Title:
WING DIAMOND FOUNDATION
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A foundation including first and second wings, each including first and second wing portions and a bent portion. The first and second wing portions and the bent portion, of each of the first and second wings, are made of a single sheet of metal. The first wing portions of the first and second wings are connected to each other. The second wing portions of the first and second wings are connected to each other. The bent portions of the first and second wings are spaced apart from each other.



Inventors:
Pope, Michael M. (Carnegie, PA, US)
Application Number:
14/683479
Publication Date:
06/16/2016
Filing Date:
04/10/2015
Assignee:
New Generation Steel Foundations, LLC (Carnegie, PA, US)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E02D27/12; E02D5/22; E02D5/28
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
MAESTRI, PATRICK J
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
H.C. PARK & ASSOCIATES, PLC (RESTON, VA, US)
Claims:
1. A foundation, comprising: first and second wings, each comprising: first and second wing portions; and a bent portion; wherein: the first and second wing portions and the bent portion, of each of the first and second wings, comprise a single sheet of metal; the entire first wing portions of the first and second wings are connected to each other, the first wing portions extending from a first distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; the entire second wing portions of the first and second wings are connected to each other, the second wing portions extending from a second distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; and the bent portions of the first and second wings are spaced apart from each other to form a diamond-shaped channel comprising at least one open end.

2. (canceled)

3. The foundation of claim 1, wherein the bent portions are respectively disposed between the first and second wing portions of each of the first and second wings along a horizontal direction.

4. The foundation of claim 3, wherein the bent portions of each of the first and second wings comprise first and second bent portions joined at lines extending in a vertical direction.

5. The foundation of claim 4, wherein the first and second wing portions of each of the first and second wings are substantially planar and extend in a vertical direction.

6. The foundation of claim 5, wherein: the first and second bent portions of the first wing are joined together at a first side of a vertical line extending parallel to the first and second wings; and the first and second bent portion of the second wing are joined together at a second side of a vertical line extending parallel to the first and second wings.

7. The foundation of claim 6, wherein: the first and second bent portions of the first and second wings are each substantially planar.

8. A foundation, comprising: first, second, and third wings, each comprising: first and second wing portions; and a bent portion; wherein: the first and second wing portions and the bent portion, of each of the first, second, and third wings, comprise a single sheet of metal; the entire first wing portion of the first wing is connected to the entire second wing portion of the third wing and extends from a first distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; the entire second wing portion of the first wing is connected to the entire first wing portion of the second wing and extends from a second distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; the entire second wing portion of the second wing is connected to the entire first wing portion of the third wing and extends from a third distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; and the bent portions of the first, second, and third wings are spaced apart from each other to form a triangle-shaped channel comprising at least one open end.

9. (canceled)

10. The foundation of claim 8, wherein: the first and second wing portions of each of the first, second, and third wings are substantially planar and extend in a vertical direction; and the bent portions are respectively disposed between the first and second wing portions of each of the first, second, and third wings along a horizontal direction.

11. The foundation of claim 10, wherein: the bent portions of the first, second, and third wings are each substantially planar.

12. A foundation, comprising: first, second, third, and fourth wings, each comprising: first and second wing portions; and a bent portion; wherein: the first and second wing portions and the bent portion, of each of the first, second, third, and fourth wings, comprise a single sheet of metal; the entire first wing portion of the first wing is connected to the entire second wing portion of the fourth wing and extends from a first distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; the entire second wing portion of the first wing is connected to the entire first wing portion of the second wing and extends from a second distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; the entire second wing portion of the second wing is connected to the entire first wing portion of the third wing and extends from a third distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; the entire second wing portion of the third wing is connected to the entire first wing portion of the fourth wing and extends from a fourth distal end of the foundation to the bent portions; and the bent portions of the first, second, third, and fourth wings are spaced apart from each other to form a diamond-shaped channel comprising at least one open end.

13. (canceled)

14. The foundation of claim 12, wherein: the first and second wing portions of each of the first, second, third, and fourth wings are substantially planar and extend in a vertical direction; and the bent portions are respectively disposed between the first and second wing portions of each of the first, second, third, and fourth wings along a horizontal direction.

15. The foundation of claim 14, wherein: the bent portions of the first, second, third, and fourth wings are each substantially planar.

16. The foundation of claim 1, further comprising connectors, wherein the connectors connect the first and second wing portions of the first and second wings to each other.

17. A foundation, comprising: first and second wings, each comprising: first and second wing portions; and a bent portion; connectors connecting the first and second wing portions of the first and second wings to each other; and a base plate disposed on and covering each top edge of each bent portion of the first and second wings, wherein: the first and second wing portions and the bent portion, of each of the first and second wings, comprise a single sheet of metal; the bent portions of the first and second wings are spaced apart from each other to form a diamond-shaped channel; and the base plate covers the diamond-shaped channel and comprises a mounting surface configured to have a device attached thereto.

18. The foundation of claim 17, wherein: the first and second wing portions of each of the first and second wings are substantially planar and extend in a first direction; the bent portions are respectively disposed between the first and second wing portions of each of the first and second wings along a second direction; and the base plate extends in a third direction perpendicular to the first direction.

19. The foundation of claim 18, wherein the base plate comprises: a top plate disposed on the top edges of each bent portion of the first and second wings, the top plate extending in the third direction perpendicular to the first direction; and angle portions connected to the top plate and the bent portions of the first and second wings.

20. (canceled)

21. The foundation of claim 1, wherein the first and second wings and the at least one open end of the diamond-shaped channel are configured to be inserted into the ground.

22. The foundation of claim 1, further comprising a base plate disposed on and covering: each top edge of each bent portion of the first and second wings; and the diamond-shaped channel.

23. The foundation of claim 8, wherein the first, second, and third wings and the at least one open end of the triangle-shaped channel are configured to be inserted into the ground.

24. The foundation of claim 8, further comprising a base plate disposed on and covering: each top edge of each bent portion of the first, second, and third wings; and the triangle-shaped channel.

