory response in the host that reduces the risk of an autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorder, viii), capable of eliciting an immunomodulatory response in the host that reduces the severity of an autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorder, or ix) any combination of i)-viii).

The microbes described herein may additively or synergistically reduce the number of types of autoimmune disease- or inflammatory disease-associated pathogens or pathobionts either distally—e.g., orally-administered microbes reduce the total microbial burden in an organ not in the gastrointestinal tract, or intravaginally-administered microbes reduce the total microbial burden in an organ that is not the vagina—or locally, e.g., the intestines or vagina, respectively. Distal sites include but are not limited to the liver, spleen, fallopian tubes and uterus.

Thus provided are compositions formulated for vaginal administration, such as bacterial populations. The bacterial populations are capable of translocating across vaginal tissue to distal sites, or relocation from the vaginal canal into the gastrointestinal tract.

Similarly, the microbes described herein may additively or synergistically elicit an immunomodulatory response either distally, e.g., in which enteral administration of microbes results in altering the immune response at the skin or liver, or locally, e.g. the enteral administration of microbes results in altering the immune response in the intestines.

In some situations, the recipient subject is immunocompromised or immunosuppressed, or is at risk of developing an immune or inflammatory disorder.

Methods for Administrating Bacterial Compositions to Treat a Subject.

Administration of Microbial Compositions, with or without Prebiotics.

The microbial compositions of the invention, with or without one or more prebiotics, are suitable for administration to mammals and non-mammalian animals in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the mammalian subject is a human subject who has one or more symptoms of a dysbiosis, including but not limited to overgrowth of an undesired pathobiont or pathogen, reduced representation of key bacterial taxa such as the Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes or genera or species thereof, or reduced diversity of microbial species compared to a healthy individual, or reduced overall abundance of anaerobic bacteria.

When the mammalian subject is suffering from a disease, disorder or condition characterized by an aberrant microbiota, the bacterial compositions described herein are suitable for treatment thereof. In some embodiments, the mammalian subject has not received antibiotics in advance of treatment with the bacterial compositions. For example, the mammalian subject has not been administered at least two doses of vancomycin, metronidazole and/or or similar antibiotic compound within one week prior to administration of the therapeutic composition. In other embodiments, the mammalian subject has not previously received an antibiotic compound in the one month prior to administration of the therapeutic composition. In other embodiments, the mammalian subject has received one or more treatments with one or more different antibiotic compounds and such treatment(s) resulted in no improvement or a worsening of symptoms. In some embodiments, the composition is administered following a successful course of antibiotics to prevent dysbiosis and enhance recovery of a diverse, healthy microbiota.

In some embodiments, the disease, disorder or condition characterized by an aberrant microbiota is GVHD.

In some embodiments, the therapeutic composition is administered only once prior to improvement of the disease, disorder or condition. In some embodiments the therapeutic composition is administered at intervals greater than two days, such as once every three, four, five or six days, or every week or less frequently than every week. Or the preparation may be administered intermittently according to a set schedule, e.g., once a day, once weekly, or once monthly, or when the subject relapses from the primary illness. In another embodiment, the preparation may be administered on a long-term basis to individuals who are at risk for infection with or who may be carriers of these pathogens, including individuals who will have an invasive medical procedure (such as surgery), who will be hospitalized, who live in a long-term care or rehabilitation facility, who are exposed to pathogens by virtue of their profession (livestock and animal processing workers), or who could be carriers of pathogens (including hospital workers such as physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals).

In embodiments where a subject is administered a probiotic composition and a prebiotic composition, the probiotic and prebiotic can be administered simultaneously. For example, the probiotic composition can contain a prebiotic, or can be administered at the same time as a prebiotic. In other embodiments, the probiotic and the prebiotic are dosed on different regimens. For example, the prebiotic can be dosed prior to or after administration of the probiotic. In other embodiments, the prebiotic can be dosed regularly, and the probiotic is dosed at intervals of reduced frequency compared to dosing of the prebiotic.

Also provided are methods of treating or preventing a mammalian subject suffering from or at risk of developing a metabolic disease, and disorder or condition selected from the group consisting of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, heart disease, autoimmune disease, liver disease, and autism using the therapeutic compositions provided herein.

In embodiments, the microbial composition is administered enterically, with or without prebiotics. This preferentially includes oral administration, or by an oral or nasal tube (including nasogastric, nasojejunal, oral gastric, or oral jejunal). In other embodiments, administration includes rectal administration (including enema, suppository, or colonoscopy). The microbial composition may be administered to at least one region of the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. In some embodiments, it is administered to all regions of the gastrointestinal tract. The microbial compositions may be administered orally in the form of medicaments such as powders, capsules, tablets, gels or liquids. The microbial compositions may also be administered in gel or liquid form by the oral route or through a nasogastric tube, or by the rectal route in a gel or liquid form, by enema or instillation through a colonoscope or by a suppository. In some embodiments, the microbial composition of the above invention is administered enterically with one ore more prebiotics.

If the composition is administered colonoscopically and, optionally, if the microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, is administered by other rectal routes (such as an enema or suppository) or even if the subject has an oral administration, the subject may have a colonic-cleansing preparation. The colon-cleansing preparation can facilitate proper use of the colonoscope or other administration devices, but even when it does not serve a mechanical purpose it can also maximize the proportion of the bacterial composition relative to the other organisms previously residing in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject. Any ordinarily acceptable colonic-cleansing preparation may be used such as those typically provided when a subject undergoes a colonoscopy.

To evaluate the subject, symptoms of dysbiosis are evaluated post treatment ranging from 1 day to 6 months after administration of the purified bacterial population. Fecal material is collected during this period and the microbes present in the gastrointestinal tract can be assessed by 16S rDNA or metagenomic sequencing analysis or other analyses commonly used by the skilled artisan. Repopulation by species provided by the spore population as well as Augmentation by commensal microbes not present in the spore population will occur in this time as the spore population catalyzes a reshaping of the gut or vagina ecology to a state of healthy biosis.

Methods of Treating a Subject.

In some embodiments, the compositions disclosed herein are administered to a patient or a user (sometimes collectively referred to as a “subject”). As used herein “administer” and “administration” encompasses embodiments in which one person directs another to consume a bacterial composition in a certain manner and/or for a certain purpose, and also situations in which a user uses a bacteria composition in a certain manner and/or for a certain purpose independently of or in variance to any instructions received from a second person. Non-limiting examples of embodiments in which one person directs another to consume a bacterial composition in a certain manner and/or for a certain purpose include when a physician prescribes a course of conduct and/or treatment to a patient, when a parent commands a minor user (such as a child) to consume a bacterial composition, when a trainer advises a user (such as an athlete) to follow a particular course of conduct and/or treatment, and when a manufacturer, distributer, or marketer recommends conditions of use to an end user, for example through advertisements or labeling on packaging or on other materials provided in association with the sale or marketing of a product.

The microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, offer a protective and/or therapeutic effect against GVHD. In some embodiments, the compositions are administered to a subject before the subject receives a transplant. In other embodiments, the compositions are administered to a subject concurrently with receiving a transplant. In other embodiments, the compositions are administered to a subject after receiving a transplant. In other embodiments, the compositions are administered to a subject before and/or simultaneously with and/or after receiving a transplant. The compositions of the invention can be administered to a subject receiving a transplant before the subject has developed any signs or symptoms of developing GVHD. In this embodiment, the composition modulates the microbiome of the subject in a manner that prevents or reduces the likelihood that the subject will develop GVHD. In addition or alternatively, the compositions of the invention can be administered to a subject after the subject has developed GVHD, e.g., acute GVHD, or chronic GVHD. In this embodiment, the composition modulates the microbiome of the subject in a manner that treats or reduces the severity of GVHD. In another embodiment, the composition can be administered after GVHD has been resolved in order to prevent relapse or recurrence of GVHD.

The microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, offer a protective and/or therapeutic effect against infection by one or more GI pathogens of interest and can be administered after an acute case of infection has been resolved in order to prevent relapse, during an acute case of infection as a complement to antibiotic therapy if the bacterial composition is not sensitive to the same antibiotics as the GI pathogen, or to prevent infection or reduce transmission from disease carriers. In one embodiment, the subject is a transplant recipient. In another embodiment, the subject has or is at risk for developing GVHD.

The present microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, can be useful in a variety of clinical situations. For example, the compositions can be administered as a complementary treatment to antibiotics when a patient is suffering from an acute infection, to reduce the risk of recurrence after an acute infection has subsided, or when a patient will be in close proximity to others with or at risk of serious gastrointestinal infections (physicians, nurses, hospital workers, family members of those who are ill or hospitalized).

The present microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, can be administered to animals, including humans, laboratory animals (e.g., primates, rats, mice), livestock (e.g., cows, sheep, goats, pigs, turkeys, chickens), and household pets (e.g., dogs, cats, rodents).

In the present method, the microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, can be administered enterically, in other words, by a route of access to the gastrointestinal tract or vagina. This includes oral administration, rectal administration (including enema, suppository, or colonoscopy), by an oral or nasal tube (nasogastric, nasojejunal, oral gastric, or oral jejunal), as detailed more fully herein.

Pretreatment Protocols.

Prior to administration of the microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, the patient can optionally have a pretreatment protocol to prepare the gastrointestinal tract or vagina to receive the bacterial composition. In certain embodiments, the pretreatment protocol is advisable, such as when a patient has an acute infection with a highly resilient pathogen. In other embodiments, the pretreatment protocol is entirely optional, such as when the pathogen causing the infection is not resilient, or the patient has had an acute infection that has been successfully treated but where the physician is concerned that the infection may recur. In these instances, the pretreatment protocol can enhance the ability of the bacterial composition to affect the patient's microbiome.

As one way of preparing the patient for administration of the microbial ecosystem, at least one antibiotic can be administered to alter the bacteria in the patient. As another way of preparing the patient for administration of the microbial ecosystem, a standard colon-cleansing preparation can be administered to the patient to substantially empty the contents of the colon, such as used to prepare a patient for a colonoscopy. By “substantially emptying the contents of the colon,” this application means removing at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or about 100% of the contents of the ordinary volume of colon contents. Antibiotic treatment can precede the colon-cleansing protocol.

If a patient has received an antibiotic for treatment of an infection, or if a patient has received an antibiotic as part of a specific pretreatment protocol, in one embodiment, the antibiotic can be stopped in sufficient time to allow the antibiotic to be substantially reduced in concentration in the gut or vagina before the bacterial composition is administered. In one embodiment, the antibiotic can be discontinued 1, 2, or 3 days before the administration of the bacterial composition. In another embodiment, the antibiotic can be discontinued 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 antibiotic half-lives before administration of the bacterial composition. In another embodiment, the antibiotic can be chosen so the constituents in the bacterial composition have an MIC50 that is higher than the concentration of the antibiotic in the gut or vagina.

MIC50 of a bacterial composition or the elements in the composition can be determined by methods well known in the art. Reller et al., Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Review of General Principles and Contemporary Practices, Clinical Infectious Diseases 49(11):1749-1755 (2009). In such an embodiment, the additional time between antibiotic administration and administration of the bacterial composition is not necessary. If the pretreatment protocol is part of treatment of an acute infection, the antibiotic can be chosen so that the infection is sensitive to the antibiotic, but the constituents in the bacterial composition are not sensitive to the antibiotic.

Routes of Administration.

As described above, the compositions can also be administered in vivo in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. By “pharmaceutically acceptable” is meant a material that is not biologically or otherwise undesirable, i.e., the material may be administered to a subject, along with the nucleic acid or vector, without causing any undesirable biological effects or interacting in a deleterious manner with any of the other components of the pharmaceutical composition in which it is contained. The carrier would naturally be selected to minimize any degradation of the active ingredient and to minimize any adverse side effects in the subject, as would be well known to one of skill in the art. Compositions can be administered by any route suitable for the delivery of disclosed compositions for treating, inhibiting, or preventing a dysbiosis, or diseases and disorders associated with a dysbiosis, including, but are not limited to orally, sublingually, rectally, parentally (e.g., intravenous injection (i.v.), intracranial injection (i.e.); intramuscular injection (i.m.), intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), and subcutaneous injection (s.c.) and intraosseous infusion (i.o.)), transdermally (using any standard patch), extracorporeally, inhalation, topically or the like, including topical intranasal administration or administration by inhalant. The compositions and dosage forms described herein can be administered by e.g., intradermal, ophthalmic, (intra)nasally, local, non-oral, such as aerosol, inhalation, subcutaneous, intramuscular, buccal, sublingual, (trans)rectal, vaginal, intra-arterial, and intrathecal, transmucosal (e.g., sublingual, lingual, (trans)buccal, (trans)urethral, vaginal (e.g., trans- and perivaginally), intravesical, intrapulmonary, intraduodenal, intragastrical, intrabronchial, etc. In preferred embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions and dosage forms described herein are administered by routes selected from oral, topical, (trans)dermal, (intra)nasal, and rectal. In certain embodiments, the (intra)nasal administration is achieved via aerosol or inhalation.

The compositions of the invention are suitable for administration to mammals and non-mammalian animals in need thereof. In certain embodiments, the mammalian subject is a human subject who has one or more symptoms of a dysbiosis.

In some embodiments, the subject is fed a meal within one hour of administration of the probiotic composition. In another embodiment, the subject is fed a meal concurrently with administration of the probiotic composition.

When a mammalian subject is suffering from a disease, disorder or condition characterized by an aberrant microbiota, the bacterial compositions described herein are suitable for treatment thereof. In some embodiments, the mammalian subject has not received antibiotics in advance of treatment with the bacterial compositions. For example, the mammalian subject has not been administered at least two doses of vancomycin, metronidazole and/or or similar antibiotic compound within one week prior to administration of the therapeutic composition. In other embodiments, the mammalian subject has not previously received an antibiotic compound in the one month prior to administration of the therapeutic composition. In other embodiments, the mammalian subject has received one or more treatments with one or more different antibiotic compounds and such treatment(s) resulted in no improvement or a worsening of symptoms.

In some embodiments, the gastrointestinal disease, disorder or condition is a pathogen infection, ulcerative colitis, colitis, Crohn's disease, or irritable bowel disease. Beneficially, the therapeutic composition is administered only once prior to improvement of the disease, disorder or condition. In some embodiments, the therapeutic composition is administered at intervals greater than two days, such as once every three, four, five or six days, or every week or less frequently than every week. In other embodiments, the preparation can be administered intermittently according to a set schedule, e.g., once a day, once weekly, or once monthly, or when the subject relapses from the primary illness. In another embodiment, the preparation may be administered on a long-term basis to subjects who are at risk for infection with or who may be carriers of these pathogens, including subjects who will have an invasive medical procedure (such as surgery), who will be hospitalized, who live in a long-term care or rehabilitation facility, who are exposed to pathogens by virtue of their profession (livestock and animal processing workers), or who could be carriers of pathogens (including hospital workers such as physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals).

In certain embodiments, the microbial composition is administered enterically. This preferentially includes oral administration, or by an oral or nasal tube (including nasogastric, nasojejunal, oral gastric, or oral jejunal). In other embodiments, administration includes rectal administration (including enema, suppository, or colonoscopy). The microbial composition can be administered to at least one region of the gastrointestinal tract, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. In some embodiments, it is administered to all regions of the gastrointestinal tract. The microbial compositions can be administered orally in the form of medicaments such as powders, capsules, tablets, gels or liquids. The bacterial compositions can also be administered in gel or liquid form by the oral route or through a nasogastric tube, or by the rectal route in a gel or liquid form, by enema or instillation through a colonoscope or by a suppository. In certain embodiments of the above invention, the microbial composition is administered enterically with one or more prebiotics.

If the composition is administered colonoscopically and, optionally, if the composition is administered by other rectal routes (such as an enema or suppository) or even if the subject has an oral administration, the subject can have a colon-cleansing preparation. The colon-cleansing preparation can facilitate proper use of the colonoscope or other administration devices, but even when it does not serve a mechanical purpose, it can also maximize the proportion of the bacterial composition relative to the other organisms previously residing in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject. For example, the colon cleansing preparation may maximize the amount of bacterial entities of the bacterial composition that reach and/or engraft in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject. Any ordinarily acceptable colon-cleansing preparation may be used such as those typically provided when a subject undergoes a colonoscopy.

Dosages and Schedule for Administration.

The dose administered to a subject should be sufficient to prevent a dysbiosis, partially reverse a dysbiosis, fully reverse a dysbiosis, or establish a healthy-state microbiome. In some aspects, the dose administered to a subject should be sufficient to prevent the onset of symptoms associated with an autoimmune, inflammatory, or barrier disorder, to reduces the symptoms associated with an autoimmune, inflammatory, or barrier disorder, to eliminate the symptoms associated with an autoimmune, inflammatory, or barrier disorder, or to prevent relapse or recurrence of an autoimmune, inflammatory, or barrier disorder.

One skilled in the art will recognize that dosage will depend upon a variety of factors including the strength of the particular active components employed, as well as the age, species, condition, and body weight of the subject. The size of the dose will also be determined by the route, timing, and frequency of administration as well as the existence, nature, and extent of any adverse side-effects that might accompany the administration of a particular composition and the desired physiological effect.

Suitable doses and dosage regimens can be determined by conventional range-finding techniques known to those of ordinary skill in the art. Generally, treatment is initiated with smaller dosages, which are less than the optimum dose of the active components. Thereafter, the dosage is increased by small increments until the optimum effect under the circumstances is reached. An effective dosage and treatment protocol can be determined by routine and conventional means, starting e.g. with a low dose in laboratory animals and then increasing the dosage while monitoring the effects, and systematically varying the dosage regimen as well. Animal studies are commonly used to determine the maximal tolerable dose (“MTD”) of bioactive agent per kilogram weight. Those skilled in the art regularly extrapolate doses for efficacy, while avoiding toxicity, in other species, including humans.

Dosing may be in one or a combination of two or more administrations, e.g., daily, bi-daily, weekly, monthly, or otherwise in accordance with the judgment of the clinician or practitioner, taking into account factors such as age, weight, severity of the disease, and the dose administered in each administration.

In accordance with the above, in therapeutic applications, the dosages of the composition used in accordance with the invention vary depending on the form, depending on the age, weight, and clinical condition of the recipient patient, and depending on the experience and judgment of the clinician or practitioner administering the therapy, among other factors affecting the selected dosage. Generally, the dose should be sufficient to result in relieving, and preferably eliminating, a dysbiosis or disease-associated microbiome, most preferably causing complete recovery from the autoimmune, inflammatory, or barrier disorder. Relief or elimination of a dysbiosis or disease-associated microbiome may be measured by culturing and/or sequencing techniques, and well as by detection of microbial biomarkers in bodily fluids including but not limited to serum, urine, and feces, or by other techniques known in the art. Relief or elimination of an autoimmune, inflammatory, or barrier disease, condition, or disorder may be indicated by biopsy and subsequent analysis of immune cells, microbial cells, and/or TEER, by local or systemic measurement of cytokine levels, by detection of biomarkers for immune cells, by a lactulose/mannitol test, or by other techniques known in the art.

In some embodiments, the microbes, carbohydrates, and microbial and prebiotic compositions are provided in a dosage form. In certain embodiments, the dosage form is designed for administration of at least one OTU or combination thereof disclosed herein, wherein the total amount of bacterial composition administered is selected from 0.1 ng to 10 g, 10 ng to 1 g, 100 ng to 0.1 g, 0.1 mg to 500 mg, 1 mg to 100 mg, or from 10-15 mg. In other embodiments, the bacterial composition is consumed at a rate of from 0.1 ng to 10 g a day, 10 ng to 1 g a day, 100 ng to 0.1 g a day, 0.1 mg to 500 mg a day, 1 mg to 100 mg a day, or from 10-15 mg a day, or more.

In certain embodiments, the treatment period is at least 1 day, at least 2 days, at least 3 days, at least 4 days, at least 5 days, at least 6 days, at least 1 week, at least 2 weeks, at least 3 weeks, at least 4 weeks, at least 1 month, at least 2 months, at least 3 months, at least 4 months, at least 5 months, at least 6 months, or at least 1 year. In some embodiments the treatment period is from 1 day to 1 week, from 1 week to 4 weeks, from 1 month, to 3 months, from 3 months to 6 months, from 6 months to 1 year, or for over a year.

In one embodiment, between about 105 and about 1012 microorganisms (e.g., CFUs) total can be administered to the patient in a given dosage form. In another embodiment, an effective amount can be provided in from 1 to 500 ml or from 1 to 500 grams of the bacterial composition having from 107 to 1011 bacteria per ml or per gram, or a capsule, tablet or suppository having from 1 mg to 1000 mg lyophilized powder having from 107 to 1011 bacteria. Those receiving acute treatment can receive higher doses than those who are receiving chronic administration (such as hospital workers or those admitted into long-term care facilities).

Any of the preparations described herein can be administered once on a single occasion or on multiple occasions, such as once a day for several days or more than once a day on the day of administration (including twice daily, three times daily, or up to five times daily). In another embodiment, the preparation can be administered intermittently according to a set schedule, e.g., once weekly, once monthly, or when the patient relapses from the primary illness. In one embodiment, the preparation can be administered on a long-term basis to individuals who are at risk for infection with or who may be carriers of these pathogens, including individuals who will have an invasive medical procedure (such as surgery), who will be hospitalized, who live in a long-term care or rehabilitation facility, who are exposed to pathogens by virtue of their profession (livestock and animal processing workers), or who could be carriers of pathogens (including hospital workers such as physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals).

Patient Selection.

Particular microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotic, can be selected for individual patients or for patients with particular profiles. For example, 16S sequencing can be performed for a given patient to identify the bacteria present in his or her microbiota. The sequencing can either profile the patient's entire microbiome using 16S sequencing (to the family, genera, or species level), a portion of the patient's microbiome using 16S sequencing, or it can be used to detect the presence or absence of specific candidate bacteria that are biomarkers for health or a particular disease state, such as markers of multi-drug resistant organisms or specific genera of concern such as Escherichia. Based on the biomarker data, a particular composition can be selected for administration to a patient to supplement or complement a patient's microbiota in order to restore health or treat or prevent disease. In another embodiment, patients can be screened to determine the composition of their microbiota to determine the likelihood of successful treatment.

In some embodiments, metabolite profiles of patient tissue samples or microbes cultures from patient tissue are used to identify risk factors for developing a gastrointestinal, autoimmune or inflammatory response, to diagnose a gastrointestinal, autoimmune or inflammatory disease, to evaluate the prognosis or severity of said disease, to evaluate the success of a treatment regimen, or any combination thereof. Exemplary metabolites for the purposes of diagnosis, prognostic risk assessment, or treatment assessment purposes include short chain fatty acids, bile acids, and lactate. In preferred embodiments, metabolite profiles are taken at different time points during a patient's disease and treatment in order to better evaluate the patient's disease state including recovery or relapse events. Such monitoring is also important to lower the risk of a patient developing a new autoimmune condition following immunomodulatory treatment. In some embodiments, metabolite profiles inform subsequent treatment, including but not limited to alterations in dosage of therapeutic compositions, formations of prebiotic, or the administration of a particular prebiotic or bacterial population, in order to promote the growth, proliferation, colonization, and/or engraftment of a desired microbial population in the host. In some embodiments, a patient has a deficiency of a desired microbial population which is enhanced by treatment. In some embodiments, a patient has a excess of a desired microbial population which is decreased by treatment.

Pharmaceutical Compositions and Formulations of the Invention

Formulations. Provided are formulations for administration to humans and other subjects in need thereof. Generally the microbial compositions are combined with additional active and/or inactive materials in order to produce a final product, which may be in single dosage unit or in a multi-dose format. In some embodiments of the invention, the microbial compositions are comprised of microbes. In some embodiments of the invention, the microbial compositions are comprised of microbes and one or more prebiotics.

As described herein, the composition comprises at least one prebiotic carbohydrate. A “carbohydrate” refers to a sugar or polymer of sugars. The terms “saccharide,” “polysaccharide,” “carbohydrate,” and “oligosaccharide” may be used interchangeably. Most carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups, usually one on each carbon atom of the molecule. Carbohydrates generally have the molecular formula CnH2nOn. A carbohydrate can be a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, trisaccharide, oligosaccharide, or polysaccharide. The most basic carbohydrate is a monosaccharide, such as glucose, sucrose, galactose, mannose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, and fructose. Disaccharides are two joined monosaccharides. Exemplary disaccharides include sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, and lactose. Typically, an oligosaccharide includes between three and six monosaccharide units (e.g., raffinose, stachyose), and polysaccharides include six or more monosaccharide units. Exemplary polysaccharides include starch, glycogen, and cellulose. Carbohydrates can contain modified saccharide units, such as 2′-deoxyribose wherein a hydroxyl group is removed, 2′-fluororibose wherein a hydroxyl group is replace with a fluorine, or N-acetylglucosamine, a nitrogen-containing form of glucose (e.g., 2′-fluororibose, deoxyribose, and hexose). Carbohydrates can exist in many different forms, for example, conformers, cyclic forms, acyclic forms, stereoisomers, tautomers, anomers, and isomers.

In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one lipid. As used herein, a “lipid” includes fats, oils, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids in any form including free fatty acids. Fats, oils and fatty acids can be saturated, unsaturated (cis or trans) or partially unsaturated (cis or trans). In some embodiments, the lipid comprises at least one fatty acid selected from lauric acid (12:0), myristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), margaric acid (17:0), heptadecenoic acid (17:1), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), linolenic acid (18:3), octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4), arachidic acid (20:0), eicosenoic acid (20:1), eicosadienoic acid (20:2), eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5) (EPA), docosanoic acid (22:0), docosenoic acid (22:1), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6) (DHA), and tetracosanoic acid (24:0). In other embodiments, the composition comprises at least one modified lipid, for example, a lipid that has been modified by cooking.

In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one supplemental mineral or mineral source. Examples of minerals include, without limitation: chloride, sodium, calcium, iron, chromium, copper, iodine, zinc, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, and selenium. Suitable forms of any of the foregoing minerals include soluble mineral salts, slightly soluble mineral salts, insoluble mineral salts, chelated minerals, mineral complexes, non-reactive minerals such as carbonyl minerals, and reduced minerals, and combinations thereof.

In certain embodiments, the composition comprises at least one supplemental vitamin. The at least one vitamin can be fat-soluble or water soluble vitamins. Suitable vitamins include but are not limited to vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B12, vitamin K, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, vitamin B6, folic acid, pyridoxine, thiamine, pantothenic acid, and biotin. Suitable forms of any of the foregoing are salts of the vitamin, derivatives of the vitamin, compounds having the same or similar activity of the vitamin, and metabolites of the vitamin.

The composition(s) may include different types of carriers depending on whether it is to be administered in solid, liquid or aerosol form, and whether it needs to be sterile for such routes of administration such as injection. The present invention can be administered intravenously, intradermally, intraarterially, intraperitoneally, intralesionally, intracranially, intraarticularly, intraprostaticaly, intrapleurally, intratracheally, intranasally, intravitreally, intravaginally, intrarectally, topically, intratumorally, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, subcutaneously, subconjunctival, intravesicularlly, mucosally, intlrapericardially, intraumbilically, intraocularally, orally, topically, locally, as an injection, infusion, continuous infusion, localized perfusion bathing target cells directly, via a catheter, via a lavage, in lipid compositions (e.g., liposomes), as an aerosol, or by other method or any combination of the foregoing as would be known to one of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed. Mack Printing Company, 1990, incorporated herein by reference).

In other embodiments, the composition comprises an excipient. Non-limiting examples of suitable excipients include a buffering agent, a preservative, a stabilizer, a binder, a compaction agent, a lubricant, a dispersion enhancer, a disintegration agent, a flavoring agent, a sweetener, and a coloring agent.

In another embodiment, the excipient is a buffering agent. Non-limiting examples of suitable buffering agents include sodium citrate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, and calcium bicarbonate.

In some embodiments, the excipient comprises a preservative. Non-limiting examples of suitable preservatives include antioxidants, such as alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate, and antimicrobials, such as parabens, chlorobutanol, and phenol.

In cases where a probiotic formulation contains anaerobic bacterial strains, the pharmaceutical formulation and excipients can be selected to prevent exposure of the bacterial strains to oxygen.

In other embodiments, the composition comprises a binder as an excipient. Non-limiting examples of suitable binders include starches, pregelatinized starches, gelatin, polyvinylpyrolidone, cellulose, methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, ethylcellulose, polyacrylamides, polyvinyloxoazolidone, polyvinylalcohols, C12-C18 fatty acid alcohol, polyethylene glycol, polyols, saccharides, oligosaccharides, and combinations thereof.

In another embodiment, the composition comprises a lubricant as an excipient. Non-limiting examples of suitable lubricants include magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, zinc stearate, hydrogenated vegetable oils, sterotex, polyoxyethylene monostearate, talc, polyethyleneglycol, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulfate, magnesium lauryl sulfate, and light mineral oil.

In other embodiments, the composition comprises a dispersion enhancer as an excipient. Non-limiting examples of suitable dispersants include starch, alginic acid, polyvinylpyrrolidones, guar gum, kaolin, bentonite, purified wood cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, isoamorphous silicate, and microcrystalline cellulose as high HLB emulsifier surfactants.

In some embodiments, the composition comprises a disintegrant as an excipient. In other embodiments, the disintegrant is a non-effervescent disintegrant. Non-limiting examples of suitable non-effervescent disintegrants include starches such as corn starch, potato starch, pregelatinized and modified starches thereof, sweeteners, clays, such as bentonite, microcrystalline cellulose, alginates, sodium starch glycolate, gums such as agar, guar, locust bean, karaya, pecitin, and tragacanth. In another embodiment, the disintegrant is an effervescent disintegrant. Non-limiting examples of suitable effervescent disintegrants include sodium bicarbonate in combination with citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate in combination with tartaric acid.

In another embodiment, the excipient comprises a flavoring agent. Flavoring agents can be chosen from synthetic flavor oils and flavoring aromatics; natural oils; extracts from plants, leaves, flowers, and fruits; and combinations thereof. In some embodiments the flavoring agent is selected from cinnamon oils; oil of wintergreen; peppermint oils; clover oil; hay oil; anise oil; eucalyptus; vanilla; citrus oil such as lemon oil, orange oil, grape and grapefruit oil; and fruit essences including apple, peach, pear, strawberry, raspberry, cherry, plum, pineapple, and apricot.

In other embodiments, the excipient comprises a sweetener. Non-limiting examples of suitable sweeteners include glucose (corn syrup), dextrose, invert sugar, fructose, and mixtures thereof (when not used as a carrier); saccharin and its various salts such as the sodium salt; dipeptide sweeteners such as aspartame; dihydrochalcone compounds, glycyrrhizin; Stevia Rebaudiana (Stevioside); chloro derivatives of sucrose such as sucralose; and sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, sylitol, and the like. Also contemplated are hydrogenated starch hydrolysates and the synthetic sweetener 3,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1,2,3-oxathiazin-4-one-2,2-dioxide, particularly the potassium salt (acesulfame-K), and sodium and calcium salts thereof.

In yet other embodiments, the composition comprises a coloring agent. Non-limiting examples of suitable color agents include food, drug and cosmetic colors (FD&C), drug and cosmetic colors (D&C), and external drug and cosmetic colors (Ext. D&C). The coloring agents can be used as dyes or their corresponding lakes.

The weight fraction of the excipient or combination of excipients in the formulation is usually about 99% or less, such as about 95% or less, about 90% or less, about 85% or less, about 80% or less, about 75% or less, about 70% or less, about 65% or less, about 60% or less, about 55% or less, 50% or less, about 45% or less, about 40% or less, about 35% or less, about 30% or less, about 25% or less, about 20% or less, about 15% or less, about 10% or less, about 5% or less, about 2% or less, or about 1% or less of the total weight of the composition.

The compositions disclosed herein can be formulated into a variety of forms and administered by a number of different means. The compositions can be administered orally, rectally, or parenterally, in formulations containing conventionally acceptable carriers, adjuvants, and vehicles as desired. The term “parenteral” as used herein includes subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular, or intrasternal injection and infusion techniques. In an exemplary embodiment, the composition is administered orally.

Solid dosage forms for oral administration include capsules, tablets, caplets, pills, troches, lozenges, powders, and granules. A capsule typically comprises a core material comprising a bacterial composition and a shell wall that encapsulates the core material. In some embodiments, the core material comprises at least one of a solid, a liquid, and an emulsion. In other embodiments, the shell wall material comprises at least one of a soft gelatin, a hard gelatin, and a polymer. Suitable polymers include, but are not limited to: cellulosic polymers such as hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), methyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate phthalate, cellulose acetate trimellitate, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose succinate and carboxymethylcellulose sodium; acrylic acid polymers and copolymers, such as those formed from acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ammonio methylacrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and/or ethyl methacrylate (e.g., those copolymers sold under the trade name “Eudragit”); vinyl polymers and copolymers such as polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinylacetate phthalate, vinylacetate crotonic acid copolymer, and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers; and shellac (purified lac). In yet other embodiments, at least one polymer functions as taste-masking agents.

Tablets, pills, and the like can be compressed, multiply compressed, multiply layered, and/or coated. The coating can be single or multiple. In one embodiment, the coating material comprises at least one of a saccharide, a polysaccharide, and glycoproteins extracted from at least one of a plant, a fungus, and a microbe. Non-limiting examples include corn starch, wheat starch, potato starch, tapioca starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, dextrans, maltodextrin, cyclodextrins, inulins, pectin, mannans, gum arabic, locust bean gum, mesquite gum, guar gum, gum karaya, gum ghatti, tragacanth gum, funori, carrageenans, agar, alginates, chitosans, or gellan gum. In some embodiments the coating material comprises a protein. In another embodiment, the coating material comprises at least one of a fat and an oil. In other embodiments, the at least one of a fat and an oil is high temperature melting. In yet another embodiment, the at least one of a fat and an oil is hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated. In one embodiment, the at least one of a fat and an oil is derived from a plant. In other embodiments, the at least one of a fat and an oil comprises at least one of glycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid esters. In some embodiments, the coating material comprises at least one edible wax. The edible wax can be derived from animals, insects, or plants. Non-limiting examples include beeswax, lanolin, bayberry wax, carnauba wax, and rice bran wax. Tablets and pills can additionally be prepared with enteric coatings.

Alternatively, powders or granules embodying the bacterial compositions disclosed herein can be incorporated into a food product. In some embodiments, the food product is a drink for oral administration. Non-limiting examples of a suitable drink include fruit juice, a fruit drink, an artificially flavored drink, an artificially sweetened drink, a carbonated beverage, a sports drink, a liquid diary product, a shake, an alcoholic beverage, a caffeinated beverage, infant formula and so forth. Other suitable means for oral administration include aqueous and nonaqueous solutions, emulsions, suspensions and solutions and/or suspensions reconstituted from non-effervescent granules, containing at least one of suitable solvents, preservatives, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, diluents, sweeteners, coloring agents, and flavoring agents.

In some embodiments, the food product can be a solid foodstuff. Suitable examples of a solid foodstuff include without limitation a food bar, a snack bar, a cookie, a brownie, a muffin, a cracker, an ice cream bar, a frozen yogurt bar, and the like.

In other embodiments, the compositions disclosed herein are incorporated into a therapeutic food. In some embodiments, the therapeutic food is a ready-to-use food that optionally contains some or all essential macronutrients and micronutrients. In another embodiment, the compositions disclosed herein are incorporated into a supplementary food that is designed to be blended into an existing meal. In one embodiment, the supplemental food contains some or all essential macronutrients and micronutrients. In another embodiment, the bacterial compositions disclosed herein are blended with or added to an existing food to fortify the food's protein nutrition. Examples include food staples (grain, salt, sugar, cooking oil, margarine), beverages (coffee, tea, soda, beer, liquor, sports drinks), snacks, sweets and other foods.

In one embodiment, the formulations are filled into gelatin capsules for oral administration. An example of an appropriate capsule is a 250 mg gelatin capsule containing from 10 (up to 100 mg) of lyophilized powder (108 to 1011 bacteria), 160 mg microcrystalline cellulose, 77.5 mg gelatin, and 2.5 mg magnesium stearate. In an alternative embodiment, from 105 to 1012 bacteria may be used, 105 to 107, 106 to 107, or 108 to 1010, with attendant adjustments of the excipients if necessary. In an alternative embodiment, an enteric-coated capsule or tablet or with a buffering or protective composition can be used.

The microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, are generally formulated for oral or gastric administration, typically to a mammalian subject. In particular embodiments, the composition is formulated for oral administration as a solid, semi-solid, gel, or liquid form, such as in the form of a pill, tablet, capsule, or lozenge. In some embodiments, such formulations contain or are coated by an enteric coating to protect the bacteria through the stomach and small intestine, although spores are generally resistant to the stomach and small intestines. In other embodiments, the microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, may be formulated with a germinant to enhance engraftment, or efficacy. In yet other embodiments, the bacterial compositions may be co-formulated or co-administered with prebiotic substances, to enhance engraftment or efficacy. In some embodiments, bacterial compositions may be co-formulated or co-administered with prebiotic substances, to enhance engraftment or efficacy.

The microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, may be formulated to be effective in a given mammalian subject in a single administration or over multiple administrations. For example, a single administration is substantially effective to reduce inflammatory and immune response in a mammalian subject to whom the composition is administered. Substantially effective means that inflammatory and/or immune response in the subject is reduced by at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99% or greater than 99% following administration of the composition. For example, a single administration is substantially effective to reduce Cl. difficile and/or Cl. difficile toxin content in a mammalian subject to whom the composition is administered. Substantially effective means that Cl. difficile and/or Cl. difficile toxin content in the subject is reduced by at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99% or greater than 99% following administration of the composition. In some embodiments, microbial and prebiotic compositions may be formulated as described above.

The composition is formulated such that a single oral dose contains at least about 1×104 colony forming units of the bacterial entities and/or fungal entities, and a single oral dose will typically contain about 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107, 1×108, 1×109, 1×1010, 1×1011, 1×1012, 1×1013, 1×1014, 1×1015, or greater than 1×1015 CFUs of the bacterial entities and/or fungal entities. The presence and/or concentration of a given type of bacterial may be known or unknown in a given purified spore population. If known, for example the concentration of spores of a given strain, or the aggregate of all strains, is e.g., 1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107, 1×108, 1×109, 1×1010, 1×1011, 1×1012, 1×1013, 1×1014, 1×1015, or greater than 1×1015 viable bacterial entities (e.g., CFUs) and/or fungal entities per gram of composition or per administered dose.

In some formulations, the composition contains at least about 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% or greater than 90% spores on a mass basis. In some formulations, the administered dose does not exceed 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 milligrams or 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, or 1.9 grams in mass.

The bacteria and/or fungi may contain a purified population that includes a substantial enrichment of bacterial entities present in the fecal material, and wherein the composition optionally comprises a germinant, such as BHIS oxgall, CaDPA, one or more amino acids, a sugar, a nucleoside, a bile salt, a metal or a metal cation, a fatty acid, and a long-chain alkyl amine, or a combination thereof.

It has recently come to light that the DNA of commensal microbes, including many species of Lactobacillus protect against activation of lamina propia dendritic cells and sustain regulatory T cell conversion (Bouladoux N, Hall J A, Grainger J R, dos Santos L M, Kann M G, Nagarajan V, Verthelyi D, and Belkaid Y, 2012. Regulatory role of suppressive motifs from commensal DNA. Mucosal Immunol. 5: 623-634). Thus commensal DNA may protect against colitis, IBD, and/or other immunological intolerances in the gut. Furthermore, Lactobacillus species are prevalent in the healthy vaginal microbiome. Thus, DNA from Lactobacillus or other vaginal microbiome commensals may suppress immune responses in the vagina that could disrupt the normal healthy-state vaginal microbiome and lead to complications such as chronic HPV, infertility, miscarriages, or UTIs. As such, in certain embodiments, the microbial composition, pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit additionally comprises DNA isolated from one or more host commensals.

Combination Therapy.

The microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, can be administered with other agents in a combination therapy mode, including anti-microbial agents. Administration can be sequential, over a period of hours or days, or simultaneous.

In one embodiment, the microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, are included in combination therapy with one or more anti-microbial agents, which include anti-bacterial agents, anti-fungal agents, anti-viral agents and anti-parasitic agents.

Anti-bacterial agents can include cephalosporin antibiotics (cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cephalothin, cefaclor, cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefprozil, and ceftobiprole); fluoroquinolone antibiotics (cipro, Levaquin, floxin, tequin, avelox, and norflox); tetracycline antibiotics (tetracycline, minocycline, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline); penicillin antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin V, dicloxacillin, carbenicillin, vancomycin, and methicillin); and carbapenem antibiotics (ertapenem, doripenem, imipenem/cilastatin, and meropenem).

Anti-viral agents can include Abacavir, Acyclovir, Adefovir, Amprenavir, Atazanavir, Cidofovir, Darunavir, Delavirdine, Didanosine, Docosanol, Efavirenz, Elvitegravir, Emtricitabine, Enfuvirtide, Etravirine, Famciclovir, Foscarnet, Fomivirsen, Ganciclovir, Indinavir, Idoxuridine, Lamivudine, Lopinavir Maraviroc, MK-2048, Nelfinavir, Nevirapine, Penciclovir, Raltegravir, Rilpivirine, Ritonavir, Saquinavir, Stavudine, Tenofovir Trifluridine, Valaciclovir, Valganciclovir, Vidarabine, Ibacitabine, Amantadine, Oseltamivir, Rimantidine, Tipranavir, Zalcitabine, Zanamivir and Zidovudine.

Examples of antifungal compounds include, but are not limited to polyene antifungals such as natamycin, rimocidin, filipin, nystatin, amphotericin B, candicin, and hamycin; imidazole antifungals such as miconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, omoconazole, bifonazole, butoconazole, fenticonazole, isoconazole, oxiconazole, sertaconazole, sulconazole, and tioconazole; triazole antifungals such as fluconazole, itraconazole, isavuconazole, ravuconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terconazole, and albaconazole; thiazole antifungals such as abafungin; allylamine antifungals such as terbinafine, naftifine, and butenafine; and echinocandin antifungals such as anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin. Other compounds that have antifungal properties include, but are not limited to polygodial, benzoic acid, ciclopirox, tolnaftate, undecylenic acid, flucytosine or 5-fluorocytosine, griseofulvin, and haloprogin.

In one embodiment, the bacterial compositions are included in combination therapy with one or more corticosteroids, mesalazine, mesalamine, sulfasalazine, sulfasalazine derivatives, immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporin A, mercaptopurine, azathiopurine, prednisone, methotrexate, antihistamines, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, theophylline, cromolyn sodium, anti-leukotrienes, anti-cholinergic drugs for rhinitis, anti-cholinergic decongestants, mast-cell stabilizers, monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, vaccines, and combinations thereof.

In one embodiment, the bacterial compositions are included in a combination or adjuvant therapy with one or more additional treatments for GVHD. For example, the bacterial compositions can be administered to a transplant subject who has been or currently is being treated with an immunosuppressive treatment like cyclosporine, high dose steroids, methotrexate, or methylprednisolone.

A prebiotic is an ingredient that can allow specific changes in both the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confers benefits upon host well-being and health. Prebiotics can include complex carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, or other essential nutritional components for the survival of the bacterial composition. Prebiotics include, but are not limited to, amino acids, biotin, fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharides, inulin, lactulose, mannan oligosaccharides, oligofructose-enriched inulin, oligofructose, oligodextrose, tagatose, trans-galactooligosaccharide, and xylooligosaccharides.

Methods for Testing Compositions for Populating Effect

In Vivo Assay for Determining Whether a Composition Populates a Subject's Gastrointestinal Tract or Vagina.

In order to determine that the composition populates the gastrointestinal tract or vagina of a subject, an animal model, such as a mouse model, can be used. The model can begin by evaluating the microbiota of the mice. Qualitative assessments can be accomplished using 16S profiling of the microbial community in the feces of normal mice. It can also be accomplished by full genome sequencing, whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS), or traditional microbiological techniques. Quantitative assessments can be conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR), described below, or by using traditional microbiological techniques and counting colony formation.

Optionally, the mice can receive an antibiotic treatment to mimic the condition of dysbiosis. Antibiotic treatment can decrease the taxonomic richness, diversity, and evenness of the community, including a reduction of abundance of a significant number of bacterial taxa. Dethlefsen et al., The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing, PLoS Biology 6(11):3280 (2008). At least one antibiotic can be used, and antibiotics are well known. Antibiotics can include aminoglycoside antibiotic (amikacin, arbekacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, netilmicin, paromomycin, rhodostreptomycin, streptomycin, tobramycin, and apramycin), amoxicillin, ampicillin, Augmentin (an amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium combination), cephalosporin (cefaclor, defadroxil, cefazolin, cefixime, fefoxitin, cefprozil, ceftazimdime, cefuroxime, cephalexin), clavulanate potassium, clindamycin, colistin, gentamycin, kanamycin, metronidazole, or vancomycin. As an individual, nonlimiting specific example, the mice can be provided with drinking water containing a mixture of the antibiotics kanamycin, colistin, gentamycin, metronidazole and vancomycin at 40 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg, 3.5 mg/kg, 21.5 mg/kg, and 4.5 mg/kg (mg per average mouse body weight), respectively, for 7 days. Alternatively, mice can be administered ciprofloxacin at a dose of 15-20 mg/kg (mg per average mouse body weight), for 7 days.

If the mice are provided with an antibiotic, a wash out period of from one day to three days may be provided with no antibiotic treatment and no bacterial composition treatment.

Subsequently, the composition is administered to the mice by oral gavage. The composition may be administered in a volume of 0.2 ml containing 104 CFUs of each type of bacteria in the therapeutic composition. Dose-response may be assessed by using a range of doses, including, but not limited to 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, and/or 1010.

The mice can be evaluated using 16S sequencing, full genome sequencing, whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS), or traditional microbiological techniques to determine whether administering the composition has resulted in the population by one or more administered bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract or vagina of the mice. For example only, one day, three days, one week, two weeks, and one month after administration of the bacterial composition to the mice, 16S profiling is conducted to determine whether administering the composition has resulted in population by one or more administered bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract or vagina of the mice. Quantitative assessments, including qPCR and traditional microbiological techniques such as colony counting, can additionally or alternatively be performed, at the same time intervals.

Furthermore, the number of sequence counts that correspond exactly to those in the composition over time can be assessed to determine specifically which components of the bacterial composition reside in the gastrointestinal tract or vagina over a particular period of time. In one embodiment, the bacterial strains of the composition persist for a desired period of time. In another embodiment, the bacterial strains of the composition persist for a desired period of time, while also increasing the ability of other microbes (such as those present in the environment, food, etc.) to populate the gastrointestinal tract or vagina, further increasing overall diversity, as discussed below.

Ability of Compositions to Populate Different Regions of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Vagina.

The present microbial compositions can also be assessed for their ability to populate different regions on the gastrointestinal tract or vagina. In one embodiment, a microbes of the therapeutic composition can be chosen for its ability to populate one or more than one region of the gastrointestinal tract, including, but not limited to the stomach, the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), the large intestine (the cecum, the colon (the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon), and the rectum). In another embodiment, the bacterial composition can be chosen for its ability to populate one or more than one region of the vagina. In some embodiments of the above invention, the microbial compositions comprise microbes and one or more prebiotics.

An in vivo study can be conducted to determine which regions of the gastrointestinal tract or vagina a given bacterial composition will populate. A mouse model similar to the one described above can be conducted, except instead of assessing the feces produced by the mice, particular regions of the gastrointestinal tract or vagina can be removed and studied individually.

For example, at least one particular region of the gastrointestinal tract or vagina can be removed and a qualitative or quantitative determination can be performed on the contents of that region of the gastrointestinal tract or vagina. In another embodiment, the contents can optionally be removed and the qualitative or quantitative determination may be conducted on the tissue removed from the mouse.

gPCR.

As one quantitative method for determining whether a microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, populates the gastrointestinal tract or vagina, quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be performed. Standard techniques can be followed to generate a standard curve for the bacterial composition of interest, either for all of the components of the bacterial composition collectively, individually, or in subsets (if applicable). Genomic DNA can be extracted from samples using commercially-available kits, such as the Mo Bio Powersoil®-htp 96 Well Soil DNA Isolation Kit (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.), the Mo Bio Powersoil® DNA Isolation Kit (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.), or the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, Calif.) according to the manufacturer's instructions.

In some embodiments, qPCR can be conducted using HotMasterMix (5PRIME, Gaithersburg, Md.) and primers specific for the bacterial composition of interest, and may be conducted on a MicroAmp® Fast Optical 96-well Reaction Plate with Barcode (0.1 mL) (Life Technologies, Grand Island, N.Y.) and performed on a BioRad C1000™ Thermal Cycler equipped with a CFX96™ Real-Time System (BioRad, Hercules, Calif.), with fluorescent readings of the FAM and ROX channels. The Cq value for each well on the FAM channel is determined by the CFX Manager™ software version 2.1. The log10(cfu/ml) of each experimental sample is calculated by inputting a given sample's Cq value into linear regression model generated from the standard curve comparing the Cq values of the standard curve wells to the known log10(cfu/ml) of those samples. The skilled artisan may employ alternative qPCR modes.

VIII. Distal Dysbiosis

The probiotic compositions described herein have beneficial effects for the subject locally, at the site of administration (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract for compositions administered orally, or in the vagina for compositions administered vaginally), as previously described. Surprisingly, the probiotic compositions described herein may also be used to correct or prevent a dysbiosis at a site distal to the site of administration.

“Dysbiosis” refers to a state of the microbiota of the gut or other body area in a subject, including mucosal or skin surfaces in which the normal diversity and/or function of the ecological network is disrupted. This unhealthy state can be due to a decrease in diversity, the overgrowth of one or more pathogens or pathobionts, symbiotic organisms able to cause disease only when certain genetic and/or environmental conditions are present in a subject, or the shift to an ecological microbial network that no longer provides an essential function to the host subject, and therefore no longer promotes health. Accordingly, a “gastrointestinal dysbiosis” refers to a state of the microbiota or microbiome of the gut in which the normal diversity and/or function of the ecological network or niche is disrupted. The term “gut” as used herein is meant to refer to the entire gastrointestinal or digestive tract (also referred to as the alimentary canal) and it refers to the system of organs within multi-cellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. As used herein the term “gastrointestinal tract” refers to the entire digestive canal, from the oral cavity to the rectum. The term “gastrointestinal tract” includes, but is not limited to, mouth and proceeds to the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and, finally, the anus.

The term “distal” generally is used in relation to the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the intestinal lumen, of a human or other mammal, which represent the intended sites of engraftment or colonization for probiotics administered orally. Thus, in relation to probiotics administered to the gastrointestinal tract, a “distal dysbiosis” includes a dysbiosis outside of the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. In other instances, the term “distal” may be used in relation to the site of administration, intended engraftment, or intended colonization of a composition, e.g., a probiotic composition, of the invention. For example, if a probiotic composition is administered vaginally, a distal effect of the composition would occur outside the vagina. Similarly, if a probiotic composition is administered to the skin, e.g., through a skin patch, transdermal lotion, etc., a distal effect of the composition would occur in a niche other than the skin. If a probiotic composition is administered to the lungs, e.g., in an inhalable formulation, a distal effect of the composition would occur outside the lungs. If a probiotic composition is administered to the ear, eye, nose, etc., a distal effect of the composition would occur at a site other than the site of administration, engraftment, or colonization of the composition (i.e., distal to the ear, distal to the eye, distal to the nose, etc.).

Distal sites include but are not limited to the liver, spleen, fallopian tubes and uterus. Other distal sites include skin, blood and lymph nodes. In other embodiments, the distal site is placenta, spleen, liver, uterus, blood, eyes, ears, lungs, liver, pancreas, brain, embryonic sac, or vagina. In another embodiment, the distal site is vagina, skin, lungs, brain, nose, ear, eyes/conjunctiva, mouth, circulatory system, e.g., blood, placenta, reproductive tract, cardiovascular system, and/or nervous system. A probiotic composition may have an effect on the microbiota of more than one distal site in a subject. For example, in some embodiments, a probiotic composition modulates the microbiota of one or more sites distal to the site of administration, engraftment, or colonization, e.g., one or more of placenta, spleen, liver, uterus, blood, eyes, ears, lungs, liver, pancreas, brain, embryonic sac, vagina, skin, brain, nose, mouth, reproductive tract, cardiovascular system, and/or nervous system.

Any disruption from a preferred (e.g., ideal, normal, or beneficial) state of the microbiota can be considered a dysbiosis, even if such dysbiosis does not result in a detectable disease or disorder, or decrease in health. This state of dysbiosis may lead to a disease or disorder (e.g. GVHD, transplant rejection, and related conditions), or the state of dysbiosis may lead to a disease or disorder (e.g. GVHD, transplant rejection, and related conditions) only under certain conditions, or the state of dysbiosis may prevent a subject from responding to treatment or recovering from a disease or disorder (e.g. GVHD, transplant rejection, and related conditions). In the case of GVHD, a gastrointestinal dysbiosis can contribute to the pathology of GVHD by increasing inflammation and/or reducing intestinal barrier integrity. A dysbiosis distal to the gastrointestinal tract can also contribute to GVHD pathology, for example, by increasing systemic inflammation in the subject. In one embodiment, the distal dysbiosis is at or near the site of the transplant. Accordingly, probiotic compositions of the invention that modulate the microbiome, e.g., to correct a dysbiosis, can be used to prevent or treat GVHD in a transplant recipient. In addition, probiotic compositions that reduce inflammation and/or increase intestinal barrier integrity can be used to prevent or treat GVHD in a transplant recipient.

In certain aspects, the present invention is directed to a method of reconstituting, modulating, or creating a beneficial bacterial flora in the gastrointestinal tract of a mammalian host in need thereof, comprising administering to the mammalian host a composition comprising at least one isolated bacterial population. In one embodiment, the at least one bacterial population is coadministered or coformulated with one or more prebiotic, e.g, at least one polymer or monomer. In one embodiment, the prebiotic is a carbohydrate, e.g., xylose. In one embodiment, the subject is a transplant recipient. In one embodiment, the subject has or is at risk for developing GVHD. In certain embodiments the gastrointestinal disease, disorder or condition is a disease or disorder associated with or characterized by reduced intestinal integrity.

In certain other aspects, the present invention is directed to a method of treating or alleviating a transplant disorder, e.g., GVHD or transplant rejection, in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising a administering to the subject at least one isolated bacterial population. In one embodiment, the at least one bacterial population is coadministered or coformulated with one or more prebiotic, e.g, at least one polymer or monomer. In one embodiment, the one or more prebiotic is a carbohydrate, e.g., xylose.

Provided are compositions and methods to provide modulation, engraftment and/or augmentation of one or more bacterial and/or fungal entities to a distal site. In order to characterize the alteration of a target niche, such as by engraftment and/or augmentation of a bacteria within the niche, provided are methods of detecting, quantifying and characterizing 16S, 18S and ITS signatures in skin, vagina, etc. Moreover, provided are methods of detecting bacterial and fungal components typically associated with one microbiota in a distal site, often associating with (in a physiological or manner) with the microbiota of that distal site. For example, following administration of a composition, bacteria detectably present in the GI tract or vagina prior to administration are detected in distal sites, for example, the blood, or another niche outside the GI lumen. For example, changes in the microbiome at a given site (e.g. GI tract) lead to changes in the microbiome at a distal site (e.g. vagina).

Accordingly, detecting and quantifying 16S, 18S and ITS signatures of the microbial network at a distal site can be used to characterize the components of the microbiome at the distal site under normal, healthy conditions, and can also be used to detect a dysbiosis at the distal site, when the components of the microbiome at the distal site are disrupted.

In order to characterize a distal dysbiosis, provided are methods of detecting, quantifying and characterizing 16S, 18S and ITS signatures in immune organs, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, etc. Moreover, provided are methods of detecting bacterial and fungal components typically associated with one microbiota in a distal site, often associating (in a physiological or pathological manner) with the microbiota of that distal site. For example, bacteria normally detected in the GI tract or vagina are detected in distal sites, for example, the blood.

A distal dysbiosis includes disruptions in the normal diversity and/or function of the microbial network in a subject at a site other than the gastrointestinal tract, which is generally the site of administration of probiotics provided orally. In cases where a probiotic composition is administered to a site other than the gastrointestinal tract, a distal dysbiosis can include disruptions in the normal diversity and/or function of the microbial network in a subject at a site other than the site of administration, colonization or engraftment.

Probiotic compositions described herein can correct or treat a distal dysbiosis by correcting the imbalance in microbial diversity that is present at the distal site. Bacteria contained in the probiotic composition can correct the distal dysbiosis directly, by translocating to the distal site. Bacteria contained in the probiotic composition can also correct the distal dysbiosis indirectly, by promoting translocation of other gut commensals to the distal site, or by modifying the microenvironment of the distal site to create conditions that restore a healthy microbiome, e.g., by reducing inflammation.

Without wishing to be bound by theory, the probiotic compositions of the invention may impact distal sites in several ways.

In one embodiment, a bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition engrafts in the gastrointestinal tract of a subject, and translocates to a distal site, thereby augmenting the bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition at the distal site. In one embodiment, the bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition is not detectably present at the distal site prior to administration of the probiotic.

In another embodiment, a bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition is augmented in the gastrointestinal tract of a subject without engraftment, and translocates to a distal site, thereby augmenting the bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition at the distal site. In one embodiment, the bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition is not detectably present at the distal site prior to administration of the probiotic.

In another embodiment, a bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition modulates the microenvironment of the gut, augmenting a second bacterial strain present within the gut microbiota. The second bacterial strain augmented in the gut translocates to a distal site, thereby augmenting the second bacterial strain at the distal site. In embodiments, the second bacterial strain is not present in the probiotic composition. In some embodiments, the bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition is an immunomodulatory bacteria, e.g., an anti-inflammatory bacteria. Modulation of the microenvironment of the gut may include, for example, alteration of cytokines secreted by host cells in and around the gut, reducing inflammation in the gut, increasing secretion of short chain fatty acids in the gut, or altering the proportion of immune cell subpopulations in the gut, each of which impacts the gut microbiome. Modulation of the microenvironment of the gut can include increasing or decreasing overall microbial diversity.

In another embodiment, a bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition modulates the microenvironment at a distal site in a subject, thereby augmenting a second bacterial strain at the distal site. In embodiments, the second bacterial strain is not present in the probiotic composition. In some embodiments, the bacterial strain present in the probiotic composition is an immunomodulatory bacteria, e.g., an anti-inflammatory bacteria. Immunomodulatory bacteria can modulate the microenvironment at a site distal to the gastrointestinal tract in a subject by, for example, reducing systemic inflammation. This can be achieved by altering the profile of cytokine expression by immune cells, or altering the proportion of immune cell subpopulations. Bacterial strains present in the probiotic compostion can also modulate intestinal permeability, e.g., by secretion of short chain fatty acids, which impacts the microenvironment of distal sites. In addition or alternatively, bacterial strains present in the probiotic composition can increase or decrease overall microbial diversity.

Accordingly, the probiotic compositions described herein may additively or synergistically elicit an immunomodulatory response either distally, e.g., in which enteral administration of microbes results in altering the immune response at a site outside the gastrointestinal tract such as the skin or liver, or locally, e.g. the enteral administration of microbes results in altering the immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, e.g., in the intestines.

The immune system of a subject and the microbiome of the subject are closely linked, and interact systemically. Disruptions to the microbiome, both in the gastrointestinal tract and at distal sites, can have profound effects throughout the body of the subject. In particular, disruptions to the microbiome increase systemic inflammation and intestinal barrier dysfunction in a subject. Increased inflammation and intestinal barrier dysfunction negatively impact the health of the subject in many ways, by contributing to a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions distal to the gastrointestinal tract. Conversely, increased inflammation in a subject leads to disruptions in the subject's microbiome, and disruptions to the microbiome lead in turn to further increases in inflammation. Administration of a probiotic composition containing immunomodulatory bacteria can reduce inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract and restore intestinal barrier integrity, resulting in a reduction in inflammation at sites distal to the gastrointestinal tract, and improvement in the symptoms of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders associated with systemic inflammation. Administration of a probiotic composition containing bacterial strains that secrete short chain fatty acids are also capable of reducing inflammation restoring intestinal barrier integrity.

In other embodiments, the probiotic compositions of the invention improve blood/brain barrier integrity. In other embodiments, the probiotic compositions of the invention improve lung epithelium integrity.

The probiotic compositions and methods described herein can prevent or treat the loss or reduction of barrier function recognized to occur during dysbiosis or in the shift in one or more microbiotal populations that give rise to the dysbiosis. The loss of barrier function results in systemic seeding of bacterial populations resulting in dysbiotic activity, and in some events, the loss of barrier function results in a local reseeding of the bacterial populations. In both situations, the resulting immune activation leads to pathogenic inflammatory and immune responses. In response, provided are compositions that are capable of restoring barrier function, restoring the normal microbiotal components, and reducing (e.g., suppressing) immune/inflammatory response. In one embodiment, the improvement of gut epithelium barrier integrity results in reduced trafficking of bacteria, bacterial components and/or bacterial metabolites into the blood. In some compositions, provided are antibiotic agents that remove the existing microflora in a target niche, while newly administered or recruited bacteria and fungi populate (or re-populate) the target niche. The combination with carbohydrates (e.g., by co-administration or co-formulation) may synergistically affect this population/repopulation technique.

Disorders associated with a dysbiosis, i.e., a gastrointestinal dysbiosis or a distal dysbiosis, which increases systemic inflammation and/or reduces intestinal barrier integrity include, for example, autoimmune or inflammatory disorders, Crohn's Disease, vaginal dysbiosis, and transplant disorders such as graft-versus-host disease. These disorders can be treated by administration (e.g., oral administration) of probiotic compositions containing immunomodulatory (e.g., anti-inflammatory) bacterial strains.

In some embodiments, the probiotic compositions described herein may additively or synergistically reduce the number of types of autoimmune disease- or inflammatory disease-associated pathogens or pathobionts either distally—e.g., orally-administered microbes reduce the total microbial burden in an organ not in the gastrointestinal tract, or intravaginally-administered microbes reduce the total microbial burden in an organ that is not the vagina—or locally, e.g., the intestines or vagina, respectively.

Accordingly, in one aspect, the invention provides a method of reducing inflammation in a subject, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated, anti-inflammatory bacterial population, such that inflammation in the subject is reduced. A systemic reduction in inflammation can modulate the microbiome of niches distal to the site of administration, intended engraftment, or intended colonization of the bacterial population. The probiotic composition can contain an excipient useful for formulation as a pharmaceutical composition. In instances where the bacterial population includes anaerobic bacteria, the excipient can, in one embodiment, reduce exposure of the bacterial population to oxygen.

In a preferred embodiment, administration of the probiotic composition can reduce inflammation at a site distal to the site of administration, engraftment, or colonization, such as, for example, vagina, skin, lungs, brain, nose, ear, eyes/conjunctiva, mouth, circulatory system, e.g., blood, placenta, embryonic sac, reproductive tract, cardiovascular system, and/or nervous system. In one embodiment, administration of the probiotic composition can reduce inflammation at a site selected from blood, skin, vagina, liver, spleen, fallopian tubes, uterus, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, administration of the probiotic composition modulates the microbiome at a distal site.

The anti-inflammatory bacterial population can induce a decrease in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or an increase in secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by host cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of the bacterial population can be determined by methods described herein or known in the art, for example, by measuring alterations in cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to the bacterial population.

Anti-inflammatory bacteria can be selected for inclusion in the probiotic formulation based on modulation of particular cytokines of interest. For example, anti-inflammatory bacteria can be selected based on the ability to decrease secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof, and/or the ability to increase secretion of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, and combinations thereof.

In another aspect, the invention provides methods of treating or preventing a distal dysbiosis in a subject, by administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population in an amount sufficient to alter the microbiome at a site distal to the site of administration, engraftment, or colonization of the bacterial population, such that the distal dysbiosis is treated. For example, administration of the probiotic composition may modulate a first microbiome at the site of administration, engraftment or colonization of the bacterial population, causing subsequent modulation of a second microbiome at a site that is distinct from the first microbiome, e.g., a distal site.

In one embodiment, the invention provides methods of treating or preventing a distal dysbiosis, by orally administering a probiotic composition which alters the microbiome at a site distal to the gastrointestinal tract.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method of treating or preventing a disorder associated with a distal dysbiosis in a subject in need thereof, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population in an amount sufficient to alter the microbiome at a site of the distal dysbiosis, such that the disorder associated with the distal dysbiosis is treated. Disorders associated with distal dysbiosis, including disruptions to the systemic microbiome, are described herein and include, for example, autoimmune or inflammatory disorders such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Celiac disease; transplant disorders such as graft-versus-host disease; and vaginal dysbiosis. In one embodiment, the disorder associated with distal dysbiosis occurs in the respiratory tract (e.g., lung), including but not limited to Cystic Fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).

In one embodiment, the probiotic composition contains a species of bacteria that is deficient at the site of the distal dysbiosis. Administration of the probiotic composition can increase the quantity of the deficient species in the distal microbiome. In one embodiment, the deficient species is not detectably present at the site of the distal dysbiosis prior to administration of the probiotic composition. In one embodiment, the species of bacteria in the probiotic composition translocates to the site of the distal dysbiosis.

In another embodiment, the probiotic composition results in augmentation of a species of bacteria not present in the probiotic composition at a distal site. This augmentation can result from, for example, translocation of a species of bacteria not present in the probiotic composition to the distal site, and/or modulation of the microenvironment of the distal site in a manner that alters the microbiome.

In preferred embodiments, the probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria, e.g., anti-inflammatory bacteria.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method of reducing intestinal permeability in a subject, by administering a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, wherein administration of the probiotic composition augments a species of bacteria that produces short chain fatty acids, such that the intestinal permeability of the subject is reduced. In other embodiments, intestinal permeability and disorders associated therewith is improved by administering a probiotic composition containing mucin-containing bacteria, and/or anti-inflammatory bacteria.

Probiotic compositions useful for correcting or treating a distal dysbiosis, or for treating a disorder distal to the gastrointestinal tract associated with a dysbiosis, can include any of the probiotic compositions described herein. In exemplary embodiments, a probiotic composition useful for correcting or treating a distal dysbiosis includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition useful for correcting or treating a distal dysbiosis includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1A. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition useful for correcting or treating a distal dysbiosis includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1B. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition useful for correcting or treating a distal dysbiosis includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1C. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition useful for correcting or treating a distal dysbiosis includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1D. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition useful for correcting or treating a distal dysbiosis includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1E. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition useful for correcting or treating a distal dysbiosis includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1F. In some embodiments, the probiotic composition contains a single strain of bacteria. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains two or more strains of bacteria, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 500, 1000 or more strains of bacteria. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains or is administered in conjunction with a prebiotic, as described herein.

Preferred bacterial genera include Acetanaerobacterium, Acetivibrio, Alicyclobacillus, Alkaliphilus, Anaerofustis, Anaerosporobacter, Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Blautia, Brachyspira, Brevibacillus, Bryantella, Bulleidia, Butyricicoccus, Butyrivibrio, Catenibacterium, Chlamydiales, Clostridiaceae, Clostridiales, Clostridium, Collinsella, Coprobacillus, Coprococcus, Coxiella, Deferribacteres, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfotomaculum, Dorea, Eggerthella, Erysipelothrix, Erysipelotrichaceae, Ethanoligenens, Eubacterium, Faecalibacterium, Filifactor, Flavonifractor, Flexistipes, Fulvimonas, Fusobacterium, Gemmiger, Geobacillus, Gloeobacter, Holdemania, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, Kocuria, Lachnobacterium, Lachnospira, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillus, Lactonifactor, Leptospira, Lutispora, Lysinibacillus, Mollicutes, Moorella, Nocardia, Oscillibacter, Oscillospira, Paenibacillus, Papillibacter, Pseudoflavonifractor, Robinsoniella, Roseburia, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcus, Saccharomonospora, Sarcina, Solobacterium, Sporobacter, Sporolactobacillus, Streptomyces, Subdoligranulum, Sutterella, Syntrophococcus, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermobifida, and Turicibacter.

Preferred bacterial genera also include Acetonema, Alkaliphilus, Amphibacillus, Ammonifex, Anaerobacter, Caldicellulosiruptor, Caloramator, Candidatus, Carboxydibrachium, Carboxydothermus, Cohnella, Dendrosporobacter Desulfitobacterium, Desulfosporosinus, Halobacteroides, Heliobacterium, Heliophilum, Heliorestis, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Lysinibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Orenia (S.), Oxalophagus, Oxobacter, Pelospora, Pelotomaculum, Propionispora, Sporohalobacter, Sporomusa, Sporosarcina, Sporotomaculum, Symbiobacterium, Syntrophobotulus, Syntrophospora, Terribacillus, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermosinus and Heliobacillus.

As provided herein, therapeutic compositions comprise, or in the alternative, modulate, the colonization and/or engraftment, of the following exemplary bacterial entities: Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus villorum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Staphylococcus cohnii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus sinensis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sp. SCA22, Streptococcus sp. CR-3145, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus mutans, Coprobacillus cateniformis, Clostridium saccharogumia, Eubacterium dolichum DSM 3991, Clostridium sp. PPf35E6, Clostridium sordelli ATCC 9714, Ruminococcus torques, Ruminococcus gnavus, Clostridium clostridioforme, Ruminococcus obeum, Blautia producta, Clostridium sp. ID5, Megasphaera micronuciformis, Veillonella parvula, Clostridium methylpentosum, Clostridium islandicum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides uniformmis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides fragilis, Parabacteroides distasonis, Propinionibacteirum propionicum, Actinomycs hyovaginalis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Rothia aeria, Bifidobacterium breve, Scardovia inopinata and Eggerthella lenta.

Preferred bacterial species are provided in Table 1, Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, Table 1F, and Table 5. Optionally, in some embodiments, preferred bacterial species are spore formers. The bacterial species may be used in vegetative form and/or in spore form. Thus, in some embodiments, the bacteria present in a composition are solely in spore form. In some embodiments, the bacteria present in a composition are solely in vegetative form. In some embodiments, the bacteria present in a composition are in a combination of vegetative form and spore form. Where specific strains of a species are provided, one of skill in the art will recognize that other strains of the species can be substituted for the named strain.

In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Veillonella dispar.

In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Veillonella dispar.

Exemplary probiotic compositions useful for treatment of disorders associated with a distal dysbiosis contain bacterial strains capable of reducing inflammation in a subject. As described herein, such immunomodulatory (anti-inflammatory) bacteria can modulate cytokine expression by host immune cells, resulting in an overall increase in secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and/or an overall decrease in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, systemically reducing inflammation in the subject. In exemplary embodiments, probiotic compositions useful for treatment of disorders associated with a distal dysbiosis stimulate secretion of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines by host immune cells, such as PBMCs. Anti-inflammatory cytokines include, but are not limited to, IL-10, IL-13, IL-9, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ, and combinations thereof. In other exemplary embodiments, probiotic compositions useful for treatment of disorders associated with a distal dysbiosis inhibit secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines by host immune cells, such as PBMCs. Pro-inflammatory cytokines include, but are not limited to, IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. Other exemplary cytokines are known in the art and are described herein. Probiotic compositions containing anti-inflammatory bacteria reduce inflammation at the site of administration, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as at distal sites throughout the body of the subject.

Other exemplary probiotic compositions useful for treatment of disorders associated with a dysbiosis distal to the gastrointestinal tract contain bacterial strains capable of altering the proportion of immune subpopulations, e.g., T cell subpopulations, in the subject.

For example, immunomodulatory bacteria can increase or decrease the proportion of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, or Th2 cells in a subject. The increase or decrease in the proportion of immune cell subpopulations may be systemic, or it may be localized to a site of action of the probiotic, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract or at the site of a distal dysbiosis. In some embodiments, a probiotic composition comprising immunomodulatory bacteria is used for treatment of disorders associated with a dysbiosis distal to the gastrointestinal tract based on the desired effect of the probiotic composition on the differentiation and/or expansion of subpopulations of immune cells in the subject.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Treg cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Treg cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th17 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th17 cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th1 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th1 cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th2 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th2 cells in a subject.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria capable of modulating the proportion of one or more of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and combinations thereof in a subject. Certain immune cell profiles may be particularly desirable to treat or prevent particular disorders associated with a dysbiosis. For example, treatment or prevention of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders can be promoted by increasing numbers of Treg cells and Th2 cells, and decreasing numbers of Th17 cells and Th1 cells. Accordingly, probiotic compositions for the treatment or prevention of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders may contain probiotics capable of promoting Treg cells and Th2 cells, and reducing Th17 and Th1 cells.

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can have immunomodulatory (i.e., immunosuppressive) effects and therefore their production (i.e., biosynthesis or conversion by fermentation) is advantageous for the prevention, control, mitigation, and treatment of autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorders (Lara-Villoslada F. et al., 2006. Short-chain fructooligosaccharides, in spite of being fermented in the upper part of the large intestine, have anti-inflammatory activity in the TNBS model of colitis. Eur J Nutr. 45(7): 418-425). In germ-free mice and vancomycin-treated conventional mice, administration of SCFA (acetate, propionate, or butyrate) restored normal numbers of Tregs in the large intestine (Smith P M, et al. Science. 2013; 569-573). Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by some bacteria as a byproduct of xylose fermentation. SCFA are one of the most abundant metabolites produced by the gut microbiome, particularly the family Clostridiacea, including members of the genus Clostridium, Ruminococcus, or Blautia. In some aspects, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe (e.g., one or more microbial species, such as a bacterial species, or more than one strain of a particular microbial species) and at least one type of prebiotic such that the composition, dosage form, or kit is capable of increasing the level of one or more immunomodulatory SCFA (e.g., acetate, propionate, butyrate, or valerate) in a mammalian subject. Optionally, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit further comprises one or more substrates of one or more SCFA-producing fermentation and/or biosynthesis pathways. In certain embodiments, the administration of the composition, dosage form, or kit to a mammalian subject results in the increase of one or more SCFAs in the mammalian subject by approximately 1.5-fold, 2-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, 50-fold, 100-fold, or greater than 100-fold. In some embodiments, the dysbiosis is caused by a deficiency in microbes that produce short chain fatty acids. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the probiotic composition can contain a species of bacteria that produce short chain fatty acids.

Aspects of this invention also include medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). MCTs passively diffuse from the GI tract to the portal system (longer fatty acids are absorbed into the lymphatic system) without requirement for modification like long-chain fatty acids or very-long-chain fatty acids. In addition, MCTs do not require bile salts for digestion. Patients who have malnutrition or malabsorption syndromes are treated with MCTs because they do not require energy for absorption, use, or storage. Medium-chain triglycerides are generally considered a good biologically inert source of energy that the human body finds reasonably easy to metabolize. They have potentially beneficial attributes in protein metabolism, but may be contraindicated in some situations due to their tendency to induce ketogenesis and metabolic acidosis. Due to their ability to be absorbed rapidly by the body, medium-chain triglycerides have found use in the treatment of a variety of malabsorption ailments. MCT supplementation with a low-fat diet has been described as the cornerstone of treatment for primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease). MCTs are an ingredient in parenteral nutritional emulsions. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the xylose compositions are capable of increasing the level of one or more medium chain triglycerides in a mammalian subject. In certain embodiments, the administration of the xylose composition to a mammalian subject results in the increase of one or more medium chain triglycerides in the mammalian subject by approximately 1.5-fold, 2-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, 50-fold, 100-fold, or greater than 100-fold.

Distal disorders associated with loss of intestinal barrier function can be treated or improved by administration of probiotic compositions containing bacterial strains that produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as, for example, butyrate, acetate, propionate, or valerate, or combinations thereof. Distal disorders associated with loss of intestinal barrier function can be treated or improved by administration of probiotic compositions containing bacterial strains that reduce inflammation, as described herein.

In other embodiments, the distal dysbiosis is caused by a deficiency in microbes that produce lactic acid. Accordingly, in one embodiment, the probiotic composition can contain a species of bacteria that produce lactic acid.

Probiotic compositions for modulating a distal microbiome may optionally be administered in conjunction with a prebiotic. For example, a prebiotic can be selected which augments the growth of the anti-inflammatory bacterial population present in the probiotic composition. Exemplary prebiotics are provided in Table 7. Exemplary prebiotics which may augment the growth of exemplary bacterial species are provided in FIG. 29. In one embodiment, the prebiotic can be a monomer or polymer selected from the group consisting of arabinoxylan, xylose, soluble fiber dextran, soluble corn fiber, polydextrose, lactose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, glucose, or combinations thereof. In another embodiment, the prebiotic can be a monomer or polymer, such as galactose, fructose, rhamnose, mannose, uronic acids, 3′-fucosyllactose, 3′sialylactose, 6′-sialyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, 2′-2′-fucosyllactose, or combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the prebiotic can include a monosaccharide selected from the group consisting of arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, and combinations thereof. In another embodiment, the prebiotic can include a disaccharide selected from the group consisting of xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, or a combination thereof. In another embodiment, the prebiotic comprises a polysaccharide, for example, a xylooligosaccharide. Exemplary prebiotics include sugars such as arabinose, fructose, fucose, lactose, galactose, glucose, mannose, D-xylose, xylitol, ribose, xylobiose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, lactulose, trehalose, cellobiose, and xylooligosaccharide, or combinations thereof.

The foregoing probiotic compositions (and optional prebiotic compositions) can be used for treatment of the following disorders associated with dysbiosis of the microbiome at particular niches within the subject, or with disorders of the systemic microbiome.

IX. Autoimmune/Inflammatory Diseases

Herein, we disclose probiotic microbial compositions, optionally comprising prebiotics, non-microbial immunomodulatory carbohydrates, or microbial immunomodulatory cell components, that are effective for the prevention or treatment of transplant disorders in a transplant recipient. Such disorders, e.g., GVHD, transplant rejection, sepsis, etc. are associated with systemic inflammation and/or loss of intestinal barrier function. In one embodiment, the transplant recipient has an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder. For example, a subject with an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder may receive a transplant, e.g., a hematopoietic stem cell transplant, for example, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant, as a treatment modality for the autoimmune or inflammatory disorder. In this embodiment, administration of the probiotic (and optional prebiotic) compositions of the invention can be used to prevent or treat GVHD in the subject receiving the transplant, and can additionally or alternatively be used to treat the underlying autoimmune or inflammatory disorder. Exemplary autoimmune or inflammatory disorders include, for example, lupus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, type I diabetes, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Additional autoimmune or inflammatory disorders include, for example, an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including but not limited to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Celiac disease. In certain embodiments, the compositions comprise at least one type of microbe and at least one type of carbohydrate (a prebiotic), and optionally further comprise microbial immunomodulatory cell components or substrates for the production of immunomodulatory metabolites, that are effective for the prevention or treatment of an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder. We also disclose herein methods for the prevention and/or treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in human subjects, e.g., transplant recipients.

In one embodiment, the subject is receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. In other embodiments, the subject is receiving a bone marrow transplant. In other embodiments, the subject is receiving a solid organ transplant, e.g., a kidney transplant, a heart transplant, a lung transplant, a skin transplant, a liver transplant, a pancreas transplant, an intestinal transplant, an endocrine gland transplant, a bladder transplant, and/or a skeletal muscle transplant.

Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases include, but are not limited to: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, Addison's disease, adhesive capsulitis, Agammaglobulinemia, Alopecia areata, Amyloidosis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Anti-GBM nephritis, Anti-TBM nephritis, Antiphospholipid syndrome, arthofibrosis, atrial fibrosis, autoimmune angioedema, autoimmune aplastic anemia, autoimmune dusautonomia, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hyperlipidemia, autoimmune immunodeficiency, autoimmune inner ear disease, autoimmune myocarditis, autoimmune oophoritis, autoimmune pancreatitis, autoimmune retinopathy, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, autoimmune urticaria, axonal and neuronal neuropathies, Balo disease, Behçet's disease, benign mucosal pemphigold, Bullous pemphigold, cardiomyopathy, Castleman disease, Celiac Disease, Chagas disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, chronic Lyme disease, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, cicatricial pemphigold, cirrhosis, Cogans syndrome, cold agglutinin disease, congenital heart block, Coxsackle myocarditis, CREST disease, Crohn's disease, Cystic Fibrosis, essential mixed cryoglobulinemia, deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, demyelinating neuropathies, dermatitis herpetiformis, dermatomyosis, Devic's disease, discoid lupus, Dressler's syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, endometriosis, endomyocardial fibrosis, eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic facsciitis, erythema nodosum, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, Evans syndrome, Familial Mediterranean Fever, fibromyalgia, fibrosing alveolitis, giant cell arteritis, giant cell myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, Goodpasture's syndrome, Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), granulomatosus with polyanglitis, Graves' disease, Guillain-Bare syndrome, Hashimoto's encephalitis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hemolytic anemia, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, hepatitis, herpes gestationis, hypogammaglobulinemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, IgA nephropathy, IgG4-related sclerosing disease, immunoregulatory lipoproteins, inclusion body myositis, inflammatory bowel disorders, interstitial cystitis, juvenile arthritis, juvenile myositis, Kawasaki syndrome, keloid, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, ligneous conjunctivitis, linear IgA disease, mediastinal fibrosis, Meniere's disease, microscopic polyanglitis, mixed connective tissue disease, Mooren's ulcer, Mucha-Hamermann disease, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Myasthenia gravis, myelofibrosis, Myositis, narcolepsy, Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, neutropenia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), ocular-cicatricial pemphigold, optic neuritis, palindromic rheumatism, Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS), paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paroxysmal nocturnal nemoglobinuria, Parry Romberg syndrome, Parsonnage-Turner syndrome, Pars planitis, Pemphigus, Peripheral neuropathy, perivenous encephalomyelitis, pernicious anemia, Peyronie's disease, POEMS syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, progressive massive fibrosis, Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-assoicated Periodic Syndrome, Type I autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, Type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, Type III autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, polymyalgia rhematica, polymyositis, postmyocardial infarction syndrome, postpericardiotomy syndrome, progesterone dermatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pyoderma gangrenosum, pure red cell aplasia, Raynauds phenomenon, reactic arthritis, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, Reiter's syndrome, relapsing polychondritis, restless legs syndrome, retroperitoneal fibrosis, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, Schmidt syndrome, scleritis, scleroderma, Sjögren's syndrome, sperm and testicular autoimmunity, stiff person syndrome, subacute bacterial endocarditis, Susac's syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Takayasu's arthritis, temporal arteritis, thrombocytopenic purpura, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, transverse myelitis, Type 1 diabetes, ulcerative colitis, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, uveitis, vasculitis, vesiculobullous dermatosis, and Vitiligo.

In some aspects, the administered microbes and/or carbohydrates modulate the release of immune stimulatory cytokines. In preferred embodiments, the administered microbes and/or carbohydrates inhibit or reduce the release of immune stimulatory cytokines. Non-limiting examples of immune modulating cytokines and ligands include B lymphocyte chemoattractant (“BLC”), C-C motif chemokine 11 (“Eotaxin-1”), Eosinophil chemotactic protein 2 (“Eotaxin-2”), Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (“G-CSF”), Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (“GM-CSF”), 1-309, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (“ICAM-1”), Interferon gamma (“IFN-γ”), Interlukin-1 alpha (“IL-1α”), Interlukin-10 (“IL-1”), Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (“IL-1 ra”), Interleukin-2 (“IL-2”), Interleukin-4 (“IL-4”), Interleukin-5 (“IL-5”), Interleukin-6 (“IL-6”), Interleukin-6 soluble receptor (“IL-6 sR”), Interleukin-7 (“IL-7”), Interleukin-8 (“IL-8”), Interleukin-10 (“IL-10”), Interleukin-11 (“IL-11”), Subunit 3 of Interleukin-12 (“IL-12 p40” or “IL-12 p70”), Interleukin-13 (“IL-13”), Interleukin-15 (“IL-15”), Interleukin-16 (“IL-16”), Interleukin-17 (“IL-17”), Chemokine (C-C motif) Ligand 2 (“MCP-1”), Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (“M-CSF”), Monokine induced by gamma interferon (“MIG”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (“MIP-1 alpha”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (“MIP-1β”), Macrophage inflammatory protein-1-δ (“MIP-1δ”), Platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (“PDGF-BB”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (“RANTES”), TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (“TIMP-1”), TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2 (“TIMP-2”), Tumor necrosis factor, lymphotoxin-α (“TNF-α”), Tumor necrosis factor, lymphotoxin-β (“TNF β”), Soluble TNF receptor type 1 (“sTNFRI”), sTNFRIIAR, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (“BDNF”), Basic fibroblast growth factor (“bFGF”), Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (“BMP-4”), Bone morphogenetic protein 5 (“BMP-5”), Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (“BMP-7”), Nerve growth factor (“b-NGF”), Epidermal growth factor (“EGF”), Epidermal growth factor receptor (“EGFR”), Endocrine-gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (“EG-VEGF”), Fibroblast growth factor 4 (“FGF-4”), Keratinocyte growth factor (“FGF-7”), Growth differentiation factor 15 (“GDF-15”), Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (“GDNF”), Growth Hormone, Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (“HB-EGF”), Hepatocyte growth factor (“HGF”), Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (“IGFBP-1”), Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (“IGFBP-2”), Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (“IGFBP-3”), Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (“IGFBP-4”), Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (“IGFBP-6”), Insulin-like growth factor 1 (“IGF-1”), Insulin, Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (“M-CSF R”), Nerve growth factor receptor (“NGF R”), Neurotrophin-3 (“NT-3”), Neurotrophin-4 (“NT-4”), Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (“Osteoprotegerin”), Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (“PDGF-AA”), Phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis (“PIGF”), Skp, Cullin, F-box containing comples (“SCF”), Stem cell factor receptor (“SCF R”), Transforming growth factor α (“TGF-α”), Transforming growth factor β-1 (“TGF β1”), Transforming growth factor β-3 (“TGF β3”), Vascular endothelial growth factor (“VEGF”), Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (“VEGFR2”), Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (“VEGFR3”), VEGF-D 6Ckine, Tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (“Axl”), Betacellulin (“BTC”), Mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (“CCL28”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 27 (“CTACK”), Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (“CXCL16”), C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (“ENA-78”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (“Eotaxin-3”), Granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (“GCP-2”), GRO, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 14 (“HCC-1”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 16 (“HCC-4”), Interleukin-9 (“IL-9”), Interleukin-17 F (“IL-17F”), Interleukin-18-binding protein (“IL-18 BPa”), Interleukin-28 A (“IL-28A”), Interleukin 29 (“IL-29”), Interleukin 31 (“IL-31”), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (“IP-10”), Chemokine receptor CXCR3 (“I-TAC”), Leukemia inhibitory factor (“LIF”), Light, Chemokine (C motif) ligand (“Lymphotactin”), Monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (“MCP-2”), Monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (“MCP-3”), Monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (“MCP-4”), Macrophage-derived chemokine (“MDC”), Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (“MIF”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (“MIP-3 α”), C-C motif chemokine 19 (“MIP-3 β”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 23 (“MPIF-1”), Macrophage stimulating protein alpha chain (“MSP-α”), Nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 4 (“NAP-2”), Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (“Osteopontin”), Pulmonary and activation-regulated cytokine (“PARC”), Platelet factor 4 (“PF4”), Stroma cell-derived factor-1 α (“SDF-1 α”), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (“TARC”), Thymus-expressed chemokine (“TECK”), Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (“TSLP 4-IBB”), CD 166 antigen (“ALCAM”), Cluster of Differentiation 80 (“B7-1”), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17 (“BCMA”), Cluster of Differentiation 14 (“CD14”), Cluster of Differentiation 30 (“CD30”), Cluster of Differentiation 40 (“CD40 Ligand”), Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (biliary glycoprotein) (“CEACAM-I”), Death Receptor 6 (“DR6”), Deoxythymidine kinase (“Dtk”), Type 1 membrane glycoprotein (“Endoglin”), Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3 (“ErbB3”), Endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (“E-Selectin”), Apoptosis antigen 1 (“Fas”), Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (“Flt-3L”), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1 (“GITR”), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14 (“HVEM”), Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (“ICAM-3”), IL-1 R4, IL-1 RI, IL-10 Rβ, IL-17R, IL-2Rγ, IL-21R, Lysosome membrane protein 2 (“LIMPII”), Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (“Lipocalin-2”), CD62L (“L-Selectin”), Lymphatic endothelium (“LYVE-1”), MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (“MICA”), MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (“MICB”), NRG1-β1, Beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (“PDGF Rβ”), Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (“PECAM-1”), RAGE, Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (“TIM-1”), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member IOC (“TRAIL R3”), Trappin protein transglutaminase binding domain (“Trappin-2”), Urokinase receptor (“uPAR”), Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (“VCAM-1”), XEDARActivin A, Agouti-related protein (“AgRP”), Ribonuclease 5 (“Angiogenin”), Angiopoietin 1, Angiostatin, Catheprin S, CD40, Cryptic family protein IB (“Cripto-1”), DAN, Dickkopf-related protein 1 (“DKK-1”), E-Cadherin, Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (“EpCAM”), Fas Ligand (FasL or CD95L), Fcg RIIB/C, FoUistatin, Galectin-7, Intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (“ICAM-2”), IL-13 R1, IL-13R2, IL-17B, IL-2 Ra, IL-2 Rb, IL-23, LAP, Neuronal cell adhesion molecule (“NrCAM”), Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (“PAI-1”), Platelet derived growth factor receptors (“PDGF-AB”), Resistin, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (“SDF-1 β”), sgp130, Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (“ShhN”), Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (“Siglec-5”), ST2, Transforming growth factor-β 2 (“TGF β 2”), Tie-2, Thrombopoietin (“TPO”), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10D (“TRAIL R4”), Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (“TREM-1”), Vascular endothelial growth factor C (“VEGF-C”), VEGFR1Adiponectin, Adipsin (“AND”), α-fetoprotein (“AFP”), Angiopoietin-like 4 (“ANGPTL4”), β-2-microglobulin (“B2M”), Basal cell adhesion molecule (“BCAM”), Carbohydrate antigen 125 (“CA125”), Cancer Antigen 15-3 (“CA15-3”), Carcinoembryonic antigen (“CEA”), cAMP receptor protein (“CRP”), Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (“ErbB2”), Follistatin, Follicle-stimulating hormone (“FSH”), Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (“GRO α”), human chorionic gonadotropin (“β HCG”), Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (“IGF-1 sR”), IL-1 sRII, IL-3, IL-18 Rb, IL-21, Leptin, Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (“MMP-1”), Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (“MMP-2”), Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (“MMP-3”), Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (“MMP-8”), Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (“MMP-9”), Matrix metalloproteinase-10 (“MMP-10”), Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (“MMP-13”), Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (“NCAM-1”), Entactin (“Nidogen-1”), Neuron specific enolase (“NSE”), Oncostatin M (“OSM”), Procalcitonin, Prolactin, Prostate specific antigen (“PSA”), Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 9 (“Siglec-9”), ADAM 17 endopeptidase (“TACE”), Thyroglobulin, Metalloproteinase inhibitor 4 (“TIMP-4”), TSH2B4, Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9 (“ADAM-9”), Angiopoietin 2, Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13/Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (“APRIL”), Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (“BMP-2”), Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (“BMP-9”), Complement component 5a (“C5a”), Cathepsin L, CD200, CD97, Chemerin, Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6B (“DcR3”), Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (“FABP2”), Fibroblast activation protein, alpha (“FAP”), Fibroblast growth factor 19 (“FGF-19”), Galectin-3, Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (“HGF R”), IFN-γα/β R2, Insulin-like growth factor 2 (“IGF-2”), Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (“IGF-2 R”), Interleukin-1 receptor 6 (“IL-1R6”), Interleukin 24 (“IL-24”), Interleukin 33 (“IL-33”, Kallikrein 14, Asparaginyl endopeptidase (“Legumain”), Oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (“LOX-”), Mannose-binding lectin (“MBL”), Neprilysin (“NEP”), Notch homolog 1, translocation-associated (Drosophila) (“Notch-1”), Nephroblastoma overexpressed (“NOV”), Osteoactivin, Programmed cell death protein 1 (“PD-1”), N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (“PGRP-5”), Serpin A4, Secreted frizzled related protein 3 (“sFRP-3”), Thrombomodulin, Toll-like receptor 2 (“TLR2”), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10A (“TRAIL R1”), Transferrin (“TRF”), WIF-1ACE-2, Albumin, AMICA, Angiopoietin 4, B-cell activating factor (“BAFF”), Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (“CA19-9”), CD 163, Clusterin, CRT AM, Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (“CXCL14”), Cystatin C, Decorin (“DCN”), Dickkopf-related protein 3 (“Dkk-3”), Delta-like protein 1 (“DLL”), Fetuin A, Heparin-binding growth factor 1 (“aFGF”), Folate receptor α (“FOLR1”), Furin, GPCR-associated sorting protein 1 (“GASP-1”), GPCR-associated sorting protein 2 (“GASP-2”), Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (“GCSF R”), Serine protease hepsin (“HAI-2”), Interleukin-17B Receptor (“IL-17B R”), Interleukin 27 (“IL-27”), Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (“LAG-3”), Apolipoprotein A-V (“LDL R”), Pepsinogen I, Retinol binding protein 4 (“RBP4”), SOST, Heparan sulfate proteoglycan (“Syndecan-1”), Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 13B (“TACI”), Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (“TFPI”), TSP-1, Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10b (“TRAIL R2”), TRANCE, Troponin I, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (“uPA”), Cadherin 5, type 2 or VE-cadherin (vascular endothelial) also known as CD144 (“VE-Cadherin”), WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 1 (“WISP-1”), and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B (“RANK”).

Exemplary probiotic compositions useful for treatment or prevention of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders contain bacterial strains capable of reducing inflammation in a subject. Such immunomodulatory (anti-inflammatory) bacteria can modulate cytokine expression by host immune cells, resulting in an overall increase in secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and/or an overall decrease in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, systemically reducing inflammation in the subject. In exemplary embodiments, probiotic compositions useful for treatment of immune or inflammatory disorders stimulate secretion of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines by host immune cells, such as PBMCs. Anti-inflammatory cytokines include, but are not limited to, IL-10, IL-13, IL-9, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ and combinations thereof. In other exemplary embodiments, probiotic compositions useful for treatment of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders inhibit secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines by host immune cells, such as PBMCs. Pro-inflammatory cytokines include, but are not limited to, IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. Other exemplary cytokines are known in the art and are described herein. Probiotic compositions containing anti-inflammatory bacteria reduce inflammation at the site of administration, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as at distal sites throughout the body of the subject.

Other exemplary probiotic compositions useful for treatment of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders contain bacterial strains capable of altering the proportion of immune subpopulations, e.g., T cell subpopulations, in the subject.

For example, immunomodulatory bacteria can increase or decrease the proportion of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, or Th2 cells in a subject. The increase or decrease in the proportion of immune cell subpopulations may be systemic, or it may be localized to a site of action of the probiotic, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract or at the site of a distal dysbiosis. In some embodiments, a probiotic composition comprising immunomodulatory bacteria is used for treatment of an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder based on the desired effect of the probiotic composition on the differentiation and/or expansion of subpopulations of immune cells in the subject.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Treg cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Treg cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th17 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th17 cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th1 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th1 cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th2 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th2 cells in a subject.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria capable of modulating the proportion of one or more of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and combinations thereof in a subject. Certain immune cell profiles may be particularly desirable to treat or prevent autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. For example, in some embodiments, treatment or prevention of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders can be promoted by increasing numbers of Treg cells and Th2 cells, and decreasing numbers of Th17 cells and Th1 cells. Accordingly, probiotic compositions for the treatment or prevention of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders may contain probiotics capable of promoting Treg cells and Th2 cells, and reducing Th17 and Th1 cells.

Probiotic compositions useful for treating or preventing the autoimmune or inflammatory disorders described herein include, in exemplary embodiments, one or more bacterial strains from Table 1. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1A. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1B. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1C. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1D. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1E. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1F. In some embodiments, the probiotic composition contains a single strain of bacteria. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains two or more strains of bacteria, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 500, 1000 or more strains of bacteria. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains or is administered in conjunction with a prebiotic, as described herein.

Preferred bacterial genera include Acetanaerobacterium, Acetivibrio, Alicyclobacillus, Alkaliphilus, Anaerofustis, Anaerosporobacter, Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Blautia, Brachyspira, Brevibacillus, Bryantella, Bulleidia, Butyricicoccus, Butyrivibrio, Catenibacterium, Chlamydiales, Clostridiaceae, Clostridiales, Clostridium, Collinsella, Coprobacillus, Coprococcus, Coxiella, Deferribacteres, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfotomaculum, Dorea, Eggerthella, Erysipelothrix, Erysipelotrichaceae, Ethanoligenens, Eubacterium, Faecalibacterium, Filifactor, Flavonifractor, Flexistipes, Fulvimonas, Fusobacterium, Gemmiger, Geobacillus, Gloeobacter, Holdemania, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, Kocuria, Lachnobacterium, Lachnospira, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillus, Lactonifactor, Leptospira, Lutispora, Lysinibacillus, Mollicutes, Moorella, Nocardia, Oscillibacter, Oscillospira, Paenibacillus, Papillibacter, Pseudoflavonifractor, Robinsoniella, Roseburia, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcus, Saccharomonospora, Sarcina, Solobacterium, Sporobacter, Sporolactobacillus, Streptomyces, Subdoligranulum, Sutterella, Syntrophococcus, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermobifida, and Turicibacter.

Preferred bacterial genera also include Acetonema, Alkaliphilus, Amphibacillus, Ammonifex, Anaerobacter, Caldicellulosiruptor, Caloramator, Candidatus, Carboxydibrachium, Carboxydothermus, Cohnella, Dendrosporobacter Desulfitobacterium, Desulfosporosinus, Halobacteroides, Heliobacterium, Heliophilum, Heliorestis, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Lysinibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Orenia (S.), Oxalophagus, Oxobacter, Pelospora, Pelotomaculum, Propionispora, Sporohalobacter, Sporomusa, Sporosarcina, Sporotomaculum, Symbiobacterium, Syntrophobotulus, Syntrophospora, Terribacillus, Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermosinus.

As provided herein, therapeutic compositions comprise, or in the alternative, modulate, the colonization and/or engraftment, of the following exemplary bacterial entities: Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus villorum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Staphylococcus cohnii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus sinensis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sp. SCA22, Streptococcus sp. CR-3145, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus mutans, Coprobacillus cateniformis, Clostridium saccharogumia, Eubacterium dolichum DSM 3991, Clostridium sp. PPf35E6, Clostridium sordelli ATCC 9714, Ruminococcus torques, Ruminococcus gnavus, Clostridium clostridioforme, Ruminococcus obeum, Blautia producta, Clostridium sp. ID5, Megasphaera micronuciformis, Veillonella parvula, Clostridium methylpentosum, Clostridium islandicum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides uniformmis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides fragilis, Parabacteroides distasonis, Propinionibacteirum propionicum, Actinomycs hyovaginalis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Rothia aeria, Bifidobacterium breve, Scardovia inopinata and Eggerthella lenta.

Preferred bacterial species are provided in Table 1, Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, Table 1F, and Table 5. Optionally, in some embodiments, preferred bacterial species are spore formers. Where specific strains of a species are provided, one of skill in the art will recognize that other strains of the species can be substituted for the named strain.

In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Veillonella dispar.

In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Veillonella dispar.

In one embodiment, the prebiotic carbohydrate component of the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit allows the commensal colonic microbiota, comprising microorganisms associated with a healthy-state microbiome or presenting a low risk of a patient developing an autoimmune or inflammatory condition, to be regularly maintained. In one embodiment, the prebiotic carbohydrate component of the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit allows the co-administered or co-formulated microbe or microbes to engraft, grow, and/or be regularly maintained in a mammalian subject. In some embodiments, the mammalian subject is a human subject. In preferred embodiments, the mammalian subject suffers from or is at risk of developing an autoimmune or inflammatory disorder. In some embodiments, the prebiotic component of the invention favors the growth of an administered microbe, wherein the growth of the administered microbe and/or the fermentation of the administered prebiotic by the administered microbe slows or reduces the growth of a pathogen or pathobiont. For example, FOS, neosugar, or inuliri promotes the growth of acid-forming bacteria in the colon such as bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidus can play a role in reducing the number of pathogenic bacteria in the colon (U.S. Pat. No. 8,486,668 PREBIOTIC FORMULATIONS AND METHODS OF USE). Other polymers, such as various galactans, lactulose, and carbohydrate based gums, such as psyllium, guar, carrageen, gellan, and konjac, are also known to improve gastrointestinal (GI) health.