25. The foundation of claim 12, wherein the first, second, third, and fourth wings and the at least one open end of the diamond-shaped channel are configured to be inserted into the ground.

26. The foundation of claim 12, further comprising a base plate disposed on and covering: each top edge of each bent portion of the first, second, third, and fourth wings; and the diamond-shaped channel.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/092,374, filed on Dec. 16, 2014, which is hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes as if fully set forth herein.

BACKGROUND

1. Field

Exemplary embodiments of the present invention relate to a foundation and method of fabricating and using the same. In particular, exemplary embodiments of the present invention relate to metal plates that are bent and bolted together, which can then be inserted into the ground and used as a foundation.

2. Discussion of the Background

Conventionally, various types of structural loads may be supported through the use of foundations inserted into the ground. Foundations may be used to support communication towers, transmission and utility poles, roadway signs, retaining and sound walls, and the like. Foundations may be subject to four testing forces comprising compression, uplift, lateral, and torsional. The effect of the testing forces may be understood by moment and shear stress calculations deduced by measuring deflection, rotation, settlement, and uplift of the foundation. Foundations may be subject to shear and bending stresses to measure settlement, uplift, rotation, and deflection before installation.

One type of foundation is a concrete caisson, where a hole is drilled in the ground and cast concrete fills the drilled hole. Structural reinforcement, such as steel rebar, may be disposed in the concrete. However, there are some disadvantages to concrete caissons, such as associated construction costs. For instance, it may be necessary to build roads leading to the installation site for the caisson so a truck can pour concrete therein. Construction costs may quickly escalate since multiple trucks carrying concrete may be needed to fill a single caisson. Further costs and time delays associated with caisson formation may be from rebar, rebar piers, machinery such as excavators, front loaders, and cranes, fuel, grounding wire, and labor.

There may also be a lengthy construction period for forming concrete caissons, including site selection, equipment deployment, hole excavation and dewatering, rebar installation, and concrete pouring. Concrete caissons may require strength testing between 14 and 28 days, and only after the concrete has set may the top load then be installed. There is also the potential for delays due to weather, further increasing the construction period.

Displacement pile foundations, which may be made of steel or other metal, may be used instead of concrete caissons. However, conventional displacement pile foundations may not be suitable for accommodating loads subject to the forces mentioned above, without requiring specialized structures that may make them large and expensive. One type of displacement pile foundation is disclosed in WO 2013/044125, where plates are welded to each other to form fins extending from a center point. However, there are structural drawbacks to using welding in pile foundations, such as when the foundation is installed in the ground, because if the welded foundation hits rock or other obstruction, structural integrity of the welds themselves may be compromised. Also, welding may have a negative impact on the environment and human health. Welding can produce carbon monoxide, hydrogen fluoride, and nitrogen oxide, exposure to which may affect the brain, nervous system, and other organs, on both a short and long term basis.

Another type of displacement pile foundation is the metal fin pipe foundation, such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Pub. No. 2005/0232707, where metal fins are welded to a central metal tube or pipe. However, the metal fin pipe foundation may require the ground into which the foundation is to be installed to be pre-drilled, adding time and cost to the installation process.

Foundations may be galvanized in order to protect them from oxidation and rust. In foundations that are welded, the galvanization may be done after welding. If welding is performed after galvanization, the welding process may harm the zinc plating applied previously during galvanization and decrease the effectiveness thereof. However, if welding is performed prior to galvanization, then the metal fin pipe foundation may either need to be pre-formed before transportation to the installation site, or otherwise the galvanization and welding materials may be brought to the installation site to fabricate the metal fin pipe foundation on-site. In either instance, the cost and complexity of fabricating and installing the metal fin pipe foundation may be undesirably increased.

The above information disclosed in this Background section is only for enhancement of understanding of the background of the inventive concept and therefore it may contain information that does not form any part of the prior art nor what the prior art may suggest to a person of ordinary skill in the art.

SUMMARY

Exemplary embodiments of the present invention provide a foundation including wings each made of a single metal sheet and that are connected together, and having a gap between the wings forming a diamond or triangle shape.

Additional features of the inventive concept will be set forth in the description which follows, and in part will be apparent from the description, or may be learned by practice of the inventive concept.

An exemplary embodiment of the present invention discloses a foundation including first and second wings, each having first and second wing portions and a bent portion. The first and second wing portions and the bent portion, of each of the first and second wings, is made of a single sheet of metal. The first wing portions of the first and second wings are connected to each other and the second wing portions of the first and second wings are connected to each other. The bent portions of the first and second wings are spaced apart from each other.

An exemplary embodiment of the present invention also discloses a foundation including first and second wings, each having first and second wing portions and a bent portion, connectors connecting the first and second wing portions of the first and second wings to each other, and a base portion disposed on an edge of each of the first and second wings. The first and second wing portions and the bent portion, of each of the first and second wings, is made of a single sheet of metal. The bent portions of the first and second wings are spaced apart from each other.

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory and are intended to provide further explanation of the inventive concept as claimed.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the inventive concept, and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate exemplary embodiments of the inventive concept, and, together with the description, serve to explain principles of the inventive concept.

FIG. 1A illustrates a perspective view of a two-wing diamond foundation according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 1B illustrates a perspective view of one wing of the two-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 1A.

FIGS. 2A and 2B illustrate cross-sectional views of one wing of the two-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 1B, taken along line I-I′.

FIG. 3 illustrates a side view of the two-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 1A.

FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the two-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 3, taken along line II-II′.

FIG. 5A illustrates a perspective view of a two-wing diamond foundation including a base plate according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5B illustrates an enlarged portion of the two-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 5A including the base plate.

FIG. 6 illustrates a top view of the base plate of FIG. 5A.

FIG. 7 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the base plate of FIG. 6 including a bolt hole, taken along line III-III′.

FIG. 8 illustrates a bottom view of the two-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 5A.

FIG. 9A illustrates a perspective view of a three-wing diamond foundation according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 9B illustrates an enlarged view of a top portion of the three-wing diamond of FIG. 9A.

FIG. 10 illustrates a top view of the base plate of FIG. 9A.

FIG. 11 illustrates a bottom view of the three-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 9A.

FIG. 12 illustrates a cross-sectional view of one wing of the three-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 9A, taken along line IV-IV′, and an angle iron.

FIG. 13 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the three-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 9A, taken along line IV-IV′.

FIG. 14 illustrates cross-sectional views of one wing of the three-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 9A, taken along line IV-IV′.

FIG. 15 illustrates a side view of a bent plate of one wing of the three-wing diamond foundation according to the present exemplary embodiment.

FIG. 16A illustrates a side view of a flat plate of one wing of the three-wing diamond foundation according to the present exemplary embodiment.

FIGS. 16B and 16C illustrate enlarged views of top and bottom sections of the three-wing diamond of FIG. 16A, respectively.

FIG. 17A illustrates a perspective view of a four-wing diamond foundation according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 17B illustrates an enlarged view of a top portion of the four-wing diamond of FIG. 17A.

FIG. 18 illustrates a top view of the base plate of FIG. 17A.

FIG. 19 illustrates a bottom view of the four-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 17A.

FIG. 20 illustrates a cross-sectional view of one wing of the four-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 17A, taken along line V-V′, an angle iron, and a side view of the one wing of the four-wing diamond foundation.

FIG. 21 illustrates an enlarged front view and a side view of the angle iron of FIG. 20.

FIG. 22 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the four-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 17A, taken along line V-V′.

FIG. 23 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a four-wing diamond foundation according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, including a mid-support system.

FIG. 24 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the individual pieces of the four-wing diamond and mid-support system of FIG. 23.

FIG. 25 illustrates side views of the first and second reinforcing plates and one of the connection angles of the mid-support system of FIG. 23.

FIG. 26 shows one wing of the four-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 17A or 23, having a bent plate.

FIG. 27 illustrates cross-sectional and side views of one wing of the four-wing diamond foundation of FIG. 17A or 23, having a flat, unbent plate.

FIG. 28 illustrates an enlarged view of a top section of the four-wing diamond of FIG. 27.

FIG. 29 illustrates graphs showing stress calculations measured at various depths of a three-wing diamond foundation according to an experimental example.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS

In the following description, for the purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of various exemplary embodiments. It is apparent, however, that various exemplary embodiments may be practiced without these specific details or with one or more equivalent arrangements. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to avoid unnecessarily obscuring various exemplary embodiments.

In the accompanying figures, the size and relative sizes of layers, films, panels, regions, etc., may be exaggerated for clarity and descriptive purposes. Also, like reference numerals denote like elements.

When an element or layer is referred to as being “on,” “connected to,” or “coupled to” another element or layer, it may be directly on, connected to, or coupled to the other element or layer or intervening elements or layers may be present. When, however, an element or layer is referred to as being “directly on,” “directly connected to,” or “directly coupled to” another element or layer, there are no intervening elements or layers present. For the purposes of this disclosure, “at least one of X, Y, and Z” and “at least one selected from the group consisting of X, Y, and Z” may be construed as X only, Y only, Z only, or any combination of two or more of X, Y, and Z, such as, for instance, XYZ, XYY, YZ, and ZZ. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout. As used herein, the term “and/or” includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items.

Although the terms first, second, etc. may be used herein to describe various elements, components, regions, layers, and/or sections, these elements, components, regions, layers, and/or sections should not be limited by these terms. These terms are used to distinguish one element, component, region, layer, and/or section from another element, component, region, layer, and/or section. Thus, a first element, component, region, layer, and/or section discussed below could be termed a second element, component, region, layer, and/or section without departing from the teachings of the present disclosure.

Spatially relative terms, such as “beneath,” “below,” “lower,” “above,” “upper,” and the like, may be used herein for descriptive purposes, and, thereby, to describe one element or feature's relationship to another element(s) or feature(s) as illustrated in the drawings. Spatially relative terms are intended to encompass different orientations of an apparatus in use, operation, and/or manufacture in addition to the orientation depicted in the drawings. For example, if the apparatus in the drawings is turned over, elements described as “below” or “beneath” other elements or features would then be oriented “above” the other elements or features. Thus, the exemplary term “below” can encompass both an orientation of above and below. Furthermore, the apparatus may be otherwise oriented (e.g., rotated 90 degrees or at other orientations), and, as such, the spatially relative descriptors used herein interpreted accordingly.

The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments and is not intended to be limiting. As used herein, the singular forms, “a,” “an,” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. Moreover, the terms “comprises,” “comprising,” “includes,” and/or “including,” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.

Various exemplary embodiments are described herein with reference to sectional illustrations that are schematic illustrations of idealized exemplary embodiments and/or intermediate structures. As such, variations from the shapes of the illustrations as a result, for example, of manufacturing techniques and/or tolerances, are to be expected. Thus, exemplary embodiments disclosed herein should not be construed as limited to the particular illustrated shapes of regions, but are to include deviations in shapes that result from, for instance, manufacturing. Thus, the regions illustrated in the drawings are schematic in nature and their shapes are not intended to illustrate the actual shape of a region of a device and are not intended to be limiting.

Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure is a part. Terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the relevant art and will not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense, unless expressly so defined herein.

FIG. 1A-FIG. 8 illustrate a wing diamond foundation according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The wing diamond foundation according to the present exemplary embodiment may be referred to as a two-wing diamond foundation, since there are two wings comprising the wing diamond foundation.

FIG. 1A illustrates a perspective view of the two-wing diamond foundation 10 according to the present exemplary embodiment. The two-wing diamond foundation 10 includes a first wing 100 and a second wing 200. The wings 100 and 200 may be made of galvanized steel or other metal suitable for permanent installation into the ground. Each wing 100 and 200 may be formed through any process that can create each single metal sheet template having the proper dimensions. The final wing form is fabricated by placing the template in a brake and bending at appropriate angles.