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can have immunomodulatory (i.e., immunosuppressive) effects and therefore their production (i.e., biosynthesis or conversion by fermentation) is advantageous for the prevention, control, mitigation, and treatment of autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorders (Lara-Villoslada F. et al., 2006. Short-chain fructooligosaccharides, in spite of being fermented in the upper part of the large intestine, have anti-inflammatory activity in the TNBS model of colitis. Eur J Nutr. 45(7): 418-425). In some aspects, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe and at least one type of prebiotic such that the composition, dosage form, or kit is capable of increasing the level of one or more immunomodulatory SCFA (e.g., acetate, propionate, butyrate, or valerate) in a mammalian subject. Optionally, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit further comprises one or more substrates of one or more SCFA-producing fermentation and/or biosynthesis pathways. In certain embodiments, the administration of the composition, dosage form, or kit to a mammalian subject results in the increase of one or more SCFAs in the mammalian subject by approximately 1.5-fold, 2-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold, 20-fold, 50-fold, 100-fold, or greater than 100-fold.

In some embodiments, the prebiotic mixture is selected to favor the production of a particular immunomodulatory SCFA, including but not limited to butyrate, propionate, or acetate. In preferred embodiments, the fermentation product is butyrate or propionate. Non-limiting examples are resistant starch and carbohydrates with highly organized structures, such as high amylose maize starch, that are more likely to be fermented by microbes to produce butyrate than other SCFAs (Zhou Z et al. 2013. Starch structure modulates metabolic activity and gut microbiota profile. Anaerobe. 24:71-78). In some embodiments, one or more components of a prebiotic mixture is subjected to denaturation (e.g., thermal treatment) to favor the production of a SCFA (e.g., acetate) or a non-SCFA species including but not limited to lactate or succinate.

In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises one or more types of microbe capable of producing butyrate in a mammalian subject. Butyrate-producing microbes may be identified experimentally, such as by NMR or gas chromatography analyses of microbial products or colorimetric assays (Rose I A. 1955. Methods Enzymol. Acetate kinase of bacteria. 1: 591-5). Butyrate-producing microbes may also be identified computationally, such as by the identification of one or more enzymes involved in butyrate synthesis. Non-limiting examples of enzymes found in butyrate-producing microbes include butyrate kinase, phosphotransbutyrylase, and butyryl CoA:acetate CoA transferase (Louis P., et al. 2004. Restricted Distribution of the Butyrate Kinase Pathway among Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Colon. J Bact. 186(7): 2099-2106). Butyrate-producing strains include, but are not limited to, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Eubacterium spp., Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Roseburia intestinalis, Clostridium spp., Anaerostipes caccae, and Ruminococcus spp. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises two or more types of microbe, wherein at least two types of microbe are capable of producing butyrate in a mammalian subject. In other embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises two or more types of microbe, wherein two or more types of microbe cooperate (i.e., cross-feed) to produce an immunomodulatory SCFA (e.g., butyrate) in a mammalian subject. In a preferred embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe (e.g., Bifidobacterium spp.) capable of metabolizing a prebiotic, including but not limited to, inulin, inulin-type fructans, or oligofructose, such that the resulting metabolic product may be converted by a second type of microbe (e.g, a butyrate-producing microbe such as Roseburia spp.) to an immunomodulatory SCFA such as butyrate (Falony G., et al. 2006. Cross-Feeding between Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and Acetate-Converting, Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria during Grown on Oligofructose. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72(12): 7835-7841.) In other aspects, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one acetate-producing microbe (e.g., Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) and at least one acetate-consuming, butyrate-producing microbe (e.g., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii).

In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises one or more types of microbe capable of producing propionate in a mammalian subject, optionally further comprising a prebiotic or substrate appropriate for proprionate biosynthesis. Examples of prebiotics or substrates used for the production of propionate include, but are not limited to, L-rhamnose, D-tagalose, resistant starch, inulin, polydextrose, arabinoxylans, arabinoxylan oligosaccharides, mannooligosaccharides, and laminarans (Hosseini E., et al. 2011. Propionate as a health-promoting microbial metabolite in the human gut. Nutrition Reviews. 69(5): 245-258). Propionate-producing microbes may be identified experimentally, such as by NMR or gas chromatography analyses of microbial products or colorimetric assays (Rose I A. 1955. Methods Enzymol. Acetate kinase of bacteria. 1: 591-5). Propionate-producing microbes may also be identified computationally, such as by the identification of one or more enzymes involved in propionate synthesis. Non-limiting examples of enzymes found in propionate-producing microbes include enzymes of the succinate pathway, including but not limited to phophoenylpyrvate carboxykinase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, succinate dehydrogenase, succinyl CoA synthetase, methylmalonyl Coa decarboxylase, and propionate CoA transferase, as well as enzymes of the acrylate pathway, including but not limited to L-lactate dehydrogenase, propionate CoA transferase, lactoyl CoA dehydratase, acyl CoA dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, and propionate kinase. Non-limiting examples of microbes that utilize the succinate pathway are Bacteroides fragilis and other species (including B. vulgatus), Propionibacterium spp. (including freudenrichii and acidipropionici), Veillonella spp. (including gazogenes), Micrococcus lactilyticus, Selenomonas ruminantium, Escherichia coli, and Prevotella ruminocola. Non-limiting examples of microbes that utilize the acrylate pathway are Clostridium neopropionicum X4, and Megasphaera elsdenii. In preferred embodiments, the combination of a type of microbe or microbial composition and type of prebiotic mixture is selected based on the fermentation or metabolic preferences of one or more microbes capable of producing immunomodulatory SCFAs (e.g., preference for complex versus simple sugar or preference for a fermentation product versus a prebiotic). For example, M. eldsenii prefers lactate fermentation to glucose fermentation, and maximization of propionate production by M. eldsenii in a mammalian subject may therefore be achieved by administering along with M. eldsenii a favored substrate (e.g., lactate) or one or more microbes capable of fermenting glucose into lactate (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) (Hosseini E., et al. 2011. Propionate as a health-promoting microbial metabolite in the human gut. Nutrition Reviews. 69(5): 245-258). Thus, in some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of SCFA-producing microbe and a sugar fermentation product (e.g., lactate). In other embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of SCFA-producing microbe and at least one type of sugar-fermenting microbe, wherein the fermentation product of the second, sugar-fermenting microbe is the preferred substrate of the SCFA-producing microbe.

In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises two or more types of microbe, wherein at least two types of microbe are capable of producing propionate in a mammalian subject. In other embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises two or more types of microbe, wherein two or more types of microbe cooperate (i.e., cross-feed) to produce an immunomodulatory SCFA (e.g., propionate) in a mammalian subject. In a preferred embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe (e.g., Ruminococcus spp. or Bacteroides spp.) capable of metabolizing a prebiotic into succinate, and a second type of microbe (e.g., S. ruminantium) capable of converting succinate (via the succinate pathway) into propionate in the mammalian subject.

Immunomodulation can also be achieved by the microbial production of glutathione or gamma-glutamylcysteine. Thus, in certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe capable of producing glutathione and/or gamma-glutamylcysteine in a mammalian subject. In some aspects, the composition, dosage form, or kit comprises one or more microbes selected for the presence of glutamate cysteine ligase (e.g., Lactobacillus fermentum) and/or L-proline biosynthesis enzymes (e.g., E. coli) (Peran et al., 2006. Lactobacillus fermenum, a probiotic capable to release glutathione, prevents colonic inflammation in the TNBS model of rat colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 21(8): 737-746; Veeravalli et al., 2011. Laboratory evolution of glutathione biosynthesis reveals naturally compensatory pathways. Nat Chem Bio. 7(2): 101-105). In a preferred embodiment, at least one microbe in the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit is L. fermentum.

para-cresol (p-cresol) is a microbial product, via the fermentation of tyrosine or phenylalanine. Sulfated in the liver or colon to p-cresyl sulfate, this molecule reduces Th1-mediated responses (Shiba T. et al. 2014. Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro. Tox and Applied Pharm. 274(2): 191-199). In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises at least one type of microbe capable of fermenting tyrosine and/or phenylalanine to p-cresol in a mammalian subject. Non-limiting examples of such microbes include Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacillus sp. Strain #11198-11201 (Yokoyama M T and Carlson J R. 1981. Production of Skatole and para-Cresol by a Rumen Lactobacillus sp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 41(1): 71-76.), and other microbes with p-hydroxylphenyl acetate decarboxylase activity.

It has recently come to light that the DNA of commensal microbes, including many species of Lactobacillus protect against activation of lamina propia dendritic cells and sustain regulatory T cell conversion (Bouladoux N, Hall J A, Grainger J R, dos Santos L M, Kann M G, Nagarajan V, Verthelyi D, and Belkaid Y, 2012. Regulatory role of suppressive motifs from commensal DNA. Mucosal Immunol. 5: 623-634). Thus commensal DNA may protect against colitis, IBD, and/or other immunological intolerances in the gut. Furthermore, Lactobacillus species are prevalent in the healthy vaginal microbiome. Thus, DNA from Lactobacillus or other vaginal microbiome commensals may suppress immune responses in the vagina that could disrupt the normal healthy-state vaginal microbiome and lead to complications such as chronic HPV, infertility, miscarriages, or UTIs. As such, in certain embodiments, the microbial composition, pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit additionally comprises DNA isolated from one or more host commensals.

X. Crohn's Disease

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are types of IBDs. While both illness share elements of their characteristic immune responses (e.g., high TNF-α, which can be detected in a patient's feces), their associated immune responses can also have distinguishing markers. For example, interleukin-16 (IL-16) levels are high and T-bet is overexpressed the lamina propia T cell nucleus in patients with Crohn's disease, but not in those suffering from ulcerative colitis. Notably T-bets produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ. One similarity among IBDs is high IFN-γ (by about 4-fold), caused in part due to high TL1A and TNF-α. Moreover, the levels of these cytokines correlate with the severity of the IBD.

Early Crohn's disease has a different immunological signature than does chronic Crohn's disease. In aspects in which a patient presents with early lesions, the microbial composition may be selected, with or without one or more prebiotics, to counteract a T helper cell 2-mediated response. For example, the microbial composition, optionally combined with immunomodulatory molecules such as nucleotides or carbohydrates, may decrease interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels or increase IFN-γ. In aspects in which a patient presents with chronic lesions, the microbial composition may be selected to counteract a T helper cell 1-mediated response. For example, the microbial composition, optionally combined with immunomodulatory molecules such as nucleotides or carbohydrates, may decrease IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, TL1A, IL-12, and/or IL-18. In some embodiments, in which a patient suffers from an IBD including but not limited to Crohn's disease, a probiotic microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, is administered to the patient such that it is effective to reduce TNF-α levels, as detectable in feces samples, by approximately 5-fold, 10-fold, 25-fold, 50-fold, or 100-fold. Crohn's disease patients tend to present with low plasma levels of vitamins or minerals including but not limited to vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, lycopene, carotenoids, and/or selenium. Patients eligible for immunomodulatory treatment may thus be administered an immunomodulatory microbe, molecule, and/or microbial component optionally combined with an appropriate vitamin or mineral supplement, as determined by plasma deficiency.

Probiotic compositions useful for treating or preventing Crohn's disease include, in exemplary embodiments, one or more bacterial strains from Table 1. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1A. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1B. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1C. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1D. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1E. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial strains from Table 1F. In some embodiments, the probiotic composition contains a single strain of bacteria. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains two or more strains of bacteria, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 500, 1000 or more strains of bacteria. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains or is administered in conjunction with a prebiotic, as described herein.

Preferred bacterial genera include Acetanaerobacterium, Acetivibrio, Alicyclobacillus, Alkaliphilus, Anaerofustis, Anaerosporobacter, Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Blautia, Brachyspira, Brevibacillus, Bryantella, Bulleidia, Butyricicoccus, Butyrivibrio, Catenibacterium, Chlamydiales, Clostridiaceae, Clostridiales, Clostridium, Collinsella, Coprobacillus, Coprococcus, Coxiella, Deferribacteres, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfotomaculum, Dorea, Eggerthella, Erysipelothrix, Erysipelotrichaceae, Ethanoligenens, Eubacterium, Faecalibacterium, Filifactor, Flavonifractor, Flexistipes, Fulvimonas, Fusobacterium, Gemmiger, Geobacillus, Gloeobacter, Holdemania, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, Kocuria, Lachnobacterium, Lachnospira, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillus, Lactonifactor, Leptospira, Lutispora, Lysinibacillus, Mollicutes, Moorella, Nocardia, Oscillibacter, Oscillospira, Paenibacillus, Papillibacter, Pseudoflavonifractor, Robinsoniella, Roseburia, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcus, Saccharomonospora, Sarcina, Solobacterium, Sporobacter, Sporolactobacillus, Streptomyces, Subdoligranulum, Sutterella, Syntrophococcus, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermobifida, and Turicibacter.

Preferred bacterial genera also include Acetonema, Alkaliphilus, Amphibacillus, Ammonifex, Anaerobacter, Caldicellulosiruptor, Caloramator, Candidatus, Carboxydibrachium, Carboxydothermus, Cohnella, Dendrosporobacter Desulfitobacterium, Desulfosporosinus, Halobacteroides, Heliobacterium, Heliophilum, Heliorestis, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Lysinibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Orenia (S.), Oxalophagus, Oxobacter, Pelospora, Pelotomaculum, Propionispora, Sporohalobacter, Sporomusa, Sporosarcina, Sporotomaculum, Symbiobacterium, Syntrophobotulus, Syntrophospora, Terribacillus, Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermosinus.

As provided herein, therapeutic compositions comprise, or in the alternative, modulate, the colonization and/or engraftment, of the following exemplary bacterial entities: Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus villorum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Staphylococcus cohnii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus sinensis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sp. SCA22, Streptococcus sp. CR-3145, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus mutans, Coprobacillus cateniformis, Clostridium saccharogumia, Eubacterium dolichum DSM 3991, Clostridium sp. PPf35E6, Clostridium sordelli ATCC 9714, Ruminococcus torques, Ruminococcus gnavus, Clostridium clostridioforme, Ruminococcus obeum, Blautia producta, Clostridium sp. ID5, Megasphaera micronuciformis, Veillonella parvula, Clostridium methylpentosum, Clostridium islandicum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides uniformmis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides fragilis, Parabacteroides distasonis, Propinionibacteirum propionicum, Actinomycs hyovaginalis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Rothia aeria, Bifidobacterium breve, Scardovia inopinata and Eggerthella lenta.

Preferred bacterial species are provided in Table 1, Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, Table 1F, and Table 5. Optionally, in some embodiments, preferred bacterial species are spore formers. Where specific strains of a species are provided, one of skill in the art will recognize that other strains of the species can be substituted for the named strain.

In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Veillonella dispar.

In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Veillonella dispar.

XI. Transplant Disorders and Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a common complication for patients who have received an allogeneic transplant (e.g., allogeneic bone marrow transplant or allogeneic stem cell transplant). GVHD may also develop in patients who have received a blood transfusion with blood products that had not been irradiated. Patients suffering from GVHD have elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as others including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-2 (IL-2). GVHD is also associated with low interleukin-22 (IL-22) and the loss of interleukin-23 (IL-23)-responsive or Lgr5+ innate lymphoid cells. Furthermore, GVHD patients have reduced numbers of intestinal stem cells, fewer or less active Paneth cells, and lower Foxp3 expression in T cells.

For over 40 years, it has been known that the bacteria inhabiting our intestines are important modulators of the biology of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and impact the development of graft versus host disease. Studies in mice have shown reduction of GVHD with gut-decontaminating antibiotics (van Bekkum et al., 1974) and transplantation in germ-free conditions (Jones et al., 1971). This led to clinical attempts to eliminate intestinal bacterial colonization in allogenic BMT patients with a combination of gut decontamination practices and maintenance of a near-sterile environment (Storb et al., 1983). Initial clinical studies employing strategies to suppress the intestinal microbiota showed considerable promise, but later reports failed to demonstrate a clear and consistent benefit.

The recent understanding of the microbiota that inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract, skin, lungs, vagina, and other niches is being appreciated in their role in health and disease of dysbiosis (e.g. see Human Microbiome Project Consortium 2012, Structure, function, and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486(7402):207-14). Several groups have reported preliminary data on the significance of the gut microbiota in HCT patients and in the development of GVHD. Collectively these reports show, using murine and human studies, that there is a significant decreased in diversity of gut microbiome following HCT accompanied by marked changes in the population (Taur et al., 2012; Jenq et al., 2012; Taur et al., 2014). Most notably, we have found that as much as 90% of allo BMT patients demonstrate a loss of diversity and a corresponding expansion of a single type of bacteria that takes up much of the “space” within the intestinal flora compartment (Taur Y, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2012).

Aspects of the invention are based, in part, on the realization that microbes play an important role in the prevention, initiation and development of graft versus host disease (GVHD). The presence of certain microbial populations correlate with the initiation and development of the disease. More importantly, the presence of some species correlates with reduced severity or mortality associated with the disease or protection from GVHD altogether.

In some aspects, the invention is a composition or method for the treatment of GVHD in patients suffering from chronic or acute GVHD. In certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises one or more microbes, with or without one or more prebiotics, capable of decreasing the expression or release of one or more of IL-6, IL-1, IL-12, IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises one or more microbes capable of increasing the expression or release of IL-22. The microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, may also be selected such that it is effective to stimulate or favor the survival of Paneth cells, intestinal stem cells, FoxP3+ Treg cells (e.g., CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells), IL-23-responsive innate lymphoid cells, and/or Lgr5+ innate lymphoid cells. In some embodiments, the microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, regulates expression of Foxp3 by modulating (de)methylation of the Foxp3 locus. In preferred embodiments, the immunological tolerance elicited by the microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, does not reduce graft-vs-leukemia activity by the immune system.

In some aspects, the invention is a composition or method for the prevention of GVHD. Recent work has shown that small doses of IL-2 may be able to restore T cell homeostasis in patients at risk for GVHD (Kennedy-Nasser et al., 2014. Ultra low-dose IL-2 for GVHD prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation mediates expansion of regulatory T cells without diminishing antiviral or antileukemic activity. Clin Cancer Res. 20:2215-2225). Thus in certain embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition, dosage form, or kit comprises one or more microbes capable of slightly increasing IL-2 levels in a patient such that the abundance of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg cells increases by 1.5-fold, 2-fold, or more than 5-fold. In a preferred embodiment, the IL-2-level enhancing treatment is administrated between one week and one month following the patient's transplant procedure.

Aspects of this invention are based at least in part on the discovery that presence of certain bacterial populations can protect from GVHD and that supplementation with such or similar bacterial compositions can prevent, treat or inhibit GVHD. Similarly, aspects of this invention also includes approaches used for augmentation of such bacterial compositions using various techniques including substrates for bacterial fermentation and propagation as well as delivery of key end products or metabolites of such bacteria which reconstitute needed functionality of a bacterial community can also be used to prevent, treat or inhibit GVHD. Other aspects of this invention include agents for targeting bacteria that increase GVHD mortality or exacerbate clinical GVHD.

Herein, we disclose methods for identifying bacterial subsets that increased or decreased GVHD related mortality in order to identify subsets that may modulate GVHD severity Stool specimen was collected from patients who underwent conventional (non-T cell depleted) allo BMT. Fecal samples were collected and stored weekly over the course of the transplant hospitalization this included prior to conditioning, as well as on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, and 100. GVHD was diagnosed clinically, confirmed pathologically by biopsy whenever possible, and classified according to standard criteria. Patients who engrafted were evaluable for acute GVHD based on historical consensus criteria as described previously (see Rowlings P A, Przepiorka D, Klein J P, et al. IBMTR Severity Index for grading acute graft-versus-host disease: retrospective comparison with Glucksberg grade. Br J Haematol. 1997). These criteria were applied to GVHD with purely acute features that occurred after day 100. Cases of GVHD were further categorized by treatment with or without systemic steroids (prednisone or methylprednisolone, 0.5 mg/kg daily or higher). Cause of death was determined using a standard algorithm where outcomes were prioritized in the following order: 1) primary disease recurrence, 2) graft failure, 3) GVHD, 4) infection, and 5) organ failure; thus in patients without disease recurrence or graft failure, those who were being treated for GVHD at the time of death were considered to have succumbed to GVHD-related mortality, including those who died from infections. In some embodiments, the abundances of bacterial genera from patients who did or did not die from GVHD by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) was compared to identify bacterial subsets associated with either increased or decreased GVHD-related mortality.

Provided herein are probiotic compositions of bacteria that modulate GVHD severity and related mortality and thus can be used to prevent, treat or inhibit GVHD. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition is administered to a subject in an amount effective to increase short chain fatty acid production by one or more organisms in the gut of a mammalian host.

In certain aspects, the invention relates to microbial compositions. In certain embodiments, the microbial compositions can be used for the prevention, treatment or inhibition of GVHD. Aspects of the invention relate to microbial compositions that are being isolated from a subject's microbiota. In some embodiments, the subject is a healthy mammal. In other embodiments, the subject is the recipient of the transplant prior itself prior to inception of the conditioning regimen. In some embodiments, the microbial compositions comprise of bacteria that are enriched in alive GVHD patients. These bacteria are strongly predictive of improved overall survival following allo BMT and largely driven by reduced GVHD-related mortality.

In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises bacteria that are associated with and can reduce clinical acute GVHD. In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises of bacteria that can reduce acute GVHD grades 2-4. In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises of bacteria that can reduce acute GVHD responsive to treatment with systemic corticosteroids. In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises of bacteria that can reduce systemic corticosteroid treatment refractory acute GVHD. In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises of bacteria that are associated with reduced lower gut GVHD. In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises of bacteria that are associated with reduced liver GVHD. In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises of bacteria that are associated with reduced skin GVHD.

In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises bacteria that are associated with and can reduce clinical chronic GVHD in a subject. In some embodiments, the subject has chronic GVHD. The subject with chronic GVHD may be receiving an immunosuppressive treatment. The immunosuppressive treatment may be one or more of methotrexate, cyclosporine, a corticosteroid, and antithymocyte globulin. The corticosteroid may be methylprednisolone. In some embodiments, the subject requires or has required immunosuppressive treatment for a period of one or more years. In further embodiments, the subject has steroid-refractory GVHD. The subject may be receiving one or more of extracorporeal photophoresis, anti-TNF alpha antibody, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil, interleukin-2 receptor antibody, alemtuzumab pentostatin, mesenchymal stem cells, and methotrexate.

Aspects of this intervention also includes identification of antimicrobial agents that increase GVHD incidence and severity by impacting bacteria that are protective against GVHD. Identification of such bacteria can be used as a guide to alter clinical practice to reduce GVHD incidence/severity. Antibiotics are used in BMT patients either for gut decontamination purposes or to treat neutropenic fever. In some embodiments, BMT patients were analyzed to identify if antibiotics they were administered such as piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem-cilastatin, metronidazole, aztreonam and oral vancomycin lead to reduction in bacteria protective against GVHD including clostridiales such as blautia. In some embodiments, BMT patients were analyzed to identify if antibiotics they were administered such as piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem-cilastatin, metronidazole, aztreonam and oral vancomycin lead to increase in bacteria that exacerbate GVHD. In some embodiments, BMT patients were retroactively analyzed to see if exposure to antibiotics with or without anaerobic coverage could impact on GVHD. In some embodiments, the microbial composition comprises bacteria that are associated with GVHD-related mortality. Aspects of this invention also includes agents that targets bacterial populations exacerbate clinical GVHD, increase incidence or severity of GVHD or increase GVHD related mortality.

Aspects of this invention also includes approaches used for augmentation of bacterial compositions that prevent or mitigate GVHD using various techniques including substrates for bacterial fermentation and propagation. It was noted that patients undergoing BMT can lose GVHD protective bacteria without any exposure to antibiotics. This phenomenon was also noted in murine models with experimental GVHD. In some embodiments, the composition of the invention comprises substrates that augment bacterial compositions that prevent or mitigate GVHD. Given diet and nutrition has a tremendous impact on gut microbiome composition and that oral nutrition intake is commonly reduced in allo BMT patients, the impact of nutrition on GVHD protective bacteria abundance was analyzed. In some embodiments, the effect of reduced oral caloric consumption, particularly below 500 kcal/day, on Blautia abundance was analyzed. A pilot experiment of daily nutritional and flora monitoring in five patients undergoing allo BMT showed that a reduction in oral caloric consumption, particularly below 500 kcal/day, was associated with a reduction in Blautia abundance. Given blautia's ability to mitigate GVHD, a nutrition method to augment blautia levels in BMT patients would be a rationale strategy for mitigating GVHD. The ability of blautia to ferment a variety of sugars was thus analyzed using pH and optical density to evaluate bacterial growth in media lacking glucose. In one embodiment, the growth of blautia was analyzed. In another embodiment, bacteria that are potentially competing with blautia such as lactobacillus johnsonii. Lactobacillus johnsonii was evaluated. Lactobacillus johnsonii expands in the setting of calorie restriction at the expense of Clostridia (Jenq et al., 2012) and is thus presumably a direct competitor for nutrients in the murine intestine. Using such strategies, specific substrates or sugars were identified that are fermentable by blautia but not lactobacillus. In one embodiment, the substrate that specifically augments blautia but not lactobacillus was xylose. In another embodiment, the substrate that specifically augments blautia but not lactobacillus was rhamnose. In another embodiment, the effect of administration of such substrates on blautia level was investigated in experimental GVHD models. Administration of xylose in the drinking water of mice was found to lead to an expansion of Blautia in the intestinal flora de-spite the presence of GVHD on day 14 after BMT. In another embodiment, long term effect of xylose administration was evaluated to investigate effects on GVHD related survival. Long-term administration of xylose led to improved survival of mice with GVHD.

Aspects of this invention also include compositions of bacterial end products or metabolites that are responsible or can impart the functionality of a bacterial compositions that prevent or mitigate GVHD. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are produced by many bacteria as a byproduct of carbohydrate fermentation. SCFA are one of the most abundant metabolites produced by the gut microbiome, particularly the class clostridia. SCFA have been found to be important modulators of the immune system. In germ-free mice and vancomycin-treated conventional mice, administration of SCFA (acetate, propionate, or butyrate) restored normal numbers of Tregs in the large intestine (Smith P M, et al. Science. 2013; 569-573). In some embodiments, the SCFA levels of stool specimens from GVHD patients were analyzed for associations with blautia abundance. Samples with reduced abundance of Blautia were also found to have reduced abundance of the SCFA butyrate and acetate. In some embodiments, SCFA will be administered post BMT to reduce incidence and severity of GVHD. In some embodiment, the SFCA administered is acetate. In some embodiment, the SFCA administered is butyrate while in other embodiments it is propionate. In some embodiments, SCFA will reduce GVHD without impacting graft versus tumor effects. In some embodiments, SCFA administration increases the number of peripheral tregs and leads to induction of Foxp3 expression. In some embodiments, SCFA administration reduces donor alloreactive T cells.

In some embodiments, metabolite profiles of patient tissue samples or microbes cultures from patient tissue are used to identify risk factors for developing an autoimmune or inflammatory response, to diagnose an autoimmune or inflammatory disease, to evaluate the prognosis or severity of said disease, to evaluate the success of a treatment regimen, or any combination thereof. Exemplary metabolites for the purposes of diagnosis, prognostic risk assessment, or treatment assessment purposes include short chain fatty acids, bile acids, and lactate. In preferred embodiments, metabolite profiles are taken at different time points during a patient's disease and treatment in order to better evaluate the patient's disease state including recovery or relapse events. Such monitoring is also important to lower the risk of a patient developing a new autoimmune condition following immunomodulatory treatment. In some embodiments, metabolite profiles inform subsequent treatment. For example, patients at risk for developing GVHD and presenting low levels of butyrate may be administered a microbial composition comprising microbes that produce butyrate (e.g., Blautia species) and excluding microbes capable of depleting butyrate (e.g. Methanobacterium species). Probiotic compositions that produce SCFA in the gut of a subject are particularly useful for the treatment of GVHD, because they improve intestinal barrier integrity, which is associated with improvement in overall survival in patients receiving a transplant.

In some embodiments, the administration is preventative or prophylactic in that the subject has not yet developed a detectable GVHD. In some embodiments, the preventative/prophylactic microbial composition will be administered prior after the completion of conditioning region but prior to the transplant. Typically, it takes 2-3 weeks for engraftment of the transplant to be completed. In some embodiments, the preventative/prophylactic microbial composition will be administered once prior to transplant and then again on day 17 after completion of antibiotics prescribed to prevent or treat neutropenic fever or other infections.

The classical definition of Graft versus host disease (GVHD) is that it is an immunological disorder in which the immune cells of a transplant attack the tissues of a transplant recipient and lead to organ dysfunction. In the case of allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation, T-cells from the transplanted BM recognize the host (the bone marrow-transplanted patient i.e., the recipient) as non-self and attack its tissues and organs. The organs most commonly attacked are the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, skin, liver, and lungs. Historical data, however, says it is not only immune cells that are involved in disease pathogenesis and points to the importance of the resident host gut microbes in the development of GVHD.

GVHD can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of damage inflicted to different organs. The disease is divided into acute and chronic GVHD according to clinical manifestations. Patients with acute GVHD typically suffer damage to the skin, GI tract, and liver. Skin damage ranges from redness to exfoliation. Insult to the GI tract can result in bloody diarrhea and blood loss. Liver manifestations, though usually cholestatic in nature, can include liver failure in rare cases.

Acute GVHD usually develops within the first 100 days after transplantation, but it can also occur later. The clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD include red and itchy skin, dry eyes, dry mouth, abnormal liver function with jaundice, and lung damage due to bronchiolitis obliterans. Chronic GVHD is the major cause of non-relapse mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic transplantations. Chronic GVHD usually develops more than 100 days after transplantation, but it can appear sooner.

Patients with chronic GVHD require prolonged immunosuppressive treatment, averaging two to three years in length. The mechanisms underlying chronic GVHD are considered to be somewhat distinct from those of acute GVHD. Thus, chronic GVHD is not simply an end-stage of acute GVHD.

Clinical Staging of Acute GVHD (aGVHD)—There are two systems for quantifying the severity of aGVHD, namely, the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) grading system and the Glucksberg grading system. For both systems, the stage of aGVHD is first determined separately in the three main target organs (skin, liver and gut). These grades are then used to determine an overall aGVHD grade, using either the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) or Glucksberg criteria.

For each grading system, the acute GVHD stage for each target organ is first determined according to certain clinical measures, as provided in Table 3.

The invention also provides, in one aspect, a method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, by administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased. In a preferred embodiment, the bacterial population is a human-derived bacterial population. A human-derived bacterial population includes bacterial strains that natively inhabit a human host, as opposed to a non-human mammalian host. Administration of the probiotic composition can reduce the likelihood that the subject will develop sepsis following the bone marrow transplant. Administration of the probiotic composition can also reduce the likelihood that the subject will develop graft versus host disease (GVHD) following the bone marrow transplant. The probiotic composition can be administered to the subject prior to, after, or concurrently with receiving the bone marrow transplant.

In one embodiment, the probiotic composition reduces intestinal permeability in the subject. This can be achieved by, for example, administering a probiotic composition that contains bacteria which produce short chain fatty acids, which increase intestinal barrier integrity in a subject. In exemplary embodiments, the bacteria produce butyrate, acetate, propionate, or valerate, or combinations thereof. Also provided is a method of reducing intestinal permeability in a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, such that the intestinal permeability of the subject of the subject receiving the transplant is reduced.

In another embodiment, the probiotic composition reduces inflammation in the subject, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, or in a distal location. The probiotic composition can contain anti-inflammatory bacteria. Anti-inflammatory bacteria are described herein. For example, anti-inflammatory bacteria included in the probiotic composition can decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof) and/or increase secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10, IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ, and combinations thereof) by human host cells, such as human epithelial cells or immune cells, e.g., peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Bacteria which produce short chain fatty acids also have anti-inflammatory properties.

In some embodiments, the subject has received or will receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. In some embodiments, the subject will receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant that is T cell depleted.

In exemplary embodiments, the subject has a disorder such as a hematopoietic neoplastic disorder, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. In some embodiments, the subject has a hematopoietic neoplastic disorder. The subject may have leukemia. The leukemia may be chronic myelogenous leukemia or chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In some embodiments, the subject has lymphoma. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In some cases, the subject has multiple myeloma. The subject may receive or will receive a bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell, or cord blood transplant. In some embodiments, the subject has received or will receive whole body irradiation. In further embodiments, the subject is female.

Due to the unique mechanism of action of probiotic compositions in the treatment or prevention of GVHD, probiotic compositions can be selected which minimize GVHD, but do not significantly reduce or eliminate the graft versus tumor (GVT) effect of the bone marrow transplant.

In other embodiments, the subject receiving the transplant has an autoimmune disorder, such as, for example, lupus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, type I diabetes, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In another embodiment, the subject receiving the transplant has sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia.

In an exemplary embodiment, the invention provides a method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated population of anti-inflammatory bacteria capable of decreasing secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or increasing secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, in an amount effective to reduce inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased.

In some embodiments, the subject has received or will receive a transplant from an HLA-matched related donor or an HLA-matched unrelated donor. The subject may also have received or may receive a transplant from an HLA-mismatched related or unrelated donor. In some embodiments, the subject will receive an autologous transplant. In some embodiments, the microbial composition will augment an autologous or allogeneic transplant. In some embodiments, the microbial composition will improve engraftment after an autologous or allogeneic transplant. In some embodiments, the microbial composition will improve neutropenic recovery after an autologous or allogeneic transplant. In some embodiments, the microbial composition will reduce complications after an allogeneic transplant. In some embodiments, the microbial composition will reduce complications after an autologous transplant. Complications after allogeneic transplant may include but are not limited to infections, organ failure, Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver, and/or Interstitial Pneumonia Syndrome (IPS).

In some embodiments, the subject will receive GVHD prophylaxis regimen that are standardly used in the clinic in addition to the microbial composition. This may include administering immunosuppressive treatment such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, corticosteroids, or anti-thymocyte globulin.

In some embodiments, the subject will receive GVHD treatment regimen that are standardly used in the clinic in addition to the microbial composition for management of graft versus host disease. The joint working group established by the Haemato-oncology subgroup of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) and the British Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation (BSBMT) reviewed the available literature and made recommendations in 2012 for the management of acute graft-versus-host disease. Their recommendations are as follows: (1) The management of grade I disease should include topical therapy and optimizing levels of calcineurin inhibitors without the need for additional systemic immunosuppression. (2) The use of systemic corticosteroids is recommended for first line therapy for grade II-IV GVHD. (3) The following agents are suggested for use in the second line treatment of steroid-refractory acute GVHD: extracorporeal photopheresis, anti-tumour necrosis factor a antibodies, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil, interleukin-2 receptor antibodies. (4) The following agents are suggested as third line treatment options in acute steroid-refractory GVHD: alemtuzumab pentostatin, mesenchymal stem cells and methotrexate. In one aspect, disclosed herein are methods of treating, inhibiting, or preventing GVHD in a subject wherein the subject has acute steroid-refractory GVHD. In such methods, the method can further comprise administering to the subject extracorporeal photopheresis, anti-tumour necrosis factor a antibodies, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil, interleukin-2 receptor antibodies, alemtuzumab pentostatin, mesenchymal stem cells, methotrexate, or any combination thereof.

In other embodiments, the subject is administered a prebiotic composition in conjunction with the probiotic composition. For example, in one aspect, the invention provides method of increasing the duration of survival of a subject receiving a bone marrow transplant, by administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, wherein the probiotic composition reduces intestinal permeability in the subject, and administering a prebiotic that enhances the activity of the bacterial population, such that the duration of survival of the subject is increased. Prebiotic compositions of the invention are described herein. Exemplary prebiotics are provided in Table 7, and in FIG. 29.

The invention also provides, in certain aspects, method of preventing or treating graft versus host disease (GVHD) in a subject receiving a transplant, comprising administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated bacterial population, such that GVHD is prevented or treated. The probiotic composition can increase the duration of survival of the transplant recipient, by preventing GVHD, and/or preventing the development of sepsis. Preferably the bacterial population is a human-derived bacterial population. As noted above, the subject may be receiving a hematopoietic stem cell transplant or a bone marrow transplant. In other embodiments, the subject is receiving a solid organ transplant.

GVHD commonly develops after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) but it can also appear after solid organ transplantation. The exact incidence rate of GVHD after solid organ transplantation is unknown. Mild cases likely remain undiagnosed because the clinical features of fever, rash, and diarrhea can be misinterpreted as related to post-transplantation infections. The incidence rate of GVHD is highest after small bowel transplantation (about 5%), followed by liver transplantation. But in general, the incidence rate for solid organ transplantation is very small relative to bone marrow transplantation. In embodiments, the microbial composition is used to prevent or treat GVHD in solid organ transplant recipients.

In some embodiments, the microbial composition will be administered to subjects receiving solid organ transplantation. Transplanted solid organs may include a kidney, heart, skin, a lung, a liver, a pancreas, an intestine, an endocrine gland, a bladder, or a skeletal muscle. In some embodiments, microbial composition will be used to prevent graft rejection in a recipient of a transplanted solid organ. In some embodiments, microbial composition will be used to prevent other complications of solid organ transplantation such as infections.

In exemplary embodiments, the subject has a hematopoietic neoplastic disorder such as, for example, leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma, an autoimmune disorder such as, for example, lupus, multiple sclerosis, systemic sclerosis, Crohn's disease, type I diabetes, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis, or a sickle cell disorder such as, for example, sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia.

Aspects of this invention also include an immune mechanism via which acute or chronic GVHD or solid organ transplant recipients are managed. In some embodiments, a test article inhibits the functionality of antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells where the test article is the microbial composition, prebiotics, microbial composition plus prebiotics or microbial metabolites. In some embodiments, a test article inhibits maturation of antigen presenting cells such that levels of CD40, CD80, CD86, PD-L1 and PD-L2 are modulated. In some embodiments, test article inhibits activity of antigen presenting cells such that production of cytokines such as TGFβ, IL-10, IL-4, IL-12 are modulated. In some embodiments, test article inhibits activity of antigen presenting cells such as their endocytic/phagocytic capacity is hindered. In some embodiments, test article inhibits activity of antigen presenting cells such that their ability to activate naïve T cells is hindered.

In some embodiments, test article inhibits the functionality of T cells where the test article is the microbial composition, prebiotics, microbial composition plus prebiotics or microbial metabolites. In some embodiments, test article alters the functionality of CD4+ T cells such that their activation status is altered affecting surface levels of CD25. In some embodiments, test article alters the functionality of CD4+ T cells such that their proliferative capacity is inhibited. In some embodiments, test article increases the number and differentiation of peripheral regulatory T cells. In some embodiments, the test article affects production of cytokines by T cells such as but not limited to IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4. In some embodiments, the test article reduces the cytotoxic capacity of effector CD8+ cells.

As described herein, reducing systemic or local inflammation in a subject reduces the likelihood that a subject will develop GVHD. Accordingly, in another embodiment, the invention provides a method of reducing inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of a subject receiving a transplant, by administering to the subject a probiotic composition comprising an isolated, anti-inflammatory bacterial population and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient, such that inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of the subject receiving the transplant is reduced. Probiotic compositions containing anti-inflammatory bacterial populations described herein are suitable for the practice of this embodiment.

Additional probiotic compositions useful for treatment or prevention of GVHD contain bacterial strains capable of reducing inflammation in a subject. Such immunomodulatory (anti-inflammatory) bacteria can modulate cytokine expression by host immune cells, resulting in an overall increase in secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines and/or an overall decrease in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, systemically reducing inflammation in the subject. In exemplary embodiments, probiotic compositions useful for treatment or prevention of GVHD stimulate secretion of one or more anti-inflammatory cytokines by host immune cells, such as PBMCs. Anti-inflammatory cytokines include, but are not limited to, IL-10, IL-13, IL-9, IL-4, IL-5, TGFβ, and combinations thereof. In other exemplary embodiments, probiotic compositions useful for treatment or prevention of GVHD inhibit secretion of one or more pro-inflammatory cytokines by host immune cells, such as PBMCs. Pro-inflammatory cytokines include, but are not limited to, IFNγ, IL-12p70, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α, MIP1β, TNFα, and combinations thereof. Other exemplary cytokines are known in the art and are described herein. Probiotic compositions containing anti-inflammatory bacteria reduce inflammation and restore barrier function at the site of administration, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as at distal sites throughout the body of the subject.

Other exemplary probiotic compositions useful for treatment or prevention of GVHD contain bacterial strains capable of altering the proportion of immune subpopulations, e.g., T cell subpopulations, in the subject.

For example, immunomodulatory bacteria can increase or decrease the proportion of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, or Th2 cells in a subject. The increase or decrease in the proportion of immune cell subpopulations may be systemic, or it may be localized to a site of action of the probiotic, e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract or at the site of a distal dysbiosis. In some embodiments, a probiotic composition comprising immunomodulatory bacteria is used for treatment or prevention of GVHD based on the desired effect of the probiotic composition on the differentiation and/or expansion of subpopulations of immune cells in the subject.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Treg cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Treg cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th17 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th17 cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th1 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th1 cells in a subject. In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that increase the proportion of Th2 cells in a subject. In another embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria that decrease the proportion of Th2 cells in a subject.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition contains immunomodulatory bacteria capable of modulating the proportion of one or more of Treg cells, Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and combinations thereof in a subject. Certain immune cell profiles may be particularly desirable to treat or prevent GVHD. For example, in some embodiments, treatment or prevention of GVHD can be promoted by increasing numbers of Treg cells and Th2 cells, and decreasing numbers of Th17 cells and Th1 cells. Accordingly, probiotic compositions for the treatment or prevention of GVHD may contain probiotics capable of promoting Treg cells and Th2 cells, and reducing Th17 and Th1 cells.

Probiotic compositions useful for treating or preventing GVHD include, in exemplary embodiments, one or more bacterial species from Table 1. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial species from Table 1A. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial species from Table 1B. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial species from Table 1C. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial species from Table 1D. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial species from Table 1E. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial species from Table 1F. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition includes one or more bacterial species from Table 5. In some embodiments, the probiotic composition contains a single species of bacteria. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains two or more species of bacteria, e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 500, 1000 or more species of bacteria. In one embodiment, the probiotic composition contains no more than 20 species of bacteria, e.g., 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 species of bacteria. In exemplary embodiments, the probiotic composition contains 8 bacterial species. In other exemplary embodiments, the probiotic composition contains 9 bacterial species. In other embodiments, the probiotic composition contains or is administered in conjunction with a prebiotic, as described herein.

Preferred bacterial genera include Acetanaerobacterium, Acetivibrio, Alicyclobacillus, Alkaliphilus, Anaerofustis, Anaerosporobacter, Anaerostipes, Anaerotruncus, Anoxybacillus, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Blautia, Brachyspira, Brevibacillus, Bryantella, Bulleidia, Butyricicoccus, Butyrivibrio, Catenibacterium, Chlamydiales, Clostridiaceae, Clostridiales, Clostridium, Collinsella, Coprobacillus, Coprococcus, Coxiella, Deferribacteres, Desulfitobacterium, Desulfotomaculum, Dorea, Eggerthella, Erysipelothrix, Erysipelotrichaceae, Ethanoligenens, Eubacterium, Faecalibacterium, Filifactor, Flavonifractor, Flexistipes, Fulvimonas, Fusobacterium, Gemmiger, Geobacillus, Gloeobacter, Holdemania, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, Kocuria, Lachnobacterium, Lachnospira, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillus, Lactonifactor, Leptospira, Lutispora, Lysinibacillus, Mollicutes, Moorella, Nocardia, Oscillibacter, Oscillospira, Paenibacillus, Papillibacter, Pseudoflavonifractor, Robinsoniella, Roseburia, Ruminococcaceae, Ruminococcus, Saccharomonospora, Sarcina, Solobacterium, Sporobacter, Sporolactobacillus, Streptomyces, Subdoligranulum, Sutterella, Syntrophococcus, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermobifida, and Turicibacter.

Preferred bacterial genera also include Acetonema, Alkaliphilus, Amphibacillus, Ammonifex, Anaerobacter, Caldicellulosiruptor, Caloramator, Candidatus, Carboxydibrachium, Carboxydothermus, Cohnella, Dendrosporobacter Desulfitobacterium, Desulfosporosinus, Halobacteroides, Heliobacterium, Heliophilum, Heliorestis, Lachnoanaerobaculum, Lysinibacillus, Oceanobacillus, Orenia (S.), Oxalophagus, Oxobacter, Pelospora, Pelotomaculum, Propionispora, Sporohalobacter, Sporomusa, Sporosarcina, Sporotomaculum, Symbiobacterium, Syntrophobotulus, Syntrophospora, Terribacillus, Thermoanaerobacter, and Thermosinus.

In one embodiment, a probiotic composition for the treatment or prevention of GVHD consists essentially of Blautia.

In another embodiment, a probiotic composition for the treatment or prevention of GVHD does not contain Blautia alone.

As provided herein, therapeutic compositions comprise, or in the alternative, modulate, the colonization and/or engraftment, of the following exemplary bacterial entities: Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus villorum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Staphylococcus pasteuri, Staphylococcus cohnii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus sinensis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sp. SCA22, Streptococcus sp. CR-3145, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus mutans, Coprobacillus cateniformis, Clostridium saccharogumia, Eubacterium dolichum DSM 3991, Clostridium sp. PPf35E6, Clostridium sordelli ATCC 9714, Ruminococcus torques, Ruminococcus gnavus, Clostridium clostridioforme, Ruminococcus obeum, Blautia producta, Clostridium sp. ID5, Megasphaera micronuciformis, Veillonella parvula, Clostridium methylpentosum, Clostridium islandicum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides uniformmis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides fragilis, Parabacteroides distasonis, Propinionibacteirum propionicum, Actinomycs hyovaginalis, Rothia mucilaginosa, Rothia aeria, Bifidobacterium breve, Scardovia inopinata and Eggerthella lenta.

Preferred bacterial species are provided in Table 1, Table 1A, Table 1B, Table 1C, Table 1D, Table 1E, Table 1F, and Table 5. Optionally, in some embodiments, preferred bacterial species are spore formers. Where specific strains of a species are provided, one of skill in the art will recognize that other strains of the species can be substituted for the named strain.

In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Veillonella dispar.

In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acidaminococcus intestine. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter baumannii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Acinetobacter lwoffii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Akkermansia muciniphila. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes putredinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Alistipes shahii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerostipes hadrus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Anaerotruncus colihominis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides caccae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides dorei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides eggerthii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides finegoldii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides fragilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides massiliensis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides ovatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salanitronis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides salyersiae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides sp. D20. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrond. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides uniformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bacteroides vulgatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium adolescentis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium bifidum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium breve. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium faecale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Bifidobacterium stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) coccoides. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia glucerasea. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) hansenii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia hydrogenotrophica (Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) luti. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) obeum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia producta (Ruminococcus productus). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia (Ruminococcus) schinkii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia stercoris. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone BKLE_a03_2 (GenBank: EU469501.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_B_14_30 (GenBank: EF402926.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone SJTU_C_14_16 (GenBank: EF404657.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured bacterium clone S1-5 (GenBank: GQ898099.1). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia uncultured PAC000178_s (www.ezbiocloud.net/eztaxon/hierarchy?m=browse&k=PAC000178&d=2). In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Blautia wexlerae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Candidatus Arthromitus sp. SFB-mouse-Yit. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Catenibacterium mitsuokai. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiaceae bacterium (Dielma fastidiosa) JC13. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium asparagiforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium bolteae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium clostridioforme. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Hungatella) hathewayi. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium histolyticum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium indolis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium leptum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Tyzzerella) nexile. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium perfringens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium (Erysipelatoclostridium) ramosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium scindens. In one embodiment, the bacterial entity, e.g., species or strain, useful in the compositions and methods of the invention is Clostridium septum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 14774. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. 7_3_54FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium sp. HGF2. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Clostridium symbiosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella aerofaciens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Collinsella intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprobacillus sp. D7. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus catus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Coprococcus comes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea formicigenerans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Dorea longicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Enterococcus faecium. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium 3_1_53. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Escherichia coli S88. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium eligens. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium fissicatena. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium ramulus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Eubacterium rectale. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Flavonifractor plautii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium mortiferum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Fusobacterium nucleatum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Holdemania filiformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Klebsiella oxytoca. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 3_1_57FAA_CT1. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_57FAA. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus rhamnosus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactobacillus ruminis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Lactococcus casei. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Odoribacter splanchnicus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Oscillibacter valericigenes. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides gordonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides johnsonii. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Parabacteroides merdae. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Pediococcus acidilactici. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Propionibacterium granulosum. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia intestinalis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Roseburia inulinivorans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus faecis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus gnavus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus sp. ID8. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Ruminococcus torques. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Slackia piriformis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus epidermidis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus cristatus. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. Equisimilis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus infantis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus oralis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus sanguinis. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus viridans. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Streptococcus thermophiles. In one embodiment, the bacterial population useful in the compositions and methods of the invention comprises Veillonella dispar.

XII. Diagnostic Methods

In some embodiments, metabolite profiles of patient tissue samples or microbes cultures from patient tissue are used to identify risk factors for developing an autoimmune or inflammatory response, to diagnose an autoimmune or inflammatory disease, to evaluate the prognosis or severity of said disease, to evaluate the success of a treatment regimen, or any combination thereof. Exemplary metabolites for the purposes of diagnosis, prognostic risk assessment, or treatment assessment purposes include short chain fatty acids, bile acids, and lactate. In preferred embodiments, metabolite profiles are taken at different time points during a patient's disease and treatment in order to better evaluate the patient's disease state including recovery or relapse events. Such monitoring is also important to lower the risk of a patient developing a new autoimmune condition following immunomodulatory treatment. In some embodiments, metabolite profiles inform subsequent treatment. For example, patients at risk for developing GVHD and presenting low levels of butyrate may be administered a microbial composition comprising microbes that produce butyrate (e.g., Blautia species) and excluding microbes capable of depleting butyrate (e.g. Methanobacterium species). In another example, patients experiencing bacterial vaginosis—which increases the risk that a woman will suffer from a sexually transmitted disease or experience fertility issues—often presents with abnormally low lactic acid levels. Thus, patients with low lactic acid production in the vagina may be administered a microbial composition comprising lactic acid producing microbes (e.g., Lactobacillus species) to restore a healthy microbiome state.

Patient Selection.

Particular bacterial compositions can be selected for individual patients or for patients with particular profiles. For example, 16S sequencing can be performed for a given patient to identify the bacteria present in his or her microbiota. The sequencing can either profile the patient's entire microbiome using 16S sequencing (to the family, genera, or species level), a portion of the patient's microbiome using 16S sequencing, or it can be used to detect the presence or absence of specific candidate bacteria that are biomarkers for health or a particular disease state, such as markers of multi-drug resistant organisms or specific genera of concern such as Escherichia. Based on the biomarker data, a particular composition can be selected for administration to a patient to supplement or complement a patient's microbiota in order to restore health or treat or prevent disease. In another embodiment, patients can be screened to determine the composition of their microbiota to determine the likelihood of successful treatment.

XIII. Kits

In certain aspects, the invention relates to kits for the treatment of an autoimmune disease and/or inflammatory disease. The kits may comprise a microbial composition and an immunomodulatory carbohydrate, a prebiotic, microbial DNA, a mucolytic agent or a combination thereof. Optionally, the microbial composition, the immunomodulatory carbohydrate, the prebiotic, microbial DNA, and/or the mucolytic agent are matched to exhibit a synergistic treatment effect in a subject when employing an appropriate treatment regimen or preventative measure for an autoimmune and/or inflammatory disease.

The kits provided may comprise one or more containers. The containers may comprise singly isolated microbial compositions comprising one or more microbes and/or singly isolated prebiotic compositions comprising one or more carbohydrates. The microbial compositions, with or without one or more prebiotics, in the different containers may be administered at the same time or at different times, and may be administered in a specific order.

The compositions may, optionally, additively, or synergistically provide immunomodulatory effects when administered to a subject. The microbial composition, with or without one or more prebiotics, may comprise live microbes, microbes that are lyophilized, freeze-dried, and/or substantially dehydrated, or the composition may comprise bacterial or fungal spores or virions. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises an effective amount of one or more immunomodulary carbohydrates in one or more containers. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises in one or more containers an effective amount of an anti-mucolytic agent. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises one or more containers an effective amount of a prebiotic. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises an effective amount of a pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory agent. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient or diluent.

EXAMPLES

The invention is further illustrated by the following examples. The examples are offered for illustrative purposes only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention in any way. The entire contents of all references, patents, and published patent applications cited throughout this application are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

The practice of the present invention will employ, unless otherwise indicated, conventional methods of protein chemistry, biochemistry, recombinant DNA techniques and pharmacology, within the skill of the art. Such techniques are explained fully in the literature. See, e.g., T. E. Creighton, Proteins: Structures and Molecular Properties (W.H. Freeman and Company, 1993); A. L. Lehninger, Biochemistry (Worth Publishers, Inc., current addition); Sambrook, et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (2nd Edition, 1989); Methods In Enzymology (S. Colowick and N. Kaplan eds., Academic Press, Inc.); Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Edition (Easton, Pa.: Mack Publishing Company, 1990); Carey and Sundberg Advanced Organic Chemistry 3rd Ed. (Plenum Press, Vols A and B, 1992). Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and Western blots described below are performed using kits according to the manufacturers' (e.g., Life Technologies, Thermo Fisher Scientific, New York, USA) instructions.

Example 1

Assessment of Intestinal Permeability after Administration of Bacteria Prebiotic or Combinations Thereof

The main function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is to digest and absorb nutrients from food. The mucosa of the GI tract forms a selective barrier between the host and the environment of the gut lumen. The mucosa allows transport of nutrients while restricting passage of larger molecules and bacteria. Impaired barrier integrity is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of many disorders including autoimmune diseases, including transplant disorders such as graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), and neurological disorders. Disruption of the intestinal barrier due to toxins, dysbiosis, inflammation or other factors is believed to result in the passage and presentation of environmental antigens to the immune system leading to aberrant immune responses. Similarly, the leakage of bacterial endotoxin or other toxic metabolites into the circulation can lead to systemic inflammation promoting the development of autoimmunity and neuroinflammation.

Restoration of GI barrier integrity through the administration of selected prebiotics and/or probiotics represents an approach to correct a basic defect underlying multiple pathological conditions.

In a first set of experiments, intestinal permeability was assessed using serum endotoxin levels as a marker of gut permeability in mice treated with xylose and/or antibiotics. Basal levels of intestinal permeability can be measured under disease or normal conditions. Intestinal permeability can be induced in mice through administration of inflammatory stimuli such as cholera toxin (3 oral gavages of 10 μg cholera toxin, 5 days apart), Poly I:C (3 intraperitoneal injections of 1 mg/kg, 3 days apart) or dextran sulfate (3% dextran sulfate sodium salt in drinking water for 7 days). Quantitation of intestinal permeability was carried out by quantitatively measuring plasma levels of endotoxin originating from gut bacteria using a commercially available chromogenic assay (Lonza, Rockland, Me.). The results of these experiments are shown in FIG. 1.

Quantitation of intestinal permeability can also be conducted using a number of alternative methods (reviewed in Bischoff et al, 2014) for example, by quantifying leakage of fluorescently-labeled high molecular weight dextran (FITC-dextran) into the plasma following oral administration (oral gavage with 0.6 g/kg 4 kDa FITC-dextran, serum samples collected 4 hours later and read for fluorescence intensity at 521 nm; Hsiao et al, 2013). To study the effect of bacterial strains on intestinal permeability, mice are gavaged orally with 107-1010 bacterial cells for an average of 5 administrations, typically daily or 2 days apart. Bacteria can be administered as single strains or combinations of strains. The bacteria can be administered alone or in combination with a pre-biotic(s). The pre-biotic can be xylose or xylose-containing molecules as a preferred carbon source for anaerobic bacteria. Other prebiotics that can be used include, for example, those described in Table 7. After administration of bacteria+/−pre-biotic, intestinal permeability is assessed using the preferred method at the desired time point(s) starting on day 1 post-treatment.

As shown in FIG. 1, C57BL/6 mice were either left untreated or were treated with xylose at 10 g/L in drinking water from day −7 to day 14; ciprofloxacin (cipro) at 0.25 g/L in drinking water from day −7 to day −2; enrofloxacin (enro) at 0.25 g/L in drinking water from day −7 to day −2; xylose+cipro or xylose+enro. Analysis of serum samples collected on days 0 and 14 showed that basal levels of serum endotoxin are present in normal mice that remained unchanged in untreated mice. Xylose treatment reduced these basal levels over time, suggesting an increase in gut barrier integrity even in normal animals. Antibiotic treatment with cipro, a broad spectrum quinolone antibiotic, or enro, an anaerobe-sparing antibiotic, led to an increase in serum endotoxin levels (measured 2 days after a 5 day course), likely due to disruption of the microbiota. Serum endotoxin levels returned to baseline over time. As shown in FIG. 1, xylose appeared to counteract the increase in serum endotoxin level caused by cipro, but not enro. The differential effect of xylose on these 2 antibiotics may relate to its ability to preserve/promote expansion of anaerobic bacteria, which are killed by cipro but not enro.

Example 2

Immunomodulatory Properties of Different Human Commensal Bacteria on Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

The microbiota of mammalian hosts is composed of bacterial species that possess both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. In healthy individuals, a balance or state of eubiosis is maintained that supports gut barrier integrity, immune containment of commensal bacteria and promotion of a tolerogenic environment. Under disease conditions, dysbiosis characterized by an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory bacteria results in local inflammation and compromised gut barrier integrity, leading to systemic inflammation and aberrant immune responses. Administration of selected probiotic bacterial strains (+/−prebiotics) that possess anti-inflammatory activity and promote immune tolerance represents an approach to correct a basic defect underlying multiple pathological conditions.

An in vitro system was developed to efficiently test the inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of different human commensal bacteria on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Experiments were carried out with 21 bacterial candidates to profile their anti-inflammatory properties against human PBMCs. The innate properties of bacteria alone on human PBMCs were tested as well as their ability to counteract the pro-inflammatory activity of Enterococcus feacalis.

Human PBMCs were isolated from fresh blood by density-gradient centrifugation using Ficoll (1-4). Freshly isolated PBMCs were plated at 1.5×106 cells per ml per well of a 24-well plate in a total volume of 2 mls RPMI-1640 medium+5% human serum, and incubated at 37° C./5% CO2 with the following:

    • (1) 500 □l of different commensal bacteria suspensions at OD 0.8
    • (2) E. faecalis at 107 colony-forming units (cfu)
    • (3) A combination of commensal bacteria (OD 0.8)+E. Faecalis (107 cfu)
    • (4) Complete medium alone as a negative control
    • (5) Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ng/ml) as an immunomodulatory “positive” control Culture supernatants were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h, and the cytokine profile was analyzed by Luminex technology according to manufacturer's instruction (EMD Millipore, Danvers, Mass.).
      Cytokine production was detectable in culture supernatants by 24 h with levels increasing over 48-72 h and sometimes exceeding the range of quantitation. The results are presented in FIGS. 2-5 for all time points. The 24 h time point was chosen as the optimal time point for further analysis. The 24 h results are shown as a composite in FIG. 6 and with statistical analysis on individual cytokines in FIGS. 7-10. The results represent the properties of each bacterial species against human PBMCs and their ability to counteract inflammatory stimulation with E. faecalis in vitro. It was found that the commensal bacteria tested have distinct immunomodulatory properties, and most appear to counteract the inflammatory activity of E. Faecalis for at least one cytokine.

FIG. 2 shows the time course of Th1 related cytokines that were released by human PBMCs incubated with Ruminococcus gnavus (Epv 1), Eubacterium rectale (Epv 2), Blautia luti (Epv 3), Blautia wexlerae (Epv 5) and Enterococcus faecalis (Epv 8), or combinations of each bacterium with E. faecalis. Amounts of Th1-related pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 p70 (IL-12p70), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) released by PBMCs were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. As shown in FIG. 2, all commensals have unique immunomodulatory properties. As expected, E. faecalis induced high levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines. By comparison, most of the other bacterial candidates induced lower levels of Th1-related cytokines and were able to counteract the induction of one or more inflammatory cytokines by E. faecalis. In particular, Blautia luti (Epv 3), showed minimal induction of Th1-related cytokines on its own and was most effective in counteracting induction of these cytokines by E. faecalis (Epv 8). This profile is desirable for disease indications which are primarily driven by Th1 immune responses, such as GVHD.

FIG. 3 shows the time course of Th2 related cytokines that were released in cells treated with R. gnavus (Epv 1), E. rectale (Epv 2), B. luti (Epv 3), B. wexlerae (Epv 5) and E. faecalis (Epv 8), or combinations thereof. Amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-13 (IL-13), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5) released by PBMCs were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Each bacterium displayed detectable pattern of cytokine induction and ability to modulate the effect of E. faecalis. Th2-related cytokines are beneficial in counteracting Th1 responses. Bacteria capable of promoting Th2 cytokine release are therefore of interest in Th1-driven diseases. R. gnavus appeared the most active in terms of eliciting Th2 cytokine on its own or in the presence of E. faecalis.

FIG. 4 shows the time course of Th9, Th17 and Treg cytokines that were released in cells treated with R. gnavus (Epv 1), E. rectale (Epv 2), B. luti (Epv 3), B. wexlerae (Epv 5) and E. faecalis (Epv 8), or combinations thereof. Amounts of interleukin-9 (IL-9), interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) released by PBMCs were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The activity of IL-9 and IL-17 is context-dependent in that these cytokines can be beneficial under some conditions but detrimental under other conditions depending on the mechanisms responsible for disease pathogenesis. For example, IL-17 is expected to contribute to disease pathogenesis in GVHD but could provide a benefit in Th2-driven disorders. IL-10 produced by regulatory T cells (Treg) is generally immunosuppressive and is expected to provide a benefit in most inflammatory disorders whether Th1- or Th2-driven. As shown in FIG. 4, all bacterial candidates elicited IL-9 and IL-17 to varying degrees and B. wexlerae (Epv 5) was the most potent in inducing IL-10.

FIG. 5 shows the time course of monocyte, macrophage and neutrophil-related inflammatory cytokines that were released by PBMCs treated with R. gnavus (Epv 1), E. rectale (Epv 2), B. luti (Epv 3), B. wexlerae (Epv 5) and E. faecalis (Epv 8), or combinations thereof. Amounts of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1β), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α), regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-1β (IL1β), interferon α2 (IFN-α2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) that were released were measured after 24, 48 and 72 hours. In general, these cytokines contribute to inflammation by innate immune effector cells. The bacteria tested showed different degrees of induction and effects on E. faecalis. Overall, E. rectale (Epv 2) and B. luti (Epv 3) were the least inflammatory and the most effective at countering the effect of E. faecalis (Epv 8).

A composite illustration of the secretion of each of the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines described above in the presence of each commensal alone or in combination with EPV8 is graphed relative to the pro-inflammatory bacterial strain E. faecalis (Epv 8) in FIG. 6. In the context of GVHD, IFNγ (IFNg), IL-12p70, IL-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, IL-8, MCP1, MIP1α (MIP1α), MIP1β (MIP1b) and TNFα (TNFa) are considered pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-10, IL-13, IL-9, IL-4 and IL-5 are considered anti-inflammatory cytokines. IL-17 (IL-17A), IL-9 and IL-2 have context dependent activity. The results are shown as a percentage of Epv 8, where cytokine levels in the presence of E. faecalis after 24 hours is set at 100%. Each commensal has a unique signature and each one added alone to human PBMCs appeared to be less inflammatory than E. faecalis (below 100% for pro-inflammatory cytokines), except for B. wexlerae (Epv 5). When added to PBMCs in combination with E. faecalis, most commensals tested (except for Epv 5) also counteracted the pro-inflammatory activity of E. faecalis (below 100% for pro-inflammatory cytokines).

FIGS. 7-10 detail individual cytokine profiles of PBMCs following exposure to various commensals, alone or in combination with the pro-inflammatory bacterium E. faecalis (Epv8). In particular, FIG. 7 shows the effect of R. gnavus (EPV1) on cytokine concentration (pg/ml) either alone or in combination with Epv 8 (E. faecalis).

FIG. 8 shows the effect of E. rectale (EPV 2) on cytokine concentration (pg/ml) either alone or in combination with Epv 8 (E. faecalis). FIG. 9 shows the effect of B. luti (EPV 3) on cytokine concentration (pg/ml) either alone or in combination with Epv 8 (E. faecalis).

FIG. 10 shows the effect of B. wexlerae (EPV 5) on cytokine concentration (pg/ml) either alone or in combination with Epv 8 (E. faecalis).

Overall, the foregoing data indicate that, among the bacteria tested, EPV3 has a significantly desirable anti-inflammatory profile for a Th1-1-driven condition, such as GVHD while EPV5 has a suboptimal anti-inflammatory profile for GVHD. As shown in FIG. 11, EPV3 has relatively low intrinsic inflammatory activity compared to EPV 8 and is able to reduce the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by EPV 8, including IL-6, MCP-1, IL-12p70, and IFNγ which are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of GVHD. By comparison, EPV 5 is similar to EPV 8 in terms of induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and shows little ability to counteract the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by EPV 8.

Additional bacteria were profiled using this methodology including: Clostridium leptum (EPV 6), Blautia faecis (EPV15), Blautia/Ruminococcus obeum ATCC 29174 (EPV 20), Blautia product ATCC 27340 (EPV 21), Blautia coccoides ATCC 29236 (EPV 22), Blautia hydrogenotrophica ATCC BAA-2371 (EPV-23) and Blautia Hansenii ATCC27752 (EPV 24). Strains freshly isolated by Epiva from the stool of a normal healthy volunteer were also profiled and included: Eubacterium rectale (EPV 35), a previously uncultured Blautia, similar to GQ898099_s S1-5 (EPV 47), a previously uncultured Blautia, similar to SJTU_C_14_16 (EPV 51), Blautia wexlerae (SJTU_B_09_77) (EPV 52), Blautia luti ELU0087-T13-S-NI_000247 (EPV 54), Blautia wexlerae WAL 14507 (EPV 64), Blautia obeum (EPV 78), Ruminococcus gnavus (EPV 102) and Blautia luti (BlnIX) (EPV 114). Results focusing on key pro-inflammatory (IL-12p70, IFNγ, IP-10, IL-1RA) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4, IL-13) cytokines are shown in FIGS. 12-27. As observed with the initial set of bacterial candidates, each isolate displayed a defined signature. Candidates for treatment of autoimmune or inflammatory disorders, such as GVHD, displayed low induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or positive induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and had ability to counteract the inflammatory activity of E. faecalis. Bacterial candidates meeting these criteria include, for example, EPV 35, 51, 78 and 114.

Taken together, these results show that commensals have distinct immunomodulatory properties and display a definable signature in terms of their ability to induce cytokines in human host cells, or counteract the pro-inflammatory activity of another bacterium (E. faecalis). Accordingly, bacterial compositions may be selected in order to achieve a desired modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. For example, anti-inflammatory bacterial strains may be selected based on their ability to reduce key pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma, IL-12p70, IP-10 and IL-RA and/or increase anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-13, IL-10 and IL-4.

Example 3

Effect of Commensal Human Bacteria on T-Cell Polarization

In order to determine whether exposure to commensal bacteria may polarize T cells toward a particular phenotype, flow cytometry analysis was performed on human PBMCs cultured with various commensal bacteria as described above. The cells recovered from culture were washed in phosphate-buffered saline and stained with a cocktail of fluorescently labeled antibodies against specific cell surface protein markers to allow for the detection of Th1 cells (CXCR3+CCR6), Th2 cells (CXCR3CCR6), Th17 cells (CXCR3CCR6+) and Tregs (CD25+CD127lo). Negative control wells contained PBMCs in culture medium alone and positive control wells contained PBMCs+LPS (100 ng/ml) as a known immune stimulus. The commensal bacteria examined included: Epv 1: R. gnavus; Epv 3: B. luti; Epv 2: E. rectale; Epv 5: B. wexlerae; Epv. 8: E. faecalis; Epv 20: B. obeum, ATCC 29174; Epv 21: B. product, ATCC 27340; Epv 24: B. hansenii, ATCC 27752. As shown in FIG. 28, exposure of human PBMCs to bacteria did result in a shift in the relative proportion of T cell populations compared to the PBMCs alone (control) although statistical significance was not achieved in every case. Overall, most bacteria tested caused an increase in the proportion of T cells with a regulatory phenotype (Tregs) with EPV 21 and EPV 24 having the greatest impact and EPV8 (E. faecalis) causing little or no increase in Tregs. Most bacteria also caused a decrease in the proportion of Th17 cells, an increase in Th2 cells and had little or no effect on the proportion of Th1 cells. This type of analysis indicates that commensal bacteria can modulate the proportions of effector T cell types and can be used to select the desired phenotype for a given disease application. For example, the optimal T cell profile to address pro-inflammatory disorders such as GVHD would consist of ↑Treg, ↓Th17, ↓ or unchanged Th1, and ↑Th2. This phenotype was induced by many of the bacteria tested.

Example 4

Pattern of Carbon Source Utilization by Commensal Bacteria

Modulation of the microbiota to correct a dysbiosis associated with pathological conditions can potentially be achieved through administration of bacteria (or bacterial combinations) and prebiotic(s) as a carbon source to promote endogenous expansion of beneficial bacteria. Alternatively, prebiotics can be administered in combination with bacteria to promote their growth or create a favorable environment for their growth. Profiling of carbon source usage by bacterial isolates can be used to customize and optimize selection of prebiotics for particular bacterial strains. Profiling of carbon source usage was conducted on 21 anaerobic commensal bacteria (Table 6) using 96 well plates from Biolog (Hayward, Calif.) where each well contains a different carbon source for a total of 192 different carbon sources (PM01 and PM02A plates). The carbon sources tested are listed in Table 7. The assay was conducted according to manufacturer's instructions. Briefly, pre-cultured bacteria were suspended in Biolog assay medium at a 750 nm optical density (OD) of 0.3-0.4, and 100 μl of the suspension was transferred to each well of the 96 well PM01 and PM02 assay plates. The plates were then incubated at 37° C. in an anaerobic chamber for 24 hr or longer. The amount of growth on each carbon source was evaluated by measuring the optical density (OD) of each well at 750 nm. The results are summarized in FIG. 29, and indicate that each individual strain displays a unique pattern of carbon source usage. Interestingly, different isolates of the same species (e.g. B. luti and B. wexlerae) show related (albeit distinct) patterns. Overall, these results indicate that characterization of carbon source usage for profiling of bacterial candidates allows optimal selection of prebiotics. Preferred prebiotics can be selected which increase the growth (indicated by an increase in optical density) of bacterial species contained in probiotic compositions.

Example 5

Normal Human Volunteer Study of a Prebiotic Formulation Containing Xylose

D-xylose is a carbon source generally preferred by anaerobic bacteria. Preliminary results in the mouse indicate that it may act to promote gut barrier integrity (FIG. 1). It is also used as a carbon source by several bacterial strains (FIG. 29) that were determined to possess a desirable immunological profile for target indications such as GVHD (FIG. 19, 25, 27). A parallel, double-blind, 5 cohort escalation food safety study was conducted to examine D-xylose in normal human volunteers. The study was a double-blind, single-center, parallel group study designed to evaluate the tolerability and potential microbiome changes induced by ingestion of D-xylose at 5 different amounts in healthy, adult volunteers enrolled at 1 study center in the United States (US).

Subjects were screened for eligibility within 21 days prior to the first planned ingestion of study sweetener on Day 1 (Baseline). Within each of 5 cohorts, eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blinded, 6:2 ratio to ingest either D-xylose or the GRAS sweetener Splenda® (control), dissolved into 2 to 6 oz of sterile water and ingested TID with meals for a total of 82 ingestions taken over 28 consecutive days. D-xylose ingestion amounts ranged from 1 to 15 g TID (total daily amount of 3 to 45 g), and all subjects randomized to Splenda® ingested 1 dissolved, commercially available packet TID (3 packets total per day).

Subjects returned to the study center weekly on Days 8, 15, 22, and 28 for ingestion, tolerability, and compliance evaluations. Safety was evaluated on a continual basis through adverse events (AE) monitoring, clinical laboratory measurements, vital sign monitoring, physical examinations, electrocardiograms (ECGs), telephone follow-up, and electronic subject ingestion diaries. Stool was collected pre-ingestion and at pre-specified time points, and post-ingestion samples were evaluated for changes in the gut microbiome compared with Baseline for all subjects. For subjects who consented to further sampling, additional stool specimens were used to potentially isolate living bacteria that could be categorized for research and potential commercialization purposes. Serum and urine were collected for measurement of D-xylose levels and pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments and PK/pharmacodynamics (PD) correlations. Telephone follow-up was conducted as needed, but minimally once per week. The total duration for each participant was up to 60 days, including the Screening period (Day −21 to 0), the ingestion period (Day 1 to 28), and an End-of-Study (EOS) follow-up visit conducted 7 (+3) days after the last ingestion of study sweetener.

Criteria for Evaluation

Safety

Safety was evaluated on a continual basis through AE monitoring, clinical laboratory measurements, vital sign monitoring, physical examinations, ECGs, telephone follow-up, and electronic subject ingestion diaries.

Immunology and Other Assessments

Stool was collected at pre-specified pre- and post-ingestion time points and post-ingestion samples were evaluated for changes in the gut microbiome compared with Baseline. Additional optional specimens were collected to potentially isolate living bacteria that could be categorized for research and potential commercialization purposes.

Blood was collected at pre-specified pre- and post-ingestion time points to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), serum cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, interferon gamma [IFN-γ], and IL-10), and T-cell markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, and FOXP3. Plasma was also stored and may be tested for biomarkers and/or metabolic markers for up to 7 years.

Pharmacokinetics

Blood and urine were collected at pre-specified pre- and post-ingestion time points to measure D-xylose levels and to characterize the systemic absorption profiles of D-xylose.

Statistical Methods

Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS®, Version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, N.C., USA). The sample size calculations were empiric and based on an estimation of normal healthy volunteer variability in reported symptoms and side effects and not on a statistical method. A weighted randomization scheme was implemented such that more subjects were enrolled at the higher D-xylose ingestion amounts to account for potential toxicity-related effects that could have resulted in withdrawal and/or analysis ineligibility, and to enable collection of more data at ingestion amounts for which limited data were available.

Analysis Populations

The safety population comprised all subjects who ingested any amount of study sweetener.

Safety

AEs were coded using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Version 18.0 (Northrup Grumman Corporation, Chantilly, Va., USA), and summarized by cohort. Laboratory, vital sign, and physical examination data were summarized by cohort using descriptive statistics over time, including statistics for changes from Baseline. ECG findings were also summarized by cohort over time as well as using frequency counts and percentages, as normal or abnormal, with the relevance of abnormalities categorized by clinical significance.

Immunology and Other Assessments

Stool sample compliance was summarized by cohort, using the following calculation for each subject:

Percentagecompliance=TotalnumberofstoolsamplescollectedTotalnumberofstoolsamplesexpected×100

A total of 7 stool samples were expected to be collected for each subject. Evaluation of changes in the gut microbiome were evaluated in stool samples through taxonomic classification, relative and statistical differential abundance analyses by cohort and time point, an alpha diversity analysis calculated using the Shannon diversity index by cohort and time point, a beta diversity analysis using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and Unifrac distance by subject and time point, and a principal coordinates analysis using the beta diversity data.

Summary statistics (n, mean, standard deviation, median, minimum, and maximum) were presented for serum concentrations of CRP, flow cytometry T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, and FOXP3), and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10) as per their nominal time points.

Pharmacokinetics

Phoenix® WinNonLin®, Version 6.2.1, was used for PK analyses.

Serum D-xylose concentrations were summarized by cohort using nominal sample times according to actual amount received using summary statistics (n, coefficient of variation [CV], mean, standard deviation [SD], median, minimum, and maximum). Evidence for the occurrence of steady-state was assessed graphically by comparing the time course of either trough or 2-hour post-ingestion serum concentrations of D-xylose as different levels of D-xylose. Accumulation was assessed by comparing the 2-hour post-first-ingestion serum levels with those observed at Week 2 (Day 15) and Week 4 (Day 28).

The total amount of D-xylose excreted in urine was analyzed for all subjects over 5 hours post-ingestion and pooled for analysis; the pooling for analysis reflected the subject mean within a given time of collection (e.g., Day 15 and then Day 28) sorted by ingested amount. Urine PK parameters for D-xylose levels included Ae(0-t) (cumulative amount of sweetener recovered in urine) and percent sweetener amount excreted over a 5-hour period.

Summary of Results

Forty-eight subjects were randomized to ingest either 1 packet of commercially-available Splenda® TID (n=12) or D-xylose TID at the following ingestion amounts (n=36 total):

1 g: 6 subjects
2 g: 6 subjects
8 g: 7 subjects
12.5 g: 8 subjects
15 g: 9 subjects

Over the 28-day ingestion period, study sweetener ingestion compliance was >90% for all subjects. Two subjects (4.2%) discontinued from the study prematurely; primary reasons for discontinuation were a protocol violation (positive urine drug screen) and withdrawal of consent. The proportion of males (47.9%) and females (52.1%) was balanced, and the majority of subjects were White (89.6%) and not Hispanic or Latino (77.1%). Subject ages spanned a wide range, with a median of 38.3 (range 22.5 to 60.5) years for the combined D-xylose cohorts and 43.6 (range 24.9 to 64.3) years for the Splenda® cohort.

Safety

D-xylose and Splenda® were both well tolerated, with no new safety concerns identified. One subject required a D-xylose reduction from 15 g to 12.5 g TID at the Week 1 (Day 8) visit due to AEs of moderate abdominal distension, diarrhea, and GI pain; no other modifications to sweetener ingestion amounts were implemented.

Overall, 17 subjects (35.4%) experienced at least 1 AE, including a higher proportion of subjects who ingested any amount of D-xylose (14 subjects [38.9%]) than Splenda® (3 subjects [25.0%]). Reported AE rates increased with increasing D-xylose ingestion amounts, with incidences ranging from 16.7% in subjects who ingested the 2 lowest amounts (1 and 2 g TID) to 66.7% in subjects who ingested the highest amount (15 g TID). AEs reported for more than 1 subject in the D-xylose cohorts included diarrhea (3 subjects [8.3%]) and flatulence and GI pain (2 subjects [5.6%] each). AEs in the Splenda® cohort included abdominal distension, flatulence, increased blood creatinine, infrequent bowel movements, and rhinitis. The incidence of AEs was highest during Weeks 1 and 2 (Days 2 through 15), regardless of sweetener type or ingestion amount. During this 2-week period, 18 subjects overall (37.5%) experienced AEs, compared with 7 subjects (14.6%) overall who experienced AEs either on Day 1 or after Week 2.

All AEs were mild in severity with the exception of moderate AEs reported for 4 subjects (11.1%) in the D-xylose cohorts. These moderate AEs included abdominal distension, concussion/post-concussion syndrome, diarrhea, GI pain, increased blood bilirubin, and neutropenia.

No SAEs, severe AEs, or subject deaths were reported. One subject in the 8 g TID D-xylose cohort experienced non-serious, moderate AEs of concussion and post-concussion syndrome that were noted to have contributed to study discontinuation; however, this subject's primary reason for discontinuation was withdrawal of consent.

GI-related AEs, which were of special interest, were reported for 7 subjects (19.4%) in the D-xylose cohorts and 2 subjects (16.7%) in the Splenda® cohort. GI-related events were mild for all but 1 subject in the 15 g TID D-xylose cohort who experienced moderate GI-related AEs of abdominal distension, diarrhea, and GI pain that required reduction of the D-xylose ingestion amount to 12.5 g TID.

Eleven subjects (22.9%) experienced at least 1 AE that was considered by the Investigator to be related to study sweetener, including 9 subjects (25.0%) in the D-xylose cohorts and 2 subjects (16.7%) in the Splenda® cohort. The incidence of sweetener-related AEs appeared to increase with increasing D-xylose ingestion amounts. Sweetener-related AEs reported for more than 1 subject in the D-xylose cohorts included diarrhea (3 subjects [8.3%]) and flatulence and GI pain (2 subjects [5.6%] each). Sweetener-related AEs reported in the Splenda® cohort were abdominal distension, flatulence, and infrequent bowel movements.

No fluctuations in clinical laboratory measurements over time were considered to be clinically meaningful. Categorical shifts from Baseline that occurred in >10% of subjects in either the combined D-xylose or Splenda® cohorts included decreased or increased glucose (27.7% D-xylose and 16.7% Splenda®) and decreased absolute neutrophil count (ANC) (13.9% and 8.3%); these shifts were not associated with sweetener type or ingestion amount.

Immunology and Other Assessments

To assess the effect of D-xylose on the gut microbiome, this study incorporated an analysis of alpha diversity, beta diversity, and differentially abundant taxa. These factors were assessed both across cohorts and over time. Regardless of sweetener ingestion amount, no apparent significant impact on the intra-sample alpha diversity of the gut microbiome was observed, and no significant changes in community composition were observed over time on study. Numerous taxa were identified as differentially abundant, but these findings may reflect the relatively small sample sizes in each cohort.

Across all D-xylose cohorts, 8.3% of subjects with normal serum CRP at Baseline experienced at least 1 post-ingestion CRP value >2.9 mg/L. A substantially higher proportion of subjects in the Splenda® cohort (41.7%) had normal serum CRP at Baseline and experienced at least 1 post-ingestion CRP value >2.9 mg/L. None of the post-ingestion CRP values for any subject were deemed clinically significant.

Because most individual cytokine data points were below the limit of quantitation (BLQ) and therefore set to zero, cytokine summary statistics were limited and did not indicate any consistent or clinically meaningful changes over time for either sweetener or any D-xylose ingestion amount. There was a trend for reduced levels of serum interferon gamma over time in the 2 g and 15 g D-xylose cohorts (FIG. 30). No consistent or clinically meaningful changes over time in total T-cells or any T-cell subsets were observed for either sweetener or any D-xylose ingestion amount.

Pharmacokinetics

Serum D-xylose concentrations increased linearly with increasing ingestion amounts. Little to no accumulation of serum D-xylose occurred at Day 15 following 1 g to 12.5 g TID ingestion, while an approximately 1.9-fold accumulation ratio was observed in the 15 mg TID cohort (although variability was high). On Day 28, the accumulation ratio ranged from 1.08 to 1.31 following 1 g to 12.5 g TID ingestion and 1.68 following 15 g TID ingestion, although variability was moderate to high in all but the 8 g TID cohort.

In the 1 g TID cohort, approximately 40% of the ingested amount of D-xylose was recovered in urine within 5 hours post-ingestion on Days 1, 15, and 28. In the 2 g through 15 g TID cohorts, between 23% and 32% of the ingested amount of D-xylose was recovered in urine within 5 hours post-ingestion on Days 1, 15, and 28. The fraction excreted in urine was similar among Days 1, 15, and 28.

A review of the time course of serum D-xylose concentrations and the corresponding urinary excretion profiles indicated high ingestion compliance.

Changes in the Gut Microbiome

A total of 344 stool samples were collected in OMNIgene•GUT collection kits and shipped to the GenoFIND laboratory for DNA extraction and V3-V4 16S amplicon sequencing. There were no major shifts in the microbiome alpha diversity between the different treatment groups (absolute number of OTUs, abundance of OTUs) or over time on study. There was an overall decrease in the Chao diversity index over time (indicator of community richness−# of singleton, doubleton OTUs), as shown in FIG. 31. Numerous taxa were identified as differentially abundant, but this finding may be attributable to the relatively small sample sizes of each cohort. Similar observations were made in the mouse study, e.g., xylose treatment did not cause major shifts in the gut microbiome but showed some differences at the family level. Overall, these results suggest that, under the conditions tested in normal individuals and normal mice, ingestion of xylose exerts subtle changes in the gut microbiome. The impact of xylose on the microbiome under disease conditions remains to be determined.

Taken together, the results of this trial show that D-xylose is safe and well-tolerated, and indicate that prebiotic formulations containing xylose may reduce inflammation in a subject, resulting in reduction of serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Example 6

Distal Augmentation

The trillions of organisms forming the microbiome function as an organ system interconnected throughout the body. The possibility that modification of the microbiome in a given physical location may influence the microbiome at other sites in the body (distal augmentation) was investigated. Seven week old C57Bl/6 female mice were acclimatized for 7 days prior to the start of the study by daily handling and shuffling between cages. All mice were housed at three mice per cage in individually vented cages (Thoren, Hazleton, Pa.). At day 0, baseline fresh fecal pellets, and vaginal lavages with 100 μL of sterile double-distilled water were collected and immediately frozen at −80° C. for microbiome analysis. After baseline collection, mice were given to drink either autoclaved water (N=6) or 0.5 mg/L of the antibiotic vancomycin in autoclaved water (N=6) ad libitum. Water alone is not expected to influence the microbiome and acted as a negative control. Oral vancomycin is poorly absorbed from the gut and its ingestion does not result in significant levels of drug in the body (Rao et al, 2011). The impact of oral vancomycin is therefore expected to be limited to the gastrointestinal tract such that microbiome changes elsewhere in the body (e.g. vagina) would be attributable to distal augmentation. At day 6, fresh fecal pellets and vaginal lavages with 100 μL of sterile double-distilled water were collected and immediately stored at −80° C. for microbiome analysis.

Isolation and sequencing of microbial DNA from the stool and vaginal samples was performed by DNA Genotek (Ottawa, ON, Canada). The V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal subunit was amplified with custom PCR primers and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq to a minimum acceptable read depth of 25,000 sequences per sample. The widely accepted read depth requirement for accurate taxonomic profiling is 15,000-100,000 reads (Illumina, 2014). A closed-reference taxonomic classification was performed, where each sequence was aligned to the SILVA reference database, version 123. Sequences were aligned using the UCLUST algorithm included in QIIME version 1.9.1 (Caporaso et al., 2010). A minimum threshold of 97% sequence identity was used to classify sequences according to representative sequences in the database. At 97% sequence identity, each OTU represents a genetically unique group of biological organisms. These OTU's were then assigned a curated taxonomic label based on the seven level SILVA taxonomy.

As expected, oral vancomycin treatment had a strong impact on the microbiome of the gut. As shown by principal component analysis (PCA) at the family level, the day 0 to day 6 pattern in fecal samples was clearly different in the control vs oral vancomycin group (FIG. 32). Interestingly, the day 0 to day 6 pattern in the vaginal samples also showed an overall difference between the PBS and oral vancomycin groups even though the vaginal environment is not exposed to vancomycin following oral administration of the antibiotic (FIG. 32). In addition, some bacterial species were detected at low frequency in vaginal samples of the vancomycin-treated group at day 6 (median abundance of approximately 0.00002%) that were not present at day 0 (Table 8). These results support the concept of distal augmentation whereby modification of the microbiome at one site also has an impact at a distal site(s). This finding opens the possibility of modulating the microbiome, for example at the level of the gut, to effect therapeutic changes in the microbiome at other sites, for example the lung.

Example 7

Provision of Fecal Material

Fresh fecal samples are obtained from healthy human donors who have been screened for general good health and for the absence of infectious diseases, and meet inclusion and exclusion criteria, inclusion criteria include being in good general health, without significant medical history, physical examination findings, or clinical laboratory abnormalities, regular bowel movements with stool appearance typically Type 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 on the Bristol Stool Scale, and having a BMI≧18 kg/m2 and ≦25 kg/m2. Exclusion criteria generally include significant chronic or acute medical conditions including renal, hepatic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, genitourinary, endocrine, immunologic, metabolic, neurologic or hematological disease, a family history of, inflammatory bowel disease including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, Irritable bowel syndrome, colon, stomach or other gastrointestinal malignancies, or gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes, or recent use of yogurt or commercial probiotic materials in which an organism(s) is a primary component. Samples are collected directly using a commode specimen collection system, which contains a plastic support placed on the toilet seat and a collection container that rests on the support. Feces are deposited into the container, and the lid is then placed on the container and sealed tightly. The sample is then delivered on ice within 1-4 hours for processing. Samples are mixed with a sterile disposable tool, and 2-4 g aliquots are weighed and placed into tubes and flash frozen in a dry ice/ethanol bath. Aliquots are frozen at −80 degrees Celsius until use.

Optionally, the fecal material is suspended in a solution, and/or fibrous and/or particulate materials are removed. A frozen aliquot containing a known weight of feces is removed from storage at −80 degrees Celsius and allowed to thaw at room temperature. Sterile 1×PBS is added to create a 10% w/v suspension, and vigorous vortexing is performed to suspend the fecal material until the material appeared homogeneous. The material is then left to sit for 10 minutes at room temperature to sediment fibrous and particulate matter. The suspension above the sediment is then carefully removed into a new tube and contains a purified spore population. Optionally, the suspension is then centrifuged at a low speed, e.g., 1000×g, for 5 minutes to pellet particulate matter including fibers. The pellet is discarded and the supernatant, which contained vegetative organisms and spores, is removed into a new tube. The supernatant is then centrifuged at 6000×g for 10 minutes to pellet the vegetative organisms and spores. The pellet is then resuspended in 1×PBS with vigorous vortexing until the material appears homogenous.

Example 8

Spore Purification from Alcohol Treatment of Fecal Material

A 10% w/v suspension of human fecal material in PBS is mixed with absolute ethanol in a 1:1 ratio and vortexed to mix for 1 minute. The suspension is incubated at 37 degrees Celsius for 1 hour. After incubation the suspension is centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 5 minutes to pellet spores. The supernatant is discarded and the pellet is resuspended in an equal volume of PBS. Glycerol is added to a final concentration of 15% and then the purified spore fraction is stored at −80 degrees Celsius.

Example 9

Generation of a Spore Preparation from Alcohol Treatment of Fecal Material

A 10% w/v suspension of human fecal material in PBS is mixed with absolute ethanol in a 1:1 ratio and vortexed to mix for 1 minute. The suspension is incubated at 37 degrees Celsius for 1 hour. After incubation the suspension is centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 5 minutes to concentrate spores into a pellet containing a purified spore-containing preparation. The supernatant is discarded and the pellet resuspended in an equal volume of PBS. Glycerol is added to a final concentration of 15% and then the purified spore preparation is stored at −80 degrees Celsius.

Example 10

Spore Purification from Thermal Treatment of Fecal Material

A 10% w/v suspension of human fecal material in PBS is incubated in a water bath at 80 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. Glycerol is added to a final concentration of 15% and then the enriched spore containing material is stored at −80 degrees Celsius.

Example 11

Spore Purification from Alcohol Treatment and Thermal Treatment of Fecal Material

A 10% w/v suspension of human feces in PBS is mixed with absolute ethanol in a 1:1 ratio and vortexed to mix for 1 minute. The suspension is incubated in a water bath under aerobic conditions at 37 degrees Celsius for 1 hour. After incubation the suspension is centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 5 minutes to pellet spores. The supernatant is discarded and the pellet is resuspended in equal volume PBS. The ethanol treated spore population is then incubated in a water bath at 80 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. Glycerol is added to a final concentration of 15% and the purified spore fraction is stored at −80 C.

Example 12

Construction of Binary and Ternary Combinations in a High-Throughput 96-Well Format

To allow high-throughput screening of binary and ternary combinations, vials of −80° C. glycerol stock banks are thawed and diluted to 1e8 CFU/mL. Each strain is then diluted 10× (to a final concentration of 1e7 CFU/mL of each strain) into 200 uL of PBS+15% glycerol in the wells of a 96-well plate. Plates are then frozen at −80° C. When needed for the assay, plates are removed from −80° C. and thawed at room temperature under anaerobic conditions when testing in a plate assay with various pathogens.

Example 13

Spore Purification from Detergent Treatment of Fecal Material

A 10% w/v suspension of human feces in PBS is prepared to contain a final concentration of 0.5 to 2% Triton X-100. After shaking incubation for 30 minutes at 25 to 37 degrees Celsius, the sample is centrifuged at 1000 g for 5-10 minutes to pellet particulate matter and large cells. The bacterial entities are recovered in the supernatant fraction, where the purified spore population is optionally further treated, such as in Example 11. Without being bound by theory, detergent addition to the fecal mixture produces better spore populations, at least in part by enhancing separation of the spores from particulates thereby resulting in higher yields of spores. In some embodiments, the purified spore population is further treated, such as by thermal treatment and/or ethanol treatment as described above.

Example 14

Spore Purification by Chromatographic Separation of Fecal Material

A spore-enriched population such as obtained from Examples 7-12 above, is mixed with NaCl to a final concentration of 4M total salt and contacted with octyl Sepharose 4 Fast Flow to bind the hydrophobic spore fraction. The resin is washed with 4M NaCl to remove less hydrophobic components, and the spores are eluted with distilled water, and the desired enriched spore fraction is collected via UV absorbance.

Example 15

Spore Purification by Filtration of Fecal Material

A spore-enriched population such as obtained from Examples 8-13 above is diluted 1:10 with PBS, and placed in the reservoir vessel of a tangential flow microfiltration system. A 0.2 μm pore size mixed cellulose ester hydrophilic tangential flow filter is connected to the reservoir such as by a tubing loop. The diluted spore preparation is recirculated through the loop by pumping, and the pressure gradient across the walls of the microfilter forces the supernatant liquid through the filter pores. By appropriate selection of the filter pore size the desired bacterial entities are retained, while smaller contaminants such as cellular debris, and other contaminants in feces such as bacteriophage pass through the filter. Fresh PBS buffer is added to the reservoir periodically to enhance the washout of the contaminants. At the end of the diafiltration, the spores are concentrated approximately ten-fold to the original concentration. The purified spores are collected from the reservoir and stored as provided herein.

Example 16

Characterization of Purified Spore Populations

Counts of viable spores are determined by performing 10 fold serial dilutions in PBS and plating to Brucella Blood Agar Petri plates or applicable solid media. Plates are incubated at 37 degrees Celsius for 2 days. Colonies are counted from a dilution plate with 50-400 colonies and used to back-calculate the number of viable spores in the population. The ability to germinate into vegetative bacteria is also demonstrated. Visual counts are determined by phase contrast microscopy. A spore preparation is either diluted in PBS or concentrated by centrifugation, and a 5 microliter aliquot is placed into a Petroff Hauser counting chamber for visualization at 400× magnification. Spores are counted within ten 0.05 mm×0.05 mm grids and an average spore count per grid is determined and used to calculate a spore count per ml of preparation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduction in purified spore populations is measured using a Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay such as the commercially available ToxinSensor™ Chromogenic LAL Endotoxin Assay Kit (GenScript, Piscataway, N.J.) or other standard methods known to those skilled in the art.

Example 17

Quantification of C. difficile Using Quantitative PCR (qPCR)

A. Standard Curve Preparation

The standard curve is generated from a well on each assay plate containing only pathogenic C. difficile grown in SweetB+FosIn media as provided herein and quantified by selective spot plating. Serial dilutions of the culture are performed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Genomic DNA is extracted from the standard curve samples along with the other wells.

B. Genomic DNA Extraction

Genomic DNA is extracted from 5 μl of each sample using a dilution, freeze/thaw, and heat lysis protocol. 5 μL of thawed samples are added to 45 μL of UltraPure water (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, Calif.) and mixed by pipetting. The plates with diluted samples are frozen at −20° C. until use for qPCR which includes a heated lysis step prior to amplification. Alternatively the genomic DNA could be isolated using the Mo Bio Powersoil®-htp 96 Well Soil DNA Isolation Kit (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.), Mo Bio Powersoil® DNA Isolation Kit (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.), or the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN. Valencia, Calif.) according to the manufacturer's instructions.

C. qPCR Composition and Conditions

The qPCR reaction mixture contained 1× SsoAdvanced Universal Probes Supermix, 900 nM of Wr-tcdB-F primer (AGCAGTTGAATATAGTGGTTTAGTTAGAGTTG, IDT, Coralville, Iowa), 900 nM of Wr-tcdB-R primer (CATGCITIITAGTTCTGGATTGAA, IDT, Coralville, Iowa), 250 nM of Wr-tcdB-P probe (6FAM-CATCCAGTCTCAATGTATATGTTTCTCCA-MGB, Life Technologies, Grand Island, N.Y.), and Molecular Biology Grade Water (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.) to 18 μl (Primers adapted from: Wroblewski, D. et al., Rapid Molecular Characterization of Clostridium difficile and Assessment of Populations of C. difficile in Stool Specimens, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47:2142-2148 (2009)). This reaction mixture is aliquoted to wells of a Hard-shell Low-Profile Thin Wall 96-well Skirted PCR Plate (BioRad, Hercules, Calif.). To this reaction mixture, 2 μl of diluted, frozen, and thawed samples are added and the plate sealed with a Microseal ‘B’ Adhesive Seal (BioRad, Hercules, Calif.). The qPCR is performed on a BioRad C1000™ Thermal Cycler equipped with a CFX96™ Real-Time System (BioRad, Hercules, Calif.). The thermocycling conditions are 95° C. for 15 minutes followed by 45 cycles of 95° C. for 5 seconds, 60° C. for 30 seconds, and fluorescent readings of the FAM channel. Alternatively, the qPCR could be performed with other standard methods known to those skilled in the art.

Example 18

16S Sequencing to Determine Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)

Method for Determining 16S Sequence

OTUs may be defined either by full 16S sequencing of the rDNA gene, by sequencing of a specific hypervariable region of this gene (i.e. V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, or V9), or by sequencing of any combination of hypervariable regions from this gene (e.g. V1-3 or V3-5).

The bacterial 16S rDNA is approximately 1500 nucleotides in length and is used in reconstructing the evolutionary relationships and sequence similarity of one bacterial isolate to another using phylogenetic approaches. 16S sequences are used for phylogenetic reconstruction as they are in general highly conserved, but contain specific hypervariable regions that harbor sufficient nucleotide diversity to differentiate genera and species of most microbes.

rDNA gene sequencing methods are applicable to both the analysis of non-enriched samples, but also for identification of microbes after enrichment steps that either enrich the microbes of interest from the microbial composition and/or the nucleic acids that harbor the appropriate rDNA gene sequences as described below. For example, enrichment treatments prior to 16S rDNA gene characterization will increase the sensitivity of 16S as well as other molecular-based characterization nucleic acid purified from the microbes.

Using well known techniques, in order to determine the full 16S sequence or the sequence of any hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA sequence, genomic DNA is extracted from a bacterial sample, the 16S rDNA (full region or specific hypervariable regions) amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR products cleaned, and nucleotide sequences delineated to determine the genetic composition of 16S gene or subdomain of the gene. If full 16S sequencing is performed, the sequencing method used may be, but is not limited to, Sanger sequencing. If one or more hypervariable regions are used, such as the V4 region, the sequencing may be, but is not limited to being, performed using the Sanger method or using a next-generation sequencing method, such as an Illumina (sequencing by synthesis) method using barcoded primers allowing for multiplex reactions.

Method for Determining 18S rDNA and ITS Gene Sequence

Methods to assign and identify fungal OTUs by genetic means can be accomplished by analyzing 18S sequences and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The rRNA of fungi that forms the core of the ribosome is transcribed as a signal gene and consists of the 8S, 5.8S and 28S regions with ITS4 and 5 between the 8S and 5.8S and 5.8S and 28S regions, respectively. These two intercistronic segments between the 18S and 5.8S and 5.8S and 28S regions are removed by splicing and contain significant variation between species for barcoding purposes as previously described (Schoch et al Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. PNAS 109:6241-6246. 2012). 18S rDNA is traditionally used for phylogenetic reconstruction however the ITS can serve this function as it is generally highly conserved but contains hypervariable regions that harbor sufficient nucleotide diversity to differentiate genera and species of most fungus.

Using well known techniques, in order to determine the full 18S and ITS sequences or a smaller hypervariable section of these sequences, genomic DNA is extracted from a microbial sample, the rDNA amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR products cleaned, and nucleotide sequences delineated to determine the genetic composition rDNA gene or subdomain of the gene. The sequencing method used may be, but is not limited to, Sanger sequencing or using a next-generation sequencing method, such as an Illumina (sequencing by synthesis) method using barcoded primers allowing for multiplex reactions.