According to the present exemplary embodiment, the first and second wings 100 and 200 are formed to be substantially symmetrical. By forming each wing to be symmetrical, it is possible to utilize economies of scale. Also, symmetrical wings that have not yet been assembled into the two-wing diamond foundation 10 may be easily transported to a construction site, since the wings may be stacked on each other.

The first and second wings 100 and 200 each have holes 300 disposed therein, and the first and second wings 100 and 200 may be connected together using connectors (not shown) disposed through the holes 300. Although not shown, the entire first and second wings 100 and 200 may contain the holes 300. The connectors may include mechanical fasteners such as bolts, rivets, clips, studs, and clamps. That is, the first and second wings 100 and 200 are not welded together since connectors are used instead. Further, only two pieces of metal (excluding connectors) are required to form the two-wing diamond foundation 10, thus reducing the amount of work necessary to form the foundation compared to the conventional art.

The two-wing diamond foundation 10 having first and second wings 100 and 200 that are connected using the connectors may also have improved strength compared to conventional metal fin pipe foundations. Bolts, such as A325 galvanized steel, may generally have a 3:1 ratio of strength compared to a weld, so it is more difficult to break a bolt than a weld. The welds in a metal fin pipe foundation may be formed only along the connection point between each fin and the center pipe. However, the connectors may be spaced along the metal wings to connect them together. The two-wing diamond foundation 10 according to the present exemplary embodiment may be held together by at least one connector on either side of the diamond portion of the foundation, in the width direction.

When torsional, compression, lateral, and uplift forces act upon the metal fin pipe foundation, stresses may be focused on the welds. Since the two-wing diamond foundation 10 according to the present exemplary embodiment has first and second wings 100 and 200 that are made of a continuous piece of metal across the device, torsional, compression, uplift, and lateral forces may be dispersed along the wings and the diamond portion of the foundation. Further, because the first and second wings 100 and 200 have a large overlapping surface area, the two-wing diamond foundation 10 may be able to withstand substantially greater torsional, compression, uplift, and lateral forces than a conventional metal fin pipe foundation without incurring structural damage thereto. Forces acting on one wing are dispersed into the other wing, and into the diamond portion of the foundation. The metal, such as A50 steel, comprising the wings also doubles in thickness along the wings, further increasing resistance to torsional, compression, uplift, and lateral forces.

Since the two-wing diamond foundation 10 is designed to be installed in the ground, there is friction between the installed foundation and the ground surrounding it. Thus, downward axial and uplift forces are countered by friction plus the weight of the foundation, preventing the foundation from being pushed in or pulled out of the ground. Further, since the first and second wings 100 and 200 may have a large surface area, friction with the ground may be increased.

FIG. 1B illustrates a perspective view of the first wing 100 of the two-wing diamond foundation 10 according to the present exemplary embodiment. The first wing 100 includes a first wing portion 110, a second wing portion 120, a first bent portion 130, and a second bent portion 140. The first wing 100 also has a tapered portion, which helps the first wing 100 penetrate the ground. As will be described in greater detail below, when the second wing 200 is connected to the first wing 100, the first and second wing portions of each first and second wings 100 and 200 contact each other, while a gap is formed between the first and second bent portions of each first and second wings 100 and 200. The first and second bent portions of each first and second wings 100 and 200 together form a diamond shape.

FIGS. 2A and 2B illustrate cross-sectional views of the first wing 100 of the two-wing diamond foundation 10, taken along line I-I′ of FIG. 1B, according to the present exemplary embodiment. The various dimensions of the first wing 100 are presently indicated. The metal forming the first wing 100 has a thickness t1 and a width w1. According to the present exemplary embodiment, the metal forming the first wing 100 may have a thickness t1 in a range of 0.5 to 2.0 inches, and width w1 in the range of 6.0 to 120.0 inches. Width w1 is the total width of the first wing 100, and is the sum of width w2 of the first wing portion 110, width w3 of the second wing portion 120, and width w4 between the first and second wing portions 110 and 120. The widths w2 and w3 are substantially the same, and may be each greater than the width w4. The widths (w2+w3) to w4 may be in the range of a 3:1 to a 12:1 ratio. Width w5 is measured from the opposite side of the first wing 100 than width w4, and is slightly less than w4, since the bend portions 161 and 162 are made on the opposite side of the first wing 100.

Because the first wing 100 is made of a single sheet of metal, there are various bend points used to form a half-diamond shape, including the first bent portion 130 and second bent portion 140. A first bend point 161 is located between the first wing 110 and the first bent portion 130. A second bend point 162 is located between the second wing 120 and the second bent portion 140. A third bent portion 163 is located between the first and second bent portions 130 and 140. The first and second bend points 161 and 162 may each form the same obtuse angle between the first wing portion 110 and the first bent portion 130, and the second wing portion 120 and the second bent portion 140, respectively. Accordingly, angle θ1, measured from the plane extending along the first wing portion 110 to the first bent portion 130, is an acute angle. In the present exemplary embodiment, θ1 may be 45 degrees. Angle θ2, measured at the interior of bend point 163, may be 90 degrees. That is, the interior area extending between the first and second bent portions 130 and 140, up to an imaginary line extending between the first and second wing portions 110 and 120, may form a right triangle. As illustrated in FIG. 2B, both the first and second bent portions 130 and 140 have a width w6.

FIG. 3 illustrates a side view of the two-wing diamond foundation 10 according to the present exemplary embodiment. Similar to FIG. 2A, the two-wing diamond foundation 10 has a width w1. The two-wing diamond foundation 10 is symmetrical about an axis running between the first and second bent portions on the y-z axial plane. The two-wing diamond foundation 10 is also symmetrical about an axis running between the first wing 100 and the second wing 200 on the x-y axial plane. The two-wing diamond foundation 10 has a length l1 that is substantially perpendicular to the top portion having width w1, and has a tapered length l2 extending towards the bottom portion. Angle θ3 is formed at the intersection of lengths l1 and l2 for both the first and second wing portions 110 and 120, and, according to the present exemplary embodiment, is 150 degrees. The bottom portion of the two-wing diamond foundation 10 has a length l3. The length l3 is a portion of the first and second bent portions forming the diamond, which extends below the tapered length l2 of each of the first and second wing portions 110 and 120. Length l3 is about 3.0 inches.

FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-sectional view of FIG. 3, taken along line II-II′. As described above, the two-wing diamond foundation 10 includes first and second wings 100 and 200. As seen in FIG. 4, the first and second wing portions of each of the first and second wings 100 and 200 contact each other up to the bend points 161 and 162 of the first wing 100 (as shown in FIG. 2A), and corresponding bend points on the second wing 200 (not shown). The first and second bent portions in the respective first and second wings 100 and 200 extend away from each other to form a diamond shape. As described above, the first and second wings 100 and 200 are held together with bolts, rivets, etc, to maintain the symmetrical shape of the two-wing diamond foundation 10.

Since the first and second wings 100 and 200 of the two-wing diamond foundation 10 according to the present exemplary embodiment are held together by bolts, rivets, etc. along the horizontal and vertical extent thereof, the two-wing diamond foundation 10 may be better able to withstand various forces acting on it after installation in the ground, compared to the conventional art. For example, unlike a pipe with fins welded thereto, there is no similar weak point at the corresponding bend points (i.e., 161 and 162), since each one of the first and second wings 100 and 200 of the two-wing diamond foundation 10 is formed of a single sheet of metal. Accordingly, the two-wing diamond foundation 10 according to the present exemplary embodiment may be less susceptible to torsional, compression, uplift, and lateral forces.

FIG. 5A illustrates a perspective view of a two-wing diamond foundation 11 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The two-wing diamond foundation 11 is substantially similar to the two-wing diamond foundation 10 described above in FIGS. 1A-4, except that the present exemplary embodiment further includes a base plate 400 connected to the top of the first wing 100 and the second wing 200. Substantially similar features of the two-wing diamond foundation 11 to the two-wing diamond foundation 10 will be omitted for the sake of brevity. The base plate 400 will be described below in greater detail with reference to FIG. 5B.

FIG. 5B is an enlarged view of the section of the two-wing diamond 11 of FIG. 5A including the base plate 400. The base plate 400 includes a top plate 410, presently shown as having a circular shape. The upper surface of the top plate 410 is exposed so that a load, such as a device or structure (not shown), may be attached thereto. The top plate 410 may be generally parallel to the ground, or angled in a direction in which the device or structure should project. Angle irons 420 are attached to a bottom surface of the top plate 410 opposite to the upper surface thereof. The bottom surface of the top plate 410 may contact the upper edge surface of the first and second wings 100 and 200.

Base plate holes 430 are formed in the top plate 410, and connection holes 440 are formed in the angle irons 420, so the angle irons may be connected to the top plate 410 using connectors (not shown). Similar to the connectors used to connect the first and second wings 100 and 200, connectors may include mechanical fasteners such as bolts, rivets, clips, studs, and clamps. That is, the top plate 410 and the angle irons 420 are not welded together since connectors are used instead.

FIG. 6 illustrates a top view of the base plate 400 shown in FIG. 5A. There may be at least one row of base plate holes 430 in each of four quadrants of the top plate 410. FIG. 7 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a portion of the base plate 400 of FIG. 6 taken along line III-III′, particularly a portion of the top plate 410 and a bolt hole 430. The base plate holes 430 in the top plate 410 may be countersunk in the top plate 410 in order to accommodate bolt heads or nuts, for example, and keep the surface of the top plate 410 flat. The countersunk holes have a width w7, and a width w8 wider than the width w7, the width w8 having a depth t2 to accommodate a bolt head or nut. For example, w7 is about 0.75 inches, w8 is about 1.38 inches, and t2 is about 0.5 inches according to the present exemplary embodiment.

FIG. 8 illustrates a view from the bottom of the two-wing diamond foundation 11 looking at the bottom of the base plate 400. In the present exemplary embodiment, first portions of each of four angle irons 420 are used to connect the top plate 410 to the first and second wings 100 and 200. Two of the four angle irons 420 are respectively connected to the bent portions of the first wing 100, while the other two of the four angle irons 420 are respectively connected to the bent portions of second wing 200. The angle irons 420 may be formed in an “L” shape and be made of steel in the range of 0.375 to 2.0 inches thick. The first portion of each of the angle irons 420 includes at least one row of connection holes 440 corresponding to the at least one row of base plate holes 430.

Referring again to FIGS. 5A and 5B, a second portion of one of the four angle irons 420 is shown contacting one of the bent portions of the first wing 100. The second portion of the angle iron 420 also includes connection holes 440. Although not shown, the bent portion of the first wing 100 includes holes 300 similar to those formed in the remainder of the first wing 100, so that the connectors may be used to connect the second portion of the angle iron 420 to the first wing 100. The second portion of the angle iron 420 may include multiple rows of connection holes 440, so that uplift, compression, torsional, and lateral forces may be evenly distributed into the two-wing diamond foundation 11.

The base plate 400 provides the capability of testing its integrity with a load or structure that may be mounted on the top plate 410, since the base plate 400 may not be initially connected to the two-wing diamond foundation 11. That is, before the base plate 400 is connected to the first and second wings 100 and 200, it may be fitted to a separate load or structure (not shown), to ensure the compatibility of the base plate and the separate load or structure. Such prior fitting or testing may shorten an installation time by helping guarantee that the separate load or structure can be correctly installed on the wing diamond foundation.

FIG. 9A-FIG. 16B illustrate a wing diamond foundation according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The wing diamond foundation according to the present exemplary embodiment may be referred to as a three-wing diamond foundation, since there are three wings comprising the wing diamond foundation.