Method for Determining Other Marker Gene Sequences

In addition to the 16S rRNA gene, one may define an OTU by sequencing a selected set of genes that are known to be marker genes for a given species or taxonomic group of OTUs.

These genes may alternatively be assayed using a PCR-based screening strategy. As example, various strains of pathogenic Escherichia coli can be distinguished using DNAs from the genes that encode heat-labile (LTI, LTIIa, and LTIIb) and heat-stable (STI and STII) toxins, verotoxin types 1, 2, and 2e (VT1, VT2, and VT2e, respectively), cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNF1 and CNF2), attaching and effacing mechanisms (eaeA), enteroaggregative mechanisms (Eagg), and enteroinvasive mechanisms (Einv). The optimal genes to utilize for taxonomic assignment of OTUs by use of marker genes will be familiar to one with ordinary skill of the art of sequence based taxonomic identification.

Genomic DNA Extraction

Genomic DNA is extracted from pure microbial cultures using a hot alkaline lysis method. 1 μl of microbial culture is added to 9 μl of Lysis Buffer (25 mM NaOH, 0.2 mM EDTA) and the mixture is incubated at 95° C. for 30 minutes. Subsequently, the samples are cooled to 4° C. and neutralized by the addition of 10 μl of Neutralization Buffer (40 mM Tris-HCl) and then diluted 10-fold in Elution Buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl). Alternatively, genomic DNA is extracted from pure microbial cultures using commercially available kits such as the Mo Bio Ultraclean® Microbial DNA Isolation Kit (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.) or by standard methods known to those skilled in the art. For fungal samples, DNA extraction can be performed by methods described previously (US20120135127) for producing lysates from fungal fruiting bodies by mechanical grinding methods.

Amplification of 16S Sequences for Downstream Sanger Sequencing

To amplify bacterial 16S rDNA, 2 μl of extracted gDNA is added to a 20 μl final volume PCR reaction. For full-length 16 sequencing the PCR reaction also contains 1× HotMasterMix (5PRIME, Gaithersburg, Md.), 250 nM of 27f (AGRGTTTGATCMTGGCTCAG, IDT, Coralville, Iowa), and 250 nM of 1492r (TACGGYTACCTTGTTAYGACTT, IDT, Coralville, Iowa), with PCR Water (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.) for the balance of the volume. Alternatively, other universal bacterial primers or thermostable polymerases known to those skilled in the art are used. For example primers are available to those skilled in the art for the sequencing of the “V1-V9 regions” of the 16S rRNA. These regions refer to the first through ninth hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene that are used for genetic typing of bacterial samples. These regions in bacteria are defined by nucleotides 69-99, 137-242, 433-497, 576-682, 822-879, 986-1043, 1117-1173, 1243-1294 and 1435-1465 respectively using numbering based on the E. coli system of nomenclature. Brosius et al., Complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from Escherichia coli, PNAS 75(10):4801-4805 (1978).

In some embodiments, OTUs may be defined either by full 16S sequencing of the rRNA gene, by sequencing of a specific hypervariable region of this gene (i.e., V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, or V9), or by sequencing any combination of hypervariable regions from this gene (e.g., V1-3 or V3-5). In one embodiment, the V1, V2, and V3 regions are used to characterize an OTU. In another embodiment, the V3, V4, and V5 regions are used to characterize an OTU. In another embodiment, the V4 region is used to characterize an OTU. A person of ordinary skill in the art can identify the specific hypervariable regions of a candidate 16S rRNA by comparing the candidate sequence in question to the reference sequence and identifying the hypervariable regions based on similarity to the reference hypervariable regions.

The PCR is performed on commercially available thermocyclers such as a BioRad MyCycler™ Thermal Cycler (BioRad, Hercules, Calif.). The reactions are run at 94° C. for 2 minutes followed by 30 cycles of 94° C. for 30 seconds, 51° C. for 30 seconds, and 68° C. for 1 minute 30 seconds, followed by a 7 minute extension at 72° C. and an indefinite hold at 4° C. Following PCR, gel electrophoresis of a portion of the reaction products is used to confirm successful amplification of a −1.5 kb product.

To remove nucleotides and oligonucleotides from the PCR products, 2 μl of HT ExoSap-IT (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, Calif.) is added to 5 μl of PCR product followed by a 15 minute incubation at 37° C. and then a 15 minute inactivation at 80° C.

Amplification of 16S Sequences for Downstream Characterization by Massively Parallel Sequencing Technologies

Amplification performed for downstream sequencing by short read technologies such as Illumina require amplification using primers known to those skilled in the art that additionally include a sequence-based barcoded tag. As example, to amplify the 16s hypervariable region V4 region of bacterial 16S rDNA, 2 μl of extracted gDNA is added to a 20 μl final volume PCR reaction. The PCR reaction also contains 1× HotMasterMix (5PRIME, Gaithersburg, Md.),

200 nM of V4_515f adapt
(AATGATACGGCGACCACCGAGATCTACACTATGGTAATTGTGTGCCAGC
MGCCGCGGTAA . . . IDT, Coralville, IA),
and
200 nM of barcoded 806rbc
(CAAGCAGAAGACGGCATACGAGAT_12bpGolayBarcode_AGTCAGT
CAGCCGGACTACHVGGGTWTCTAAT, IDT, Coralville, IA),

with PCR Water (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.) for the balance of the volume. These primers incorporate barcoded adapters for Illumina sequencing by synthesis. Optionally, identical replicate, triplicate, or quadruplicate reactions may be performed. Alternatively other universal bacterial primers or thermostable polymerases known to those skilled in the art are used to obtain different amplification and sequencing error rates as well as results on alternative sequencing technologies.

The PCR amplification is performed on commercially available thermocyclers such as a BioRad MyCycler™ Thermal Cycler (BioRad, Hercules, Calif.). The reactions are run at 94° C. for 3 minutes followed by 25 cycles of 94° C. for 45 seconds, 50° C. for 1 minute, and 72° C. for 1 minute 30 seconds, followed by a 10 minute extension at 72° C. and a indefinite hold at 4° C. Following PCR, gel electrophoresis of a portion of the reaction products is used to confirm successful amplification of a −1.5 kb product. PCR cleanup is performed as specified in the previous example.

Sanger Sequencing of Target Amplicons from Pure Homogeneous Samples

To detect nucleic acids for each sample, two sequencing reactions are performed to generate a forward and reverse sequencing read. For full-length 16s sequencing primers 27f and 1492r are used. 40 ng of ExoSap-IT-cleaned PCR products are mixed with 25 pmol of sequencing primer and Mo Bio Molecular Biology Grade Water (Mo Bio Laboratories, Carlsbad, Calif.) to 15 μl total volume. This reaction is submitted to a commercial sequencing organization such as Genewiz (South Plainfield, N.J.) for Sanger sequencing.

In order to determine the full 16S sequence or the sequence of any hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA sequence, genomic DNA is extracted from a bacterial sample, the 16S rDNA (full region or specific hypervariable regions) is amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR products are cleaned, and nucleotide sequences delineated to determine the genetic composition of 16S gene or subdomain of the gene. If full 16S sequencing is performed, the sequencing method used may be, but is not limited to, Sanger sequencing. If one or more hypervariable regions are used, such as the V4-V5 region, the sequencing may be, but is not limited to being, performed using the Sanger method or using a next-generation sequencing method, such as an Illumina (sequencing by synthesis) method using barcoded primers allowing for multiplex reactions.

Amplification of 18S and ITS Regions for Downstream Sequencing and Characterization

To amplify the 18S or ITS regions, 2 μL fungal DNA were amplified in a final volume of 30 μL with 15 μL AmpliTaq Gold 360 Mastermix, PCR primers, and water. The forward and reverse primers for PCR of the ITS region are 5′-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3′ and 5′-GGAAGTAAAAGTCGTAACAAGG-3′ and are added at 0.2 uM concentration each. The forward and reverse primers for the 18S region are 5′-GTAGTCATATGCTTGTCTC-3′ and 5′-CTTCCGTCAATTCCTTTAAG-3′ and are added at 0.4 uM concentration each. PCR is performed with the following protocol: 95 C for 10 min, 35 cycles of 95 C for 15 seconds, 52 C for 30 seconds, 72 C for 1.5 s; and finally 72 C for 7 minutes followed by storage at 4 C. All forward primers contained the M13F-20 sequencing primer, and reverse primers included the M13R-27 sequencing primer. PCR products (3 μL) were enzymatically cleaned before cycle sequencing with 1 μL ExoSap-IT and 1 μL Tris EDTA and incubated at 37° C. for 20 min followed by 80° C. for 15 min. Cycle sequencing reactions contained 5 μL cleaned PCR product, 2 μL BigDye Terminator v3.1 Ready Reaction Mix, 1 μL 5× Sequencing Buffer, 1.6 pmol of appropriate sequencing primers designed by one skilled in the art, and water in a final volume of 10 μL. The standard cycle sequencing protocol is 27 cycles of 10 s at 96° C., 5 s at 50° C., 4 min at 60° C., and hold at 4° C. Sequencing cleaning is performed with the BigDye XTerminator Purification Kit as recommended by the manufacturer for 10-μL volumes. The genetic sequence of the resulting 18S and ITS sequences is performed using methods familiar to one with ordinary skill in the art using either Sanger sequencing technology or next-generation sequencing technologies such as but not limited to Illumina.

Preparation of Extracted Nucleic Acids for Metagenomic Characterization by Massively Parallel Sequencing Technologies

Extracted nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are purified and prepared by downstream sequencing using standard methods familiar to one with ordinary skill in the art and as described by the sequencing technology's manufactures instructions for library preparation. In short, RNA or DNA are purified using standard purification kits such as but not limited to Qiagen's RNeasy Kit or Promega's Genomic DNA purification kit. For RNA, the RNA is converted to cDNA prior to sequence library construction. Following purification of nucleic acids, RNA is converted to cDNA using reverse transcription technology such as but not limited to Nugen Ovation RNA-Seq System or Illumina Truseq as per the manufacturer's instructions. Extracted DNA or transcribed cDNA are sheared using physical (e.g., Hydroshear), acoustic (e.g., Covaris), or molecular (e.g., Nextera) technologies and then size selected as per the sequencing technologies manufacturer's recommendations. Following size selection, nucleic acids are prepared for sequencing as per the manufacturer's instructions for sample indexing and sequencing adapter ligation using methods familiar to one with ordinary skill in the art of genomic sequencing.

Massively Parallel Sequencing of Target Amplicons from Heterogeneous Samples

DNA Quantification & Library Construction.

The cleaned PCR amplification products are quantified using the Quant-iT™ PicoGreen® dsDNA Assay Kit (Life Technologies, Grand Island, N.Y.) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Following quantification, the barcoded cleaned PCR products are combined such that each distinct PCR product is at an equimolar ratio to create a prepared Illumina library.

Nucleic Acid Detection.

The prepared library is sequenced on Illumina HiSeq or MiSeq sequencers (Illumina, San Diego, Calif.) with cluster generation, template hybridization, isothermal amplification, linearization, blocking and denaturation and hybridization of the sequencing primers performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. 16SV4SeqFw (TATGGTAATTGTGTGCCAGCMGCCGCGGTAA), 16SV4SeqRev (AGTCAGTCAGCCGGACTACHVGGGTWTCTAAT), and 16SV4Index (ATTAGAWACCCBDGTAGTCCGGCTGACTGACT) (IDT, Coralville, Iowa) are used for sequencing. Other sequencing technologies can be used such as but not limited to 454, Pacific Biosciences, Helicos, Ion Torrent, and Nanopore using protocols that are standard to someone skilled in the art of genomic sequencing.

Example 19

Data Analysis, Sequence Annotation and Taxonomic Characterization

Primary Read Annotation

Nucleic acid sequences are analyzed to define taxonomic assignments using sequence similarity and phylogenetic placement methods or a combination of the two strategies. A similar approach is used to annotate protein names, protein function, transcription factor names, and any other classification schema for nucleic acid sequences. Sequence similarity based methods include those familiar to individuals skilled in the art including, but not limited to, BLAST, BLASTx, tBLASTn, tBLASTx, RDP-classifier, DNAclust, and various implementations of these algorithms such as Qiime or Mothur. These methods rely on mapping a sequence read to a reference database and selecting the match with the best score and e-value. Common databases include, but are not limited to the Human Microbiome Project, NCBI non-redundant database, Greengenes, RDP, and Silva for taxonomic assignments. For functional assignments reads are mapped to various functional databases such as but not limited to COG, KEGG, BioCyc, and MetaCyc. Further functional annotations can be derived from 16S taxonomic annotations using programs such as PICRUST (M. Langille, et al 2013. Nature Biotechnology 31, 814-821). Phylogenetic methods can be used in combination with sequence similarity methods to improve the calling accuracy of an annotation or taxonomic assignment.

Here tree topologies and nodal structure are used to refine the resolution of the analysis. In this approach we analyze nucleic acid sequences using one of numerous sequence similarity approaches and leverage phylogenetic methods that are well known to those skilled in the art, including but not limited to maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction (see e.g. Liu K, Linder C R, and Warnow T. 2011. RAxML and FastTree: Comparing Two Methods for Large-Scale Maximum Likelihood Phylogeny Estimation. PLoS ONE 6: e27731. McGuire G, Denham M C, and Balding D J. 2001. Models of sequence evolution for DNA sequences containing gaps. Mol. Biol. Evol 18: 481-490. Wróbel B. 2008. Statistical measures of uncertainty for branches in phylogenetic trees inferred from molecular sequences by using model-based methods. J. Appl. Genet. 49: 49-67.) Sequence reads are placed into a reference phylogeny comprised of appropriate reference sequences. Annotations are made based on the placement of the read in the phylogenetic tree. The certainty or significance of the OTU annotation is defined based on the OTU's sequence similarity to a reference nucleic acid sequence and the proximity of the OTU sequence relative to one or more reference sequences in the phylogeny. As an example, the specificity of a taxonomic assignment is defined with confidence at the level of Family, Genus, Species, or Strain with the confidence determined based on the position of bootstrap supported branches in the reference phylogenetic tree relative to the placement of the OTU sequence being interrogated. Nucleic acid sequences can be assigned functional annotations using the methods described above.

In some embodiments, microbial clades are assigned using databases including, but not limited to, MetaPhlAn. Microbial diversity is quantified using the Shannon diversity index following closed-reference operational taxonomic unit picking. Phylogenetic abundance comparisons are performed in order to identify biomarkers of GVHD-related mortality using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) analysis, using a logarithmic LDA cutoff of 2.0.

Clade Assignments

The ability of 16S-V4 OTU identification to assign an OTU as a specific species depends in part on the resolving power of the 16S-V4 region of the 16S gene for a particular species or group of species. Both the density of available reference 16S sequences for different regions of the tree as well as the inherent variability in the 16S gene between different species will determine the definitiveness of a taxonomic annotation. Given the topological nature of a phylogenetic tree and the fact that tree represents hierarchical relationships of OTUs to one another based on their sequence similarity and an underlying evolutionary model, taxonomic annotations of a read can be rolled up to a higher level using a clade-based assignment procedure (Table 1). Using this approach, clades are defined based on the topology of a phylogenetic tree that is constructed from full-length 16S sequences using maximum likelihood or other phylogenetic models familiar to individuals with ordinary skill in the art of phylogenetics. Clades are constructed to ensure that all OTUs in a given clade are: (i) within a specified number of bootstrap supported nodes from one another (generally, 1-5 bootstraps), and (ii) share a defined percent similarity, e.g., within a 5% genetic similarity (for 16S molecular data typically set to 95%-97% sequence similarity). OTUs that are within the same clade can be distinguished as genetically and phylogenetically distinct from OTUs in a different clade based on 16S-V4 sequence data. OTUs falling within the same clade are evolutionarily closely related and may or may not be distinguishable from one another using 16S-V4 sequence data. The power of clade based analysis is that members of the same clade, due to their evolutionary relatedness, are likely to play similar functional roles in a microbial ecology such as that found in the human gut or vagina. Compositions substituting one species with another from the same clade are likely to have conserved ecological function and therefore are useful in the present invention. Notably in addition to 16S-V4 sequences, clade-based analysis can be used to analyze 18S, ITS, and other genetic sequences.

Notably, 16S sequences of isolates of a given OTU are phylogenetically placed within their respective clades, sometimes in conflict with the microbiological-based assignment of species and genus that may have preceded 16S-based assignment. Discrepancies between taxonomic assignment based on microbiological characteristics versus genetic sequencing are known to exist from the literature.

For a given network ecology or functional network ecology one can define a set of OTUs from the network's representative clades.

Metagenomic Read Annotation

Metagenomic or whole genome shotgun sequence data is annotated as described above, with the additional step that sequences are either clustered or assembled prior to annotation. Following sequence characterization as described above, sequence reads are demultiplexed using the indexing (i.e. barcodes). Following demultiplexing sequence reads are either: (i) clustered using a rapid clustering algorithm such as but not limited to UCLUST (http://drive5.com/usearch/manual/uclust_algo.html) or hash methods such VICUNA (Xiao Yang, Patrick Charlebois, Sante Gnerre, Matthew G Coole, Niall J. Lennon, Joshua Z. Levin, James Qu, Elizabeth M. Ryan, Michael C. Zody, and Matthew R. Henn. 2012. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations. BMC Genomics 13:475). Following clustering a representative read for each cluster is identified based and analyzed as described above in “Primary Read Annotation”. The result of the primary annotation is then applied to all reads in a given cluster. (ii) A second strategy for metagenomic sequence analysis is genome assembly followed by annotation of genomic assemblies using a platform such as but not limited to MetAMOS (T J. Treangen et al. 2013 Geneome Biology 14:R2), HUMAaN (Abubucker S, Segata N, Goll J, Schubert A M, Izard J, Cantarel B L, Rodriguez-Mueller B, Zucker J, Thiagarajan M, Henrissat B, et al. 2012. Metabolic Reconstruction for Metagenomic Data and Its Application to the Human Microbiome ed. J. A. Eisen. PLoS Computational Biology 8: e1002358) and other methods familiar to one with ordinary skill in the art.

Example 20

OTU Identification Using Microbial Culturing Techniques

The identity of the bacterial species which grew up from a complex fraction can be determined in multiple ways. First, individual colonies can be picked into liquid media in a 96 well format, grown up and saved as 15% glycerol stocks at −80° C. Aliquots of the cultures can be placed into cell lysis buffer and colony PCR methods can be used to amplify and sequence the 16S rDNA gene (Example 18). Alternatively, colonies may be streaked to purity in several passages on solid media. Well separated colonies are streaked onto the fresh plates of the same kind and incubated for 48-72 hours at 37° C. The process is repeated multiple times in order to ensure purity. Pure cultures can be analyzed by phenotypic- or sequence-based methods, including 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing as described in Example 18. Sequence characterization of pure isolates or mixed communities e.g. plate scrapes and spore fractions can also include whole genome shotgun sequencing. The latter is valuable to determine the presence of genes associated with sporulation, antibiotic resistance, pathogenicity, and virulence. Colonies can also be scraped from plates en masse and sequenced using a massively parallel sequencing method as described in Example 7, such that individual 16S signatures can be identified in a complex mixture. Optionally, the sample can be sequenced prior to germination (if appropriate DNA isolation procedures are used to lsye and release the DNA from spores) in order to compare the diversity of germinable species with the total number of species in a spore sample. As an alternative or complementary approach to 16S analysis, MALDI-TOF-mass spec can also be used for species identification (Barreau M, Pagnier I. La Scola B. 2013. Improving the identification of anaerobes in the clinical microbiology laboratory through MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Anaerobe 22: 123-125).

Example 21

Microbiological Strain Identification Approaches

Pure bacterial isolates can be identified using microbiological methods as described in Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Microbiology Manual (Jouseimies-Somer H, Summanen P H, Citron D, Baron E, Wexler H M, Finegold S M. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual), and The Manual of Clinical Microbiology (ASM Press, 10th Edition). These methods rely on phenotypes of strains and include Gram-staining to confirm Gram positive or negative staining behavior of the cell envelope, observance of colony morphologies on solid media, motility, cell morphology observed microscopically at 60× or 100× magnification including the presence of bacterial endospores and flagella. Biochemical tests that discriminate between genera and species are performed using appropriate selective and differential agars and/or commercially available kits for identification of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria and yeast, for example, RapID tests (Remel) or API tests (bioMerieux). Similar identification tests can also be performed using instrumentation such as the Vitek 2 system (bioMerieux). Phenotypic tests that discriminate between genera and species and strains (for example the ability to use various carbon and nitrogen sources) can also be performed using growth and metabolic activity detection methods, for example the Biolog Microbial identification microplates. The profile of short chain fatty acid production during fermentation of particular carbon sources can also be used as a way to discriminate between species (Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Microbiology Manual, Jousimies-Somer, et al 2002). MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry can also be used for species identification (as reviewed in Anaerobe 22:123).

Example 22

Construction of an In Vitro Assay to Screen for Combinations of Microbes Inhibitory to the Growth of Pathogenic E. coli

The in vitro assay is used to screen for combinations of bacteria inhibitory to the growth of E. coli by modifying the media used for growth of the pathogen inoculum. One of several choices of media is used for growth of the pathogen such as Reinforced Clostridial Media (RCM), Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI) or Luria Bertani Broth (LB) (also known as Lysogeny Broth). E. coli is quantified by using alternative selective media specific for E. coli or using qPCR probes specific for the pathogen. For example, aerobic growth on MacConkey lactose medium selects for enteric Gram negatives, including E. coli. qPCR is conducted using probes specific for the shiga toxin of pathogenic E. coli.

Example 23

Construction of an In Vitro Assay to Screen for Combinations of Microbes Inhibitory to the Growth of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)

The in vitro assay is used to screen for combinations of bacteria inhibitory to the growth of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE) by modifying the media used for growth of the pathogen inoculum. Several choices of media are used for growth of the pathogen such as Reinforced Clostridial Media (RCM), Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI) or Luria Bertani Broth (LB). VRE is quantified by using alternative selective media specific for VRE or using qPCR probes specific for the pathogen. For example, m-Enterococcus agar containing sodium azide is selective for Enterococcus spp. and a small number of other species. Probes specific to the van genes conferring vancomycin resistance are used in the qPCR.

Example 24

Testing of Bacterial Composition Against Salmonella

The in vitro assay is used to screen for combinations of bacteria inhibitory to the growth of Salmonella spp. by modifying the media used for growth of the pathogen inoculum. Several choices of media are used for growth of the pathogen such as Reinforced Clostridial Media (RCM), Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI) or Luria Bertani Broth (LB). Salmonella spp. are quantified by using alternative selective media specific for Salmonella spp. or using qPCR probes specific for the pathogen. For example, MacConkey agar is used to select for Salmonella spp. and the invA gene is targeted with qPCR probes; this gene encodes an invasion protein carried by many pathogenic Salmonella spp. and is used in invading eukaryotic cells.

Example 25

Method of Preparing the Bacterial Composition for Administration to a Subject

Two or more strains that comprise the bacterial composition are independently cultured and mixed together before administration. Both strains are independently be grown at 37° C., pH 7, in a GMM or other animal-products-free medium, pre-reduced with 1 g/L cysteine HCl. After each strain reaches a sufficient biomass, it is preserved for banking by adding 15% glycerol and then frozen at −80° C. in 1 ml cryotubes.

Each strain is then be cultivated to a concentration of 1010 CFU/mL, then concentrated 20-fold by tangential flow microfiltration; the spent medium is exchanged by diafiltering with a preservative medium consisting of 2% gelatin, 100 mM trehalose, and 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, or other suitable preservative medium. The suspension is freeze-dried to a powder and titrated.

After drying, the powder is blended with microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate and formulated into a 250 mg gelatin capsule containing 10 mg of lyophilized powder (108 to 1011 bacteria), 160 mg microcrystalline cellulose, 77.5 mg gelatin, and 2.5 mg magnesium stearate.

A bacterial composition can be derived by selectively fractionating the desired bacterial OTUs from a raw material such as but not limited to stool. As example we prepared a 10% w/v suspension of human stool material in PBS that is filtered, centrifuged at low speed, and then the supernate containing spores is mixed with absolute ethanol in a 1:1 ratio and vortexed to mix. The suspension is incubated at room temperature for 1 hour. After incubation the suspension is centrifuged at high speed to concentrate spores into a pellet containing a purified spore-containing preparation. The supernate is discarded and the pellet resuspended in an equal mass of glycerol, and the purified spore preparation is placed into capsules and stored at −80 degrees Celsius; this preparation is referred to as an ethanol-treated spore population.

Example 26

Method of Treating a Subject with a Bacterial Composition

A subject has suffered from recurrent bouts of C. difficile. In the most recent acute phase of illness, the subject is treated with an antibiotic sufficient to ameliorate the symptoms of the illness. In order to prevent another relapse of C. difficile, the subject is administered one of the present bacterial compositions. Specifically, the subject is administered one of the present bacterial compositions at a dose in the range of 1e107 to 1e1012 in a lyophilized form, in a gelatin capsule containing 10 mg of lyophilized bacteria and stabilizing components. The subject takes the capsule by mouth and resumes a normal diet after 4, 8, 12, or 24 hours. In another embodiment, the subject may take the capsule by mouth before, during, or immediately after a meal. In a further embodiment, the subject takes the dose daily for a specified period of time.

Stool is collected before and after treatment. In one embodiment stool is collected at 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, and 1 month after administration. The presence of C. difficile is found in the stool before administration of the bacterial composition, but stool collections after administration show reducing (such as at least 50% less, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95%) to no detectable levels of C. difficile, as measured by qPCR, as described above. ELISA for toxin protein or traditional microbiological identification techniques may also be used.

As another measure of subject success, a positive response may be defined as absence of diarrhea, which itself is defined as 3 or more loose or watery stools per day for at least 2 consecutive days or 8 or more loose or watery stools in 48 hours, or persisting diarrhea (due to other causes) with repeating (three times) negative stool tests for toxins of C. difficile.

Treatment failure is defined as persisting diarrhea with a positive C. difficile toxin stool test or no reduction in levels of C. difficile, as measured by qPCR sequencing. ELISA or traditional microbiological identification techniques may also be used.

Example 27

Microbiological Strain Identification Approaches

Pure bacterial isolates are identified using microbiological methods as described in Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Microbiology Manual (Jouseimies-Somer H, Summanen P H, Citron D, Baron E, Wexler H M, Finegold S M. 2002. Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Bacteriology Manual), and The Manual of Clinical Microbiology (ASM Press, 10th Edition). These methods rely on phenotypes of strains and include Gram-staining to confirm Gram positive or negative staining behavior of the cell envelope, observance of colony morphologies on solid media, motility, cell morphology observed microscopically at 60× or 100× magnification including the presence of bacterial endospores and flagella. Biochemical tests that discriminate between genera and species are performed using appropriate selective and differential agars and/or commercially available kits for identification of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria and yeast, for example, RapID tests (Remel) or API tests (bioMerieux). Similar identification tests can also be performed using instrumentation such as the Vitek 2 system (bioMerieux). Phenotypic tests that discriminate between genera and species and strains (for example the ability to use various carbon and nitrogen sources) can also be performed using growth and metabolic activity detection methods, for example the Biolog Microbial identification microplates. The profile of short chain fatty acid production during fermentation of particular carbon sources can also be used as a way to discriminate between species (Wadsworth-KTL Anaerobic Microbiology Manual, Jousimies-Somer, et al 2002). MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry can also be used for species identification (as reviewed in Anaerobe 22:123).

Example 28

Computational Prediction of Network Ecologies

Source data comprising a genomic-based characterization of a microbiome of individual samples are used as input computationally delineate network ecologies that would have biological properties that are characteristic of a state of health and could catalyze a shift from a state of microbial dysbiosis to a state of health. Applicants obtained 16S and metagenomic sequence datasets from public data repositories (see e.g. The Human Microbiome Project Consortium. 2012. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486: 207-214. Data accessible at URL: hmpdacc.org) and MetaHit Project (Arumugam M, Raes J, Pelletier E, Paslier D L, Yamada T, Mende D R, Fernandes G R, Tap J, Bruls T, Batto J-M, et al. 2011. Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome. Nature 473: 174-180. Data accessible at URL: metahit.eu) for relevant microbiome studies in multiple disease indications including CDAD, Type 2 Diabetes, Ulcerative Colitis, and Irritable Bowel Disease, or generated data sets from samples directly using the methods described in Examples 18 and 19 and further described in the literature (see e.g. Aagaard K, Riehle K, Ma J, Segata N, Mistretta T-A, Coarfa C, Raza S, Rosenbaum S, Van den Veyver I, Milosavljevic A, et al. 2012. A Metagenomic Approach to Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiome Signature in Pregnancy ed. A. J. Ratner. PLoS ONE 7: e36466. Jumpstart Consortium Human Microbiome Project Data Generation Working Group. 2012. Evaluation of 16S rDNA-Based Community Profiling for Human Microbiome Research ed. J. Ravel. PLoS ONE 7: e39315. The Human Microbiome Project Consortium. 2012. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature 486: 207-214.). Nucleic acid sequences are analyzed and taxonomic and phylogenetic assignments of specific OTUs are made using sequence similarity and phylogenetic methods that are well known to those skilled in the art, including but not limited to maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction (see e.g. Liu K, Linder C R, and Warnow T. 2011. RAxML and FastTree: Comparing Two Methods for Large-Scale Maximum Likelihood Phylogeny Estimation. PLoS ONE 6: e27731. McGuire G, Denham M C, and Balding D J. 2001. Models of sequence evolution for DNA sequences containing gaps. Mol. Biol. Evol 18: 481-490. Wróbel B. 2008. Statistical measures of uncertainty for branches in phylogenetic trees inferred from molecular sequences by using model-based methods. J. Appl. Genet. 49: 49-67.) From these taxonomic assignments OTUs and clades in the dataset are defined using the method described in Examples 18 and 19. The certainty of the OTU call is defined based on the OTU's sequence similarity to a reference nucleic acid sequence and the proximity of the OTU sequence relative to one or more reference sequences in the phylogeny. The specificity of an OTU's taxonomic and phlylogenetic assignment determines whether the match is assigned at the level of Family, Genus, Species, or Strain, and the confidence of this assignment is determined based on the position of bootstrap supported branches in the reference phylogenetic tree relative to the placement of the OTU sequence being interrogated. In addition, microbial OTU assignments may be obtained from assignments made in peer-reviewed publications.

Applicants designated individual subject samples to biologically relevant sample phenotypes such as but not limited to “healthy state,” “recurrent Clostridium difficile infection,” “Crohn's disease,” “Insulin Resistance,” “Obesity,” “Type 2 diabetes,” “Ulcerative Colitis”. In one embodiment samples are assigned to “health” and “disease” phenotypes. In another embodiment, samples are assigned higher resolution phenotype such as but not limited to: “health:human”, “health:mouse”, “health:human microbiome project”, “health:microbiota donor”, “health:microbiota recipient”, “disease:microbiota recipient”, or “disease:no treatment”, “disease:human”, or “disease:mouse”. In another embodiment, samples where assigned to higher resolution phenotypes, such as but not limited to those defined that characterize phenotypes specific to samples from fecal donors and patients who received a fecal microbial transplant from these donors.

In another embodiment, other phenotypes that define a category of disease or health that represents the underlying state of the population under study can be used. Applicants then computationally determined the microbial network ecologies for each phenotype using the OTU and clade assignments that comprise the microbial profile for each sample and the algorithms described above in the Section entitled “Method of Determining Network Ecologies.”

Importantly, Network Ecologies that represent a state of health in one disease indication can represent states of health in additional disease states. Additionally, Keystone OTUs found in a network associated with health for different disease indications can overlap. Applicants found that a large number of network ecologies overlapped particularly between those associated with health in the cases of CDAD and Type 2 Diabetes despite the analysis of substantially different genomic data sets for the two diseases.

Example 29

Identification of Network Classes, Keystone OTUs, Clades, and Functional Modalities

Identification of Keystone OTUs, Clades and Functions

The human body is an ecosystem in which the microbiota and the microbiome play a significant role in the basic healthy function of human systems (e.g. metabolic, immunological, and neurological). The microbiota and resulting microbiome comprise an ecology of microorganisms that co-exist within single subjects interacting with one another and their host (i.e., the mammalian subject) to form a dynamic unit with inherent biodiversity and functional characteristics. Within these networks of interacting microbes (i.e. ecologies), particular members can contribute more significantly than others; as such these members are also found in many different ecologies, and the loss of these microbes from the ecology can have a significant impact on the functional capabilities of the specific ecology. Robert Paine coined the concept “Keystone Species” in 1969 (see Paine R T. 1969. A note on trophic complexity and community stability. The American Naturalist 103: 91-93) to describe the existence of such lynchpin species that are integral to a given ecosystem regardless of their abundance in the ecological community. Paine originally describe the role of the starfish Pisaster ochraceus in marine systems and since the concept has been experimentally validated in numerous ecosystems.

Keystone OTUs, Phylogenetic Clades (a.k.a. Clades), and/or Functions (for example, but not limited to, KEGG Orthology Pathways) are computationally-derived by analysis of network ecologies elucidated from a defined set of samples that share a specific phenotype. Keystone OTUs, Clades and/or Functions are defined as all Nodes within a defined set of networks that meet two or more of the following criteria. Using Criterion 1, the node is frequently observed in networks, and the networks in which the node is observed are found in a large number of individual subjects; the frequency of occurrence of these Nodes in networks and the pervasiveness of the networks in individuals indicates these Nodes perform an important biological function in many individuals. Using Criterion 2, the node is frequently observed in networks, and the Node is observed contains a large number of edges connecting it to other nodes in the network. These Nodes are thus “super-connectors”, meaning that they form a nucleus of a majority of networks and as such have high biological significance with respect to their functional contributions to a given ecology.

In another embodiment a Keystone Node is defined as one that occurs in a sample phenotype of interest such as but not limited to “health” and simultaneously does not occur in a sample phenotype that is not of interest such as but not limited to “disease.” Optionally, a Keystone Node is defined as one that is shown to be significantly different from what is observed using permuted test datasets to measure significance. In another embodiment of Criterion 2 Keystone OTUs, Clades, or Functions can be defined using a hierarchical clustering method that clusters Networks based on their OTU, Clade, or functional pathways. Statistically significant branch points in the hierarchy are defined based on the topological overlap measure; this measure is a highly robust measure of network interconnectedness (Langfelder P, Zhang B, Horvath S. 2008. Defining clusters from a hierarchical cluster tree: the Dynamic Tree Cut package for R. Bioinformatics 24: 719-720.). Once these branch points are defined the Keystones are delineated as OTUs, clades or functional pathways that are found consistently across all networks in all or a subset of the network clusters.

Importantly, we identify the absence of Keystone OTUs in multiple particular disease states, indicating that bacterial compositions comprised of specific sets of Keystone OTUs are likely to have utility in multiple disease indications.

Example 30

Network Analysis Across Multiple Data Sets and Selection of Target Network Ecologies with Capacity to Sporulate

One can select Network Ecologies and/or Network Class Ecologies as lead targets by defining networks with a specific biological function or activity such as sporulation. Networks Ecologies or Network Class Ecologies are first selected as described above. In one example, all Network Ecologies or Network Class Ecologies that contain at least one OTU that is capable of forming spores are targeted. In another example, all Network Ecologies or Network Class Ecologies that contain at least one OTU that is capable of forming spores, and that are comprised of at least 50%, 75%, or 100% Keystone OTUs are targeted. Keystone OTUs are selected as described above. OTUs are defined as spore formers using either phenotypic assays (see e.g. Stackebrandt and Hippe. Taxonomy and Systematics. In Clostridia. Biotechnology and Medical Applications.) or genetic assays (see e.g. Abecasis A B, Serrano M, Alves R, Quintais L, Pereira-Leal J B, and Henriques A O. 2013. A genomic signature and the identification of new sporulation genes. J. Bacteriol.; Paredes-Sabja D, Setlow P, and Sarker M R. 2011. Germination of spores of Bacillales and Clostridiales species: mechanisms and proteins involved. Trends Microbiol. 19: 85-94).

Clade membership of bacterial OTUs is based on 16S sequence data. Clades are defined based on the topology of a phylogenetic tree that is constructed from full-length 16S sequences using maximum likelihood methods familiar to individuals with ordinary skill in the art of phylogenetics. Clades are constructed to ensure that all OTUs in a given clade are: (i) within a specified number of bootstrap supported nodes from one another, and (ii) within 5% genetic similarity. OTUs that are within the same clade can be distinguished as genetically and phylogenetically distinct from OTUs in a different clade based on 16S-V4 sequence data, while OTUs falling within the same clade are closely related. OTUs falling within the same clade are evolutionarily closely related and may or may not be distinguishable from one another using 16S-V4 sequence data. Members of the same clade, due to their evolutionary relatedness, play similar functional roles in a microbial ecology such as that found in the human gut. Compositions substituting one species with another from the same clade are likely to have conserved ecological function and therefore are useful in the present invention. All OTUs are denoted as to their putative capacity to form spores and whether they are a Pathogen or Pathobiont (see Definitions for description of “Pathobiont”). NIAID Priority Pathogens are denoted as ‘Category-A’, ‘Category-B’, or ‘Category-C’, and Opportunistic Pathogens are denoted as ‘OP’. OTUs that are not pathogenic or for which their ability to exist as a pathogen is unknown are denoted as ‘N’. The ‘SEQ ID Number’ denotes the identifier of the OTU in the Sequence Listing File and ‘Public DB Accession’ denotes the identifier of the OTU in a public sequence repository. For SEQ ID NOs referenced in Table 1, reference is made to e.g., WO2014/121304, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

Example 31

Selection of Patients and Method for Specimen Collection

Paired stool samples and blood specimens are collected and stored weekly over the course of the transplant hospitalization including prior to conditioning, as well as on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, and 100. For Chronic GVHD, samples are collected post GVHD at day 105, day 120, day 180.

Skin, lung, vaginal and oral samples are obtained as well pre- and post-transplant. Intestinal biopsies samples are saved from patients subjected to such analysis. Stool samples from patients are stored at 4° C. for <24 h before freezing at −80° C. GVHD is diagnosed clinically, confirmed pathologically by biopsy whenever possible, and classified according to standard criteria. Patients are evaluated for acute GVHD based on historical consensus criteria as described previously (see Rowlings P A, Przepiorka D, Klein J P, et al. IBMTR Severity Index for grading acute graft-versus-host disease: retrospective comparison with Glucksberg grade. Br J Haematol. 1997). Cases of GVHD are further categorized by treatment with or without systemic steroids (prednisone or methylprednisolone, 0.5 mg/kg daily or higher). Cause of death is determined using a standard algorithm where outcomes are prioritized in the following order: 1) primary disease recurrence, 2) graft failure, 3) GVHD, 4) infection, and 5) organ failure. Thus in patients without disease recurrence or graft failure, those who are being treated for GVHD at the time of death are considered to have succumbed to GVHD-related mortality, including those who died from infections.

Example 32

Cross Niche Analysis of Microbiome

DNA is extracted from samples from various sites—gut, blood, lung, vaginal, oral and skin. Extracted DNA is subjected to 16S, ITS or 18S sequencing as described elsewhere. Nucleic acid sequences are analyzed to define taxonomic assignments using sequence similarity and phylogenetic placement methods or a combination of the two strategies. These methods map a sequence read to a reference database and selecting the match with the best score and e-value. Common databases include, but are not limited to the Human Microbiome Project, NCBI non-redundant database, Greengenes, RDP, and Silva for taxonomic assignments. Microbial clades are assigned using databases including but not limited to MetaPhlAn. Phylogenetic abundance comparisons are performed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) analysis, using a logarithmic LDA cutoff of 2.0. Taxonomic and phylogenetic abundance data from various niches is then subjected to comparative analysis to identify microbes that are unique to each site vs those that overlap between two or more sites.

Example 33

Selection of Microbes to be Used for Mitigating GVHD and Other Immune Based Diseases Based on Microbiome Analysis

Candidate microbes to be used for mitigating GVHD and other immune based disorder are selected based on microbiome analysis of samples from single or multiple niche. For example, microbes that are highly abundant in patients who do not succumb to GVHD or are alive post bone marrow transplantation are associated with low or no GVHD incidence and survival post GVHD. These microbes could be abundant at a single site such as the gut. Alternatively, these microbes are also abundant at another site in addition such as the skin, lung, vagina and oral or at all of these sites within a diseased subject. Alternatively, microbes are selected based on their abundance at one site such as the gut and not at other sites. These microbes are then tested in in vitro and in vivo models to test their ability to inhibit inappropriate immune responses and reduce inflammation at multiple disease target sites such as but not limited to gut, liver, kidney, lung and skin.

Example 34

Selection of a Metabolically Altered Organism Based on Prebiotic Fermentation

Bacterial isolates or evolved laboratory strains are inoculated in 25 ml of Versa TREK REDOX 2 broth (Trek Diagnostic Systems) supplemented with 30% sterile-filtered cow rumen fluid and prebiotic of interest incubated under anaerobic conditions for 2 days at 37° C. Following incubation, cultures are centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 10 min. Supernatants, uninoculated medium, or standards of short chain fatty acids (e.g., acetate, propionate, butyrate (Sigma-Aldrich) are injected into a Perkin Elmer Autosystem XL Gas Chromatograph containing a Supelco packed column (Sigma-Aldrich) according to the manufacturer's protocol (Dairy One Cooperative) (Foditsch C et al., 2014. Isolation and Characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from Calves and Piglets. PLoS One. 9(12): e116455). Bacterial isolates are selected with maximal short chain fatty acid (e.g., butyrate) production. Similar kind of analysis is done to access impact of prebiotics on other bacterial metabolite production such as but not limited to secondary bile acids.

Example 35

Mouse Model to Study the Impact of Microbiome in Acute Graft Versus Host Disease

A number of experimental models for studying acute GVHD exist and involve the transplantation of T-cell-depleted bone marrow supplemented with varying numbers and phenotypic classes of donor lymphocytes (either splenocytes or lymph node T cells) into lethally irradiated recipients. The severity of aGvHD depends on several factors—1) the dose and type of T-cell subsets (i.e. CD4+, CD8+ or TReg cells), 2) Irradiation dose, 3) Genetic disparities (MHC, miHAs), 4) Variation in environmental pathogens between labs and in mice from different suppliers. Allogeneic GVHD mouse models can be MHC-mismatched and miHA-mismatched. The more recently developed xenogeneic GVHD mouse models involve transplantation of human cells into immunodeficient mice. Both these models are extensively in Schroeder and DiPersio, 2011 Disease Models &Mechanisms.

To study the impact of microbiome on acute GVHD using the allogeneic GVHD mouse models, recipient mice such as BALB/c (H2d) or C57BL/6 (H2b) mice are treated with a gut-decontaminating antibiotic cocktail (ampicillin and vancomycin) to mimic microbiota injury that occurs in allo BMT patients. Mice are then exposed to a myeloablative dose of total body irradiation (TBI, 11 Gy) and then transplanted by intravenous injection with bone marrow and purified T cells from fully MHC-mismatched C57/Bl6 (H2b) or B10.BR mice respectively. Alternatively, xenogeneic GVHD mouse models are utilized where the immunodeficient NOD.scid (IL-2Rγc)−/−(NOG) or NOD.scid (I12rgmut) (NSG) mice are treated with a gut-decontaminating antibiotic cocktail (ampicillin and vancomycin), transplanted with human PBMCs by I.V. or I.P. injection and subsequently exposed to a myeloablative dose of total body irradiation (2.5 Gy).

Example 36

Murine Model to Study the Impact of Microbiome in Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease

Current mouse models of cGvHD (Schroeder and DiPersio, 2011) can be broadly divided into sclerodermatous (pro-fibrotic) models, autoantibody-mediated (lupus-like) models and a more recently reported model in which thymic function is defective (Sakoda et al., 2007; Chu and Gress, 2008). Herein is an example with a validated sclerodermatous (pro-fibrotic) models model. Recipient mice BALB/c (H2d) or C57/Bl6 (H2b) are treated with a gut-decontaminating antibiotic cocktail (ampicillin and vancomycin) to mimic microbiota injury that occurs in allo BMT patients. Mice are then exposed to a myeloablative dose of total body irradiation (700-900 cGy ore 900-1100 cGy respectively) and then transplanted by intravenous injection with bone marrow and purified T cells or splenocytes from B10.D2 (H2c) or LP/J (H2b) mice respectively.

Example 37

Culturing and Banking Bacterial Isolates from Mouse or Human Feces

Entire stool specimens are collected and homogenized in 1-3 volumes of 0.05% peptone using a sterile stainless steel blender with 1-3 volumes of peptone. Approximately 1 gram of the specimen is serially diluted (10-fold) in pre-reduced, anaerobically sterilized (PRAS) dilution blanks (Anaerobe Systems). A separate ˜1 gram aliquot is weight, dried in a vacuum over, and re-weighed in order to calculate counts on a dry-weight basis. To select for Clostridiales bacteria, including Blautia species, 100 μL of the homogenized stool sample dilution series is plated on Brain-Heart Infusion blood agar (SBA, Becton Dickinson) supplemented with 4 μg/mL trimethoprim (Sigma Chemical) and 1 μg/mL sulfamethoxazole (Sigma), Brucella Blood Agar (BAP, Anaeobe Systems), CDC ANA blood agar, (BBL Microbiology Systems), and egg yolk agar (EYA, Anaerobe Systems) (Finegold S M, Molitoris D, Song Y, Liu C, Vaisanen M L, Bolte E, McTeague M, Sandler R, Wexler H, Marlowe E M, Collins M D, Lawson P A, Summanen P, Baysallar M, Tomzynski T J, Read E, Johnson E, Rolfe R, Nasir P, Shah H, Haake D A, Manning P, Kaul A, 2002. Gastrointestinal microflora studies in late-onset autism. Clin Infect Dis 1:35). To select for spore-formers, the dilutions may be heated at 70-80° C. for 10-20 minutes and plated in the same manner as the non-heated homogenized stool samples. After 5 days of growth at 37° C. in an anaerobic chamber, single colonies are selected. The colony purification process is repeated by restreaking select single colonies, growing as described above, and selecting again for single colonies. Single colonies are frozen in 15%-25% glycerol in 1 mL cryotubes and stored at −80° C.

Example 38

Administration of Bacterial Isolates, with or without Prebiotics, to Mitigate Experimental Acute GVHD

BALB/c (H2d) or C57BL/6 mice in the case of allogeneic models and NOD.scid (IL-2Rγc)−/−(NOG) or NOD.scid (I12rgmut) (NSG) in the case of xenogeneic models are treated with oral vancomycin and ampicillin. Following decontamination, mice are housed in autoclaved conditions (caging, bedding, water and food) to eliminate nearly all endogenous bacteria present within the flora of mice. Mice are then treated by gavage with a liquid suspension of the cultured bacterial isolate, optionally with one or more prebiotic carbohydrates. Mice are then exposed to a myeloablative dose of total body irradiation and then transplanted by intravenous injection with bone marrow and purified T cells from fully MHC-mismatched C57/Bl6 (H2b) or B10.BR mice for allogeneic models and human PBMCs for xenogeneic models. Effect on organ pathology, weight and overall survival is measured as described.

Example 39

Administration of Bacterial Isolates, with or without Prebiotics, to Mitigate Experimental Chronic GVHD

Recipient mice BALB/c (H2d) or C57/Bl6 (H2b) are treated with a gut-decontaminating antibiotic cocktail (ampicillin and vancomycin). Following decontamination, mice are housed in autoclaved conditions (caging, bedding, water and food) to eliminate nearly all endogenous bacteria present within the flora of mice. Mice are then treated by gavage with a liquid suspension of the cultured bacterial isolate in addition to one or more prebiotic carbohydrates. Mice are then exposed to a myeloablative dose of total body irradiation and then transplanted by intravenous injection with bone marrow and purified T cells or splenocytes from B10.D2 (H2c) or LP/J (H2b) mice respectively. Mice are evaluated for fibrotic changes in the dermis, which can involve the lung, liver and salivary glands beginning day 30 post transplantation.

Example 40

GVHD Clinical and Histological Scoring

Mice are monitored daily for survival and weekly for GVHD clinical scores (see Cooke, K. R., L. Kobzik, T. R. Martin, J. Brewer, J. Delmonte Jr., J. M. Crawford, and J. L. Ferrara. 1996. An experimental model of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after bone marrow transplantation: I. The roles of minor H antigens and endotoxin. Blood. 88:3230-3239). Small intestine, large intestine, and liver samples are evaluated histologically for evidence of GVHD and scored as previously described (see Hill, G. R., J. M. Crawford, K. R. Cooke, Y. S. Brinson, L. Pan, and J. L. Ferrara. 1997. Total body irradiation and acute graft-versus-host disease: the role of gastrointestinal damage and inflammatory cytokines. Blood. 90:3204-3213).

Example 41

Measuring Paneth Cell Numbers and Functionality

The small intestinal lumens of adult mice are rinsed with ice-cold water and segmented. Crypts are eluted by first turning the segments inside out and then shaking them in PBS containing 30 mM EDTA and lacking Ca2+ and Mg2+. The eluted villi and crypts are pelleted at 700×g, resuspended in PBS, and transferred to siliconized microfuge tubes using capillary pipettes. The crypts are resuspended in iPIPES buffer (10 mM PIPES (pH 7.4) and 137 mM NaCl) in preparation of exposure to secretory stimuli.

Crypts are incubated in 30 μl of iPIPES containing 1000 bacterial (Clostridiales) CFU per crypt for 30 min at 37° C. Cellular components are pelleted by brief centrifugation, and supernatants transferred to sterile microfuge tubes and stored at −20° C. This method may be scaled up using up to ˜3000 crypts in 2 ml iPIPES (plus or minus Clostridiales bacteria). Crypts are pelleted and 10 μL of the supernatants are analyzed for bactericidal activity against Clostridiales and Enterococcus bacteria in liquid culture or on agar plates. Proteins are extracted from the rest of the supernatant as well as the crypts using 30% acetic acid. Total protein extracted from each fraction was resolved by AU-PAGE and subjected to western blot analysis using anti-cryptdin-1 as follows. Proteins from AU-PAGE are transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane. The membrane is then blocked with 5% skim milk, incubated sequentially with anti-rabbit mouse cryptdin-1 (1:500), horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG (1:20,000) and chemiluminescent substrate (SuperSignal, Pierce, Rockland, Ill.), and visualized (Ayabe T, Satchell D P, Wilson C L, Parks W C, Selsted M E, Ouellette A J, 2000. Secretion of microbicidal α-defensins by intestinal Paneth cells in response to bacteria. Nature Immunology 1:113-118).

Example 42

Measuring Intestinal Crypt Regeneration by Organoid Growth

Organoid formation may be used as a proxy for intestinal crypt regeneration as follows:

Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2 knock-in (B6.129P2-Lgr5tm1(cre/ERT2)Cle/J, JAX mice #008875) and ROSA26-tdTomato (B6.Cg-Gt(ROSA)26Sortm14(CAG-tdTomato)Hze/J, JAX mice #007914) mice are purchased from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, Me., USA) and crossed to produce Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/ROSA26-tdTomato mice (LRT mice). The obtain persistent labeling of Lgr5+ stem cells with tdTomato (as well as tdTomato-labeled progeny of Lgr5+ stem cells), the LRT mice are administered 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT; Sigma Aldrich) intraperitoneally, once, at 10-20 days old.

To obtain single crypt cells for in vitro analyses, the LRT mice are sacrificed at 3-5 weeks old, and the duodenum and jejunum (10 cm from the stomach) are harvested and rinsed three times with cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS-). The intestinal tubes are opened longitudinally and the villi are scraped using a coverslip, then washed three times in cold 1×PBS-. The intestinal tubes are cut into 2-3 mm pieces and suspended and extensively washed in 1×PBS-+2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Then, the 2-3-mm pieces are treated with 50 mM EDTA/1×PBS- for 30 min at 4° C. on a rocking platform to dissociate the crypts from the intestinal tubes. The dissociated crypts are passed through a 70-μm cell strainer, washed once with 1×PBS-, and treated with TrypLE Express (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, Calif., USA) for 30 min at 37° C. Then, the dissociated cells are passed through a 40-μm strainer and subsequently, through a 20-μm strainer. The strained cells are pelleted, resuspended in 1×PBS-+2% FBS, and used as single crypt cells.

The isolated single crypt cells are cultured in organoid medium [advanced DMEM/F12 supplemented with 1×GlutaMAX, 10 mM HEPES, 1×penicillin/streptomycin, 1×N2, 1×B27 (all obtained from Life Technologies, Carlsbad, Calif., USA), N-acetylcysteine (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, Mo., USA, 1 mM), murine epidermal growth factor (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, Calif., USA, 50 ng/ml), murine Noggin (Peprotech, Rocky Hill, N.J., USA, 100 ng/ml), and murine R-Spondin I (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, Minn., USA, 1 μg/ml)]. During the first two days of culturing 10 μM of Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, Mo., USA) is added.

350 μM of organoid medium is added into wells of 48-well plates, and then single crypt cells are plated to the wells (1×105 cells/10 μl 1×PBS-+2% FBS per well). Matrigel (BD, Franklin Lakes, N.J., USA) is added to a final concentration of 10%. The organoid medium is replenished every day for the first 3 days and every 2-3 days thereafter. The cells are incubated in a humidified CO2 incubator at 37° C. After 12 days, the number of organoids is counted by phase-contrast microscopy with a 4× objective (Yamauchi M, Otsuka K, Kondo H, Hamada N, Tomita M, Takahashi M, Nakasono S, Iwasaki T, Yoshida K, 2014. A novel in vitro survival assay of small intestinal stem cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. J Radiat Res. 55:381-390).

To investigate organoid growth over time, time-lapse microscopy is performed using a confocal laser microscope (C1si, Nikon, Japan) and images are analyzed using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., USA).

Example 43

Measuring Intestinal Crypt Regeneration by Quantitative Real Time PCR

Alternatively, C57BL/6J mice may be used to study intestinal regeneration using a real time PCR (qPCR) method. Duodenum and jejunum are harvested as described in Example 20 and cut into 1 cm small pieces. The tissue pieces are placed in a FastPrep-24 Lysing Matrix D tubes (MP Biomedicals, Solon, Ohio) filled with 600 μL of RLT lysis buffer (Qiagen, Valencia, Calif.). Next, 6 μL β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Mo.) is added to the lysing tubes. And total RNA is isolated from the lysed samples using the Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Complimentary DNA is made using a High Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, Calif.) according to the manufacturer's instructions. qPCR is performed on cDNA samples in triplicate using an Applied Biosystems StepOne Plus system. Individual probes for Lgr5(Mm00438890_m1), Asc12 (Mm01268891_g1), Bmi1 (Mm03053308_g1), Olfm4 (Mm01320260_m1), and mTert(Mm01352136_m1) from Applied Biosystems are used and data analyzed using a relative standard curve method normalized to β-actin(Mm00607939_s1; Applied Biosystems). Actively cycling intestinal stem cells are labeled by Lgr5, Asc12, and Olfm4, whereas slowly cycling (quiescent) intestinal stem cells are labeled by mTert and Bmi1 (Dehmer J J, Garrison A P, Speck K E, Dekaney C M, Van Landeghem L, Sun X, Henning S J, Helmrath M A, 2011. Expansion of intestinal epithelial stem cells during murine development. PLoS One. 6:e27070).

Example 44

Measurement of Transepithelial Electrical Resistance

The following protocol is preferentially used for monocultures of intestinal epithelial cells but may also be applied to epithelial cells derived from other organs such as the vagina or liver. Monolayers of epithelial cells (e.g., Caco-2) are obtained from the ATCC or from patient biopsy and maintained in Dulbeco's Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum or RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum.

A monolayer is formed by seeding epithelial cells grown to 80-90% confluency (˜10̂5 cells/cm2) on transwell plates (Corning) and incubating the plates between at 37° C. and 5% CO2. The cells are incubated for 10 days, during which they are fed with fresh medium (basolaterally and/or apically) every other day. The integrity of the cell layer is assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) using Millicell-ERS equipment (Millipore) and a World Precision Instruments probe (WPI according to the manufacturers' instructions.

Example 45

Dye-Based Evaluation of Epithelial Integrity

Cells from ATCC or patient biopsy are treated as in Example 43. Instead of measuring TEER, the transwell plates are disassembled and each filter well is treated with 75 μL 100 μg/mL of the non-membrane permeable dye Lucifer Yellow (Sigma) in Hank's Buffered Salt Solution (HBSS) buffer, pH 7.4 (Invitrogen). Next, 250 μL of HBSS buffer, pH 7.4 is added to the bottom wells and the transwell plates are reassembled and then incubated for 2 hours with shaking (60 rpm) at room temperature. Lucifer yellow fluorescence is measured using a Cytofluor II fluorometer at an excitation wavelength of 485 nm and an emission wavelength of 530 nm Permeability is calculated based on the percentage of Lucifer Yellow that leaked from the apical chamber to the basolateral chamber of the transwell plates.

Example 46

Method for Measuring Intestinal Permeability Based on Citrulline Production by Enterocytes

Recently, it was shown that citrulline appeared to be particularly useful to detect gut damage, as blood concentrations of this amino acid directly reflect functioning small intestinal cell mass (Crenn P, Vahedi K, Lavergne-Slove A, Cynober L, Matuchansky C, Messing B. Plasma citrulline: a marker of enterocyte mass in villous atrophy-associated small bowel disease. Gastroenterology 2003). Blood is collected in heparin from each patient through the central venous catheter before starting therapy and on each Monday, Wednesday and Friday thereafter until discharge. Plasma is prepared and stored at −80 1 C for later analysis. Citrulline concentrations (mM) are measured by a standard procedure for determining amino acid concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) as described in Herbers et al., 2008. Bacteraemia coincides with low citrulline concentrations after high-dose melphalan in autologous HSCT recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 42:345-349.

Example 47

Method for Measuring Levels of Microbes in Distal Organs (Liver, Thymus, Lungs, Kidneys)

Liver, thymus, lungs, and kidneys from mice that had received transplants are removed aseptically and homogenized in 200 uL sterile saline 0.9%. Then, 100 uL is cultured aerobically on blood agar and deMan-Rogosa-Sharp agar plates (Difco, Detroit, Mich.), blood agar supplemented for anaerobes, chocolate blood agar, MacConkey agar, and Sabouraud agar for 24 hours in room air supplemented with 10% C02; colony-forming units are counted and numbers adjusted to weight. Alternatively, genomic DNA from the bacteria is extracted and 16S rDNA sequencing is performed as described

Example 48

Method for Measuring Effect of Microbes, with or without Prebiotics, on Bacterial Metabolites Such as SCFA Levels

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are produced by many bacteria as a byproduct of carbohydrate fermentation. SCFA have been found to be important modulators of the immune system. They are abundantly produced bacteria from the Class Clostridia. To evaluate the effect of administered bacterial composition, optionally with one or more prebiotics, on SCFA, fecal pellets are collected to quantify SCFA levels, particularly acetate, propionate, or butyrate. SCFAs, creatines, and hydroxy-SCFAs are quantified by alkalinizing stool samples, obtaining fingerprints of the metabolic composition of the sample using 1D 1H NMR on a Bruker Avance-600 MHz Spectrometer, and analyzing with supervised multivariate statistical methods using Chenomx NMR Suite software.

Example 49

Administration of Bacterial Metabolites Such as SCFA to Mitigate GVHD

Sodium acetate (150 mM) is delivered via the drinking water of mice beginning 2 weeks prior to BMT. Mice are then irradiated and transplanted with continued supplementation of sodium acetate. Mice are euthanized to evaluate for pathological evidence of GVHD, as well as to quantify and characterize large intestinal Tregs and alloreactive effector T cells by surface staining or intracellular staining followed by flow cytometry on days 14 and 28.

Example 50

Extraction and Purification of Immunomodulatory Oligosaccharides from Plants

Store-bought plants are cut, lyophilized, and ground into powder. The powder (˜500 grams) is extracted three times with 2 L of ethanol, and the concentrated extract was collected, lyophilized, and resuspended with 1 L of distilled water at 85° C. The water-soluble portion is precipitated by four volumes of ethanol at 4° C. to yield polysaccharides. Peptides are removed from this sample by treating with Pronase (Roche Applied Science). The resulting sample is run over a Bio-Gel P-6 gel filtration column (1.5×90 cm) and eluted with distilled water containing 0.02% sodium azide at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. All chromatographic fractions containing carbohydrates are analyzed by a phenol-sulfuric acid method (e.g., Masuko T, Minami A, Iisaki N, Majima T, Nishimura S-I, Lee Y C, 2005. Carbohydrate analysis by a phenol-sulfuric acid method in microplate format. 339:69-72) and quantitated by measuring the optical density at 490 nm (Tsai C-C, Lin C-R, Tsai H-Y, Chen C-J, Li W-T, Yu H-M, Ke Y-Y, Hsieh W-Y, Chang C-Y, Wu C-Y, Chen S-T, Wong C-H, 2013. The Immunologically Active Oligosaccharides Isolated from Wheatgrass Modulate Monocytes via Toll-like Receptor-2 Signaling. 288:17689-17697).

Example 51

Selection of Oligosaccharides to Augment Gut Microbiome

The ability of bacterial isolates to grow on a panel of simple and complex carbohydrates is evaluated using a phenotypic array whose composition has been previously described previously (Martens E C, Lowe E C, Chiang H, Pudlo N A, Wu M, et al. 2011. Recognition and degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides by two human gut symbionts. PLoS Biol 9: e1001221). Growth measurements are collected in duplicate over the course of 3 days at 37° C. under anaerobic conditions. A total of three independent experiments are performed for each species tested (n=6 growth profiles/substrate/species). Total growth (Atot) is calculated from each growth curve as the difference between the maximum and minimum optical densities (OD600) observed (i.e., Amax−Amin). Growth rates are calculated as total growth divided by time (Atot/(tmax−tmin)), where tmax and tmin correspond to the time-points at which Amax and Amin, respectively, are collected.

Example 52

Administration of Carbohydrates to Mitigate Experimental GVHD

Carbohydrates such as xylose are delivered via the drinking water of mice beginning 2 weeks prior to BMT. Mice are then irradiated and transplanted with continued supplementation of xylose. Mice are euthanized to evaluate for pathological evidence of GVHD, as well as to quantify and characterize large intestinal Tregs and alloreactive effector T cells by surface staining or intracellular staining followed by flow cytometry on days 14 and 28. This method may be applied monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and mixtures thereof.

Example 53

Preventing Graft Versus Host Disease in a Subject

To determine efficacy in preventing GVHD, subjects undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are selected. GVHD prophylactic regimen is administered on day −1, where day 0 is day of transplantation or day −1 plus day 17. One arm of the study includes the test article, second arm test article plus standard of care and the third arm is standard of care alone. Standard GVHD prophylaxis consists of cyclosporine twice a day starting on day −1 with target trough levels >200 ng/mL in combination with short course of methotrexate (15 mg/sqm on day +1 and 10 mg/sqm on days +3 and +6). Most patients transplanted from unrelated donors received anti-T-cell globulin (ATG Fresenius) at a low dose of 5 mg/kg on days −3 to −1. To estimate the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of test article, the patients are carefully monitored and documented for the presentation of acute and chronic GVHD symptoms, the time of onset, the severity of the symptoms, the responsiveness to treatment, and the occurrence of infections. Stool and blood samples are collected at pretreatment, day 4, day 14, day 28, 3 months, and 6 months.

Example 54

Treating Acute Graft Versus Host Disease in a Subject

To determine the efficacy of treating acute GVHD, test article is administered to a subject with clinical signs of acute GVHD as described elsewhere. Test article is orally administered daily either alone or in conjunction with standard of care. At the time of test article administration, subjects are at least 10 days post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, have GI symptoms consistent with Grade II GVHD, and have endoscopic evidence of GVHD. The diagnosis of GVHD is confirmed by biopsy of the intestine (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or colon) or skin. Stool, blood and other samples are collected prior to administration of test article day −2 and day +1, day +7 and Day +10. To evaluate therapeutic effect of test article, the patients are carefully monitored and documented for the presentation of acute GVHD symptoms, the severity of the symptoms, the responsiveness to treatment, and the occurrence of infections.

Example 55

Treating Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease in a Subject

Chronic GVHD presents anytime starting day 100 post bone marrow transplantation. Conventional treatment of chronic GVHD requires prolonged periods of systemic immunosuppressive therapy with potent drugs such as corticosteroids and cyclosporine. Agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, rapamycin (sirolimus), imatinib and rituximab are used in patients with steroid-refractory chronic GVHD. To determine the efficacy of treating chronic GVHD, test article is administered to a subject with clinical signs of chronic GVHD as described elsewhere. Test article is orally administered daily either alone or in conjunction standard of care. At the time of test article administration, subjects are at least 100 days post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, have symptoms consistent with chronic GVHD.

Example 56

Immunomodulation of Autologous BMT Recipients

Subjects undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are selected. Test article is administered on day −1, where day 0 is day of transplantation or day −1 plus day 17. Subjects are monitored clinical signs of infections, functionality of organs as well as success of graft uptake or engraftment. Engraftment is measured by assessing graft versus tumor effect. Other outcomes that are measured include neutropenic recovery which is assessed by measurement total blood counts.

Example 57

Prevention Solid Organ Transplant Rejection in a Rat Model

Recipient LBN rats ranged in weight from 325 to 350 grams. ACI donor weights ranged from 200-250 grams. Test article is administered to rats using oral gavage. The treatment started the day before transplant and the entire treatment period ranged from 12 to 27 days. Control rats received saline. Twenty four hours after test article administration, the heterotopic heart transplant is performed. The hearts are transplanted using a modification of the technique of Ono and Lindsey (J. of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 57, 225-229 (1969). The rats are palpated daily and asystole defined the day of rejection.

Example 58

Immunomodulation of Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

Here is a method of preventing graft rejection in a recipient of a transplanted solid organ, by administering to said mammalian recipient an effective graft rejection preventative amount of test article. Transplanted solid organ may include a kidney, heart, skin, a lung, a liver, a pancreas, an intestine, an endocrine gland, a bladder, or a skeletal muscle. Test article is administered pre-transplant at least 24 hours before transplant and after transplant beginning 24 hours after transplant and then on day 3, day, 5 and day 15. Patients are closely monitored for clinical signs and symptoms of transplant rejection as well as complications such as infections. Stool and blood samples are collected before transplantation, day 3, day 5, day 15 and and day 21 and subsequently subjected to microbiome analysis. Immune response is monitored by clinical symptoms as well as biochemical analysis of the serum such as measurement of cytokine levels.

Example 59

Inhibition of Antigen Presenting Cells

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are prepared by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque (Pharmacia). Aliquots of cells are frozen in 90% FCS with 10% DMSO and stored in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the cells are ished twice with MSC medium (DMEM with low glucose and 10% FCS) and re-suspended in assay medium (ISCOVE'S with 25 mM Hepes, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 100 μM non-essential amino acids, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 0.25 μg/ml amphotericin B, 5.5×10−5M 2-mercaptoethanol (all reagents from GibcoBLR) and 5% human AB serum (Sigma, MLR tested)). To prepare monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs), PBMCs are plated and adherent fraction is enriched for a. CD11c+ DCs by CD11c MACS sorting. Microbes or microbes preincubated with prebiotics or microbial metabolites to be tested are incubated with CD11c+ moDCs for 4-10 h. Following incubation period, effect of DC maturation is measured by staining and FACS analysis by looking at markers such as CD40, CD80, CD86 PD-L1 and PD-L2. Endocytic capacity is measured by FITC-dextran incubation followed by FACS analysis). Cytokine production e.g. IL-10, IL-4, IL-12 is analyzed by ELISA or intracellular staining. Effect on naïve T cell stimulation is analyzed by co-cultured by the moDCs preincubated with test article with naïve T cells isolated from PBMCs as described. T cell activation status is analyzed by surface staining followed by FACS analysis for CD3, CD4, CD25.

Example 60

Inhibition of Alloreactivation by a Microbial Composition Using Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR) Assays In Vitro

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are prepared by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque (Pharmacia). Aliquots of cells are frozen in 90% FCS with 10% DMSO and stored in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the cells are ished twice with MSC medium (DMEM with low glucose and 10% FCS) and re-suspended in assay medium (ISCOVE'S with 25 mM Hepes, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 100 μM non-essential amino acids, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 0.25 μg/ml amphotericin B, 5.5×10−5M 2-mercaptoethanol (all reagents from GibcoBLR) and 5% human AB serum (Sigma, MLR tested)). To prepare the T cell-enriched fraction, PBMCs from donor X are depleted of monocytes and B cells by immunomagnetic negative selection. PBMCs are incubated with mouse anti-human CD19 and CD14 mAbs (no azide/low endotoxin (NA/LE) format) followed by biotin-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (multiple adsorption) Ab (all reagents from Pharmingen) and streptavidin microbeads (Miltenyi Biotec). Cells are then separated using a magnetic cell sorter (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec). PBMC from donor Y are X-ray irradiated with 3600 rad (12 min at 70 kV) using Cabinet X ray system (Faxitron X ray, Buffalo Grove, Ill.). To prepare monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs), PBMCs are plated and adherent fraction is enriched for a. CD11c+ DCs by CD11c MACS sorting. T cells (15×106/dish) from donor X are cultured in 10 cm tissue culture dishes with PBMC/moDCs (15×106 cells/dish) from donor Y for 7 days. The cells are incubated at 37° C. in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 7 days. Various concentrations of microbial composition or microbes pre-incubated with sugars are added to T cells activated in the MLR for 3 days at 37° C. in 5% CO2 atmosphere. In control cultures activated T cells are cultured without any test agent. At the end of co-culture period, T cells are recovered. CD8 cells are depleted by negative immunomagnetic selection with anti-CD8 MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec). Aliquots of cells collected before and after depletion are stained with anti-CD4-PE and anti-CD8-APC antibodies (Caltag) and analyzed by FACS. T cell activation status is analyzed by surface staining followed by FACS analysis for CD3, CD4, CD25. Phenotypic analysis for regulatory T cell differentiation is done by surface staining for CD3, CD4, CD25, CD 127 and Foxp3 intracellular staining followed by FACS analysis. Cytokine Analysis for various cytokines including IL-6, TNF-alpha is done by ELISA or BD™ Cytometric Bead Array. To assess T cell proliferation status cultures are pulsed with [H3]TdR (Amersham) (5 Ci/mmol, 1 μCi/well) for 18 hours immediately after plating, or incubated for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days and then pulsed with [H3]TdR) for an additional 18 hours. Cultures are collected using Harvester 96 (Tomtec), filters are analyzed using Microbeta Trilux liquid scintillation and luminescence counter (E.G.& G Wallac). To assess T cell proliferation status cultures are pulsed with [H3]TdR (Amersham) (5 Ci/mmol, 1 μCi/well) for 18 hours immediately after plating, or incubated for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days and then pulsed with [H3]TdR) for an additional 18 hours. Cultures are collected using Harvester 96 (Tomtec), filters are analyzed using Microbeta Trilux liquid scintillation and luminescence counter (E.G.& G Wallac). To assess effect on cytotoxic capacity of CD8+ cells, at the end of co-culture period, CD8+ cells are sorted by MACS. CD8+ T cells are then co-incubated with target cells such as hepatocytes and 51Cromium for 4-16 h. After incubation period, level of 51Cromium in supernanat is measured to gauge cytotoxic activity.

Example 61

Inhibition of PHA Induced T Cell Proliferation and T Cell Activation by a Microbial Composition Using Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR) Assays In Vitro

5×104 T cells are stimulated with PHA (5 μg/ml) and then test article added at various concentrations. Alternatively, T cells are first incubated with test article and then activated with PHA.T cell activation status is analyzed by surface staining followed by FACS analysis for CD3, CD4, CD25. To assess T cell proliferation status cultures are pulsed with [H3]TdR (Amersham) (5 Ci/mmol, 1 μCi/well) for 18 hours immediately after plating, or incubated for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days and then pulsed with [H3]TdR) for an additional 18 hours. Cultures are collected using Harvester 96 (Tomtec), filters are analyzed using Microbeta Trilux liquid scintillation and luminescence counter (E.G.& G Wallac).

Example 62

Culturing and Banking Bacterial Isolates from Mouse or Human Feces

Entire stool specimens are collected and homogenized in 1-3 volumes of 0.05% peptone using a sterile stainless steel blender with 1-3 volumes of peptone. Approximately 1 gram of the specimen is serially diluted (10-fold) in pre-reduced, anaerobically sterilized (PRAS) dilution blanks (Anaerobe Systems). A separate ˜1 gram aliquot is weight, dried in a vacuum over, and re-weighed in order to calculate counts on a dry-weight basis. To select for Clostridiales bacteria, including Blautia species, 100 μL of the homogenized stool sample dilution series is plated on Brain-Heart Infusion blood agar (SBA, Becton Dickinson) supplemented with 4 μg/mL trimethoprim (Sigma Chemical) and 1 μg/mL sulfamethoxazole (Sigma), Brucella Blood Agar (BAP, Anaeobe Systems), CDC ANA blood agar, (BBL Microbiology Systems), and egg yolk agar (EYA, Anaerobe Systems) (Finegold S M, Molitoris D, Song Y, Liu C, Vaisanen M L, Bolte E, McTeague M, Sandler R, Wexler H, Marlowe E M, Collins M D, Lawson P A, Summanen P, Baysallar M, Tomzynski T J, Read E, Johnson E, Rolfe R, Nasir P, Shah H, Haake D A, Manning P, Kaul A, 2002. Gastrointestinal microflora studies in late-onset autism. Clin Infect Dis 1:35). To select for spore-formers, the dilutions may be heated at 70-80° C. for 10-20 minutes and plated in the same manner as the non-heated homogenized stool samples. After 5 days of growth at 37° C. in an anaerobic chamber, single colonies are selected. The colony purification process is repeated by restreaking select single colonies, growing as described above, and selecting again for single colonies. Single colonies are frozen in 15%-25% glycerol in 1 mL cryotubes and stored at −80° C.

Example 63

Sampling of Human Vaginal Microflora

The vaginal microflora were collected in duplicate from the left and right sides of the vaginal sidewall using FLOQSwabs® (Copan Diagnostics, USA) (Jacobson J., et al. 2014. Vaginal microbiome changes with levonorgestrel intrauterine system placement. Contraception. 90(2): 130-135). To control for variables that can alter the vaginal microbiome, samples were collected at the same time of a woman's menstrual cycle (i.e., one week into the menstrual cycle) and patients were tested for pregnancy and for recent sexual activity (using a prostate-specific antigen membrane test).

Example 64

Sampling of Human Lung Microflora

Bronchoscopy was performed using endotracheal tube (Combicath™, KOL Bio-Medical Instruments, USA). Using a syringe, Normal Saline at 1 mg/kg was lavaged into the right middle lobe of the lung. For adult patients. 2-5 mL of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected into a sterile sputum trap. For children ages three and older, 2 mL was collected; 1 mL was collected from children 1-3 years old; 0.5 mL of BALF was collected from children under the age of one. Within ten minutes of sample collection, the sample was transferred from the sterile sputum trap to a sterile container and frozen and stored at −80° C.

Example 65

Preparation of Bacterial Suspension

A human microbiome sample from stool, saliva, or tissue is obtained from a healthy, normal subjects or subjects suffering from a particular condition which enriches their microbiome for unique and desirable species. The sample is diluted to produce a 10-50% slurry in saline+glycerol solution (0.9% (w/v) NaCl, 10% (w/w) glycerol) and placed in a filter membrane-containing stomaching bag. The material is then homogenized and removed from the filtered side of the bag producing the bacterial suspension. Alternatively, a blender is used and filtering is performed after the blending. A low speed centrifugation step is used as an alternative to filtering to remove the large, non-bacterial components of the suspension. The bacterial suspension is tittered by producing serial dilutions differing by a log and plating on BBA agar and growing at 37 C in anaerobic conditions. Colonies are considered countable at between 10-400 colonies per plate and triplicates are plated for each dilution. The bacterial suspension is flash frozen and stored at −80 C for future use.

Isolation of Spore Formers

To isolate the subpopulation of spore formers, the bacterial slurry is treated with 100% ethanol to generate a 50% ethanol slurry for 1 hr. Alternatively a heat treatment of 50 C for 30 minutes is added to inactivate the bacteria that are not capable of forming spores. The 50% ethanol suspension is then pelleted by centrifugation (13,000 rpm for 5 min) and the pellet is washed with equal 10× volume of saline and 10% glycerol 3 times to remove the excess ethanol. The final spore fraction is snap frozen in liquid nitrogen in a solution of injection grade saline and 10% glycerol for subsequent use and stored at −80 C.

Alternatively, a 10% w/v suspension of human fecal material in PBS is incubated in a water bath at 80 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. Glycerol is added to a final concentration of 15% and then the enriched spore containing material is stored at −80 degrees Celsius.

Alternatively, a 10% w/v suspension of human feces in PBS is prepared to contain a final concentration of 0.5 to 2% Triton X-100. After shaking incubation for 30 minutes at 25 to 37 degrees Celsius, the sample is centrifuged at 1000 g for 5-10 minutes to pellet particulate matter and large cells. The bacterial entities are recovered in the supernatant fraction, where the purified spore population is optionally further treated, such as by thermal treatment and/or ethanol treatment as described above.

Example 66

Determining Titer of Bacteria

Counts of viable bacteria are determined by performing 10-fold serial dilutions in PBS and plating to Brucella Blood Agar Petri plates or other applicable solid media known to one skilled in the art (see. e.g. The Manual of Clinical Microbiology ASM Press, 10th Edition or Atlas, Handbook of Microbiological Media, 4th ed, ASM Press, 2010). Plates are incubated at 37 degrees Celsius for 2 days. Colonies are counted from a dilution plate with 50-400 colonies and used to back-calculate the number of viable bacteria in the population. Visual counts are determined by phase contrast microscopy for further morphological identification.

Alternatively, optical density measurements of bacteria containing media is used to determine a the concentration of bacteria by comparing to a standard curve of known concentrations of bacteria that have previously measured optical densities in culture.

Bacteria are also isolated and quantified by cell sorting techniques known to one skilled in the art (e.g. see Nebe-von-Caron, G., Stephens, P. J. & Hewitt, C. J. Analysis of bacterial function by multi-color fluorescence flow cytometry and single cell sorting. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2000). With this technique surface antibodies are raised to specific markers of a desired bacteria and they are incubated, washed, and imaged via flow cytometry to count bacteria in a complex mixture of other bacteria or tissue.

Example 67

FFAB Culturing and Banking Fungal Isolates

Microbial samples e.g. fecal sample; skin swab sample, are washed and homogenized in PBS. Samples are then serially diluted and fivefold dilutions are spread-plated in triplicate on Sobour and dextrose agar, potato dextrose agar, malt agar, and yeast peptone dextrose (YPD) agar each supplemented with chloramphenicol (40 μg/ml) and kanamycin (50 μg/ml). Alternatively, cultures can be grown in liquid conditions on Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB; EMD chemicals) at 37° C., 30° C. and 20° C. and subsequently plated to enrich for yeast fractions. Plates are incubated both aerobically and anaerobically for 48 hours at 37° C., 30° C., and 20° C. and subsequent colonies are counted. Random colonies are selected with different morphologies and are re-streaked three times to obtain a pure culture. Cultures can then be grown up in liquid culture as described above, placed in 10% glycerol and stored at −80° C. for banking purposes. A sample of culture can be submitted for genetic analysis by extracting DNA and performing 18S and ITS identification as described herein

Example 68

Measurement of Metabolites with Mass Spectrometry

To determine the prebiotics in a complex media enabling specific growth, fractionation and mass spectrometry techniques are used to identify prebiotics compounds in media responsible for specific growth. Basically, bacteria are grown in media that has been fractionated by HPLC using standard techniques, and fractions are tested for their ability to promote growth. The fractions that promote growth are further fractionated or metabolites in the media are identified using HPLC-MS techniques described below. Furthermore, any metabolomics on tissues, fresh or spent media, blood, or mammalian excretions are determined using methods described herein. Unbiased methods exist to determine the relative concentration of metabolites in a sample and are known to one skilled in the art. Gas or liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry demonstrate the amounts and identities of various metabolites in the aforementioned samples and are further validated by obtaining pure metabolites and running on through the same LC-MS systems.

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

Polar metabolites and fatty acids are extracted using monophasic or biphasic systems of organic solvents and an aqueous sample as previously described (Metallo et al., 2012, Fendt et al., 2013). Derivatization of both polar metabolites and fatty acids has been described previously (Metallo et al., 2012). Briefly, polar metabolites are derivatized to form methoxime-tBDMS derivatives by incubation with 2% methoxylamine hydrochloride (MP Biomedicals) in pyridine (or MOX reagent (Thermo Scientific) followed by addition of N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) with 1% tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (t-BDMCS) (Regis Technologies). Non-polar fractions, including triacylglycerides and phospholipids are saponified to free fatty acids and esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters either by incubation with 2% H2SO4 in methanol or by using Methyl-8 reagent (Thermo Scientific). Derivatized samples are analysed by GC-MS using a DB-35MS column (30 m×0.25 mm i.d.×0.25 μm, Agilent J&W Scientific) installed in an Agilent 7890A gas chromatograph (GC) interfaced with an Agilent 5975C mass spectrometer (MS). Mass isotopomer distributions are determined by integrating metabolite ion fragments and corrected for natural abundance using algorithms adapted from Fernandez et al. (Fernandez et al., 1996).

Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of Polar Metabolites

After extraction, samples are transferred to a polypropylene vial and samples are analysed using a Q Exactive Benchtop LC-MS/MS (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Chromatographic separation is achieved by injecting 2 uL of sample on a SeQuant ZIC-pHILIC Polymeric column (2.1×150 mm 5 uM, EMD Millipore). Flow rate is set to 100 uL/min, column compartment is set to 25 C, and autosampler sample tray is set to 4° C. Mobile Phase A consists of 20 mM Ammonium Carbonate, 0.1% Ammonium Hydroxide in 100% Water. Mobile Phase B is 100% Acetonitrile. The mobile phase gradient (% B) is as follows: 0 min 80%, 5 min 80%, 30 min 20%, 31 min 80%, 42 min 80%. All mobile phase is introduced into the Ion Max source equipped with a HESI II probe set with the following parameters: Sheath Gas=40, Aux Gas=15, Sweep Gas=1, Spray Voltage=3.1 kV, Capillary Temperature=275 C, S-lens RF level=40, Heater Temp=350 C. Metabolites are monitored in negative or positive mode using full scan or a targeted selected ion monitoring (tSIM) method. For tSIM methods, raw counts are corrected for quadropole bias by measuring the quadropole bias experimentally in a set of adjacent runs of samples at natural abundance. Quadropole bias is measured for all species by monitoring the measured vs. theoretical m1/m0 ratio at natural abundance of all species with m-1, m0, m1, and m2 centred scans. Quadropole bias-corrected counts are additionally corrected for natural abundance to obtain the final mass isotopomer distribution for each compound in each sample.

Example 69

Selection of Oligosaccharides to Augment Gut Microbiome or the Growth of Administered Microbes

The ability of bacterial isolates to grow on a panel of simple and complex carbohydrates is evaluated using a phenotypic array whose composition has been previously described previously (Martens E C, Lowe E C. Chiang H, Pudlo N A, Wu M. et al. 2011. Recognition and degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides by two human gut symbionts. PLoS Biol 9: e1001221). Bacteria isolates are removed from a frozen stock and grown in synthetic minimal media overnight and washed in PBS twice to ensure minimal transfer of residual materials. They are then grown in synthetic minimal media with various prebiotic substrates as specified by the manufacturer. Growth measurements [(optical density at 600 nm (OD600)] are collected every 30 min in duplicate over the course of 3 days at 37° C. under anaerobic conditions. A total of three independent experiments are performed for each species tested (n=6 growth profiles/substrate/species). Total growth (Atot) is calculated from each growth curve as the difference between the maximum and minimum optical densities (OD600) observed (i.e., Amax−Amin). Growth rates are calculated as total growth divided by time (Atot/(tmax−tmin)), where tmax and tmin correspond to the time-points at which Amax and Amin, respectively, were collected.

This may be followed by a step to ensure that the selected oligosaccharide(s) promote the growth of the healthy-state gut microbiota and/or the microbe(s) comprising a therapeutic composition without augmenting the growth of microbes associated with an autoimmune or inflammatory disease state. By testing oligosaccharides against a panel of bacteria (individually or in groups) overrepresented in a selected autoimmune or inflammatory condition, a prebiotic that selectively allows enhanced growth of healthy-state bacteria over disease-state bacteria is selected.

Example 70

Validating Selective Prebiotics Enhance the Growth of Bacteria in the Blood of Mammalian Subjects

Four cohorts of 8, 6-8 week old Balb/c wildtype male mice acquired and fed a normal diet. One cohort is injected with 100 ul of 1E4 CFU/ml of the bacterial composition containing 100 ul 0.1 mg/ml prebiotic mixture, the second cohort is injected with 100 ul of 1E4 CFU/ml of the bacterial composition alone, the third is injected with 100 ul 0.1 mg/ml of a prebiotic mixture and the final cohort serves as a vehicle control cohort injected with vehicle via tail vein. The mice cohorts are then readily bleed at 1 hr, 2 hrs 4 hrs 6 hrs 12 hrs and 24 hrs after the initial administration. At 24 hours gross necropsy is performed and the organs including the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, pancreas, colon, kidneys, esophagus, mammary glands, prostate, bladder, and blood samples are assessed for the amount of the administered bacteria by qPCR primers designed for the bacteria injected. The samples are normalized to the vehicle control and the biodistribution of the bacteria is assessed demonstrating the ability of the prebiotic to alter the distribution of the administered bacteria when compared with the bacteria administered alone. Additional the experiment is repeated with oral administration of the bacteria at 1E10 CFU/ml and prebiotic mixture administered at 10 mg/ml via gavage. The prebiotic mixture demonstrates the ability to both enhance the level of the bacteria observed in blood and other organs including the lungs, kidneys, liver, colon, pancreas,

16s analysis is further performed to assess the effects on cohorts of bacteria not present in bacterial composition administered. Comparing the combined bacteria and prebiotic composition to the other cohorts shows the enhanced growth observed in a mammalian subject. The blood is also submitted for metabolomics with the pure prebiotic composition administered as a control to demonstrate appropriate utilization and production of specific bacterial metabolites not present in compositions containing the combination of bacteria and prebiotic.

Example 71

Selection of Immunomodulatory Carbohydrates or Fungal Species

A carbohydrate library is selected based on production by bacteria associated with a healthy microbiome or bacteria associated with a disease state including but not limited to Type 1 Diabetes, Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Crohn's Disease, Celiac Disease, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. In some embodiments, the carbohydrates are functionalized with an amine linker at the reducing end of the sugar and dissolved in phosphate buffer (50 mM NaH2PO4, pH 8.5) at a concentration of 1 mM. In other embodiments, the carbohydrates are functionalized with a thiol linker at the reducing end of the sugar and dissolved in PBS (pH 7.4; including an equimolar amount of tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (Thermo Scientific) at a concentration of 1 mM. The compounds are robotically printed in triplicates using a piezoelectric spotting device (S3, Scienion) onto epoxy functionalized microarray slides (sciChip Epoxy, Scienion) in 60% relative humidity, at 23° C. The slides are placed in a humidified chamber for 18 hours and then stored in an anhydrous environment.

Prior to using the microarray, the slides are washed three times with water, incubated with 100 mM ethanolamine in 50 mM NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 9) at 50° C. for 1 hour, rinsed again three times with water, and finally dried by centrifugation. The microarray slides are blocked with blocking buffer (10 mM HEPES. 1 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgCl2, 2% BSA) at room temperature for 1 hour and washed three times with lectin buffer (10 mM HEPES, 1 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgCl2) for 5 min. 1 μg of C-type lectin receptor-binding protein sample, diluted in lectin buffer supplemented with 0.01% Tween 20, is applied and the slides are incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. The arrays are washed three times with lectin buffer for 5 min and monoclonal mouse anti-human IgG1-AlexaFluor 488 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.) is applied at a 1:100 dilution in lectin buffer with 0.5% BSA at room temperature for 1 hour. The slides are then washed twice with lectin buffer and once with distilled water, spun at 1000 rpm for 5 min. and scanned with a Genepix scanner 7 (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, Calif., USA). Binding affinities are determined by measuring the mean fluorescent intensities (MFI) using Genepix Pro 7 (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, Calif., USA) (Maglinao M, Eriksson M, Schlegel M K, Zimmermann S, Johannssen T, Gotze S, Seeberger P H, Lepenies B, 2014. A platform to screen for C-type lectin receptor-binding carbohydrates and their potential for cell-specific targeting and immune modulation, Journal of Controlled Release, 175:36-42). Ligands for C-type lectin receptors are often fungal in origin, and thus in addition to being a selection mechanism for carbohydrates, this method also serves as a selection mechanism for immunomodulatory fungal species.

Example 72

Co-Culture of Bacteria Plus Prebiotic and Host-Cells and Analysis of Host Cell Cytokine Response

The following work is done in the presence and absence (as a control) of one or more selected prebiotic carbohydrates. This assay may be used to test or confirm the ability of a prebiotic-bacterium pair to elicit an immunomodulatory response such that the production or release of proinflammatory cytokines decreases and/or the production or release of anti-inflammatory cytokines increases, may be used to evaluate the difference in cytokine response in the presence or absence of a prebiotic mixture, and/or may be used to evaluate an array of prebiotic candidates. Clostridiales bacteria are obtained from the ATCC or purified from a human donor and cultured in brain-heart infusion broth at 37° C. The bacteria are harvested by centrifugation (3000 g, 15 minutes) after 24 hours of stationary growth. To test the effects of spores on human intestinal cells and/or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (huPBMC), bacteria are first heat killed (95° C., 30 minutes) before the centrifugation step. Bacteria (or spores) are washed three times with 1×PBS (pH 7.2, Gibco BRL) and subsequently diluted to obtain final cell densities of 106 and 107 colony forming units (cfu)/ml in RPMI 1640 medium (Gibco BRL).

Human enterocyte-like CaCO-2 cells (passage 60-65) are seeded at a density of 2.5×105 cells/ml on 25 mm cell culture inserts (0.4 μm nucleopore size; Becton Dickinson). The inserts are placed into six well tissue culture plates (Nunc) and cultured 18-22 days at 37° C./10% CO2 in DMEM (glutamine, high glucose; Amimed) supplemented with 20% decomplemented fetal calf serum (56° C., 30 minutes; Amimed), 1% MEM non-essential amino acids (Gibco BRL), 10 μg/ml gentamycin (Gibco BRL), and 0.1% penicillin/streptomycin (10 000 IU/ml/10 000 UG/ml; Gibco BRL). The cell culture medium is changed every second day until the cells are fully differentiated. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is determined continuously in confluent CaCO-2 monolayers using a MultiCell-ERS voltmeter/ohmmeter or as described in Example 44.

Tissue culture inserts covered with CaCO-2 cell monolayers are washed twice with prewarmed RPMI 1640 medium and transferred to six well tissue culture plates. 2 mL culture medium is added to the apical and basolateral compartments of the transwell cell culture system.

Next, the apical surface of CaCO-2 monolayers is challenged by addition of 106 or 107 cfu/ml of Clostridiales bacteria or spores, in the absence of gentamicin. After four hours, gentamicin is added (at 150 μg/mL) to stop bacterial growth and metabolite secretion. CaCO-2 cells are stimulated with the bacteria or spores for 6-36 hours in a 37° C., 10% CO2 incubator. Then the CaCO-2 cells are collected, washed once with cold 1×PBS (pH 7.2), and lysed in denaturation solution for RNA extraction (Micro RNA Isolation Kit, Stratagene). Cellular lysates are stored at −20° C. and cell culture supernatants are collected from the apical compartment and frozen at −20° C. The immune response of CaCO-2 cells is monitored by analysis of cytokine gene transcription (TNF-α, IL-8, monocyte chemoattracting protein 1 (MCP-1), TGF-β, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10) using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique and determination of cytokine secretion in cell culture supernatants using an ELISA (Haller D, Bode C, Hammes W P, Pfeifer A M A, Schiffrin E J, Blum S, 2000. Non-pathogenic bacteria elicit a differential cytokine response by intestinal epithelial cell/leucocyte co-cultures. Gut. 47:79-97).

Example 73

Analysis of Microbially-Produced Short Chain Fatty Acids and Lactic Acid

Microbes may be selected for administration to a patient based on its fermentation products. Microbes may be selected for their ability to produce immunosuppressive short chain fatty acids such as propionate (priopionic acid) and/or butyrate (butyric acid). Such analysis is also used to pair microbes with a prebiotic carbohydrate such that the prebiotic carbohydrate is a substrate for the production of the desired immunosuppressive fermentation products.

5 M stock solutions of standards [formic acid (FA), acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), valeric acid, iso-caproic acid, D/L-lactic acid (D/L-LA), 2-ethyl-butyric acid and pimelic acid (Sigma Aldrich)] are made up in HPLC-grade water (VWR). A 0.2M succinic acid (SA) internal standard is prepared in HPLC-grade water with NaOH (Sigma Aldrich) to promote dissolution. Combined working solutions (WS, containing FA, AA, PA, BA and LA) of 0.5 M and 0.05 M are prepared by diluting the stock solution appropriately with HPLC-grade water. Standard solutions of 0.1 M in water/methanol (50/50, v/v) are prepared for valeric acid, iso-caproic acid, 2-ethyl-butyric acid and pimelic acid.

Microbes are purchased or purified from human donors or patients as described in Examples 18 and 36 and are grown in M2GSC medium. The M2GSC medium is at pH 6 and contains, per 100 mL: 30 mL of rumen fluid, 1 g of casitone, 0.25 of yeast extract, 0.2 g of glucose, 0.2 g of cellobiose, 0.2 g of soluble starch, 0.045 g of K2HPO4, 0.045 g of KH2PO4, 0.09 g of (NH4)2SO4, 0.09 g of NaCl, 0.009 g of MgSO4.7H2O, 0.009 g of CaCl2, 0.1 mg of resazurin, 0.4 g of NaHCO3 and 0.1 g of cystein hydrochloride.

For analysis of microbially-produced short chain fatty acids, 1 mL supernatant from the microbial cultures is placed in a pyrex extraction tube. 50 μL of the SA stock solution is added as an internal standard to each standard sample or experimental sample. The samples are vortexed and equilibrated at room temperature for 5 minutes. Then, 100 μL of concentrated HCl (VWR) is added, followed by vortexing for 15 seconds. The samples are extracted for 20 min by gently rolling using 5 mL of diethylether (VWR). After centrifugation (5 min, 3500 rpm), the supernatant is transferred to another pyrex extraction tube and 500 μL of a 1 M solution of NaOH is added. The samples are extracted again for 20 min. followed by a centrifugation step. The aqueous phase is transferred to an autosampler vial and 100 μL of concentrated HCl is added. After vortexing, a 10 μL aliquot is injected onto the HPLC-UV apparatus, which comprises a P4000 gradient pump with vacuum degassing, an AS3000 autosampler (10° C.), an UV6000 detector, and a SN4000 module (Thermo Separations Products, Thermo Scientific).

Chromatographic separation is performed as described in De Baere S., Eeckhaut V., Steppe M., De Maesschalck C., De Backer P., Van Immerseel F., Croubels S., 2013. Development of a HPLC-UV method for the quantitative determination of four short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid produced by intestinal bacteria during in vitro fermentation. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 80:107-115.

Example 74

Method of Preparing the Microbial and Prebiotic Composition for Administration to a Patient

One strain of bacteria or fungi is independently cultured and mixed together with a selected prebiotic carbohydrate before administration. The strain is grown at 37° C. pH 7, in a GMM or other animal-products-free medium, pre-reduced with 3 g/L cysteineYHCl. After each strain reaches a sufficient biomass, it is preserved for banking by adding 15% glycerol and then frozen at −80° C. in 1 mL cryotubes. The strain is then cultivated to a concentration of 10̂10 CFU/mL, then concentrated 20-fold by tangential flow microfiltration. The spent medium is exchanged by diafiltering with a preservative medium consisting of 2% gelatin. 100 mM trehalose, and 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, or other suitable preservative medium. The suspension is freeze-dried to a powder and titrated.

After drying, the powder is blended with microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate and formulated into a 250 mg gelatin capsule containing 10 mg of lyophilized powder (108 to 1011 bacteria), 160 mg microcrystalline cellulose, 77.5 mg gelatin, and 2.5 mg magnesium stearate, and the prebiotic mixture. The prebiotic mixture is in powder form and is mixed with the microbial composition in a ratio of prebiotic:microbe of about 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, 1:25, 1:30, 1:35, 1:40, 1:45, 1:50, 1:55, 1:60, 1:70, 1:80, 1:90, 1:100, or 1:500.

Example 75

A Rat Model for Radiation- and Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

Eighteen female Wistar rats of 150-200 grams, aged 14-16 weeks, may be obtained from the Central Animal Research Facility, Manipal University, Manipal (License No. 94/1999 CPCSEA). The rats are housed in polycarbonate cages and were provided free access to standard rat food and filtered water. After one week adaptation to the environment, rats are subjected to chemotherapy by orally administering busulfan (Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC, St. Louis. Mo., USA) at 6 mg/kg for four days. To administer infrared radiation to the rats, the tail flick apparatus (model 37360, Ugo Basile Srl, Comerio, VA, Italy) is used. The rats are anesthetized with light ether and the dorsal surface of the tongue is exposed to IR radiation of intensity 40 mV/cm2 for 5 second on the first and fourth days of treatment with busulfan (Patel A, Rajesh S, Chandrashekar V M, Rathnam S, Shah K, Rao C M, Nandakumar K, 2013. A rat model against chemotherapy plus radiation-induced mucositis. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 21:399-403).

Example 76

A Mouse Model for Bone Marrow Transplantation

Female C57BL/6 and B6D2F1 mice are purchased from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, Me., USA). Bone marrow is harvested from the femurs and tibias of 12-20 week old mice. Before receiving transplantation. B6D2F1 mice are given 14 Gy total body irradiation (137Cs source). Irradiation is done twice, three hours apart. 5×10̂6 bone marrow cells are supplemented with 2×10̂6 nylon-wool nonadherent splenetic T cells from C57BL/6 mice and resuspended in Leibovitz's L15 medium (Life Technologies Inc., New York USA) and transplanted by tail vein infusion (0.25 mL) into B6D2F1 mice (Cooke K R, Gerbitz A, Crawford J M, Teshmia T, Hill G R, Tesolin A, Rossignol D P, Ferrara J L M, 2001. LPS antagonism reduces graft-versus-host disease and preserves graft-versus-host leukemia after experimental bone marrow transplantation. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 107:1581-1589).

Example 77

A Mouse Model for Studying Gut Microbiome in Graft Versus Host Disease

Blood from healthy human donors is collected in a tube containing sodium heparin. The blood is diluted in an equal volume of Ca2+- and Mg2+-free phosphate buffered saline with 2% v/v fetal bovine serum and centrifuged at room temperate at 200×g for 10 minutes. The white “buffy coat” layer is removed to yield human peripheral mononuclear cells (huPBMCs), washed five times in RPMI 1640, and diluted (2×106 cells/mL) in RPMI 1640 with decomplemented 20% human AB serum (56° C., 30 minutes, Sigma) and 150 μg/mL gentamicin.

At 4- to 5 weeks old, the Rag2−/−γc−/− mice (purchased from Taconic) are pretreated with liposome-clodronate (VU Medisch Centrum) and sublethally irradiated (1 Gy/6 g), then transplanted intraperitoneally with 3.0×107 huPBMCs. After 4 weeks, these humanized mice sublethally irradiated and, one day later, are injected intravenously with 1.0×107 allogeneic huPBMCs (1 Gy/6 g). The transplanted mice are monitored daily for GVHD symptoms including weight loss, temperature changes, and diarrhea. (Zheng J, Liu Y. Liu U. Liu M. Xiang Z, Lam K-T, Lewis D B, Lau Y-L. Tu W, 2013. Human CD8+ Regulatory T Cells Inhibit GVHD and Preserve General Immunity in Humanized Mice Sci Transl Med 5:168ra9.)

Example 78

Detection of Bacteria in Antigen-Presenting Cells

The following methods may be applied to assess the persistence of dysbiotic or disease-associated bacteria. Optionally, these methods may be applied to assess immunomodulatory behavior of bacteria administered to a patient or of bacteria associated with the patient's natural “healthy” microbiome.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are isolated from bone marrow or blood according to standard methods or kit protocols (e.g., Inaba K, Swiggard W J, Steinman R M, Romani N, Schuler G, 2001. Isolation of dendritic cells. Current Protocols in Immunology. Chapter 3: Unit3.7) or are obtained from the ATCC.

GFP-expressing Clostridiales bacteria are made using the pGLO™ Bacterial Transformation Kit (BioRad, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions.

To evaluate bacterial entrance into and/or presence in DCs, 250,000 DCs are seeded on a round cover slip in complete RPMI-1640 medium and are then infected with GFP-expressing Clostridiales bacteria. After 1 hour of infection, the cells are washed twice with ice-cold PBS. To kill extracellular bacteria, the cells are incubated in complete RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 50 gig/ml gentamicin for 2-3 hours. Cells are fixed and permeabilized for 10 min at −20° C. with 100% methanol and blocked for 1 hour with PBS plus 3% bovine serum albumin. After incubation, the cover slips is washed three times, mounted on microscope slides and analyzed on a confocal microscope (e.g., a fluoview FV100 Olympus confocal microscope). The number of cells containing intracellular bacteria are counted and normalized to the total number of cells in the field. Z-stack analysis (using 0.5 μm steps) is used to discern intracellular bacteria from extracellular bacteria (Bueno S M, Wozniak A, Leiva E D, Riquelme S A, Carreño L J, Hardt W D, Riedel C A, Kalergis A M, 2010. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 differentially modulates bacterial entry to dendritic and non-phagocytic cells. Immunology. 130:273-87). To detect bacteria outside of dendritic cells, confocal microscopy may be performed in which immunospecific antibioties to the GFP-expressing bacteria are visualized.

Additionally or alternatively, gentamicin protection assays are used to evaluate bacterial survival inside DCs. Overnight cultures of Clostridiales bacteria are subcultured until they reached an OD600 of 0.5-0.7 and are then washed and resuspended in ice-cold PBS. The DCs are infected with bacteria a multiplicity of infection (MOI) equal to 25 for 1 hour. The DCs are washed and extracellular bacteria are killed by incubating the DCs for 2 hours with 50 μg/ml gentamicin (Sigma-Aldrich). To recover intracellular bacteria, 10,000 live cells are counted and lysed for 15 min with 0.1% Triton-X-100 in PBS. The lysed cells are seeded on Luria-Bertani agar plates and incubated for 12-16 hours at 37° C. to count intracellular bacteria as colony-forming units (CFUs). Data from gentamicin protection assays are normalized as the percentage of recovered CFUs relative to the maximum amount obtained in each experiment (defined as 100%) (Bueno S M, Wozniak A, Leiva E D, Riquelme S A, Carreño L J, Hardt W D, Riedel C A, Kalergis A M, 2010. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 differentially modulates bacterial entry to dendritic and non-phagocytic cells. Immunology. 130:273-87). The methods described above may also be performed in substantially the same manner, using macrophages (obtained from the ATCC) in place of DCs.

Example 79

Detection of Bacteria in MLN, PLN and Spleen

Radiolabeled bacteria may be detected in organs and serve as an indicator of bacterial translocation in an animal model.

To prepare radiolabeled bacteria, the following steps are repeated three times: A bacterial sample (e.g., Escherichia coli ATCC-10536) is obtained from the ATCC and grown overnight in an appropriate medium (e.g., trypticasein agar). The next day, the strain is transferred to a tube containing 10 mL of sterile saline solution. The bacterial concentration is adjusted to 11% of transmittance in a spectrophotometer at 580 nm, corresponding to a CFU/mL of approximately 108. Two mL of the bacterial suspension is incubated in tubes containing 1 mL of stannous chloride solution (580 μM, pH 7.0) at 37° C. for 10 minutes. After incubation, 37.0-55.5 MBq of 99mTc obtained by elution from the sterile 99Mo/99mTc generator (IPEN/Brazil) is added, and the sample is incubated for 10 minutes at 37° C. The tubes are centrifuged at 3000 g for 25 minutes.

Once repeated three times, the radioactivity of the supernatant and precipitate is measured using a dose calibrator (CRC-25R Dose Calibrator; Capintec, Ramsey, N.J.), and the labeling efficiency is calculated by dividing the cpm of the precipitate by the total cpm (precipitate plus supernatant) and multiplying by 100%.

Adult Swiss male mice are fed standard chow. If the experiment calls for the assessment of a treatment (e.g., supplementation with citrulline, microbial composition, and/or an immunomodulatory or prebiotic carbohydrate), the mice fed standard chow plus treatment are compared with mice only fed standard chow. The mice are administered 0.1 mL of a suspension containing 1.8 MBq of the 99mTc-labeled bacteria (107 CFU/mL), by gavage. One to two days later, the animals were euthanized, and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), popliteal lymph notes (PLNs), and spleen are removed, weighed, and placed in tubes. Incorporated radioactivity is assessed using a counter with an NaI (Tl) crystal (ANSR; Abbott, Chicago, Ill.) and normalized to the organ's weight (Batista M A, Nicoli J R, Martins Fdos S, Machado, J A, Arantes R M, Quinino I E, Correia M I, Cardoso V N, 2012. Pretreatment with citrulline improves gut barrier after intestinal obstruction in mice. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 36:69-76).

Example 80

Measuring Intestinal Integrity by Zonulin ELISA

Age-matched male diabetes-prone and diabetes-resistant rats are anesthetized with ketamine and killed at increasing ages (20, 50, 75, and >100 days) by exsanguination. The rat abdominal wall is opened, small intestinal loops are isolated, and intraluminal lavage is performed by instillation of 0.5 ml of PBS into the proximal small intestine followed by aspiration. The aspirate is stored at −80° C. until a zonulin ELISA is performed as follows. Plastic microtiter plates (Costar, Cambridge, Mass.) are coated with polyclonal rabbit, zonulin-specific anti-Zot antibodies (dilution 1:100) overnight at 4° C. and are then blocked by incubation with 0.05% PBS-Tween 20 for 15 min at room temperature. A standard curve is made by serial dilution of zonulin (0.78-50 ng/ml) in 0.05% PBS-Tween 20. Equal amounts of the standards and experimental samples are aliquotted into the microtiter plate wells and incubated for 1 hour at room temperature. Unbound zonulin is removed by washing, and the wells are incubated by agitation with biotinylated anti-Zot antibodies for 1 hour at room temperature. A color reaction is developed by adding 100 μl of Extra-Avidin (Sigma) diluted 1:20.000 in 0.1 M Tris.HCl, 1 mM MgCl2, 1% BSA, pH 7.3, for 15 min, followed by incubation with 100 μl of a 1 mg/ml of p-nitrophenyl-phosphate substrate (Sigma) solution. Absorbance at 405 nm is read after 30 min (Watts T, Berti I, Sapone A, Gerarduzzi T, Not T, Zielke R, and Fasano A, 2005. Role of the intestinal tight junction modular zonulin in the pathogenesis of type I diabetes in BB diabetic-prone rats. PNAS. 102:2916-2921).

Example 81

Measuring Intestinal Integrity by Western Blot of Tight Junction Proteins

Intestinal integrity may also be evaluated by measuring tight junction protein levels by Western blot. In this case, primary antibodies for occluding and zona occludins-1 (Grand Island, N.Y.), primary antibodies for claudin-1 and claudin-2 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA), and secondary antibodies (fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-mouse and goat anti-rabbit from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA) are used. One centimeter sections of mid-jujunal intestine are harvested from an appropriate animal model (e.g., rat or mouse) and immediately homogenized in 1 mL ice-cold RIPA-buffer (50 mM TRIS-HCl, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM DTT, 0.5 mM EDTA, 1.0% NP40, 0.5% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, 2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 20 μg/ml aprotinin, 2 μg/ml leupeptin and 2 mM sodium orthovanadate). Tissue lysates are sonicated, incubated on ice for 20 min and centrifuged at 4° C., and the resulting supernatants are collected for immunoprecipitation. The protein concentration of the supernatants is measured using the techniques known to one skilled in the art, including but not limited to a Bradford assay. The samples are boiled for 5 min and then 2 μg of protein from each sample is loaded into the lanes of a 10% acrylamide gel. Following electrophoresis, the proteins are transferred onto nitrocellulose filters, which are then incubated with primary antibodies directed against occludin, zona-occludin-1, claudin-1, and/or claudin-2 overnight at 4° C. The filters are then washed with 1×TBST and incubated with secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for one hour at room temperature. Immunocomplexes for each of the tight junction proteins are then detected by chemiluminescence (Alaish S M, Smith A D, Timmons J, Greenspon J, Eyvazzadeh D, Murphy E, Shea-Donahue T, Cirimotich S, Mongodin E, Zhao A, Fasano A, Nataro J P, Cross A, 2013. Gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance, bacterial translocation and mortality following cholestasis depend on the genetic background of the host. Gut Microbes. 4:292-305).

Example 82

Measurement of Intestinal Permeability in a Mouse Model for Alcoholism

Eight-week-old male C57BL/6N mice are fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol (35% of total calories) or containing no ethanol for one week and then gradually increasing amounts of ethanol (to a maximum of 35% total calories) over the course of 3-4 days. After eight weeks of ethanol feeding, the mice are fasted overnight, anesthetized intraperitoneally with sodium-pentobarbital (nembutal, 80 mg/kg), and whole intestinal samples are collected and weighed. The freshly isolated intestinal segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) are placed in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer and then used for ex vivo intestinal permeability assay as follows. One end of the gut segment is ligated with suture, and 200 μl of fluorescent dextran-FITC (FD-4; M.W. 4,000, 40 mg/ml) is injected into the lumen using a gavage needle. The other end of the gut segment is ligated to form a gut sac. The gut sac is rinse in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer and placed in 4 ml of fresh buffer, then incubated at 37° C. for 20 minutes. The FD-4 that penetrated from the lumen into the buffer is measured with a spectrofluorometer using an excitation wave length of 485 nm and an emission wave length of 530 nm (Kirpich I A, Feng W, Wang Y, Lie Y, Barker D F, Barve S S, McClain C J, 2011. The Type of Dietary Fat Modulates Intestinal Tight Junction Integrity, Gut Permeability, and Hepatic Toll-Like Receptor Expression in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 36:835-846).

Example 83

Detection of Bacteria in Distal Organs

A fragment from a liver or spleen biopsy 15 minutes after reperfusion is moved to a sterile tube containing thioglycolate and the immediately cultured on a medium including but not limited to blood agar, blood agar supplemented for anaerobes, chocolate blood agar, MacConkey agar, and Sabouraud agar. Bacteria are purified as described (Example 18) or using other medium as described in Example 36 and 16S rDNA sequencing is performed as described (Examples 7, 31, 62-65).

Example 84

Distal Effects of Microbiota

It has been determined that the presence of certain probiotics in the microbiome plays a role in the therapeutic effectiveness of certain immunomodulatory cancer therapies, including anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. In particular, it has been found that the addition of certain bacteria to the gut of a subject enhances the activity of these checkpoint inhibitors, resulting in increased anti-tumor T cell responses and inhibition of tumor growth (See Vétizou, et al. Science, Nov. 5, 2015, science.aad1329 and Sivan et al. Science, Nov. 5, 2015, science.aac4255).

In particular, it has been shown that oral administration of Bifidobacterium or Bacteroides probiotics, but not Lactobacillus, increases the responsiveness to checkpoint inhibitor therapy in cancer (Sivan et al., Vetizou et al). Anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibody therapies relieve a block, or checkpoint, that otherwise limits anti-tumor immunity. Checkpoint inhibition by these antibodies results in an increase in anti-tumor T cell immune responses, and more effective killing of cancer cells. Tumors have also been shown to be surrounded by microbiomes that are different from the microbiome in normal adjacent tissues, as a result of the interaction between the immune system and the cancer. The observation that addition of certain bacteria to the gut leads to an effect on the immune system and on the growth of tumors at a distal site suggests a concomitant impact on the tumor microbiome at these distal site(s).

In order for the immune cells induced by the combination of a checkpoint inhibitor and certain gut bacteria to have an effect, the cells must travel to the tumor site, altering both the immune and tumor environments, which will alter the tumor microbiome as well. Thus, the presence of bacteria introduced in the gut leads to an alteration in the microbiome of tumors at a distal site. The above studies support the distal effects of microbials, and the role of certain bacteria in the effectiveness of certain cancer therapies.

REFERENCES

  • 1. Bischoff, S C, Giovanni, B, Buuman, W, Ockhuizen, T, Schulzke, J-D, Serino, M, Tilg, H, Watson, A and Wells, J M. Intestinal permeability—a new target for disease prevention and therapy. BMC Gastroenterology. 14: 189, 2014.
  • 2. Boyum, A. Isolation of mononuclear cells and granulocytes from human blood. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 21, Suppl 97 (Paper IV), 77-89, 1968.
  • 3. Boyum A. Isolation of lymphocytes, granulocytes and macrophages. Scand J Immunol. (Suppl 5):9-15, 1976.
  • 4. Bach M K, Brashler J R. Isolation of subpopulations of lymphocytic cells by the use of isotonically balanced solutions of Ficoll. I. Development of methods and demonstration of the existence of a large but finite number of subpopulations. Exp Cell Res. 61:387-96, 1970.
  • 5. Fotino, M., Merson, E. J. and Allen, F. H. Micromethod for rapid separation of lymphocytes from peripheral blood. Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci. 1:131-133, 1971.
  • 6. Hsiao, E Y, McBride, S W, Hsien, S, Sharon G, Hyde, E R, McCue T, Codelli, J A, Chow, J, Reisman, S E, Petrosino, J F, Patterson, P H and Mazmanian, S K. Microbiota modulate behavioral and physiological abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Cell, 155: 1451-1463, 2013.
  • 7. Caporaso, J. G., Kuczynski, J., Stombaugh, J., Bittinger, K., Bushman, F. D., Costello, E. K., Knight, R. (2010). QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data. Nature methods, 7 (5), 335-336. doi:10.1038/nmeth.f.303
  • 8. Illumina. (2014). Frequently Asked Questions: 16S Metagenomic Sequencing. Retrieved from http://www.illumina.com/content/dam/illuminamarketing/documents/products other/16smetagenomics-faq-1270-2014-003.pdf
  • 9. Rao S, Kupfer Y, Pagala M, Chapnick E and Tessler S. (2011). Systemic absorption of oral vancomycin in patients with Clostridium difficile infection. Scand J Infect Dis 5: 386-388.

TABLE 1
See, e.g., WO2014/121304
SEQ IDPublic DBSporePathogen
OTUNumberAccessionCladeFormerStatus
Eubacterium saburreum858AB525414clade_178YN
Eubacterium sp. oral clone IR009866AY349376clade_178YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium ICM621061HQ616401clade_178YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium MSX331062HQ616384clade_178YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium oral1063ADDS01000069clade_178YN
taxon 107
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius122NR_074721clade_179YN
Clostridium baratii555NR_029229clade_223YN
Clostridium colicanis576FJ957863clade_223YN
Clostridium paraputrificum611AB536771clade_223YN
Clostridium sardiniense621NR_041006clade_223YN
Eubacterium budayi837NR_024682clade_223YN
Eubacterium moniliforme851HF558373clade_223YN
Eubacterium multiforme852NR_024683clade_223YN
Eubacterium nitritogenes853NR_024684clade_223YN
Anoxybacillus flavithermus173NR_074667clade_238YN
Bacillus aerophilus196NR_042339clade_238YN
Bacillus aestuarii197GQ980243clade_238YN
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens199NR_075005clade_238YN
Bacillus anthracis200AAEN01000020clade_238YCategory-A
Bacillus atrophaeus201NR_075016clade_238YOP
Bacillus badius202NR_036893clade_238YOP
Bacillus cereus203ABDJ01000015clade_238YOP
Bacillus circulans204AB271747clade_238YOP
Bacillus firmus207NR_025842clade_238YOP
Bacillus flexus208NR_024691clade_238YOP
Bacillus fordii209NR_025786clade_238YOP
Bacillus halmapalus211NR_026144clade_238YOP
Bacillus herbersteinensis213NR_042286clade_238YOP
Bacillus idriensis215NR_043268clade_238YOP
Bacillus lentus216NR_040792clade_238YOP
Bacillus licheniformis217NC_006270clade_238YOP
Bacillus megaterium218GU252124clade_238YOP
Bacillus nealsonii219NR_044546clade_238YOP
Bacillus niabensis220NR_043334clade_238YOP
Bacillus niacini221NR_024695clade_238YOP
Bacillus pocheonensis222NR_041377clade_238YOP
Bacillus pumilus223NR_074977clade_238YOP
Bacillus safensis224JQ624766clade_238YOP
Bacillus simplex225NR_042136clade_238YOP
Bacillus sonorensis226NR_025130clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. 10403023 MM10403188227CAET01000089clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. 2_A_57_CT2230ACWD01000095clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. 2008724126228GU252108clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. 2008724139229GU252111clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. 7_16AIA231FN397518clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. AP8233JX101689clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. B27(2008)234EU362173clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. BT1B_CT2235ACWC01000034clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. GB1.1236FJ897765clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. GB9237FJ897766clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. HU19.1238FJ897769clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. HU29239FJ897771clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. HU33.1240FJ897772clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. JC6241JF824800clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. oral taxon F79248HM099654clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. SRC_DSF1243GU797283clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. SRC_DSF10242GU797292clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. SRC_DSF2244GU797284clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. SRC_DSF6245GU797288clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. tc09249HQ844242clade_238YOP
Bacillus sp. zh168250FJ851424clade_238YOP
Bacillus sphaericus251DQ286318clade_238YOP
Bacillus sporothermodurans252NR_026010clade_238YOP
Bacillus subtilis253EU627588clade_238YOP
Bacillus thermoamylovorans254NR_029151clade_238YOP
Bacillus thuringiensis255NC_008600clade_238YOP
Bacillus weihenstephanensis256NR_074926clade_238YOP
Geobacillus kaustophilus933NR_074989clade_238YN
Geobacillus stearothermophilus936NR_040794clade_238YN
Geobacillus thermodenitrificans938NR_074976clade_238YN
Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius939NR_043022clade_238YN
Lysinibacillus sphaericus1193NR_074883clade_238YN
Clostridiales sp. SS3_4543AY305316clade_246YN
Clostridium beijerinckii557NR_074434clade_252YN
Clostridium botulinum560NC_010723clade_252YCategory-A
Clostridium butyricum561ABDT01000017clade_252YN
Clostridium chauvoei568EU106372clade_252YN
Clostridium favososporum582X76749clade_252YN
Clostridium histolyticum592HF558362clade_252YN
Clostridium isatidis597NR_026347clade_252YN
Clostridium limosum602FR870444clade_252YN
Clostridium sartagoforme622NR_026490clade_252YN
Clostridium septicum624NR_026020clade_252YN
Clostridium sp. 7_2_43FAA626ACDK01000101clade_252YN
Clostridium sporogenes645ABKW02000003clade_252YN
Clostridium tertium653Y18174clade_252YN
Clostridium carnis564NR_044716clade_253YN
Clostridium celatum565X77844clade_253YN
Clostridium disporicum579NR_026491clade_253YN
Clostridium gasigenes585NR_024945clade_253YN
Clostridium quinii616NR_026149clade_253YN
Clostridium hylemonae593AB023973clade_260YN
Clostridium scindens623AF262238clade_260YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1054ACTR0100002clade_260YN
5_1_57FAA
Clostridium glycyrrhizinilyticum588AB233029clade_262YN
Clostridium nexile607X73443clade_262YN
Coprococcus comes674ABVR01000038clade_262YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1048ACTM01000065clade_262YN
1_1_57FAA
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1049ACTN01000028clade_262YN
1_4_56FAA
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1057ACWQ01000079clade_262YN
8_1_57FAA
Ruminococcus lactaris1663ABOU02000049clade_262YN
Ruminococcus torques1670AAVP02000002clade_262YN
Paenibacillus lautus1397NR_040882clade_270YN
Paenibacillus polymyxa1399NR_037006clade_270YN
Paenibacillus sp. HGF51402AEXS01000095clade_270YN
Paenibacillus sp. HGF71403AFDH01000147clade_270YN
Eubacterium sp. oral clone JI012868AY349379clade_298YN
Alicyclobacillus contaminans124NR_041475clade_301YN
Alicyclobacillus herbarius126NR_024753clade_301YN
Alicyclobacillus pomorum127NR_024801clade_301YN
Blautia coccoides373AB571656clade_309YN
Blautia glucerasea374AB588023clade_309YN
Blautia glucerasei375AB439724clade_309YN
Blautia hansenii376ABYU02000037clade_309YN
Blautia luti378AB691576clade_309YN
Blautia producta379AB600998clade_309YN
Blautia schinkii380NR_026312clade_309YN
Blautia sp. M25381HM626178clade_309YN
Blautia stercoris382HM626177clade_309YN
Blautia wexlerae383EF036467clade_309YN
Bryantella formatexigens439ACCL02000018clade_309YN
Clostridium coccoides573EF025906clade_309YN
Eubacterium cellulosolvens839AY178842clade_309YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1056ACTV01000014clade_309YN
6_1_63FAA
Ruminococcus hansenii1662M59114clade_309YN
Ruminococcus obeum1664AY169419clade_309YN
Ruminococcus sp. 5_1_39BFAA1666ACII01000172clade_309YN
Ruminococcus sp. K_11669AB222208clade_309YN
Syntrophococcus sucromutans1911NR_036869clade_309YN
Bacillus alcalophilus198X76436clade_327YN
Bacillus clausii205FN397477clade_327YOP
Bacillus gelatini210NR_025595clade_327YOP
Bacillus halodurans212AY144582clade_327YOP
Bacillus sp. oral taxon F26246HM099642clade_327YOP
Clostridium innocuum595M23732clade_351YN
Clostridium sp. HGF2628AENW01000022clade_351YN
Clostridium perfringens612ABDW01000023clade_353YCategory-B
Sarcina ventriculi1687NR_026146clade_353YN
Clostridium bartlettii556ABEZ02000012clade_354YN
Clostridium bifermentans558X73437clade_354YN
Clostridium ghonii586AB542933clade_354YN
Clostridium glycolicum587FJ384385clade_354YN
Clostridium mayombei605FR733682clade_354YN
Clostridium sordellii625AB448946clade_354YN
Clostridium sp. MT4 E635FJ159523clade_354YN
Eubacterium tenue872M59118clade_354YN
Clostridium argentinense553NR_029232clade_355YN
Clostridium sp. JC122630CAEV01000127clade_355YN
Clostridium sp. NMBHI_1636JN093130clade_355YN
Clostridium subterminale650NR_041795clade_355YN
Clostridium sulfidigenes651NR_044161clade_355YN
Dorea formicigenerans773AAXA02000006clade_360YN
Dorea longicatena774AJ132842clade_360YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1050ADLB01000035clade_360YN
2_1_46FAA
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1051ACTO01000052clade_360YN
2_1_58FAA
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1053ADCR01000030clade_360YN
4_1_37FAA
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1058ACTX01000023clade_360YN
9_1_43BFAA
Ruminococcus gnavus1661X94967clade_360YN
Ruminococcus sp. ID81668AY960564clade_360YN
Blautia hydrogenotrophica377ACBZ01000217clade_368YN
Lactonifactor longoviformis1147DQ100449clade_368YN
Robinsoniella peoriensis1633AF445258clade_368YN
Eubacterium infirmum849U13039clade_384YN
Eubacterium sp. WAL 14571864FJ687606clade_384YN
Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium823ACZW01000054clade_385YN
5_2_54FAA
Eubacterium biforme835ABYT01000002clade_385YN
Eubacterium cylindroides842FP929041clade_385YN
Eubacterium dolichum844L34682clade_385YN
Eubacterium sp. 3_1_31861ACTL01000045clade_385YN
Eubacterium tortuosum873NR_044648clade_385YN
Bulleidia extructa441ADFR01000011clade_388YN
Solobacterium moorei1739AECQ01000039clade_388YN
Coprococcus catus673EU266552clade_393YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium oral1064HM099641clade_393YN
taxon F15
Clostridium cochlearium574NR_044717clade_395YN
Clostridium malenominatum604FR749893clade_395YN
Clostridium tetani654NC_004557clade_395YN
Acetivibrio ethanolgignens6FR749897clade_396YN
Anaerosporobacter mobilis161NR_042953clade_396YN
Bacteroides pectinophilus288ABVQ01000036clade_396YN
Clostridium aminovalericum551NR_029245clade_396YN
Clostridium phytofermentans613NR_074652clade_396YN
Eubacterium hallii848L34621clade_396YN
Eubacterium xylanophilum875L34628clade_396YN
Ruminococcus callidus1658NR_029160clade_406YN
Ruminococcus champanellensis1659FP929052clade_406YN
Ruminococcus sp. 18P131665AJ515913clade_406YN
Ruminococcus sp. 9SE511667FM954974clade_406YN
Anaerostipes caccae162ABAX03000023clade_408YN
Anaerostipes sp. 3_2_56FAA163ACWB01000002clade_408YN
Clostridiales bacterium 1_7_47FAA541ABQR01000074clade_408YN
Clostridiales sp. SM4_1542FP929060clade_408YN
Clostridiales sp. SSC_2544FP929061clade_408YN
Clostridium aerotolerans546X76163clade_408YN
Clostridium aldenense547NR_043680clade_408YN
Clostridium algidixylanolyticum550NR_028726clade_408YN
Clostridium amygdalinum552AY353957clade_408YN
Clostridium asparagiforme554ACCJ01000522clade_408YN
Clostridium bolteae559ABCC02000039clade_408YN
Clostridium celerecrescens566JQ246092clade_408YN
Clostridium citroniae569ADLJ01000059clade_408YN
Clostridium clostridiiformes571M59089clade_408YN
Clostridium clostridioforme572NR_044715clade_408YN
Clostridium hathewayi590AY552788clade_408YN
Clostridium indolis594AF028351clade_408YN
Clostridium lavalense600EF564277clade_408YN
Clostridium saccharolyticum620CP002109clade_408YN
Clostridium sp. M62_1633ACFX02000046clade_408YN
Clostridium sp. SS2_1638ABGC03000041clade_408YN
Clostridium sphenoides643X73449clade_408YN
Clostridium symbiosum652ADLQ01000114clade_408YN
Clostridium xylanolyticum658NR_037068clade_408YN
Eubacterium hadrum847FR749933clade_408YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1052ACTP01000124clade_408YN
3_1_57FAA_CT1
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1055ACTS01000081clade_408YN
5_1_63FAA
Lachnospiraceae bacterium A41059DQ789118clade_408YN
Lachnospiraceae bacterium1060EU728771clade_408YN
DJF VP30
Lachnospiraceae genomosp. C11065AY278618clade_408YN
Clostridium difficile578NC_013315clade_409YOP
Eubacterium sp. AS15b862HQ616364clade_428YN
Eubacterium sp. OBRC9863HQ616354clade_428YN
Eubacterium sp. oral clone OH3A871AY947497clade_428YN
Eubacterium yurii876AEES01000073clade_428YN
Clostridium acetobutylicum545NR_074511clade_430YN
Clostridium algidicarnis549NR_041746clade_430YN
Clostridium cadaveris562AB542932clade_430YN
Clostridium carboxidivorans563FR733710clade_430YN
Clostridium estertheticum580NR_042153clade_430YN
Clostridium fallax581NR_044714clade_430YN
Clostridium felsineum583AF270502clade_430YN
Clostridium frigidicarnis584NR_024919clade_430YN
Clostridium kluyveri598NR_074165clade_430YN
Clostridium magnum603X77835clade_430YN
Clostridium putrefaciens615NR_024995clade_430YN
Clostridium sp. HPB_46629AY862516clade_430YN
Clostridium tyrobutyricum656NR_044718clade_430YN
Sutterella parvirubra1899AB300989clade_432YN
Acetanaerobacterium elongatum4NR_042930clade_439YN
Clostridium cellulosi567NR_044624clade_439YN
Ethanoligenens harbinense832AY675965clade_439YN
Eubacterium rectale856FP929042clade_444YN
Eubacterium sp. oral clone GI038865AY349374clade_444YN
Lachnobacterium bovis1045GU324407clade_444YN
Roseburia cecicola1634GU233441clade_444YN
Roseburia faecalis1635AY804149clade_444YN
Roseburia faecis1636AY305310clade_444YN
Roseburia hominis1637AJ270482clade_444YN
Roseburia intestinalis1638FP929050clade_444YN
Roseburia inulinivorans1639AJ270473clade_444YN
Brevibacillus brevis410NR_041524clade_448YN
Brevibacillus laterosporus414NR_037005clade_448YN
Bacillus coagulans206DQ297928clade_451YOP
Sporolactobacillus inulinus1752NR_040962clade_451YN
Kocuria palustris1041EU333884clade_453YN
Nocardia farcinica1353NC_006361clade_455YN
Bacillus sp. oral taxon F28247HM099650clade_456YOP
Catenibacterium mitsuokai495AB030224clade_469YN
Clostridium sp. TM_40640AB249652clade_469YN
Coprobacillus cateniformis670AB030218clade_469YN
Coprobacillus sp. 29_1671ADKX01000057clade_469YN
Clostridium rectum618NR_029271clade_470YN
Eubacterium nodatum854U13041clade_476YN
Eubacterium saphenum859NR_026031clade_476YN
Eubacterium sp. oral clone JH012867AY349373clade_476YN
Eubacterium sp. oral clone JS001870AY349378clade_476YN
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii880ACOP02000011clade_478YN
Gemmiger formicilis932GU562446clade_478YN
Subdoligranulum variabile1896AJ518869clade_478YN
Clostridiaceae bacterium JC13532JF824807clade_479YN
Clostridium sp. MLG055634AF304435clade_479YN
Erysipelotrichaceae bacterium822ACTJ01000113clade_479YN
3_1_53
Clostridium cocleatum575NR_026495clade_481YN
Clostridium ramosum617M23731clade_481YN
Clostridium saccharogumia619DQ100445clade_481YN
Clostridium spiroforme644X73441clade_481YN
Coprobacillus sp. D7672ACDT01000199clade_481YN
Clostridiales bacterium SY8519535AB477431clade_482YN
Clostridium sp. SY8519639AP012212clade_482YN
Eubacterium ramulus855AJ011522clade_482YN
Erysipelothrix inopinata819NR_025594clade_485YN
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae820ACLK01000021clade_485YN
Erysipelothrix tonsillarum821NR_040871clade_485YN
Holdemania filiformis1004Y11466clade_485YN
Mollicutes bacterium pACH931258AY297808clade_485YN
Coxiella burnetii736CP000890clade_486YCategory-B
Clostridium hiranonis591AB023970clade_487YN
Clostridium irregulare596NR_029249clade_487YN
Clostridium orbiscindens609Y18187clade_494YN
Clostridium sp. NML 04A032637EU815224clade_494YN
Flavonifractor plautii886AY724678clade_494YN
Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus1591AY136666clade_494YN
Ruminococcaceae bacterium D161655ADDX01000083clade_494YN
Acetivibrio cellulolyticus5NR_025917clade_495YN
Clostridium aldrichii548NR_026099clade_495YN
Clostridium clariflavum570NR_041235clade_495YN
Clostridium stercorarium647NR_025100clade_495YN
Clostridium straminisolvens649NR_024829clade_495YN
Clostridium thermocellum655NR_074629clade_495YN
Fusobacterium nucleatum901ADVK01000034clade_497YN
Eubacterium barkeri834NR_044661clade_512YN
Eubacterium callanderi838NR_026330clade_512YN
Eubacterium limosum850CP002273clade_512YN
Anaerotruncus colihominis164ABGD02000021clade_516YN
Clostridium methylpentosum606ACEC01000059clade_516YN
Clostridium sp. YIT 12070642AB491208clade_516YN
Hydrogenoanaerobacterium1005NR_044425clade_516YN
saccharovorans
Ruminococcus albus1656AY445600clade_516YN
Ruminococcus flavefaciens1660NR_025931clade_516YN
Clostridium haemolyticum589NR_024749clade_517YN
Clostridium novyi608NR_074343clade_517YN
Clostridium sp. LMG 16094632X95274clade_517YN
Eubacterium ventriosum874L34421clade_519YN
Bacteroides galacturonicus280DQ497994clade_522YN
Eubacterium eligens845CP001104clade_522YN
Lachnospira multipara1046FR733699clade_522YN
Lachnospira pectinoschiza1047L14675clade_522YN
Lactobacillus rogosae1114GU269544clade_522YN
Bacillus horti214NR_036860clade_527YOP
Bacillus sp. 9_3AIA232FN397519clade_527YOP
Eubacterium brachy836U13038clade_533YN
Filifactor alocis881CP002390clade_533YN
Filifactor villosus882NR_041928clade_533YN
Clostridium leptum601AJ305238clade_537YN
Clostridium sp. YIT 12069641AB491207clade_537YN
Clostridium sporosphaeroides646NR_044835clade_537YN
Eubacterium coprostanoligenes841HM037995clade_537YN
Ruminococcus bromii1657EU266549clade_537YN
Eubacterium siraeum860ABCA03000054clade_538YN
Clostridium viride657NR_026204clade_540YN
Oscillibacter sp. G21386HM626173clade_540YN
Oscillibacter valericigenes1387NR_074793clade_540YN
Oscillospira guilliermondii1388AB040495clade_540YN
Butyrivibrio crossotus455ABWN01000012clade_543YN
Clostridium sp. L2_50631AAYW02000018clade_543YN
Coprococcus eutactus675EF031543clade_543YN
Coprococcus sp. ART55_1676AY350746clade_543YN
Eubacterium ruminantium857NR_024661clade_543YN
Collinsella aerofaciens659AAVN02000007clade_553YN
Alkaliphilus metalliredigenes137AY137848clade_554YN
Alkaliphilus oremlandii138NR_043674clade_554YN
Clostridium sticklandii648L04167clade_554YN
Turicibacter sanguinis1965AF349724clade_555YN
Fulvimonas sp. NML 060897892EF589680clade_557YN
Desulfitobacterium frappieri753AJ276701clade_560YN
Desulfitobacterium hafniense754NR_074996clade_560YN
Desulfotomaculum nigrificans756NR_044832clade_560YN
Lutispora thermophila1191NR_041236clade_564YN
Brachyspira pilosicoli405NR_075069clade_565YN
Eggerthella lenta778AF292375clade_566YN
Streptomyces albus1888AJ697941clade_566YN
Chlamydiales bacterium NS11505JN606074clade_567YN
Anaerofustis stercorihominis159ABIL02000005clade_570YN
Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum453HH793440clade_572YN
Eubacterium desmolans843NR_044644clade_572YN
Papillibacter cinnamivorans1415NR_025025clade_572YN
Sporobacter termitidis1751NR_044972clade_572YN
Deferribacteres sp. oral clone744AY349371clade_575YN
JV006
Clostridium colinum577NR_026151clade_576YN
Clostridium lactatifermentans599NR_025651clade_576YN
Clostridium piliforme614D14639clade_576YN
Saccharomonospora viridis1671X54286clade_579YN
Thermobifida fusca1921NC_007333clade_579YN
Leptospira licerasiae1164EF612284clade_585YOP
Moorella thermoacetica1259NR_075001clade_590YN
Thermoanaerobacter1920CP000924clade_590YN
pseudethanolicus
Flexistipes sinusarabici888NR_074881clade_591YN
Gloeobacter violaceus942NR_074282clade_596YN
Eubacterium sp. oral clone JN088869AY349377clade_90YN
Clostridium oroticum610FR749922clade_96YN
Clostridium sp. D5627ADBG01000142clade_96YN
Eubacterium contortum840FR749946clade_96YN
Eubacterium fissicatena846FR749935clade_96YN
Corynebacterium coyleae692X96497clade_100NN
Corynebacterium mucifaciens711NR_026396clade_100NN
Corynebacterium ureicelerivorans733AM397636clade_100NN
Corynebacterium appendicis684NR_028951clade_102NN
Corynebacterium genitalium698ACLJ01000031clade_102NN
Corynebacterium glaucum699NR_028971clade_102NN
Corynebacterium imitans703AF537597clade_102NN
Corynebacterium riegelii719EU848548clade_102NN
Corynebacterium sp. L_2012475723HE575405clade_102NN
Corynebacterium sp. NML 93_0481724GU238409clade_102NN
Corynebacterium sundsvallense728Y09655clade_102NN
Corynebacterium tuscaniae730AY677186clade_102NN
Prevotella maculosa1504AGEK01000035clade_104NN
Prevotella oris1513ADDV01000091clade_104NN
Prevotella salivae1517AB108826clade_104NN
Prevotella sp. ICM551521HQ616399clade_104NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone AA0201528AY005057clade_104NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone GI0321538AY349396clade_104NN
Prevotella sp. oral taxon G701558GU432179clade_104NN
Prevotella corporis1491L16465clade_105NN
Bacteroides sp. 4_1_36312ACTC01000133clade_110NN
Bacteroides sp. AR20315AF139524clade_110NN
Bacteroides sp. D20319ACPT01000052clade_110NN
Bacteroides sp. F_4322AB470322clade_110NN
Bacteroides uniformis329AB050110clade_110NN
Prevotella nanceiensis1510JN867228clade_127NN
Prevotella sp. oral taxon 2991548ACWZ01000026clade_127NN
Prevotella bergensis1485ACKS01000100clade_128NN
Prevotella buccalis1489JN867261clade_129NN
Prevotella timonensis1564ADEF01000012clade_129NN
Prevotella oralis1512AEPE01000021clade_130NN
Prevotella sp. SEQ0721525JN867238clade_130NN
Leuconostoc carnosum1177NR_040811clade_135NN
Leuconostoc gasicomitatum1179FN822744clade_135NN
Leuconostoc inhae1180NR_025204clade_135NN
Leuconostoc kimchii1181NR_075014clade_135NN
Edwardsiella tarda777CP002154clade_139NN
Photorhabdus asymbiotica1466Z76752clade_139NN
Psychrobacter arcticus1607CP000082clade_141NN
Psychrobacter cibarius1608HQ698586clade_141NN
Psychrobacter cryohalolentis1609CP000323clade_141NN
Psychrobacter faecalis1610HQ698566clade_141NN
Psychrobacter nivimaris1611HQ698587clade_141NN
Psychrobacter pulmonis1612HQ698582clade_141NN
Pseudomonas aeruginosa1592AABQ07000001clade_154NN
Pseudomonas sp. 2_1_261600ACWU01000257clade_154NN
Corynebacterium confusum691Y15886clade_158NN
Corynebacterium propinquum712NR_037038clade_158NN
Corynebacterium713X84258clade_158NN
pseudodiphtheriticum
Bartonella bacilliformis338NC_008783clade_159NN
Bartonella grahamii339CP001562clade_159NN
Bartonella henselae340NC_005956clade_159NN
Bartonella quintana341BX897700clade_159NN
Bartonella tamiae342EF672728clade_159NN
Bartonella washoensis343FJ719017clade_159NN
Brucella abortus430ACBJ01000075clade_159NCategory-B
Brucella canis431NR_044652clade_159NCategory-B
Brucella ceti432ACJD01000006clade_159NCategory-B
Brucella melitensis433AE009462clade_159NCategory-B
Brucella microti434NR_042549clade_159NCategory-B
Brucella ovis435NC_009504clade_159NCategory-B
Brucella sp. 83_13436ACBQ01000040clade_159NCategory-B
Brucella sp. BO1437EU053207clade_159NCategory-B
Brucella suis438ACBK01000034clade_159NCategory-B
Ochrobactrum anthropi1360NC_009667clade_159NN
Ochrobactrum intermedium1361ACQA01000001clade_159NN
Ochrobactrum pseudintermedium1362DQ365921clade_159NN
Prevotella genomosp. C21496AY278625clade_164NN
Prevotella multisaccharivorax1509AFJE01000016clade_164NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone1543AY550997clade_164NN
IDR_CEC_0055
Prevotella sp. oral taxon 2921547GQ422735clade_164NN
Prevotella sp. oral taxon 3001549GU409549clade_164NN
Prevotella marshii1505AEEI01000070clade_166NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone IK0531544AY349401clade_166NN
Prevotella sp. oral taxon 7811554GQ422744clade_166NN
Prevotella stercorea1562AB244774clade_166NN
Prevotella brevis1487NR_041954clade_167NN
Prevotella ruminicola1516CP002006clade_167NN
Prevotella sp. sp241560AB003384clade_167NN
Prevotella sp. sp341561AB003385clade_167NN
Prevotella albensis1483NR_025300clade_168NN
Prevotella copri1490ACBX02000014clade_168NN
Prevotella oulorum1514L16472clade_168NN
Prevotella sp. BI_421518AJ581354clade_168NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone1546AY207050clade_168NN
P4PB_83 P2
Prevotella sp. oral taxon G601557GU432133clade_168NN
Prevotella amnii1484AB547670clade_169NN
Bacteroides caccae268EU136686clade_170NN
Bacteroides finegoldii277AB222699clade_170NN
Bacteroides intestinalis283ABJL02000006clade_171NN
Bacteroides sp. XB44A326AM230649clade_171NN
Bifidobacteriaceae genomosp. C1345AY278612clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium adolescentis346AAXD02000018clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium angulatum347ABYS02000004clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium animalis348CP001606clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium breve350CP002743clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium catenulatum351ABXY01000019clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium dentium352CP001750clade_172NOP
Bifidobacterium gallicum353ABXB03000004clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium infantis354AY151398clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense355AB491757clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium longum356ABQQ01000041clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum357ABXX02000002clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium pseudolongum358NR_043442clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium scardovii359AJ307005clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium sp. HM2360AB425276clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium sp. HMLN12361JF519685clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium sp. M45362HM626176clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium sp. MSX5B363HQ616382clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium sp. TM_7364AB218972clade_172NN
Bifidobacterium thermophilum365DQ340557clade_172NN
Leuconostoc citreum1178AM157444clade_175NN
Leuconostoc lactis1182NR_040823clade_175NN
Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris123NR_040844clade_179NN
Alicyclobacillus cycloheptanicus125NR_024754clade_179NN
Acinetobacter baumannii27ACYQ01000014clade_181NN
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus28AM157426clade_181NN
Acinetobacter genomosp. C129AY278636clade_181NN
Acinetobacter haemolyticus30ADMT01000017clade_181NN
Acinetobacter johnsonii31ACPL01000162clade_181NN
Acinetobacter junii32ACPM01000135clade_181NN
Acinetobacter lwoffii33ACPN01000204clade_181NN
Acinetobacter parvus34AIEB01000124clade_181NN
Acinetobacter schindleri36NR_025412clade_181NN
Acinetobacter sp. 56A137GQ178049clade_181NN
Acinetobacter sp. CIP 10193438JQ638573clade_181NN
Acinetobacter sp. CIP 10214339JQ638578clade_181NN
Acinetobacter sp. M16_2241HM366447clade_181NN
Acinetobacter sp. RUH262442ACQF01000094clade_181NN
Acinetobacter sp. SH02443ADCH01000068clade_181NN
Lactobacillus jensenii1092ACQD01000066clade_182NN
Alcaligenes faecalis119AB680368clade_183NN
Alcaligenes sp. CO14120DQ643040clade_183NN
Alcaligenes sp. S3121HQ262549clade_183NN
Oligella ureolytica1366NR_041998clade_183NN
Oligella urethralis1367NR_041753clade_183NN
Eikenella corrodens784ACEA01000028clade_185NN
Kingella denitrificans1019AEWV01000047clade_185NN
Kingella genomosp. P1 oral cone1020DQ003616clade_185NN
MB2_C20
Kingella kingae1021AFHS01000073clade_185NN
Kingella oralis1022ACJW02000005clade_185NN
Kingella sp. oral clone ID0591023AY349381clade_185NN
Neisseria elongata1330ADBF01000003clade_185NN
Neisseria genomosp. P2 oral clone1332DQ003630clade_185NN
MB5_P15
Neisseria sp. oral clone JC0121345AY349388clade_185NN
Neisseria sp. SMC_A91991342FJ763637clade_185NN
Simonsiella muelleri1731ADCY01000105clade_185NN
Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum700ABYP01000081clade_193NN
Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens716FJ185225clade_193NN
Rothia aeria1649DQ673320clade_194NN
Rothia dentocariosa1650ADDW01000024clade_194NN
Rothia sp. oral taxon 1881653GU470892clade_194NN
Corynebacterium accolens681ACGD01000048clade_195NN
Corynebacterium macginleyi707AB359393clade_195NN
Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium714ABYQ01000237clade_195NN
Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum729ACVP01000009clade_195NN
Lactobacillus casei1074CP000423clade_198NN
Lactobacillus paracasei1106ABQV01000067clade_198NN
Lactobacillus zeae1143NR_037122clade_198NN
Prevotella dentalis1492AB547678clade_205NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone ASCG101529AY923148clade_206NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone HF0501541AY349399clade_206NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone ID0191542AY349400clade_206NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone IK0621545AY349402clade_206NN
Prevotella genomosp. P9 oral clone1499DQ003633clade_207NN
MB7_G16
Prevotella sp. oral clone AU0691531AY005062clade_207NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone CY0061532AY005063clade_207NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone FL0191534AY349392clade_207NN
Actinomyces genomosp. C156AY278610clade_212NN
Actinomyces genomosp. C257AY278611clade_212NN
Actinomyces genomosp. P1 oral clone58DQ003632clade_212NN
MB6_C03
Actinomyces georgiae59GU561319clade_212NN
Actinomyces israelii60AF479270clade_212NN
Actinomyces massiliensis61AB545934clade_212NN
Actinomyces meyeri62GU561321clade_212NN
Actinomyces odontolyticus66ACYT01000123clade_212NN
Actinomyces orihominis68AJ575186clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. CCUG 3729071AJ234058clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. ICM3475HQ616391clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. ICM4176HQ616392clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. ICM4777HQ616395clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. ICM5478HQ616398clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. oral clone IP08187AY349366clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. oral taxon 17891AEUH01000060clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. oral taxon 18092AEPP01000041clade_212NN
Actinomyces sp. TeJ580GU561315clade_212NN
Haematobacter sp. BC14248968GU396991clade_213NN
Paracoccus denitrificans1424CP000490clade_213NN
Paracoccus marcusii1425NR_044922clade_213NN
Grimontia hollisae967ADAQ01000013clade_216NN
Shewanella putrefaciens1723CP002457clade_216NN
Afipia genomosp. 4111EU117385clade_217NN
Rhodopseudomonas palustris1626CP000301clade_217NN
Methylobacterium extorquens1223NC_010172clade_218NN
Methylobacterium podarium1224AY468363clade_218NN
Methylobacterium radiotolerans1225GU294320clade_218NN
Methylobacterium sp. 1sub1226AY468371clade_218NN
Methylobacterium sp. MM41227AY468370clade_218NN
Achromobacter denitrificans18NR_042021clade_224NN
Achromobacter piechaudii19ADMS01000149clade_224NN
Achromobacter xylosoxidans20ACRC01000072clade_224NN
Bordetella bronchiseptica384NR_025949clade_224NOP
Bordetella holmesii385AB683187clade_224NOP
Bordetella parapertussis386NR_025950clade_224NOP
Bordetella pertussis387BX640418clade_224NOP
Microbacterium chocolatum1230NR_037045clade_225NN
Microbacterium flavescens1231EU714363clade_225NN
Microbacterium lacticum1233EU714351clade_225NN
Microbacterium oleivorans1234EU714381clade_225NN
Microbacterium oxydans1235EU714348clade_225NN
Microbacterium paraoxydans1236AJ491806clade_225NN
Microbacterium phyllosphaerae1237EU714359clade_225NN
Microbacterium schleiferi1238NR_044936clade_225NN
Microbacterium sp. 7681239EU714378clade_225NN
Microbacterium sp. oral strain1240AF287752clade_225NN
C24KA
Microbacterium testaceum1241EU714365clade_225NN
Corynebacterium atypicum686NR_025540clade_229NN
Corynebacterium mastitidis708AB359395clade_229NN
Corynebacterium sp. NML 97_0186725GU238411clade_229NN
Mycobacterium elephantis1275AF385898clade_237NOP
Mycobacterium paraterrae1288EU919229clade_237NOP
Mycobacterium phlei1289GU142920clade_237NOP
Mycobacterium sp. 17761293EU703152clade_237NN
Mycobacterium sp. 17811294EU703147clade_237NN
Mycobacterium sp. AQ1GA41297HM210417clade_237NN
Mycobacterium sp. GN_105461299FJ497243clade_237NN
Mycobacterium sp. GN_108271300FJ497247clade_237NN
Mycobacterium sp. GN_111241301FJ652846clade_237NN
Mycobacterium sp. GN_91881302FJ497240clade_237NN
Mycobacterium sp. GR_2007_2101303FJ555538clade_237NN
Anoxybacillus contaminans172NR_029006clade_238NN
Bacillus aeolius195NR_025557clade_238NN
Brevibacterium frigoritolerans422NR_042639clade_238NN
Geobacillus sp. E263934DQ647387clade_238NN
Geobacillus sp. WCH70935CP001638clade_238NN
Geobacillus thermocatenulatus937NR_043020clade_238NN
Geobacillus thermoleovorans940NR_074931clade_238NN
Lysinibacillus fusiformis1192FN397522clade_238NN
Planomicrobium koreense1468NR_025011clade_238NN
Sporosarcina newyorkensis1754AFPZ01000142clade_238NN
Sporosarcina sp. 26811755GU994081clade_238NN
Ureibacillus composti1968NR_043746clade_238NN
Ureibacillus suwonensis1969NR_043232clade_238NN
Ureibacillus terrenus1970NR_025394clade_238NN
Ureibacillus thermophilus1971NR_043747clade_238NN
Ureibacillus thermosphaericus1972NR_040961clade_238NN
Prevotella micans1507AGWK01000061clade_239NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone DA0581533AY005065clade_239NN
Prevotella sp. SEQ0531523JN867222clade_239NN
Treponema socranskii1937NR_024868clade_240NOP
Treponema sp. 6:H:D15A_41938AY005083clade_240NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2651953GU408850clade_240NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon G851958GU432215clade_240NN
Porphyromonas endodontalis1472ACNN01000021clade_241NN
Porphyromonas sp. oral clone BB1341478AY005068clade_241NN
Porphyromonas sp. oral clone F0161479AY005069clade_241NN
Porphyromonas sp. oral clone1480AY207054clade_241NN
P2PB_52 P1
Porphyromonas sp. oral clone1481AY207057clade_241NN
P4GB_100 P2
Acidovorax sp. 98_6383326AY258065clade_245NN
Comamonadaceae bacterium NML000135663JN585335clade_245NN
Comamonadaceae bacterium NML790751664JN585331clade_245NN
Comamonadaceae bacterium NML910035665JN585332clade_245NN
Comamonadaceae bacterium NML910036666JN585333clade_245NN
Comamonas sp. NSP5668AB076850clade_245NN
Delftia acidovorans748CP000884clade_245NN
Xenophilus aerolatus2018JN585329clade_245NN
Oribacterium sp. oral taxon 0781380ACIQ02000009clade_246NN
Oribacterium sp. oral taxon 1021381GQ422713clade_246NN
Weissella cibaria2007NR_036924clade_247NN
Weissella confusa2008NR_040816clade_247NN
Weissella hellenica2009AB680902clade_247NN
Weissella kandleri2010NR_044659clade_247NN
Weissella koreensis2011NR_075058clade_247NN
Weissella paramesenteroides2012ACKU01000017clade_247NN
Weissella sp. KLDS 7.07012013EU600924clade_247NN
Mobiluncus curtisii1251AEPZ01000013clade_249NN
Enhydrobacter aerosaccus785ACYI01000081clade_256NN
Moraxella osloensis1262JN175341clade_256NN
Moraxella sp. GM21264JF837191clade_256NN
Brevibacterium casei420JF951998clade_257NN
Brevibacterium epidermidis421NR_029262clade_257NN
Brevibacterium sanguinis426NR_028016clade_257NN
Brevibacterium sp. H15427AB177640clade_257NN
Acinetobacter radioresistens35ACVR01000010clade_261NN
Lactobacillus alimentarius1068NR_044701clade_263NN
Lactobacillus farciminis1082NR_044707clade_263NN
Lactobacillus kimchii1097NR_025045clade_263NN
Lactobacillus nodensis1101NR_041629clade_263NN
Lactobacillus tucceti1138NR_042194clade_263NN
Pseudomonas mendocina1595AAUL01000021clade_265NN
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes1598NR_037000clade_265NN
Pseudomonas sp. NP522b1602EU723211clade_265NN
Pseudomonas stutzeri1603AM905854clade_265NN
Paenibacillus barcinonensis1390NR_042272clade_270NN
Paenibacillus barengoltzii1391NR_042756clade_270NN
Paenibacillus chibensis1392NR_040885clade_270NN
Paenibacillus cookii1393NR_025372clade_270NN
Paenibacillus durus1394NR_037017clade_270NN
Paenibacillus glucanolyticus1395D78470clade_270NN
Paenibacillus lactis1396NR_025739clade_270NN
Paenibacillus pabuli1398NR_040853clade_270NN
Paenibacillus popilliae1400NR_040888clade_270NN
Paenibacillus sp. CIP 1010621401HM212646clade_270NN
Paenibacillus sp. JC661404JF824808clade_270NN
Paenibacillus sp. R_274131405HE586333clade_270NN
Paenibacillus sp. R_274221406HE586338clade_270NN
Paenibacillus timonensis1408NR_042844clade_270NN
Rothia mucilaginosa1651ACVO01000020clade_271NN
Rothia nasimurium1652NR_025310clade_271NN
Prevotella sp. oral taxon 3021550ACZK01000043clade_280NN
Prevotella sp. oral taxon F681556HM099652clade_280NN
Prevotella tannerae1563ACIJ02000018clade_280NN
Prevotellaceae bacterium P4P_62 P11566AY207061clade_280NN
Porphyromonas asaccharolytica1471AENO01000048clade_281NN
Porphyromonas gingivalis1473AE015924clade_281NN
Porphyromonas macacae1475NR_025908clade_281NN
Porphyromonas sp. UQD 3011477EU012301clade_281NN
Porphyromonas uenonis1482ACLR01000152clade_281NN
Leptotrichia buccalis1165CP001685clade_282NN
Leptotrichia hofstadii1168ACVB02000032clade_282NN
Leptotrichia sp. oral clone HE0121173AY349386clade_282NN
Leptotrichia sp. oral taxon2231176GU408547clade_282NN
Bacteroides fluxus278AFBN01000029clade_285NN
Bacteroides helcogenes281CP002352clade_285NN
Parabacteroides johnsonii1419ABYH01000014clade_286NN
Parabacteroides merdae1420EU136685clade_286NN
Treponema denticola1926ADEC01000002clade_288NOP
Treponema genomosp. P5 oral clone1929DQ003624clade_288NN
MB3_P23
Treponema putidum1935AJ543428clade_288NOP
Treponema sp. oral clone1942AY207055clade_288NN
P2PB_53 P3
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2471949GU408748clade_288NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2501950GU408776clade_288NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2511951GU408781clade_288NN
Anaerococcus hydrogenalis144ABXA01000039clade_289NN
Anaerococcus sp. 8404299148HM587318clade_289NN
Anaerococcus sp. gpac215156AM176540clade_289NN
Anaerococcus vaginalis158ACXU01000016clade_289NN
Propionibacterium acidipropionici1569NC_019395clade_290NN
Propionibacterium avidum1571AJ003055clade_290NN
Propionibacterium granulosum1573FJ785716clade_290NN
Propionibacterium jensenii1574NR_042269clade_290NN
Propionibacterium propionicum1575NR_025277clade_290NN
Propionibacterium sp. H4561577AB177643clade_290NN
Propionibacterium thoenii1581NR_042270clade_290NN
Bifidobacterium bifidum349ABQP01000027clade_293NN
Leuconostoc mesenteroides1183ACKV01000113clade_295NN
Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides1184NR_040814clade_295NN
Johnsonella ignava1016X87152clade_298NN
Propionibacterium acnes1570ADJM01000010clade_299NN
Propionibacterium sp. 434_HC21576AFIL01000035clade_299NN
Propionibacterium sp. LG1578AY354921clade_299NN
Propionibacterium sp. S555a1579AB264622clade_299NN
Alicyclobacillus sp. CCUG 53762128HE613268clade_301NN
Actinomyces cardiffensis53GU470888clade_303NN
Actinomyces funkei55HQ906497clade_303NN
Actinomyces sp. HKU3174HQ335393clade_303NN
Actinomyces sp. oral taxon C5594HM099646clade_303NN
Kerstersia gyiorum1018NR_025669clade_307NN
Pigmentiphaga daeguensis1467JN585327clade_307NN
Aeromonas allosaccharophila104S39232clade_308NN
Aeromonas enteropelogenes105X71121clade_308NN
Aeromonas hydrophila106NC_008570clade_308NN
Aeromonas jandaei107X60413clade_308NN
Aeromonas salmonicida108NC_009348clade_308NN
Aeromonas trota109X60415clade_308NN
Aeromonas veronii110NR_044845clade_308NN
Marvinbryantia formatexigens1196AJ505973clade_309NN
Rhodobacter sp. oral taxon C301620HM099648clade_310NN
Rhodobacter sphaeroides1621CP000144clade_310NN
Lactobacillus antri1071ACLL01000037clade_313NN
Lactobacillus coleohominis1076ACOH01000030clade_313NN
Lactobacillus fermentum1083CP002033clade_313NN
Lactobacillus gastricus1085AICN01000060clade_313NN
Lactobacillus mucosae1099FR693800clade_313NN
Lactobacillus oris1103AEKL01000077clade_313NN
Lactobacillus pontis1111HM218420clade_313NN
Lactobacillus reuteri1112ACGW02000012clade_313NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07071127EU600911clade_313NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07091128EU600913clade_313NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07111129EU600915clade_313NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07131131EU600917clade_313NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07161132EU600921clade_313NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07181133EU600922clade_313NN
Lactobacillus sp. oral taxon 0521137GQ422710clade_313NN
Lactobacillus vaginalis1140ACGV01000168clade_313NN
Brevibacterium aurantiacum419NR_044854clade_314NN
Brevibacterium linens423AJ315491clade_314NN
Lactobacillus pentosus1108JN813103clade_315NN
Lactobacillus plantarum1110ACGZ02000033clade_315NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07021123EU600906clade_315NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07031124EU600907clade_315NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07041125EU600908clade_315NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07051126EU600909clade_315NN
Agrobacterium radiobacter115CP000628clade_316NN
Agrobacterium tumefaciens116AJ389893clade_316NN
Corynebacterium argentoratense685EF463055clade_317NN
Corynebacterium diphtheriae693NC_002935clade_317NOP
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis715NR_037070clade_317NN
Corynebacterium renale717NR_037069clade_317NN
Corynebacterium ulcerans731NR_074467clade_317NN
Aurantimonas coralicida191AY065627clade_318NN
Aureimonas altamirensis192FN658986clade_318NN
Lactobacillus acidipiscis1066NR_024718clade_320NN
Lactobacillus salivarius1117AEBA01000145clade_320NN
Lactobacillus sp. KLDS 1.07191134EU600923clade_320NN
Lactobacillus buchneri1073ACGH01000101clade_321NN
Lactobacillus genomosp. C11086AY278619clade_321NN
Lactobacillus genomosp. C21087AY278620clade_321NN
Lactobacillus hilgardii1089ACGP01000200clade_321NN
Lactobacillus kefiri1096NR_042230clade_321NN
Lactobacillus parabuchneri1105NR_041294clade_321NN
Lactobacillus parakefiri1107NR_029039clade_321NN
Lactobacillus curvatus1079NR_042437clade_322NN
Lactobacillus sakei1116DQ989236clade_322NN
Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus167AB101592clade_323NN
Aneurinibacillus danicus168NR_028657clade_323NN
Aneurinibacillus migulanus169NR_036799clade_323NN
Aneurinibacillus terranovensis170NR_042271clade_323NN
Staphylococcus aureus1757CP002643clade_325NCategory-B
Staphylococcus auricularis1758JQ624774clade_325NN
Staphylococcus capitis1759ACFR01000029clade_325NN
Staphylococcus caprae1760ACRH01000033clade_325NN
Staphylococcus carnosus1761NR_075003clade_325NN
Staphylococcus cohnii1762JN175375clade_325NN
Staphylococcus condimenti1763NR_029345clade_325NN
Staphylococcus epidermidis1764ACHE01000056clade_325NN
Staphylococcus equorum1765NR_027520clade_325NN
Staphylococcus haemolyticus1767NC_007168clade_325NN
Staphylococcus hominis1768AM157418clade_325NN
Staphylococcus lugdunensis1769AEQA01000024clade_325NN
Staphylococcus pasteuri1770FJ189773clade_325NN
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius1771CP002439clade_325NN
Staphylococcus saccharolyticus1772NR_029158clade_325NN
Staphylococcus saprophyticus1773NC_007350clade_325NN
Staphylococcus sp. clone bottae71777AF467424clade_325NN
Staphylococcus sp. H2921775AB177642clade_325NN
Staphylococcus sp. H7801776AB177644clade_325NN
Staphylococcus succinus1778NR_028667clade_325NN
Staphylococcus warneri1780ACPZ01000009clade_325NN
Staphylococcus xylosus1781AY395016clade_325NN
Cardiobacterium hominis490ACKY01000036clade_326NN
Cardiobacterium valvarum491NR_028847clade_326NN
Pseudomonas fluorescens1593AY622220clade_326NN
Pseudomonas gessardii1594FJ943496clade_326NN
Pseudomonas monteilii1596NR_024910clade_326NN
Pseudomonas poae1597GU188951clade_326NN
Pseudomonas putida1599AF094741clade_326NN
Pseudomonas sp. G12291601DQ910482clade_326NN
Pseudomonas tolaasii1604AF320988clade_326NN
Pseudomonas viridiflava1605NR_042764clade_326NN
Listeria grayi1185ACCR02000003clade_328NOP
Listeria innocua1186JF967625clade_328NN
Listeria ivanovii1187X56151clade_328NN
Listeria monocytogenes1188CP002003clade_328NCategory-B
Listeria welshimeri1189AM263198clade_328NOP
Capnocytophaga sp. oral clone484AY923149clade_333NN
ASCH05
Capnocytophaga sputigena489ABZV01000054clade_333NN
Leptotrichia genomosp. C11166AY278621clade_334NN
Leptotrichia shahii1169AY029806clade_334NN
Leptotrichia sp.1170AF189244clade_334NN
neutropenicPatient
Leptotrichia sp. oral clone GT0181171AY349384clade_334NN
Leptotrichia sp. oral clone GT0201172AY349385clade_334NN
Bacteroides sp. 20_3296ACRQ01000064clade_335NN
Bacteroides sp. 3_1_19307ADCJ01000062clade_335NN
Bacteroides sp. 3_2_5311ACIB01000079clade_335NN
Parabacteroides distasonis1416CP000140clade_335NN
Parabacteroides goldsteinii1417AY974070clade_335NN
Parabacteroides gordonii1418AB470344clade_335NN
Parabacteroides sp. D131421ACPW01000017clade_335NN
Capnocytophaga genomosp. C1477AY278613clade_336NN
Capnocytophaga ochracea480AEOH01000054clade_336NN
Capnocytophaga sp. GEJ8481GU561335clade_336NN
Capnocytophaga sp. oral strain486AY005077clade_336NN
A47ROY
Capnocytophaga sp. S1b482U42009clade_336NN
Paraprevotella clara1426AFFY01000068clade_336NN
Bacteroides heparinolyticus282JN867284clade_338NN
Prevotella heparinolytica1500GQ422742clade_338NN
Treponema genomosp. P4 oral clone1928DQ003618clade_339NN
MB2_G19
Treponema genomosp. P6 oral clone1930DQ003625clade_339NN
MB4_G11
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2541952GU408803clade_339NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 5081956GU413616clade_339NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 5181957GU413640clade_339NN
Chlamydia muridarum502AE002160clade_341NOP
Chlamydia trachomatis504U68443clade_341NOP
Chlamydia psittaci503NR_036864clade_342NCategory-B
Chlamydophila pneumoniae509NC_002179clade_342NOP
Chlamydophila psittaci510D85712clade_342NOP
Anaerococcus octavius146NR_026360clade_343NN
Anaerococcus sp. 8405254149HM587319clade_343NN
Anaerococcus sp. 9401487150HM587322clade_343NN
Anaerococcus sp. 9403502151HM587325clade_343NN
Gardnerella vaginalis923CP001849clade_344NN
Campylobacter lari466CP000932clade_346NOP
Anaerobiospirillum142NR_026075clade_347NN
succiniciproducens
Anaerobiospirillum thomasii143AJ420985clade_347NN
Ruminobacter amylophilus1654NR_026450clade_347NN
Succinatimonas hippei1897AEVO01000027clade_347NN
Actinomyces europaeus54NR_026363clade_348NN
Actinomyces sp. oral clone GU00982AY349361clade_348NN
Moraxella catarrhalis1260CP002005clade_349NN
Moraxella lincolnii1261FR822735clade_349NN
Moraxella sp. 162851263JF682466clade_349NN
Psychrobacter sp. 139831613HM212668clade_349NN
Actinobaculum massiliae49AF487679clade_350NN
Actinobaculum schaalii50AY957507clade_350NN
Actinobaculum sp. BM#10134251AY282578clade_350NN
Actinobaculum sp. P2P_19 P152AY207066clade_350NN
Actinomyces sp. oral clone IO07684AY349363clade_350NN
Actinomyces sp. oral taxon 84893ACUY01000072clade_350NN
Actinomyces neuii65X71862clade_352NN
Mobiluncus mulieris1252ACKW01000035clade_352NN
Blastomonas natatoria372NR_040824clade_356NN
Novosphingobium aromaticivorans1357AAAV03000008clade_356NN
Sphingomonas sp. oral clone FI0121745AY349411clade_356NN
Sphingopyxis alaskensis1749CP000356clade_356NN
Oxalobacter formigenes1389ACDQ01000020clade_357NN
Veillonella atypica1974AEDS01000059clade_358NN
Veillonella dispar1975ACIK02000021clade_358NN
Veillonella genomosp. P1 oral clone1976DQ003631clade_358NN
MB5_P17
Veillonella parvula1978ADFU01000009clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. 3_1_441979ADCV01000019clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. 6_1_271980ADCW01000016clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. ACP11981HQ616359clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. AS161982HQ616365clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. BS32b1983HQ616368clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. ICM51a1984HQ616396clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. MSA121985HQ616381clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. NVG 100cf1986EF108443clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. OK111987JN695650clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. oral clone ASCG011990AY923144clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. oral clone ASCG021991AY953257clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. oral clone OH1A1992AY947495clade_358NN
Veillonella sp. oral taxon 1581993AENU01000007clade_358NN
Kocuria marina1040GQ260086clade_365NN
Kocuria rhizophila1042AY030315clade_365NN
Kocuria rosea1043X87756clade_365NN
Kocuria varians1044AF542074clade_365NN
Clostridiaceae bacterium END_2531EF451053clade_368NN
Micrococcus antarcticus1242NR_025285clade_371NN
Micrococcus luteus1243NR_075062clade_371NN
Micrococcus lylae1244NR_026200clade_371NN
Micrococcus sp. 1851245EU714334clade_371NN
Lactobacillus brevis1072EU194349clade_372NN
Lactobacillus parabrevis1104NR_042456clade_372NN
Pediococcus acidilactici1436ACXB01000026clade_372NN
Pediococcus pentosaceus1437NR_075052clade_372NN
Lactobacillus dextrinicus1081NR_036861clade_373NN
Lactobacillus perolens1109NR_029360clade_373NN
Lactobacillus rhamnosus1113ABWJ01000068clade_373NN
Lactobacillus saniviri1118AB602569clade_373NN
Lactobacillus sp. BT61121HQ616370clade_373NN
Mycobacterium mageritense1282FR798914clade_374NOP
Mycobacterium neoaurum1286AF268445clade_374NOP
Mycobacterium smegmatis1291CP000480clade_374NOP
Mycobacterium sp. HE51304AJ012738clade_374NN
Dysgonomonas gadei775ADLV01000001clade_377NN
Dysgonomonas mossii776ADLW01000023clade_377NN
Porphyromonas levii1474NR_025907clade_377NN
Porphyromonas somerae1476AB547667clade_377NN
Bacteroides barnesiae267NR_041446clade_378NN
Bacteroides coprocola272ABIY02000050clade_378NN
Bacteroides coprophilus273ACBW01000012clade_378NN
Bacteroides dorei274ABWZ01000093clade_378NN
Bacteroides massiliensis284AB200226clade_378NN
Bacteroides plebeius289AB200218clade_378NN
Bacteroides sp. 3_1_33FAA309ACPS01000085clade_378NN
Bacteroides sp. 3_1_40A310ACRT01000136clade_378NN
Bacteroides sp. 4_3_47FAA313ACDR02000029clade_378NN
Bacteroides sp. 9_1_42FAA314ACAA01000096clade_378NN
Bacteroides sp. NB_8323AB117565clade_378NN
Bacteroides vulgatus331CP000139clade_378NN
Bacteroides ovatus287ACWH01000036clade_38NN
Bacteroides sp. 1_1_30294ADCL01000128clade_38NN
Bacteroides sp. 2_1_22297ACPQ01000117clade_38NN
Bacteroides sp. 2_2_4299ABZZ01000168clade_38NN
Bacteroides sp. 3_1_23308ACRS01000081clade_38NN
Bacteroides sp. D1318ACAB02000030clade_38NN
Bacteroides sp. D2321ACGA01000077clade_38NN
Bacteroides sp. D22320ADCK01000151clade_38NN
Bacteroides xylanisolvens332ADKP01000087clade_38NN
Treponema lecithinolyticum1931NR_026247clade_380NOP
Treponema parvum1933AF302937clade_380NOP
Treponema sp. oral clone JU0251940AY349417clade_380NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2701954GQ422733clade_380NN
Parascardovia denticolens1428ADEB01000020clade_381NN
Scardovia inopinata1688AB029087clade_381NN
Scardovia wiggsiae1689AY278626clade_381NN
Clostridiales bacterium 9400853533HM587320clade_384NN
Mogibacterium diversum1254NR_027191clade_384NN
Mogibacterium neglectum1255NR_027203clade_384NN
Mogibacterium pumilum1256NR_028608clade_384NN
Mogibacterium timidum1257Z36296clade_384NN
Borrelia burgdorferi389ABGI01000001clade_386NOP
Borrelia garinii392ABJV01000001clade_386NOP
Borrelia sp. NE49397AJ224142clade_386NOP
Caldimonas manganoxidans457NR_040787clade_387NN
Comamonadaceae bacterium oral667HM099651clade_387NN
taxon F47
Lautropia mirabilis1149AEQP01000026clade_387NN
Lautropia sp. oral clone AP0091150AY005030clade_387NN
Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus1441D14145clade_389NN
Peptoniphilus duerdenii1442EU526290clade_389NN
Peptoniphilus harei1443NR_026358clade_389NN
Peptoniphilus indolicus1444AY153431clade_389NN
Peptoniphilus lacrimalis1446ADDO01000050clade_389NN
Peptoniphilus sp. gpac0771450AM176527clade_389NN
Peptoniphilus sp. JC1401447JF824803clade_389NN
Peptoniphilus sp. oral taxon 3861452ADCS01000031clade_389NN
Peptoniphilus sp. oral taxon 8361453AEAA01000090clade_389NN
Peptostreptococcaceae bacterium1454JN837495clade_389NN
ph1
Dialister pneumosintes765HM596297clade_390NN
Dialister sp. oral taxon 502767GQ422739clade_390NN
Cupriavidus metallidurans741GU230889clade_391NN
Herbaspirillum seropedicae1001CP002039clade_391NN
Herbaspirillum sp. JC2061002JN657219clade_391NN
Janthinobacterium sp. SY121015EF455530clade_391NN
Massilia sp. CCUG 43427A1197FR773700clade_391NN
Ralstonia pickettii1615NC_010682clade_391NN
Ralstonia sp. 5_7_47FAA1616ACUF01000076clade_391NN
Francisella novicida889ABSS01000002clade_392NN
Francisella philomiragia890AY928394clade_392NN
Francisella tularensis891ABAZ01000082clade_392NCategory-A
Ignatzschineria indica1009HQ823562clade_392NN
Ignatzschineria sp. NML 95_02601010HQ823559clade_392NN
Streptococcus mutans1814AP010655clade_394NN
Lactobacillus gasseri1084ACOZ01000018clade_398NN
Lactobacillus hominis1090FR681902clade_398NN
Lactobacillus iners1091AEKJ01000002clade_398NN
Lactobacillus johnsonii1093AE017198clade_398NN
Lactobacillus senioris1119AB602570clade_398NN
Lactobacillus sp. oral clone HT0021135AY349382clade_398NN
Weissella beninensis2006EU439435clade_398NN
Sphingomonas echinoides1744NR_024700clade_399NN
Sphingomonas sp. oral taxon A091747HM099639clade_399NN
Sphingomonas sp. oral taxon F711748HM099645clade_399NN
Zymomonas mobilis2032NR_074274clade_399NN
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum174NR_025347clade_400NN
Arcanobacterium pyogenes175GU585578clade_400NN
Trueperella pyogenes1962NR_044858clade_400NN
Lactococcus garvieae1144AF061005clade_401NN
Lactococcus lactis1145CP002365clade_401NN
Brevibacterium mcbrellneri424ADNU01000076clade_402NN
Brevibacterium paucivorans425EU086796clade_402NN
Brevibacterium sp. JC43428JF824806clade_402NN
Selenomonas artemidis1692HM596274clade_403NN
Selenomonas sp. FOBRC91704HQ616378clade_403NN
Selenomonas sp. oral taxon 1371715AENV01000007clade_403NN
Desmospora activa751AM940019clade_404NN
Desmospora sp. 8437752AFHT01000143clade_404NN
Paenibacillus sp. oral taxon F451407HM099647clade_404NN
Corynebacterium ammoniagenes682ADNS01000011clade_405NN
Corynebacterium aurimucosum687ACLH01000041clade_405NN
Corynebacterium bovis688AF537590clade_405NN
Corynebacterium canis689GQ871934clade_405NN
Corynebacterium casei690NR_025101clade_405NN
Corynebacterium durum694Z97069clade_405NN
Corynebacterium efficiens695ACLI01000121clade_405NN
Corynebacterium falsenii696Y13024clade_405NN
Corynebacterium flavescens697NR_037040clade_405NN
Corynebacterium glutamicum701BA000036clade_405NN
Corynebacterium jeikeium704ACYW01000001clade_405NOP
Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii705NR_026380clade_405NN
Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum706ACHJ01000075clade_405NN
Corynebacterium matruchotii709ACSH02000003clade_405NN
Corynebacterium minutissimum710X82064clade_405NN
Corynebacterium resistens718ADGN01000058clade_405NN
Corynebacterium simulans720AF537604clade_405NN
Corynebacterium singulare721NR_026394clade_405NN
Corynebacterium sp. 1 ex sheep722Y13427clade_405NN
Corynebacterium sp. NML 99_0018726GU238413clade_405NN
Corynebacterium striatum727ACGE01000001clade_405NOP
Corynebacterium urealyticum732X81913clade_405NOP
Corynebacterium variabile734NR_025314clade_405NN
Aerococcus sanguinicola98AY837833clade_407NN
Aerococcus urinae99CP002512clade_407NN
Aerococcus urinaeequi100NR_043443clade_407NN
Aerococcus viridans101ADNT01000041clade_407NN
Fusobacterium naviforme898HQ223106clade_408NN
Moryella indoligenes1268AF527773clade_408NN
Selenomonas genomosp. P51697AY341820clade_410NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone IQ0481710AY349408clade_410NN
Selenomonas sputigena1717ACKP02000033clade_410NN
Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans1007AY468372clade_411NN
Methylocella silvestris1228NR_074237clade_411NN
Legionella pneumophila1153NC_002942clade_412NOP
Lactobacillus coryniformis1077NR_044705clade_413NN
Arthrobacter agilis178NR_026198clade_414NN
Arthrobacter arilaitensis179NR_074608clade_414NN
Arthrobacter bergerei180NR_025612clade_414NN
Arthrobacter globiformis181NR_026187clade_414NN
Arthrobacter nicotianae182NR_026190clade_414NN
Mycobacterium abscessus1269AGQU01000002clade_418NOP
Mycobacterium chelonae1273AB548610clade_418NOP
Bacteroides salanitronis291CP002530clade_419NN
Paraprevotella xylaniphila1427AFBR01000011clade_419NN
Barnesiella intestinihominis336AB370251clade_420NN
Barnesiella viscericola337NR_041508clade_420NN
Parabacteroides sp. NS31_31422JN029805clade_420NN
Porphyromonadaceae bacterium NML1470EF184292clade_420NN
060648
Tannerella forsythia1913CP003191clade_420NN
Tannerella sp. 6_1_58FAA_CT11914ACWX01000068clade_420NN
Mycoplasma amphoriforme1311AY531656clade_421NN
Mycoplasma genitalium1317L43967clade_421NN
Mycoplasma pneumoniae1322NC_000912clade_421NN
Mycoplasma penetrans1321NC_004432clade_422NN
Ureaplasma parvum1966AE002127clade_422NN
Ureaplasma urealyticum1967AAYN01000002clade_422NN
Treponema genomosp. P11927AY341822clade_425NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2281943GU408580clade_425NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2301944GU408603clade_425NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2311945GU408631clade_425NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2321946GU408646clade_425NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2351947GU408673clade_425NN
Treponema sp. ovine footrot1959AJ010951clade_425NN
Treponema vincentii1960ACYH01000036clade_425NOP
Burkholderiales bacterium 1_1_47452ADCQ01000066clade_432NOP
Parasutterella excrementihominis1429AFBP01000029clade_432NN
Parasutterella secunda1430AB491209clade_432NN
Sutterella morbirenis1898AJ832129clade_432NN
Sutterella sanguinus1900AJ748647clade_432NN
Sutterella sp. YIT 120721901AB491210clade_432NN
Sutterella stercoricanis1902NR_025600clade_432NN
Sutterella wadsworthensis1903ADMF01000048clade_432NN
Propionibacterium freudenreichii1572NR_036972clade_433NN
Propionibacterium sp. oral taxon1580GQ422728clade_433NN
192
Tessaracoccus sp. oral taxon F041917HM099640clade_433NN
Peptoniphilus ivorii1445Y07840clade_434NN
Peptoniphilus sp. gpac0071448AM176517clade_434NN
Peptoniphilus sp. gpac018A1449AM176519clade_434NN
Peptoniphilus sp. gpac1481451AM176535clade_434NN
Flexispira rappini887AY126479clade_436NN
Helicobacter bilis993ACDN01000023clade_436NN
Helicobacter cinaedi995ABQT01000054clade_436NN
Helicobacter sp. None998U44756clade_436NN
Brevundimonas subvibrioides429CP002102clade_438NN
Hyphomonas neptunium1008NR_074092clade_438NN
Phenylobacterium zucineum1465AY628697clade_438NN
Streptococcus downei1793AEKN01000002clade_441NN
Streptococcus sp. SHV5151848Y07601clade_441NN
Acinetobacter sp. CIP 53.8240JQ638584clade_443NN
Halomonas elongata990NR_074782clade_443NN
Halomonas johnsoniae991FR775979clade_443NN
Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens456U41172clade_444NN
Roseburia sp. 11SE371640FM954975clade_444NN
Roseburia sp. 11SE381641FM954976clade_444NN
Shuttleworthia satelles1728ACIP02000004clade_444NN
Shuttleworthia sp. MSX8B1729HQ616383clade_444NN
Shuttleworthia sp. oral taxon G691730GU432167clade_444NN
Bdellovibrio sp. MPA344AY294215clade_445NN
Desulfobulbus sp. oral clone CH031755AY005036clade_445NN
Desulfovibrio desulfuricans757DQ092636clade_445NN
Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis758U42221clade_445NN
Desulfovibrio piger759AF192152clade_445NN
Desulfovibrio sp. 3_1_syn3760ADDR01000239clade_445NN
Geobacter bemidjiensis941CP001124clade_445NN
Brachybacterium alimentarium401NR_026269clade_446NN
Brachybacterium conglomeratum402AB537169clade_446NN
Brachybacterium tyrofermentans403NR_026272clade_446NN
Dermabacter hominis749FJ263375clade_446NN
Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus171NR_029303clade_448NN
Brevibacillus agri409NR_040983clade_448NN
Brevibacillus centrosporus411NR_043414clade_448NN
Brevibacillus choshinensis412NR_040980clade_448NN
Brevibacillus invocatus413NR_041836clade_448NN
Brevibacillus parabrevis415NR_040981clade_448NN
Brevibacillus reuszeri416NR_040982clade_448NN
Brevibacillus sp. phR417JN837488clade_448NN
Brevibacillus thermoruber418NR_026514clade_448NN
Lactobacillus murinus1100NR_042231clade_449NN
Lactobacillus oeni1102NR_043095clade_449NN
Lactobacillus ruminis1115ACGS02000043clade_449NN
Lactobacillus vini1141NR_042196clade_449NN
Gemella haemolysans924ACDZ02000012clade_450NN
Gemella morbillorum925NR_025904clade_450NN
Gemella morbillorum926ACRX01000010clade_450NN
Gemella sanguinis927ACRY01000057clade_450NN
Gemella sp. oral clone ASCE02929AY923133clade_450NN
Gemella sp. oral clone ASCF04930AY923139clade_450NN
Gemella sp. oral clone ASCF12931AY923143clade_450NN
Gemella sp. WAL 1945J928EU427463clade_450NN
Sporolactobacillus nakayamae1753NR_042247clade_451NN
Gluconacetobacter entanii945NR_028909clade_452NN
Gluconacetobacter europaeus946NR_026513clade_452NN
Gluconacetobacter hansenii947NR_026133clade_452NN
Gluconacetobacter oboediens949NR_041295clade_452NN
Gluconacetobacter xylinus950NR_074338clade_452NN
Auritibacter ignavus193FN554542clade_453NN
Dermacoccus sp. Ellin185750AEIQ01000090clade_453NN
Janibacter limosus1013NR_026362clade_453NN
Janibacter melonis1014EF063716clade_453NN
Acetobacter aceti7NR_026121clade_454NN
Acetobacter fabarum8NR_042678clade_454NN
Acetobacter lovaniensis9NR_040832clade_454NN
Acetobacter malorum10NR_025513clade_454NN
Acetobacter orientalis11NR_028625clade_454NN
Acetobacter pasteurianus12NR_026107clade_454NN
Acetobacter pomorum13NR_042112clade_454NN
Acetobacter syzygii14NR_040868clade_454NN
Acetobacter tropicalis15NR_036881clade_454NN
Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans943NR_028767clade_454NN
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus944NR_074292clade_454NN
Gluconacetobacter johannae948NR_024959clade_454NN
Nocardia brasiliensis1351AIHV01000038clade_455NN
Nocardia cyriacigeorgica1352HQ009486clade_455NN
Nocardia puris1354NR_028994clade_455NN
Nocardia sp. 01_Je_0251355GU574059clade_455NN
Rhodococcus equi1623ADNW01000058clade_455NN
Oceanobacillus caeni1358NR_041533clade_456NN
Oceanobacillus sp. Ndiop1359CAER01000083clade_456NN
Ornithinibacillus bavariensis1384NR_044923clade_456NN
Ornithinibacillus sp. 7_10AIA1385FN397526clade_456NN
Virgibacillus proomii2005NR_025308clade_456NN
Corynebacterium amycolatum683ABZU01000033clade_457NOP
Corynebacterium hansenii702AM946639clade_457NN
Corynebacterium xerosis735FN179330clade_457NOP
Staphylococcaceae bacterium NML1756AY841362clade_458NN
92_0017
Staphylococcus fleurettii1766NR_041326clade_458NN
Staphylococcus sciuri1774NR_025520clade_458NN
Staphylococcus vitulinus1779NR_024670clade_458NN
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia1782AAVZ01000005clade_459NN
Stenotrophomonas sp. FG_61783EF017810clade_459NN
Mycobacterium africanum1270AF480605clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium alsiensis1271AJ938169clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium avium1272CP000479clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium colombiense1274AM062764clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium gordonae1276GU142930clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium intracellulare1277GQ153276clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium kansasii1278AF480601clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium lacus1279NR_025175clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium leprae1280FM211192clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium lepromatosis1281EU203590clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium mantenii1283FJ042897clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium marinum1284NC_010612clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium microti1285NR_025234clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum1287ADNV01000350clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium seoulense1290DQ536403clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium sp. 17611292EU703150clade_46NN
Mycobacterium sp. 17911295EU703148clade_46NN
Mycobacterium sp. 17971296EU703149clade_46NN
Mycobacterium sp. B10_07.09.02061298HQ174245clade_46NN
Mycobacterium sp. NLA0010007361305HM627011clade_46NN
Mycobacterium sp. W1306DQ437715clade_46NN
Mycobacterium tuberculosis1307CP001658clade_46NCategory-C
Mycobacterium ulcerans1308AB548725clade_46NOP
Mycobacterium vulneris1309EU834055clade_46NOP
Xanthomonas campestris2016EF101975clade_461NN
Xanthomonas sp. kmd_4892017EU723184clade_461NN
Dietzia natronolimnaea769GQ870426clade_462NN
Dietzia sp. BBDP51770DQ337512clade_462NN
Dietzia sp. CA149771GQ870422clade_462NN
Dietzia timorensis772GQ870424clade_462NN
Gordonia bronchialis951NR_027594clade_463NN
Gordonia polyisoprenivorans952DQ385609clade_463NN
Gordonia sp. KTR9953DQ068383clade_463NN
Gordonia sputi954FJ536304clade_463NN
Gordonia terrae955GQ848239clade_463NN
Leptotrichia goodfellowii1167ADAD01000110clade_465NN
Leptotrichia sp. oral clone IK0401174AY349387clade_465NN
Leptotrichia sp. oral clone1175AY207053clade_465NN
P2PB_51 P1
Bacteroidales genomosp. P7 oral264DQ003623clade_466NN
clone MB3_P19
Butyricimonas virosa454AB443949clade_466NN
Odoribacter laneus1363AB490805clade_466NN
Odoribacter splanchnicus1364CP002544clade_466NN
Capnocytophaga gingivalis478ACLQ01000011clade_467NN
Capnocytophaga granulosa479X97248clade_467NN
Capnocytophaga sp. oral clone483AY005074clade_467NN
AH015
Capnocytophaga sp. oral strain S3487AY005073clade_467NN
Capnocytophaga sp. oral taxon 338488AEXX01000050clade_467NN
Capnocytophaga canimorsus476CP002113clade_468NN
Capnocytophaga sp. oral clone485AY349368clade_468NN
ID062
Lactobacillus catenaformis1075M23729clade_469NN
Lactobacillus vitulinus1142NR_041305clade_469NN
Cetobacterium somerae501AJ438155clade_470NN
Fusobacterium gonidiaformans896ACET01000043clade_470NN
Fusobacterium mortiferum897ACDB02000034clade_470NN
Fusobacterium necrogenes899X55408clade_470NN
Fusobacterium necrophorum900AM905356clade_470NN
Fusobacterium sp. 12_1B905AGWJ01000070clade_470NN
Fusobacterium sp. 3_1_5R911ACDD01000078clade_470NN
Fusobacterium sp. D12918ACDG02000036clade_470NN
Fusobacterium ulcerans921ACDH01000090clade_470NN
Fusobacterium varium922ACIE01000009clade_470NN
Mycoplasma arthritidis1312NC_011025clade_473NN
Mycoplasma faucium1314NR_024983clade_473NN
Mycoplasma hominis1318AF443616clade_473NN
Mycoplasma orale1319AY796060clade_473NN
Mycoplasma salivarium1324M24661clade_473NN
Mitsuokella jalaludinii1247NR_028840clade_474NN
Mitsuokella multacida1248ABWK02000005clade_474NN
Mitsuokella sp. oral taxon 5211249GU413658clade_474NN
Mitsuokella sp. oral taxon G681250GU432166clade_474NN
Selenomonas genomosp. C11695AY278627clade_474NN
Selenomonas genomosp. P8 oral1700DQ003628clade_474NN
clone MB5_P06
Selenomonas ruminantium1703NR_075026clade_474NN
Veillonellaceae bacterium oral1994GU402916clade_474NN
taxon 131
Alloscardovia omnicolens139NR_042583clade_475NN
Alloscardovia sp. OB7196140AB425070clade_475NN
Bifidobacterium urinalis366AJ278695clade_475NN
Prevotella loescheii1503JN867231clade_48NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone ASCG121530DQ272511clade_48NN
Prevotella sp. oral clone GU0271540AY349398clade_48NN
Prevotella sp. oral taxon 4721553ACZS01000106clade_48NN
Selenomonas dianae1693GQ422719clade_480NN
Selenomonas flueggei1694AF287803clade_480NN
Selenomonas genomosp. C21696AY278628clade_480NN
Selenomonas genomosp. P6 oral1698DQ003636clade_480NN
clone MB3_C41
Selenomonas genomosp. P7 oral1699DQ003627clade_480NN
clone MB5_C08
Selenomonas infelix1701AF287802clade_480NN
Selenomonas noxia1702GU470909clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone FT0501705AY349403clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone GI0641706AY349404clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone GT0101707AY349405clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone HU0511708AY349406clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone IK0041709AY349407clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone JI0211711AY349409clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone JS0311712AY349410clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone OH4A1713AY947498clade_480NN
Selenomonas sp. oral clone1714AY207052clade_480NN
P2PA_80 P4
Selenomonas sp. oral taxon 1491716AEEJ01000007clade_480NN
Veillonellaceae bacterium oral1995GU470897clade_480NN
taxon 155
Agrococcus jenensis117NR_026275clade_484NN
Microbacterium gubbeenense1232NR_025098clade_484NN
Pseudoclavibacter sp. Timone1590FJ375951clade_484NN
Tropheryma whipplei1961BX251412clade_484NN
Zimmermannella bifida2031AB012592clade_484NN
Legionella hackeliae1151M36028clade_486NOP
Legionella longbeachae1152M36029clade_486NOP
Legionella sp. D39231154JN380999clade_486NOP
Legionella sp. D40881155JN381012clade_486NOP
Legionella sp. H631156JF831047clade_486NOP
Legionella sp. NML 93L0541157GU062706clade_486NOP
Legionella steelei1158HQ398202clade_486NOP
Tatlockia micdadei1915M36032clade_486NN
Helicobacter pullorum996ABQU01000097clade_489NN
Acetobacteraceae bacterium16AGEZ01000040clade_490NN
AT_5844
Roseomonas cervicalis1643ADVL01000363clade_490NN
Roseomonas mucosa1644NR_028857clade_490NN
Roseomonas sp. NML94_01931645AF533357clade_490NN
Roseomonas sp. NML97_01211646AF533359clade_490NN
Roseomonas sp. NML98_00091647AF533358clade_490NN
Roseomonas sp. NML98_01571648AF533360clade_490NN
Rickettsia akari1627CP000847clade_492NOP
Rickettsia conorii1628AE008647clade_492NOP
Rickettsia prowazekii1629M21789clade_492NCategory-B
Rickettsia rickettsii1630NC_010263clade_492NOP
Rickettsia slovaca1631L36224clade_492NOP
Rickettsia typhi1632AE017197clade_492NOP
Anaeroglobus geminatus160AGCJ01000054clade_493NN
Megasphaera genomosp. C11201AY278622clade_493NN
Megasphaera micronuciformis1203AECS01000020clade_493NN
Clostridiales genomosp. BVAB3540CP001850clade_495NN
Tsukamurella paurometabola1963X80628clade_496NN
Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens1964AB478958clade_496NN
Abiotrophia para_adiacens2AB022027clade_497NN
Carnobacterium divergens492NR_044706clade_497NN
Carnobacterium maltaromaticum493NC_019425clade_497NN
Enterococcus avium800AF133535clade_497NN
Enterococcus caccae801AY943820clade_497NN
Enterococcus casseliflavus802AEWT01000047clade_497NN
Enterococcus durans803AJ276354clade_497NN
Enterococcus faecalis804AE016830clade_497NN
Enterococcus faecium805AM157434clade_497NN
Enterococcus gallinarum806AB269767clade_497NN
Enterococcus gilvus807AY033814clade_497NN
Enterococcus hawaiiensis808AY321377clade_497NN
Enterococcus hirae809AF061011clade_497NN
Enterococcus italicus810AEPV01000109clade_497NN
Enterococcus mundtii811NR_024906clade_497NN
Enterococcus raffinosus812FN600541clade_497NN
Enterococcus sp. BV2CASA2813JN809766clade_497NN
Enterococcus sp. CCRI_16620814GU457263clade_497NN
Enterococcus sp. F95815FJ463817clade_497NN
Enterococcus sp. RfL6816AJ133478clade_497NN
Enterococcus thailandicus817AY321376clade_497NN
Fusobacterium canifelinum893AY162222clade_497NN
Fusobacterium genomosp. C1894AY278616clade_497NN
Fusobacterium genomosp. C2895AY278617clade_497NN
Fusobacterium periodonticum902ACJY01000002clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. 1_1_41FAA906ADGG01000053clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. 11_3_2904ACUO01000052clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. 2_1_31907ACDC02000018clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. 3_1_27908ADGF01000045clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. 3_1_33909ACQE01000178clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. 3_1_36A2910ACPU01000044clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. AC18912HQ616357clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. ACB2913HQ616358clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. AS2914HQ616361clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. CM1915HQ616371clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. CM21916HQ616375clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. CM22917HQ616376clade_497NN
Fusobacterium sp. oral clone919AY923141clade_497NN
ASCF06
Fusobacterium sp. oral clone920AY953256clade_497NN
ASCF11
Granulicatella adiacens959ACKZ01000002clade_497NN
Granulicatella elegans960AB252689clade_497NN
Granulicatella paradiacens961AY879298clade_497NN
Granulicatella sp. oral clone963AY923126clade_497NN
ASC02
Granulicatella sp. oral clone964DQ341469clade_497NN
ASCA05
Granulicatella sp. oral clone965AY953251clade_497NN
ASCB09
Granulicatella sp. oral clone966AY923146clade_497NN
ASCG05
Tetragenococcus halophilus1918NR_075020clade_497NN
Tetragenococcus koreensis1919NR_043113clade_497NN
Vagococcus fluvialis1973NR_026489clade_497NN
Chryseobacterium anthropi514AM982793clade_498NN
Chryseobacterium gleum515ACKQ02000003clade_498NN
Chryseobacterium hominis516NR_042517clade_498NN
Treponema refringens1936AF426101clade_499NOP
Treponema sp. oral clone JU0311941AY349416clade_499NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2391948GU408738clade_499NN
Treponema sp. oral taxon 2711955GU408871clade_499NN
Alistipes finegoldii129NR_043064clade_500NN
Alistipes onderdonkii131NR_043318clade_500NN
Alistipes putredinis132ABFK02000017clade_500NN
Alistipes shahii133FP929032clade_500NN
Alistipes sp. HGB5134AENZ01000082clade_500NN
Alistipes sp. JC50135JF824804clade_500NN
Alistipes sp. RMA 9912136GQ140629clade_500NN
Mycoplasma agalactiae1310AF010477clade_501NN
Mycoplasma bovoculi1313NR_025987clade_501NN
Mycoplasma fermentans1315CP002458clade_501NN
Mycoplasma flocculare1316X62699clade_501NN
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae1320NR_025989clade_501NN
Arcobacter butzleri176AEPT01000071clade_502NN
Arcobacter cryaerophilus177NR_025905clade_502NN
Campylobacter curvus461NC_009715clade_502NOP
Campylobacter rectus467ACFU01000050clade_502NOP
Campylobacter showae468ACVQ01000030clade_502NOP
Campylobacter sp. FOBRC14469HQ616379clade_502NOP
Campylobacter sp. FOBRC15470HQ616380clade_502NOP
Campylobacter sp. oral clone471AY005038clade_502NOP
BB120
Campylobacter sputorum472NR_044839clade_502NOP
Bacteroides ureolyticus330GQ167666clade_504NN
Campylobacter gracilis463ACYG01000026clade_504NOP
Campylobacter hominis464NC_009714clade_504NOP
Dialister invisus762ACIM02000001clade_506NN
Dialister micraerophilus763AFBB01000028clade_506NN
Dialister microaerophilus764AENT01000008clade_506NN
Dialister propionicifaciens766NR_043231clade_506NN
Dialister succinatiphilus768AB370249clade_506NN
Megasphaera elsdenii1200AY038996clade_506NN
Megasphaera genomosp. type_11202ADGP01000010clade_506NN
Megasphaera sp. BLPYG_071204HM990964clade_506NN
Megasphaera sp. UPII 199_61205AFIJ01000040clade_506NN
Chromobacterium violaceum513NC_005085clade_507NN
Laribacter hongkongensis1148CP001154clade_507NN
Methylophilus sp. ECd51229AY436794clade_507NN
Finegoldia magna883ACHM02000001clade_509NN
Parvimonas micra1431AB729072clade_509NN
Parvimonas sp. oral taxon 1101432AFII01000002clade_509NN
Peptostreptococcus micros1456AM176538clade_509NN
Peptostreptococcus sp. oral clone1460AY349390clade_509NN
FJ023
Peptostreptococcus sp. P4P_31 P31458AY207059clade_509NN
Helicobacter pylori997CP000012clade_510NOP
Anaplasma marginale165ABOR01000019clade_511NN
Anaplasma phagocytophilum166NC_007797clade_511NN
Ehrlichia chaffeensis783AAIF01000035clade_511NOP
Neorickettsia risticii1349CP001431clade_511NN
Neorickettsia sennetsu1350NC_007798clade_511NN
Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus1606AB036759clade_512NN
Veillonella montpellierensis1977AF473836clade_513NN
Veillonella sp. oral clone ASCA081988AY923118clade_513NN
Veillonella sp. oral clone ASCB031989AY923122clade_513NN
Inquilinus limosus1012NR_029046clade_514NN
Sphingomonas sp. oral clone FZ0161746AY349412clade_514NN
Anaerococcus lactolyticus145ABYO01000217clade_515NN
Anaerococcus prevotii147CP001708clade_515NN
Anaerococcus sp. gpac104152AM176528clade_515NN
Anaerococcus sp. gpac126153AM176530clade_515NN
Anaerococcus sp. gpac155154AM176536clade_515NN
Anaerococcus sp. gpac199155AM176539clade_515NN
Anaerococcus tetradius157ACGC01000107clade_515NN
Bacteroides coagulans271AB547639clade_515NN
Clostridiales bacterium 9403326534HM587324clade_515NN
Clostridiales bacterium ph2539JN837487clade_515NN
Peptostreptococcus sp. 9succ11457X90471clade_515NN
Peptostreptococcus sp. oral clone1459AB175072clade_515NN
AP24
Tissierella praeacuta1924NR_044860clade_515NN
Helicobacter canadensis994ABQS01000108clade_518NN
Peptostreptococcus anaerobius1455AY326462clade_520NN
Peptostreptococcus stomatis1461ADGQ01000048clade_520NN
Bilophila wadsworthia367ADCP01000166clade_521NN
Desulfovibrio vulgaris761NR_074897clade_521NN
Actinomyces nasicola64AJ508455clade_523NN
Cellulosimicrobium funkei500AY501364clade_523NN
Lactococcus raffinolactis1146NR_044359clade_524NN
Bacteroidales genomosp. P1258AY341819clade_529NN
Bacteroidales genomosp. P2 oral259DQ003613clade_529NN
clone MB1_G13
Bacteroidales genomosp. P3 oral260DQ003615clade_529NN
clone MB1_G34
Bacteroidales genomosp. P4 oral261DQ003617clade_529NN
clone MB2_G17
Bacteroidales genomosp. P5 oral262DQ003619clade_529NN
clone MB2_P04
Bacteroidales genomosp. P6 oral263DQ003634clade_529NN
clone MB3_C19
Bacteroidales genomosp. P8 oral265DQ003626clade_529NN
clone MB4_G15
Bacteroidetes bacterium oral taxon333HM099638clade_530NN
D27
Bacteroidetes bacterium oral taxon334HM099643clade_530NN
F31
Bacteroidetes bacterium oral taxon335HM099649clade_530NN
F44
Flavobacterium sp. NF2_1885FJ195988clade_530NN
Myroides odoratimimus