FIG. 9A illustrates a perspective view of a three-wing diamond foundation 20 according to the present exemplary embodiment. The three-wing diamond foundation 20 includes a first wing 100, a second wing 200, and a third wing 500, and further includes holes 300 and a base plate 400. The three-wing diamond foundation 20 may be substantially similar to the two-wing diamond 10 and 11 as described above with respect to FIG. 1A-FIG. 8, and any repeated description will be omitted for the sake of brevity.

FIG. 9B is an enlarged view of the section of the three-wing diamond 20 of FIG. 9A including the base plate 400. FIG. 10 illustrates a top view of the base plate 400 shown in FIG. 9A. There may be at least one row of base plate holes 430 in each of three sections of the top plate 410, corresponding to each first, second, and third wing 100, 200, and 500. FIG. 11 illustrates a view from the bottom of the three-wing diamond foundation 20 looking at the bottom of the base plate 400. In the present exemplary embodiment, first portions of each of three angle irons 420 are used to connect the top plate 410 to the first, second, and third wings 100, 200, and 500, respectively. Each of the three angle irons 420 are respectively connected to the bent portion of each first, second, and third wing 100, 200, and 500.

FIG. 12 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a first wing 100 of the three-wing diamond foundation 20, taken along line IV-IV′ of FIG. 9A, according to the present exemplary embodiment. FIG. 12 also illustrates a second portion of one of the three angle irons 420. The second portion of the angle iron 420 includes connection holes 440. The bent portion 130 of the first wing 100 includes holes 300 similar to those formed in the remainder of the first wing 100, so that connectors may be used to connect the second portion of the angle iron 420 to the first wing 100.

In FIG. 12, the angle iron 420 may have a top row of connection holes 440 spaced apart by distance s8, which are spaced distance s9 from the lateral edge of the angle iron 420. There may be second rows, etc., of connection holes 440 spaced apart from each other by distance s10, spaced apart from the top edge of the angle iron 420 by distance s11. In the present exemplary embodiment, s8 is about 3.0 inches, s9 is about 2.9 inches, s10 is about 6.0 inches, and s11 is about 1.75 inches. By increasing the number of connection holes 440 in the top row of the angle iron 420, the resistance to forces concentrated near the intersection of the angle iron 420, wings, and top plate 410 may be better dispersed by the corresponding increased number of connectors.

FIG. 13 illustrates a cross-sectional view of FIG. 9A, taken along line IV-IV′. As described above, the three-wing diamond foundation 20 includes first, second, and third wings 100, 200, and 500. As seen in FIG. 13, the first wing portion of first wing 100 contacts the second wing portion of second wing 200 up to the bend point 161 (as shown below in FIG. 14), and corresponding bend point on the second wing 200 (not shown). Likewise, the first wing portion of the second wing 200 contacts the second wing portion of the third wing 500 up to the corresponding bend points thereof, and the first wing portion of the third wing 500 contacts the second wing portion of the first wing 100 up to the corresponding bend points thereof.

FIG. 14 illustrates cross-sectional views of the first wing 100 of the three-wing diamond foundation 20, taken along line IV-IV′ of FIG. 9A, according to the present exemplary embodiment. The various dimensions of the first wing 100 are presently indicated. The first wing 100 has a thickness t1, and first and second wing portions 110 and 120 have widths w2 and w3, respectively, similar to the first wing 100 described above with reference to FIGS. 2A and 2B. However, the first wing 100 of the three-wing diamond foundation 20, according to the present exemplary embodiment, has only a single bent portion 130, having a width w4. Accordingly, width w4 is merely the measurement of the bent portion 130 in the three-wing diamond 20.

A first bend point 161 is located between the first wing 110 and the bent portion 130, and a second bend point 162 is located between the bent portion 130 and the second wing portion 120. Accordingly, angle θ4, measured from the plane extending along the first wing portion 110 to the bent portion 130, at the first bend point 161, is an obtuse angle. In the present exemplary embodiment, θ4 is 150 degrees. As shown in FIG. 13, angle θ4 occurs at every bend point in the three-wing diamond foundation 20.

Referring to FIG. 13, the interior angles extending between the first bent portions 130 of each first, second, and third wing 100, 200, and 500 may together add up to 60 degrees. That is, the first, second, and third wings 100, 200, and 500 together may form an isosceles triangle. The width w12 is about 15.7 inches, according to the present exemplary embodiment. Similar to the diamond shape of the two-wing diamond foundation described above, unlike a pipe with fins welded thereto, there is no similar weak point at the bend points (i.e., 161 and 162), since each of the first, second, and third wings 100, 200, and 500 of the three-wing diamond foundation 20 is formed of a single sheet of metal. Accordingly, the three-wing diamond foundation 20 according to the present exemplary embodiment may be less susceptible to torsional, lateral, compression, and uplift forces. Further, the third wing 500 provides additional stability and protection from these forces.

FIGS. 15 and 16A illustrate a side view of the first wing 100 of the three-wing diamond foundation 20 according to the present exemplary embodiment. FIG. 15 shows the first wing 100 having a bent plate, as used in the completed three-wing diamond foundation 20. FIG. 16A shows the wing having a flat, unbent plate. FIG. 16A shows holes 300 disposed in the first and second wing portions 110 and 120 of the first wing 100, although holes are not shown in the bent part 130 or in FIG. 15, for illustrative purposes. However, as described above with respect to the two-wing diamond foundation and FIG. 1A, holes 300 may be disposed throughout the entire first wing 100. Dimensions such as lengths and widths are indicated by the same reference numerals used with respect to FIGS. 2A, 2B, and 3, except for as described below. The three-wing diamond foundation 20 is symmetrical about an axis bisecting the bent portion 130 along a y-z axial plane. Angle θ5 is formed at the intersection of length l2 and the bent portion 130, for both the first and second wing portions 110 and 120. According to the present exemplary embodiment, length l1 is about 172.0 inches, length l2 is about 48.0 inches, length l4 is about 216.0 inches, and angle θ5 is about 30 degrees.

FIG. 16B illustrates an enlarged view of a top section of the three-wing diamond 20 of FIG. 16A, showing hole 300 spacing in greater detail. Holes 300 are spaced apart from each other by spacing s1, lateral edges of the first wing 100 by spacing s2, and vertical edges of the first wing 100 by spacing s3. Spacing s1 is about 12.0 inches, s2 is in the range of 6.0-8.0 inches, and s3 is about 4.0 inches, according to the present exemplary embodiment. When widths w2 and w3 of the first and second wing portions 110 and 120, respectively, are more than 20.0 inches, there may be at least two laterally aligned holes 300 in each of the first and second wing portions 110 and 120. However, when the widths w2 and w3 are less than 20.0 inches, there may be only one hole 300 in the lateral direction. Holes 300 may have a diameter dl, which according to the present exemplary embodiment is 1.0 inch. These spacing and measurements may generally apply to holes 300 in the two-wing diamond described above.

FIG. 16C illustrates an enlarged view of a bottom section of the three-wing diamond 20 of FIG. 16A. Holes 300 are spaced apart from each other by spacing s1, lateral edges of the first wing 100 by spacing s2, and vertical edges of the wing 100 by spacing s3, similar to what is shown in FIG. 16B. Further, holes 300 are spaced apart from each other and edges of the wing 100 along length l2 by spacings s4, s5, s6, and s7. According to the present exemplary embodiment, s4 is about 17.7 inches, s5 is about 13.9 inches, s6 is about 12.9 inches, and s7 is about 3.5 inches.

FIG. 17A-FIG. 28C illustrate a wing diamond foundation according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. The wing diamond foundation according to the present exemplary embodiment may be referred to as a four-wing diamond foundation, since there are four wings comprising the wing diamond foundation.

FIG. 17A illustrates a perspective view of a four-wing diamond foundation 30 according to the present exemplary embodiment. The four-wing diamond foundation 30 includes a first wing 100, a second wing 200, a third wing 500, and a fourth wing 600, and further includes holes 300 and a base plate 400. The four-wing diamond foundation 30 may be substantially similar to the two-wing diamond foundation 10 and 11 and three-wing diamond foundation as described above with respect to FIG. 1A-FIG. 16C, and any repeated description will be omitted for the sake of brevity.

FIG. 17B is an enlarged view of a top section of the four-wing diamond 30 of FIG. 17A including the base plate 400. FIG. 18 illustrates a top view of the base plate 400 shown in FIG. 17A. There may be at least one row of base plate holes 430 in each of four quadrants of the top plate 410. FIG. 19 illustrates a view from the bottom of the four-wing diamond foundation 30 looking at the bottom of the base plate 400. In the present exemplary embodiment, first portions of each of four angle irons 420 are used to connect the top plate 410 to the first, second, third, and fourth wings 100, 200, 500, and 600, respectively. Each of the four angle irons 420 are respectively connected to the bent portion of each of the first, second, third, and fourth wings 100, 200, 500, and 600.

FIG. 20 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a first wing 100 of the four-wing diamond foundation 30, taken along line V-V′ of FIG. 17A, according to the present exemplary embodiment. FIG. 20 also illustrates a second portion of one of the four angle irons 420 and an upper portion of the first wing 100. As described above, the second portion of the angle iron 420 includes connection holes 440. The bent portion 130 of the first wing 100 includes holes 300 similar to those formed in the remainder of the first wing 100, so that connectors may be used to connect the second portion of the angle iron 420 to the first wing 100. FIG. 21 illustrates an enlarged front view and a side view of the angle iron 420.

As shown in FIGS. 20 and 21, the angle iron 420 may have a top row of connection holes 440 spaced apart by distance s12, which are spaced distance s13 from the lateral edge of the angle iron 420, and spaced apart from the top edge of the angle iron 420 by distance s14. There may be second rows, etc., of connection holes 440 spaced apart from each other by distance s15. In the present exemplary embodiment, s12 may be in the range of 2.5 to 3.0 inches, s13 is about 1.7 inches, s14 is about 1.75 inches, and s15 is about 6.0 inches. There are corresponding holes 300 formed in the bent portion 130 of the first wing 100, as shown in FIG. 20. The angle iron 420 has a thickness t3, top portion width w9, bottom portion width w10, and length l5. Thickness t3 is about 0.25 inches, width w9 is about 3.5 inches, width w10 may be in range of 10.9 to 15.5 inches, and length l5 is about 24 inches, according to the present exemplary embodiment.

FIG. 22 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the four-wing diamond foundation 30 of FIG. 17A, taken along line V-V′. As described above, the four-wing diamond foundation 30 includes first, second, third, and fourth wings 100, 200, 500, and 600. As seen in FIG. 22, the first wing portion 110 of the first wing 100 contacts the second wing portion 220 of the second wing 200 up to the bend point 161, and corresponding bend point on the second wing 200 (not shown). Likewise, the first wing portion 210 of the second wing 200 contacts the second wing portion 520 of the third wing 500 up to the corresponding bend points thereof, the first wing portion 510 of the third wing 500 contacts the second wing portion 620 of the fourth wing 600, and the first wing portion 610 of the fourth wing 600 contacts the second wing portion 120 of the first wing 100 up to the corresponding bend points thereof.

Although not shown in FIG. 22, an obtuse angle is formed, measured from the plane extending along the first wing portion 110 to the bent portion 130, at bend point 161. In the present exemplary embodiment, the obtuse angle is 135 degrees. This obtuse angle occurs at every bend point in the four-wing diamond foundation 30. The interior angles extending between the first bent portions 130 of each of the first, second, third, and fourth wings 100, 200, 500, and 600, may together add up to 90 degrees. That is, the first, second, third, and fourth wings 100, 200, 500, and 600 together may form a right triangle. Similar to the diamond shape of the two-wing diamond foundation described above, unlike a pipe with fins welded thereto, there is no similar weak point at the bend points (i.e., 161 and 162), since each of the first, second, third, and fourth wings 100, 200, 500, and 600 of the four-wing diamond foundation 30 is formed of a single sheet of metal. Accordingly, the four-wing diamond foundation 30 according to the present exemplary embodiment may be less susceptible to compression, torsional, uplift, or lateral forces. Further, the fourth wing 600 provides additional stability and protection from these forces. For example, there may be increased friction between the four-wing diamond foundation 30 and the ground in order to counteract these forces.

FIG. 23 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a four-wing diamond foundation 31 according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Similar to the four-wing diamond foundation 30 described above, the present exemplary embodiment includes first, second, third, and fourth wings 100, 200, 500, and 600. The four-wing diamond foundation 31 also includes a mid-support system including first reinforcing plates 700, second reinforcing plates 800, and connection angles 900. The mid-support system may increase the structural integrity of the four-wing diamond foundation 31, so that it can support additional loads and protect against forces acting thereon. In particular, the mid-support system increases the thickness of the four-wing diamond foundation 31 and may increase rigidity in the diamond portion thereof to help achieve protection against forces.

FIG. 24 illustrates a cross-sectional view of the individual pieces of the four-wing diamond 31. According to the present exemplary embodiment, first reinforcing plates 700 are each a single piece of metal extending in a first direction and disposed between first, second, third, and fourth wings 100, 200, 500, and 600. Second reinforcing plates 800 are divided into two pieces each and disposed on opposite sides of the first reinforcing plates 700, such that distal ends of the second reinforcing plates 800 may contact the sides of first reinforcing plates. The second reinforcing plates extend in a second direction perpendicular to the first direction. Connection angles 900 are used to respectively connect the sides of first and second reinforcing plates 700 and 800 to each other. FIG. 25 illustrates side views of the first and second reinforcing plates 700 and 800 and one of the connection angles 900.

FIG. 26 illustrates a cross-sectional and a side view of the first wing 100 of the four-wing diamond foundation 30, taken along line V-V′ of FIG. 17A, according to the present exemplary embodiment. FIG. 26 may also apply to the four-wing diamond foundation 31. The various dimensions of the first wing 100 are presently indicated. First and second wing portions have widths w2 and w3, respectively, similar to the first wing 100 described above with reference to FIGS. 2A and 2B. The first wing 100 of the four-wing diamond foundation 30 according to the present exemplary embodiment has only a single bent portion 130, having a width w6. Accordingly, width w4 is merely the measurement of the bent portion 130 in the four-wing diamond 30.

FIG. 26 shows the first wing 100 having a bent plate, as used in a finished product four-wing diamond foundation 30. Here, only the holes 300 formed in the bent portion 130 corresponding to the connection holes 440 in the base plate 400 are shown. However, as described above with respect to the two-wing diamond foundation and FIG. 1A, holes 300 may be disposed throughout the entire first wing 100. Dimensions such as lengths and widths are indicated by the same reference numerals used with respect to FIGS. 2A, 2B, and 3. The four-wing diamond foundation 30 may be symmetrical about an axis bisecting the bent portion 130 along a y-z axial plane. According to the present exemplary embodiment, length l4 is about 264.0 inches, width w1 is about 46.7 inches, widths w2 and w3 are about 24 inches, and width w4 is about 12.3 inches.

FIG. 27 illustrates a cross-sectional and side view of the first wing 100 having a flat, unbent plate. FIG. 27 shows holes 300 disposed in the first and second wing portions of the first wing 100. Dimensions such as lengths and widths are indicated by the same reference numerals used with respect to FIGS. 2A, 2B, and 3. According to the present exemplary embodiment, length l1 is about 219.0 inches, length l2 is about 48.0 inches, and 03 is 150 degrees.

FIG. 28 illustrates an enlarged view of a top section of the four-wing diamond 30 or 31 of FIG. 27, showing hole 300 spacing in greater detail. Holes 300 are spaced apart from each other by spacing s1, lateral edges of the first wing 100 by spacing s2, and vertical edges of the first wing 100 by spacing s3. Further, in the exemplary embodiment relating to the four-wing diamond 31, holes 300 are spaced apart by spacing s16 and s17. These additional spacings may provide connection points for the first and second reinforcing plates 700 and 800. Spacing s1, s2, and s3 are substantially the same as those described above with respect to the three-wing diamond foundation 20. Spacing s16 is about 6.0 inches, and s17 is about 9.0 inches.

Experimental Example

FIG. 29 illustrates graphs showing deflection, moment, and shear stress calculations measured at various depths of a three-wing diamond foundation, according to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention. According to where the calculated stresses are equal to zero (i.e., cross the y-axis), the appropriate minimum depth of the foundation in the ground may be determined. Thus, of these three forces, the one that last crosses the y-axis indicates the appropriate minimum depth of the foundation. For example, according to FIG. 29, the three-wing diamond foundation should be installed to a depth of approximately 17 feet, so the foundation should be about 17 feet in length to appropriately accommodate the tested forces.

Table 1 below illustrates data calculated similar to the graphs of FIG. 29, for a three-wing diamond foundation similar to that described above with respect to FIGS. 9A-16C, but is shown only in tabular form. The three-wing diamond according to the experimental example is installed in stiff clay above the water table, and has a 38.0 inch diameter. The listed depths approximately correspond to where the calculated deflection, moment, and shear equal zero for the listed lateral load and applied moment at pile head, for each trial in the experimental example.

TABLE 1
TrialDepth (in)Lateral load (lb)Applied moment (lb-in)
1109.10.79E+30.32E+6
2148.50.24E+40.97E+6
3172.70.40E+40.16E+7
4190.90.55E+40.23E+7
5197.00.63E+40.26E+7
6206.10.71E+40.29E+7

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variation can be made in the present invention without departing from the spirit or scope of the inventive concept. Thus, it is intended that the present invention cover the modifications and variations of the inventive concept provided they come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents.