Title:
COMPOSITIONS FOR DEPOSITION ON BIOLOGICAL SURFACES
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Personal care compositions, such as oral care and skin care compositions containing a flavor/perfume system comprising one or more coolants. The pleasant cool sensation provided by a coolant is enhanced in terms of quicker onset, greater intensity, impact or longer duration, which improves appeal and acceptability of the compositions to consumers.



Inventors:
Haught, John Christian (West Chester, OH, US)
Reilly, Michael (Lebanon, OH, US)
Hoke, Steven Hamilton (West Chester, OH, US)
Lei, Qingxin (Liberty Township, OH, US)
Lin, Yakang (Liberty Towhship, OH, US)
Sanker, Lowell Alan (Montgomery, OH, US)
Sreekrishna, Koti Tatachar (Mason, OH, US)
Application Number:
14/694616
Publication Date:
10/29/2015
Filing Date:
04/23/2015
Assignee:
THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
424/73, 426/3, 510/106, 514/521, 514/613, 514/616, 558/404, 564/123, 564/157, 424/70.1
International Classes:
C07C323/33; A23G4/06; A61K8/42; A61K8/46; A61Q5/02; A61Q9/02; A61Q11/00; C07C233/73; C07C233/75; C07C237/10; C07C255/44
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
ROBERTS, LEZAH
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
THE PROCTER & GAMBLE COMPANY (CINCINNATI, OH, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A compound comprising the following structure: embedded image R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy; Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; W=H2, O; X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0; X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom; A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

2. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound activates at least one of TRPA1, TRPV1, or TRPM8.

3. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound at a concentration of about 5.2E-5% provides: a) greater activation of TRPM8 than WS5 at a concentration of about 30 mM; b) greater activation of TRPA1 than allyl isothiocyanate at a concentration of about 50 mM; and c) greater activation of TRPV1 than capsaicin at a concentration of about 350 nM.

4. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound at a concentration of about 5.2E-5% provides: a) at least about 110% activation of TRPM8 when compared to WS5 at a concentration of about 30 mM; b) at least about 180% activation of TRPA1 when compared to allyl isothiocyanate at a concentration of about 50 mM; and c) at least about 100% activation of TRPV1 when compared to capsaicin at a concentration of about 350 nM.

5. The compound of claim 2, wherein the activation is determined by measuring intracellular calcium levels.

6. The compound of claim 5, wherein intracellular calcium level measuring is done using fluorescent dye.

7. The compound of claim 2, wherein the compound at a concentration of about 5.2E-5% provides greater activation of TRPM8 than WS5 at a concentration of about 30 mM.

8. A personal care composition comprising the compound of claim 1.

9. An isomeric HPLC fraction of the compound of claim 1, wherein the isomeric HPLC fraction at a concentration of about 12.2 nM had a higher TRPM8 activation at 10 minutes as compared to WS 5 at a concentration of about 10 μm.

10. A composition comprising the compound of claim 1 and a TRPM8 agonist.

11. The composition of claim 10, wherein the TRPM8 agonists comprises at least one of Menthol; Menthyl Lactate; N-ethyl-ρ-menthan-3-carboxamide; N-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-ρ-menthan-3-carboxamide; N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-ρ-menthan-3-carboxamide; N-tert-butyl-ρ-menthan-3-carboxamide; N,2,3-trimethyl-2-isopropylbutanamide; N-(4-cyanomethylphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide; N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide; N-(4-cyanophenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide; N-(4-acetylphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide; N-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide; N-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide; Isopulegol; and/or (−)-Menthoxypropane-1,2-diol.

12. A composition comprising the compound of claim 1 and at least one of a TRPA1 agonist or TRPV1 agonist.

13. The composition of claim 12, wherein the TRPA1 agonist is at least one of allyl isothiocyanate; menthol; peroxide; methyl salicylate; cinnamic aldehyde; benzyl alcohol; zinc salts; and/or vanillin isobutyrate.

14. The composition of claim 12, wherein the TRPV1 agonist is at least one capsaicin; piperine; vanillyl butyl ether; vanillyl ethyl ether; menthol; peroxide; zinc salts; or an anti-histamine.

15. The compound of claim 1, wherein the structure comprises: embedded image R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy; Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; W=H2, O; X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0; X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom; A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

16. The compound of claim 15, wherein the structure comprises: embedded image

17. The compound of claim 1, where the structure comprises: embedded image R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy; Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; W=H2, O; X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0; X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom; A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

18. A personal care composition comprising a compound comprising the following structure: embedded image R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy; Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; W=H2, O; X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0; X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom; A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*; and wherein the compound activates at least one of TRPV1, TRPV1, or TRPM8.

19. The personal care composition of claim 18, wherein the compound at a concentration of about 5.2E-5% provides: a) greater activation of TRPM8 than WS5 at a concentration of about 30 mM; b) greater activation of TRPA1 than allyl isothiocyanate at a concentration of about 50 mM; and c) greater activation of TRPV1 than capsaicin at a concentration of about 350 nM.

20. The personal care composition of claim 18, wherein the compound at a concentration of about 5.2E-5% provides greater activation of TRPM8 than WS5 at a concentration of about 30 mM.

21. The personal care composition of claim 18, wherein the compound structure comprises: embedded image R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy; Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2; W=H2, O; X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0; X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom; A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

22. The personal care composition of claim 21, wherein the compound structure comprises: embedded image

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to personal care compositions, such as oral care and skin care compositions, containing a flavor/perfume system comprising one or more coolants, wherein the cool sensation provided by the coolant is enhanced in terms of quicker onset, greater intensity, and/or longer duration, thereby improving appeal and acceptability of the compositions to consumers.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Oral care products, such as dentifrice and mouthwash, are routinely used by consumers as part of their oral care hygiene regimens. It is well known that oral care products can provide both therapeutic and cosmetic hygiene benefits to consumers. Therapeutic benefits include caries prevention which is typically delivered through the use of various fluoride salts; gingivitis prevention, by the use of an antimicrobial agent such as stannous fluoride, triclosan, essential oils; or hypersensitivity control through the use of ingredients such as strontium chloride or potassium nitrate. Cosmetic benefits provided by oral care products include the control of plaque and calculus formation, removal and prevention of tooth stain, tooth whitening, breath freshening, and overall improvements in mouth feel impression, which can be broadly characterized as mouth feel aesthetics. Calculus and plaque along with behavioral and environmental factors lead to formation of dental stains, significantly affecting the aesthetic appearance of teeth. Behavioral and environmental factors that contribute to teeth staining propensity include regular use of coffee, tea, cola or tobacco products, and also the use of certain oral products containing ingredients that promote staining, such as cationic antimicrobials and metal salts.

Thus daily oral care at home requires products with multiple ingredients working by different mechanisms to provide the complete range of therapeutic and aesthetic benefits, including anticaries, antimicrobial, antigingivitis, antiplaque, anticalculus and anti-erosion, as well as antiodor, mouth refreshment, stain removal, stain control and tooth whitening. In order for daily use oral care products, such as dentifrice and rinses to provide complete oral care it is often necessary to combine actives and additives, many of which have the disadvantage of causing negative aesthetics during use, in particular unpleasant taste and sensations and stain promotion. The unpleasant taste and mouth sensations have been described as having one or more of bitter, metallic, astringent, salty, numbing, stinging, burning, or prickling, and even irritating aspects. Typical ingredients for oral care use that are associated with these aesthetic negatives include antimicrobial agents such as cetyl pyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, stannous and zinc salts; tooth bleaching agents such as peroxides; antitartar agents such as pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate and hexametaphosphate; and excipients such as baking soda and surfactants. To mitigate the aesthetic negatives from these ingredients, oral care products are typically formulated with flavoring agents, sweeteners and coolants to taste as good as possible and provide a pleasant experience. In particular, it is desirable for oral care products to provide a refreshing cooling sensation during and after use. In addition to mitigation of negative sensations, sensate molecules are formulated into oral care compositions to convey a signal of efficacy. Such signals of efficacy include cooling, tingling, numbing, warming, sweetness, and rheological sensations such as phase change and fizzing or bubbling.

A large number of coolant compounds of natural or synthetic origin have been described. The most well-known compound is menthol, particularly 1-menthol, which is found naturally in peppermint oil, notably of Mentha arvensis L and Mentha viridis L. Of the menthol isomers, the 1-isomer occurs most widely in nature and is typically what is referred by the name menthol having coolant properties. L-menthol has the characteristic peppermint odor, has a clean fresh taste and exerts a cooling sensation when applied to the skin and mucosal surfaces. Other isomers of menthol (neomenthol, isomenthol and neoisomenthol) have somewhat similar, but not identical odor and taste, i.e., some having disagreeable notes described as earthy, camphor, musty. The principal difference among the isomers is in their cooling potency. L-menthol provides the most potent cooling, i.e., having the lowest cooling threshold of about 800 ppb, i.e., the concentration where the cooling effect could be clearly recognized. At this level, there is no cooling effect for the other isomers. For example, d-neomenthol is reported to have a cooling threshold of about 25,000 ppb and 1-neomenthol about 3,000 ppb. (R. Emberger and R. Hopp, “Synthesis and Sensory Characterization of Menthol Enantiomers and Their Derivatives for the Use in Nature Identical Peppermint Oils,” Specialty Chemicals (1987), 7(3), 193-201). This study demonstrated the outstanding sensory properties of 1-menthol in terms of cooling and freshness and the influence of stereochemistry on the activity of these molecules.

Among synthetic coolants, many are derivatives of or are structurally related to menthol, i.e., containing the cyclohexane moiety, and derivatized with functional groups including carboxamide, ketal, ester, ether and alcohol. Examples include the ρ-menthanecarboxamide compounds, such as N-ethyl-ρ-menthan-3-carboxamide, known commercially as “WS-3”, and others in the series, such as WS-5 (N-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-ρ-menthan-3-carboxamide), WS-12 [N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-ρ-menthan-3-carboxamide] and WS-14 (N-tert-butyl-ρ-menthan-3-carboxamide). Examples of menthane carboxy esters include WS-4 and WS-30. An example of a synthetic carboxamide coolant that is structurally unrelated to menthol is N,2,3-trimethyl-2-isopropylbutanamide, known as “WS-23”. Additional examples of synthetic coolants include alcohol derivatives such as 3-(1-menthoxy)-propane-1,2-diol known as TK-10, isopulegol (under the tradename Coolact P) and ρ-menthane-3,8-diol (under the tradename Coolact 38D); menthone glycerol acetal known as MGA; menthyl esters such as menthyl acetate, menthyl acetoacetate, menthyl lactate known as Frescolat® supplied by Haarmann and Reimer, and monomenthyl succinate under the tradename Physcool from V. Mane. TK-10 is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,459,425 to Amano et al. Other alcohol and ether derivatives of menthol are described e.g., in GB 1,315,626 and in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,029,759; 5,608,119; and 6,956,139. WS-3 and other carboxamide cooling agents are described for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,136,163; 4,150,052; 4,153,679; 4,157,384; 4,178,459 and 4,230,688. Additional N-substituted ρ-menthane carboxamides are described in WO 2005/049553A1 including N-(4-cyanomethylphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide, N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide, N-(4-cyanophenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide, N-(4-acetylphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide, N-(4-hydroxymethylphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide and N-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-ρ-menthanecarboxamide. Other N-substituted ρ-menthane carboxamides include amino acid derivatives such as those disclosed in WO 2006/103401 and in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,136,163; 4,178,459 and 7,189,760 such as N-((5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexyl)carbonyl)glycine ethyl ester and N-((5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexyl)carbonyl)alanine ethyl ester. Menthyl esters including those of amino acids such as glycine and alanine are disclosed e.g., in EP 310 299 and in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,111,127; 3,917,613; 3,991,178; 5,703,123; 5,725,865; 5,843,466; 6,365,215; 6,451,844; and 6,884,903. Ketal derivatives are described, e.g., in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,266,592; 5,977,166 and 5,451,404. Additional agents that are structurally unrelated to menthol but have been reported to have a similar physiological cooling effect include alpha-keto enamine derivatives described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,592,884 including 3-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-one (3-MPC), 5-methyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-2-cyclopenten-1-one (5-MPC), and 2,5-dimethyl-4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-3(2H)-furanone (DMPF); icilin (also known as AG-3-5, chemical name 1-[2-hydroxyphenyl]-4-[2-nitrophenyl]-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-one) described in Wei et al., J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1983), 35:110-112. Reviews on the coolant activity of menthol and synthetic coolants include H. R. Watson, et al. J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. (1978), 29, 185-200 and R. Eccles, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., (1994), 46, 618-630.

The present invention provides compositions comprising one or more coolants, wherein the cooling and refreshing sensation provided by the coolant(s) is potentiated in terms of onset, intensity, and/or duration.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A compound is provided that comprises the following structure:

embedded image

    • R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy;
    • Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • W=H2, O;
    • X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0;
    • X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom;
    • A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and
    • stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

A compound is provided having the structure shown above, wherein the compound at a concentration of about 5.2E-5% provides a greater activation of TRPM8 than WS5 at a concentration of about 30 mM; a greater activation of TRPA1 than allyl isothiocyanate at a concentration of about 50 mM; and a greater activation of TRPV1 than capsaicin at a concentration of about 350 nM.

A compound having the structure shown above is provided, wherein the compound at a concentration of about 5.2E-5% provides at least about 100%, 105%, 110%, 115%, 120% 125% or 130% activation of TRPM8 when compared to WS5 at a concentration of about 30 mM; at least about 100%, 130%, 140%, 150%, 160%, 170%, 180%, 190%, 200%, 210%, 220%, 230% or 240% activation of TRPA1 when compared to allyl isothiocyanate at a concentration of about 50 mM; and at least about 95%, 100%, 105%, 110%, or 115% activation of TRPV1 when compared to capsaicin at a concentration of about 350 nM.

A compound is provided that comprises the following structure:

embedded image

    • R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy;
    • Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • W=H2, O;
    • X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0;
    • X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom;
    • A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and
    • stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

A compound is provided that comprises the following structure:

embedded image

    • R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy;
    • Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • W=H2, O;
    • X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0;
    • X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom;
    • A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and
    • stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

A compound is provided that comprises the following structure:

embedded image

A personal care composition is provided that comprises a compound having the following structure:

embedded image

    • R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy;
    • Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • W=H2, O;
    • X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0;
    • X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom;
    • A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and
    • stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*; and
      wherein the compound activates at least one of TRPV1, TRPV1, or TRPM8.

These and other features, aspects, and advantages of the present invention will become evident to those skilled in the art from the detailed description that follows.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 UV chromatogram overlays of three replicate injections of compound 28, fraction 1. The percentages of relative peak area are shown above each isomeric compound observed within this mixture. All peaks appear at nominal m/z 374 in the QDa mass spectra, indicating that these are isomeric species.

FIG. 2 UV chromatogram overlays of three replicate injections of compound 28, fraction 2. The percentages of relative peak areas are shown above for each isomeric compound observed within this mixture. All peaks appear at nominal m/z 374 in the QDa mass spectra, indicating that these are isomeric species. Fraction 2 has higher isomeric purity than fraction 1.

FIG. 3 UV trace overlays of chromatograms generated during separate analysis of compound 28, fraction 1 (dashed line) and fraction 2 (solid line). These overlays demonstrate that some components are contained within both fractions, while some components are essentially unique, and the ratio of isomers within these two fractions differ. All peaks appear at nominal m/z 374 in the QDa mass spectra, indicating that these are isomeric species.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to the discovery that certain cyclohexanecarboxamide structures deliver the means to drive a cooling response at low concentrations. It has been discovered that cyclohexanecarboxamide, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)-, (1R,2S,5R) (CAS#824947-52-6) and cyclohexanecarboxamide, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)-, (1R,2S,5R) (CAS#847564-71-0) structures with 2-amino-propanamide (CAS#4726-84-5) have enhanced long lasting cooling properties and cyclohexanecarboxamide, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-phenyl-, (1R,2S,5R) and cyclohexanecarboxamide, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-1-naphthalenyl-(1R,2S,5R) (CAS#863091-95-6) structures with an aminoethane (CAS#75-04-7) moiety deliver a warming sensation. Both types of cyclohexanecarboxamide (cooling and warming) are efficacious at low use levels (1-10 ppm). The stereochemistry assigned to the compounds above is based on the dominant isomer (1R,2S,5R) derived from the menthol starting material. One or more additional isomers and/or enantiomers may occur due to the additional chiral sites built out from the amide linkage.

Structures built off of the cyclohexanecarboxamide backbone have been applied as anti-cancer agents as disclosed in WO 2009/067410. As shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,150,052, only a select few of the cyclohexanecarboxamide derivatives had noticeable cooling. The molecules disclosed in WO 2009/067410 were evaluated for their TRPM8 activity in relation to the destruction of prostate cancer cells. The data shown herein illustrates that activating TRPM8 does not necessarily mean that a cooling sensation will be observed. Thus cooling would have been an undesirable effect and something they would have avoided.

The present invention is thus based on the discovery that select molecules can be used to drive a cooling response when formulated into consumer products. A second object of this invention shows the discovery that select cyclohexanecarboxamide derivatives can provide long lasting cooling at very low levels, allowing for formulation efficiencies, in particular coolant compounds (coolants), such as described below.

All percentages and ratios used hereinafter are by weight of total composition, unless otherwise indicated. All percentages, ratios, and levels of ingredients referred to herein are based on the actual amount of the ingredient, and do not include solvents, fillers, or other materials with which the ingredient may be combined as a commercially available product, unless otherwise indicated.

All measurements referred to herein are made at 25° C. unless otherwise specified.

By “personal care composition” is meant a product, which in the ordinary course of usage is applied to or contacted with a body surface to provide a beneficial effect. Body surface includes skin, for example dermal or mucosal; body surface also includes structures associated with the body surface for example hair, teeth, or nails. Examples of personal care compositions include a product applied to a human body for improving appearance, cleansing, and odor control or general aesthetics. Non-limiting examples of personal care compositions include oral care compositions, such as, dentifrice, mouth rinse, mousse, foam, mouth spray, lozenge, chewable tablet, chewing gum, tooth whitening strips, floss and floss coatings, breath freshening dissolvable strips, denture care product, denture adhesive product; after shave gels and creams, pre-shave preparations, shaving gels, creams, or foams, moisturizers and lotions; cough and cold compositions, gels, gel caps, and throat sprays; leave-on skin lotions and creams, shampoos, body washes, body rubs, such as Vicks Vaporub; hair conditioners, hair dyeing and bleaching compositions, mousses, shower gels, bar soaps, antiperspirants, deodorants, depilatories, lipsticks, foundations, mascara, sunless tanners and sunscreen lotions; feminine care compositions, such as lotions and lotion compositions directed towards absorbent articles; baby care compositions directed towards absorbent or disposable articles; and oral cleaning compositions for animals, such as dogs and cats.

The present invention is also directed towards “oral health compositions” as used herein refers to compositions in a form that is deliverable to a mammal in need via the oral cavity, mouth, throat, nasal passage or combinations thereof. Nonlimiting examples include liquid compositions, cough syrups, respiratory preparations, beverage, supplemental water, pills, soft gels, tablets, capsules, gel compositions, foam compositions, saline wash and combinations thereof. Liquid compositions, gel compositions can be in a form that is directly deliverable to the mouth and throat. These compositions and/or preparations can be delivered by a delivery device selected from droppers, pump, sprayers, liquid dropper, saline wash delivered via nasal passageway, cup, bottle, liquid filled gel, liquid filled gummy, center filled gum, chews, films, center filled lozenge, gum filled lozenge, pressurized sprayers, atomizers, air inhalation devices, liquid filled compressed tablet, liquid filled gelatin capsule, liquid filled capsule, squeezable sachets, power shots, and other packaging and equipment, and combinations thereof. The sprayer, atomizer, and air inhalation devices can be associated with a battery or electric power source.

The present invention is also directed towards a respiratory preparation. In one embodiment the respiratory preparation comprises a film forming agent; and a thickening agent. The preparation provides on demand relief. The preparation can work to physically coat the mouth and throat creating a soothing barrier over the epithelial cells that line the throat layer. The preparation can additionally, reduce inflammation and relieve minor pain associated with a cough and/or sore throat. Preferably the respiratory preparation would not contain a pharmaceutical active.

The present invention is also directed to lotion compositions and to absorbent articles, particularly disposable absorbent articles, having a lotion treatment composition applied thereon. Disposable absorbent articles can be baby diapers or feminine hygiene articles, including incontinence devices and catamenial products, such as tampons, sanitary napkins, pantiliners, interlabial products, and the like. For convenience, the invention is disclosed below with respect to the embodiment of a catamenial device, such as a sanitary napkin or pantiliner.

The absorbent article can comprise any known or otherwise effective topsheet, such as one which is compliant, soft feeling, and non-irritating to the body of the wearer. Suitable topsheet materials include a liquid pervious material that is oriented towards and contacts the body of the wearer, thereby permitting body discharges to rapidly penetrate through the topsheet without allowing fluid to flow back through the topsheet to the skin of the wearer. The topsheet, while capable of allowing rapid transfer of fluid through it, also provides for the transfer or migration of the lotion composition onto an external or internal portion of a body of the wearer. A suitable topsheet can be made of various materials, such as woven and nonwoven materials; apertured film materials including apertured formed thermoplastic films, apertured plastic films, and fiber-entangled apertured films; hydro-formed thermoplastic films; porous foams; reticulated foams; reticulated thermoplastic films; thermoplastic scrims; or combinations thereof, as is well known in the art of making catamenial products such as sanitary napkins, pantiliners, incontinence pads, and the like.

A lotion composition of the present invention comprises at least one rheology structurant, which typically is a solid. The lotion composition can further comprise other optional ingredients, like surface energy modifiers. In one embodiment, a lotion composition consists essentially of, or consists of, a rheology structurant, such as a microcrystalline wax, alkyl dimethicone, ethylene glycol dibehenate, ethylene glycol distearate, glycerol tribehenate, glycerol tristearate, and ethylene bisoleamide. A present lotion composition can contain a single rheology structurant or a mixture of two or more rheology structurants.

In preparing a lotioned catamenial device according to the present invention, the lotion composition can be applied to the outer surface of the absorbent article, such as, for example, the outer surface of the topsheet. Any of a variety of application methods that distribute lubricious materials having a molten or liquid consistency can be used, such as, for example, as set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 5,968,025 and U.S. Pub. App. No. 2005/0208113. Suitable methods include but are not limited to spraying, printing (e.g., flexographic printing), coating (e.g., gravure coating), extrusion, dipping, or combinations of these application techniques, e.g., spraying the lotion composition on a rotating surface, such as a calender roll, that then transfers the composition to the outer surface of the sanitary napkin topsheet. Additionally, the manner of applying the lotion composition to a portion of a catamenial device can be such that the substrate or component does not become saturated with the lotion composition. The lotion composition can be applied to the catamenial device at any point during assembly. For example, the lotion composition can also be applied to the outer surface of the topsheet before it is combined with the other raw materials to form a finished catamenial device.

The term “dentifrice”, as used herein, includes tooth or subgingival-paste, gel, or liquid formulations unless otherwise specified. The dentifrice composition may be a single phase composition or may be a combination of two or more separate dentifrice compositions. The dentifrice composition may be in any desired form, such as deep striped, surface striped, multilayered, having a gel surrounding a paste, or any combination thereof. Each dentifrice composition in a dentifrice comprising two or more separate dentifrice compositions may be contained in a physically separated compartment of a dispenser and dispensed side-by-side.

The term “dispenser”, as used herein, means any pump, tube, or container suitable for dispensing compositions such as dentifrices.

The term “teeth”, as used herein, refers to natural teeth as well as artificial teeth or dental prosthesis.

The term “orally acceptable carrier or excipients” includes safe and effective materials and conventional additives used in oral care compositions including but not limited to fluoride ion sources, anti-calculus or anti-tartar agents, buffers, abrasives such as silica, alkali metal bicarbonate salts, thickening materials, humectants, water, surfactants, titanium dioxide, flavorants, sweetening agents, xylitol, coloring agents, and mixtures thereof.

Herein, the terms “tartar” and “calculus” are used interchangeably and refer to mineralized dental plaque biofilms.

The components of the present compositions are described in the following paragraphs.

SEQ ID NOSequence
1Human TRPV1 DNA sequence
2Human TRPA1 DNA sequence
3Human TRPM8 DNA sequence

The term “TRPV1” or “TRPV1 receptor”, as used herein, refers to the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, which is a ligand-gated, non-selective cation channel preferentially expressed on small-diameter sensory neurons and detects noxious as well as other substances. The TRPV1 receptor is provided as SEQ ID NO: 1. The TRPV1 receptor responds to, for example, both noxious and painful stimuli. A noxious stimulus would include those that give a burning (i.e. hot) sensation.

The term “TRPV1 agonist”, as used herein, refers to any compound, which at a concentration of 1 mM gives a calcium flux count of at least 1000 counts or 20% above the background level of calcium present in the cell according to the FLIPR method, as discussed herein. The term “count” is defined as the change in fluorescence of the cell lines due to the influx of calcium across the cell membrane, which reacts with the calcium sensitive dye present within the cells.

The term “TRPV1 antagonist”, as used herein, refers to any compound which at a concentration of 1 mM gives a reduction in calcium flux count of at least 1000 counts or 20% below the activation of TRPV1 receptor by 350 μM capsaicin.

The term “TRPV1 desensitizer”, as used herein, refers to any compound, which shows agonist activity and causes a decrease in activation by a known TRPV1 agonist.

The term “TRPA1” or “TRPA1 receptor”, as used herein, refers to the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1, having a large cysteine-rich N-terminus that contains 18 predicted ankyrin repeats. The TRPA1 receptor is provided as SEQ ID NO: 2. TRPA1 is a ligand-gated, non-selective cation channel preferentially expressed on small diameter sensory neurons.

The term “TRPA1 agonist”, as used herein, refers to any compound, which at a concentration of 1 mM gives a calcium flux count of at least 1000 counts or 20% above the background level of calcium present in the cell according to the FLIPR method, as discussed herein. The term “count” is defined as the change in fluorescence of the cell lines due to the influx of calcium across the cell membrane, which reacts with the calcium sensitive dye present within the cells.

The term “TRPA1 antagonist”, as used herein, refers to any compound, which at a concentration of 1 mM gives a reduction in calcium flux count of at least 1000 counts or 20% below the activation of TRPA1 receptor by 50 mM allyl isothiocyanate.

The term “TRPA1 desensitizer”, as used herein, refers to any compound, which shows agonist activity and causes a decrease in activation by a known TRPA1 agonist.

The term “TRPM8” or “TRPM8 receptor”, as used herein, refers to cold- and menthol-sensitive receptor (CMR1) or TRPM8. The TRPM8 nomenclature for the receptor comes from its characterization as a non-selective cation channel of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family that is activated by stimuli including low temperatures, menthol and other chemical coolants. The TRPM8 receptor is provided as SEQ ID NO: 3.

The cooling receptor conventionally known as TRPM8 or the menthol receptor has been demonstrated as a means to differentiate intensity and duration of organic molecules that initiate and propagate the non-thermal cooling perception (D. D. Mckemy, The Open Drug Discovery Journal 2:81-88 2010). McKemy reported the EC50 values of many agonists to TRPM8 which span the range of 100 nM to 19 mM, thus showing the channel can be activated across a wide range of structures at varying concentrations. This channel also has the nomenclature of CRM1 and TRPP8. The later was designated as such due to its identification with prostate cells, where it was employed as a means to identify molecules targeted towards prostate cancer.

The term “TRPM8 agonist”, as used herein, refers to any compound, which when added to a TRPM8 receptor, according to the FLIPR method, as discussed herein, produces any increase in fluorescence over background.

The term “TRPM8 antagonist”, as used herein, refers to any compound, which does not show any agonistic activity when directly added and inhibits activation of the TRPM8 receptor by a known TRPM8 agonist. Using the FLIPR method, as discussed herein a molecule that has >20% reduction in calcium flux compared to the WS5 activated TRPM8 receptor is considered a TRPM8 antagonist.

The term potency, as defined by the Merck Manual, refers to the concentration (EC50) or dose (ED50) of a chemistry required to produce 50% of the chemistry's maximal effect as depicted by a graded dose-response curve. EC50 equals Kd (Dissociation constant, which is a measure of 50% of the substance in question bound to the receptor) when there is a linear relationship between occupancy and response. Often, signal amplification occurs between receptor occupancy and response, which results in the EC50 for response being much less (ie, positioned to the left on the abscissa of the log dose-response curve) than KD for receptor occupancy. Potency depends on both the affinity of chemistry for its receptor, and the efficiency with which chemistry-receptor interaction is coupled to response. The dose of chemistry required to produce an effect is inversely related to potency. In general, low potency is important only if it results in a need to administer the chemistry in large doses that are impractical. Quantal dose-response curves provide information on the potency of chemistry that is different from the information derived from graded dose-response curves. In a quantal dose-response relationship, the ED50 is the dose at which 50% of individuals exhibit the specified quantal effect.

Coolants or compounds that have a physiological cooling effect particularly on oral and other mucosal surfaces and skin are common ingredients in a wide variety of products, including edible compositions, personal care compositions, and in flavor or perfume compositions. Examples of edible compositions include confectionery, candies, chocolate, chewing gum, beverages and oral medicines. Personal care compositions, including oral care compositions, have been described previously. The pleasant cooling sensation provided by coolants contributes to the appeal and acceptability of the products. In particular, oral care products, such as dentifrices and mouthwashes are formulated with coolants because they provide breath freshening effects and a clean, cool, fresh feeling in the mouth.

It is now well established that sensations such as cool or cold can be attributed to activation of receptors at peripheral nerve fibers by a stimulus such as low temperature or a chemical coolant, which produces electrochemical signals that travel to the brain, which then interprets, organizes and integrates the incoming signals into a perception or sensation. Different classes of receptors have been implicated in sensing cold temperatures or chemical coolant stimuli at mammalian sensory nerve fibers. Among these receptors, a major candidate involved in sensing cold has been identified and designated as cold- and menthol-sensitive receptor (CMR1) or TRPM8. The TRPM8 nomenclature for the receptor comes from its characterization as a non-selective cation channel of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family, which is activated by stimuli including low temperatures, menthol and other chemical coolants. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the perception of a pleasant cooling sensation on skin or oral surfaces are presently not clearly understood. While it has been demonstrated that the TRPM8 receptor is activated by menthol and other coolants, it is not fully understood what other receptors may be involved, and to what extent these receptors need to be stimulated or perhaps suppressed in order for the overall perceived sensation to be pleasant, cooling and refreshing. For example, menthol is widely used as a cooling agent, but menthol can also produce other sensations including tingling, burning, prickling and stinging as well as a minty smell and bitter taste. Thus, it can be inferred that menthol acts on many different receptors, including cold, warm, pain and taste receptors.

Examples of solvents that can be used to solubilize compounds of the present invention, such as compound 28—as discussed below, are based upon solubility parameters and cohesion properties explained by Charles Hansen in “Hansen Solubility Parameters: A User's Handbook” by Charles M. Hansen, CRC Press (2007) and in “The CRC Handbook and Solubility Parameters and Cohesion Parameters,” Edited by Allan F. M. Barton (1999). Each material is defined by three points in 3D space and these three points are known as the Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSP) which may be defined as follows.

Solubility parameters are theoretically calculated numerical constants, which are a useful tool in predicting the ability of a solvent material to dissolve a particular solute. When the solubility parameters of a solvent falls within the solubility parameter range of a solute, i.e., the material to be dissolved, solubilization of the solute is likely to occur. There are three Hansen empirically and theoretically derived solubility parameters, a dispersion-force component (δD), a polar or dipole interaction component (δP) and a hydrogen-bonding component (δH). Each of the three parameters (i.e., dispersion, polar and hydrogen bonding) represents a different characteristic of solvency, or solvent capability. In combination, the three parameters are a measure of the overall strength and selectivity of a solvent. The Total Hansen solubility parameter, which is the square root of the sum of the squares of the three parameters mentioned previously, provides a more general description of the solvency of the solvents. Individual and total Solubility Parameter units are given in MPa0.5. Solubility parameters for a material may then be plotted in a normal three-dimensional graph. From the location (δD, δP, δH), a radius is projected to form a sphere, which encompasses a region of solubility such that any solvent whose parameters reside within this space should dissolve the solute in question. The distance between the HSP coordinate of material (i.e., the solute) to the HSP coordinates of material (solvent) is designated herein as Ra. The 3D distance, Ra, is defined by the equation: Ra2=4(δD1−δD2)2+(δP1−δP2)2+(δH1−δH2)2 The sphere equation of Hansen was calculated to center the target molecules of choice, in this case, compound 28 and the various isomers (L, D, and neo) and enantiomers of each. The target Polar, Dispersive, and Hydrogen Bonding HSP are the Hansen solubility parameters of the target molecule as calculated by “Molecular Modeling Pro” software, version 5.1.9 (ChemSW, Fairfield Calif., www.chemsw.com) or Hansen Solubility from Dynacomp Software. The solubility parameters of every solvent in this analysis were also calculated via this software. Within the sphere having a radius Ra=14 are solvents into which compound 28 and isomer materials will be soluble. For solubility >5% in the selected solvents, the preferred range of δdispersion is ±3 units, from about 15.2 to 21.2 (MPa)0.5. The preferred range of δpolarity is ±6 units, from about 0 to 10.8 (MPa)0.5. The preferred range of δHydrogen bonding is ±13 units, from about 0 to 25 (MPa)0.5. The HSP of compound 28 were calculated as dispersion=17.8, polarity=5.6, and hydrogen bonding=9.0. Non-limiting examples of flavor and fragrance raw materials having suitable Hansen Solubility Parameters used to solubilize the carboxamide derivative include menthone, carvone, pine oil, cinnamic aldehyde, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, eucalyptol, 1,2-propane diol, 1,3-propane diol, hexane, ethanolamine, cyclodextrins, and triacetin.

Ideally, a coolant can produce a cooling or freshness sensation similar to that produced by menthol, but without certain of the disadvantages associated with menthol, such as flavor modification, bitter aftertaste, off-flavor, strong odor and burning or irritating sensation, particularly at high concentrations. It is desirable that the coolant compounds barely possess a distinctive odor or flavor while providing a pleasant fresh cool sensation of prolonged duration, in order that the effect can still be perceived for a considerable time after use, for example, longer than 15 minutes. Menthol generally provides an initial high cooling impact, but its effect is somewhat transient in that the cool sensation drops sharply within a few minutes after use. By contrast, a number of longer lasting coolant compounds may fail to provide an immediate cooling perception, i.e., within a few seconds of application, particularly when used at low levels. Thus there is a continuing need for means to potentiate the activity of coolant chemicals, in terms of quickening the onset of the cooling sensation, intensifying the cooling sensation, especially at lower concentrations, and producing a longer lasting sensation of cooling and freshness than what menthol provides.

As stated previously, the present invention is directed to the discovery that specific 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)-, (1R,2S,5R) cyclohexanecarboxamide structures, as shown below, deliver the means to drive a cooling response at low concentrations.

Structure I, which includes compounds of the present invention, as shown below, and which includes compound 28, represents a genus that has been surprisingly found to be useful as modulators of TRPM8 activation. Structure I represents a heteroalkyl substituted aryl or heteroalkyl-aryl substituted alkyl carboxamide of methanol having the shown below structure and including any acceptable salts or solvates thereof; wherein:

embedded image

    • R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy;
    • Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • W=H2, O;
    • X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0;
    • X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom;
    • A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and
    • stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

A number of stereoisomers are contemplated in the above Structure I, where substitution is allowed and the relative configuration of each stereo center will dictate the activity towards the receptor. While it is known that the stereochemistry of side chain groups may be important to the activity of the molecule, the activity of these compounds in vivo is highly unpredictable. In some cases, isomers of the same molecule may have comparable activity. In other cases, stereoisomers of the same molecule could have enhanced or diminished activity towards the receptor. In some cases, individual stereoisomers may have no activity.

Specific compounds of interest may derive from the 1R,2S,5R configuration found in natural (−)-menthol. In these cases, the stereoisomeric derivatives of 1R,2S,5R-menthyl carboxamide will be found in the substituted alkyl side chain fragment of the molecule. While the 1R,2S,5R configuration is known to be important to activity, the 1S,2S,5R neo-isomer of N-substituted menthyl carboxamide derivatives has also shown promise.

embedded image

    • R1 is selected from H, alkyl, amino alkyl, alkoxy;
    • Q=H2, O, —OR1, —N(R1)2, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • V=NR1, O, —OPO(OR1)x, —PO(OR1)x, —P(OR1)x where x=1-2;
    • W=H2, O;
    • X, Y=independently selected from H, aryl, naphthyl for n=0;
    • X, Y=aliphatic CH2 or aromatic CH for n≧1 and Z is selected from aliphatic CH2, aromatic CH, or heteroatom;
    • A=lower alkoxy, lower alkylthio, aryl, subsitituted aryl or fused aryl; and
    • stereochemistry is variable at the positions marked*.

In the case of compounds 28 and 776 (which would fall under Structure IA; and are discussed in more detail below), excellent activity is seen where the amino acid derived side chain (alanine) contains both the R (28) and S (776) configurations. In these cases, while not being limited to theory, specific activity among isomers is determined by the unique structural elements within the molecule in addition to the exact stereochemistry. While it is known that molecules having the right balance of hydrogen bonding groups (i.e. —NHR, —OH, —CONHR, etc.), Log P value, and molecular weight range are preferred, unique structural elements can contribute to activity within these preferred ranges. The current compounds of interest contain polar groups in the side-chain which are capable of both hydrogen bonding and balancing the lipophilicity of the overall structure. The stereochemical features within these molecules also impart a 3D dimensionality to the structure which can enhance interaction with specific receptors. It is believed that these unique structural features lead to enhanced affinity for the receptor which translates into the prolonged cooling effects which have been observed.

It has been discovered that cyclohexanecarboxamide, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)-, (1R,2S,5R) (CAS#824947-52-6) and cyclohexanecarboxamide, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-(2-phenylethyl)-, (1R,2S,5R) (CAS#847564-71-0) structures (shown above) with 2-amino-propanamide (CAS#4726-84-5) have enhanced long lasting cooling properties and cyclohexanecarboxamide, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-phenyl-, (1R,2S,5R) and cyclohexanecarboxamide, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-N-1-naphthalenyl-(1R,2S,5R) (CAS#863091-95-6) structures with an aminoethane (CAS#75-04-7) moiety deliver a warming sensation. Both types of cyclohexanecarboxamide (cooling and warming) are efficacious at low use levels (1-10 ppm). The advantage of using such low levels of these materials allows for their formulation into higher water compositions, such as mouthrinses, without the need for additional processing aids, such as co-surfactants, oils, or other suspension agents. These materials may also provide mitigation of off tasting sensations, such as that derived from metal salts, peroxide, and CPC.

Other suitable uses for long lasting TRPM8 activity as exemplified from compound 28, would be for food applications; skin conditions, such as treatments for non-keratinzed stratified epithelium; analgesic applications as pain mitigation agents; reductions in inflammation; additives to cigarettes; topical salves for muscle pain, for chronic pain from osteoarthritis, and for chemotherapy induced neuropathy; skin barrier recovery accelerants; and antipruritic or antiseptic medications; and for vasoconstriction in relaxed vessels.

The levels of use for compounds of the present invention, such as compound 28, depend upon the targeted TRPM8 area of the body. For example in an oral application of a compound of the present invention, such as dentifrice, floss, chewing gum, or white strip, the levels of use may be from about 0.00001% to about 0.1%; from about 0.00005% to about 0.1%; from about 0.0001% to about 0.05%; or from about 0.001% to about 0.01% by weight of the composition. When a compound of the present invention is used in a mouthwash, the level of use may be from about 0.000001% to about 0.01% or from about 0.0001% to about 0.001% by weight of the composition. When a compound of the present invention, such as compound 28, is delivered topically, for example in shampoos and lotions the levels may be from about 0.001% to about 0.5% by weight of the composition or from about 0.01% to about 0.4% by weight of the composition.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

To determine what effect, if any, test compounds (shown in TABLE 1) had on TRPM8 (SEQ ID NO: 3), TRPA1 (SEQ ID NO: 2), and TRPV1 (SEQ ID NO: 1) activation the protocols listed below were used.

TRPM8 Protocol-FLIPR Assay

To determine whether TRPM8 is activated, the intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) level was measured from transfected cells with the TRPM8 receptor sequence (SEQ ID NO: 3). HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells stably transfected with human TRPM8 were grown in 15 ml growth medium (high glucose DMEM (Dulbecco's Modification of Eagle's Medium) supplemented with 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), 100 ug/ml penicillin/streptomycin, 5 μg/ml blasticindin, and 100 μg/ml zeocin) in a 75 cm2 flask for 3 days at 37° C. in a mammalian cell culture incubator set at 5% CO2. Cells were detached with addition of 2 ml of trypsin-EDTA buffer (GIBCO® 25200, Invitrogen, Grand Island, N.Y.) for about 2-3 min. Trypsin was inactivated by addition of 8 ml growth medium. Cells were transferred to a 50 ml tube and centrifuged at 850 rpm for 3 minutes to remove medium. After centrifugation, a pellet of cells was formed in the bottom of the tube separating them from the supernatant solution. The supernatant was discarded and the cell pellet was suspended in 1 ml of fresh growth medium to which 5 μl (12.5 μg) of Fluo-4 AM (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, Oreg.) calcium indicator was added and incubated for 30 min with gentle shaking. Fluo-4 AM is a fluorescent dye used for quantifying cellular Ca2+ concentrations in the 100 nM to 1 microM range. At the end of 30 minutes, 45 ml of assay buffer (1×HBSS (Hank's Balanced Salt Solution), 20 mM HEPES (4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid)) was added to wash cells and the resulting mixture was then centrifuged at 850 rpm for 3 minutes to remove excess buffer and Fluo-4 AM calcium indicator.

The pelleted cells were re-suspended in 10 ml assay buffer and 90 μl aliquots (50,000 cells) per well delivered to a 96-well assay plate containing 10 μl of test compounds (1 mM in assay buffer, final concentration 100 μM) or buffer control and incubated at room temperature for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, a plate was placed into a fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR384 from Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, Calif.) and basal fluorescence recorded (excitation wave length 488 nm and emission wave length 510 nm). Then 20 μl of 100 mM of TRPM8 agonist WS5 coolant in the assay buffer was added and fluorescence recorded. For determining the direct effect of test compounds on TRPM8, fluorescence was measured immediately after addition of each compound (TABLES 2 and 3). Additional discussion of the FLIPR method can be found in Smart et al., Characterization using FLIPR of human vanilloid VR1 receptor pharmacology, European Journal of Pharmacology 417, 51-58 (2001) and Liu et al., Development and validation of a platelet calcium flux assay using a fluorescent imaging plate reader, Analytical Biochemistry 357, 216-224 (2006).

TRPA1 Protocol—FLIPR Assay

To determine whether TRPA1 is activated, the intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) level from transfected cells with the TRPA1 receptor sequence (SEQ ID NO: 2) was measured. HEK-293 cells stably transfected with human TRPA1 were grown in 15 ml growth medium (high glucose DMEM (Dulbecco's Modification of Eagle's Medium) supplemented with 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), 100 μg/ml penicillin/streptomycin, 100 μg/ml G418) in a 75 cm2 flask for 3 days at 37° C. in a mammalian cell culture incubator set at 5% CO2. Cells were detached with addition of 10 ml of PBS (phosphate buffered saline) by hand shaking gently and transferred to a 50 ml tube and centrifuged at 850 rpm for 3 minutes to remove PBS. After centrifugation, a pellet of cells was formed in the bottom of the tube separating them from the supernatant solution. The supernatant was discarded and the cell pellet suspended in 1 ml of fresh growth medium to which 5 μl (12.5 μg) of Fluo-4 AM (Molecular Probes, Inc.) calcium indicator was added and incubated for 30 minutes with gentle shaking. At the end of the 30 minutes, 45 ml of assay buffer (1×HBSS (Hank's Balanced Salt Solution), 20 mM HEPES (4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid)) was added to wash the cells and the resulting combination was then centrifuged at 850 rpm for 3 minutes to remove excess buffer and Fluo-4 AM calcium indicator.

The pelleted cells were re-suspended in 10 ml assay buffer and 90 μl aliquots (˜50,000 cells) per well delivered to a 96-well assay was placed into a fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR TETRA from Molecular Devices) and basal fluorescence recorded (excitation wave length 488 nm and emission wave length 510 nm). Then 20 μl of the test compound being tested was added and fluorescence recorded (TABLES 2 and 3).

To determine if a compound was an agonist the direct effect of a test compound was determined. If any increase in fluorescence over background was noted, then the compound was considered an agonist. The agonist activity was expressed relative to that observed with a benchmark agonist such as 50 μM allyl isothiocyanate for TRPA1.

TRPV1 Protocol—FLIPR Assay

To determine whether TRPV1 was activated, the intracellular calcium ion (Ca+2) levels from cells transfected with the TRPV1 receptor sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) were measured. HEK-239 cells stably transfected with human TRPV1 were grown in 15 ml growth medium (high glucose DMEM (Dulbecco's Modification of Eagle's Medium) supplemented with 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), 100 μg/ml Penicillin/streptomycin, 100 μg/ml G418) in a 75 cm2 flask for 3 days at 33° C. in a mammalian cell culture incubator set at 5% CO2. Cells were detached with addition of 10 ml of PBS (phosphate buffered saline) by gentle hand shaking. Cells were transferred to a 50 ml tube and centrifuged at 850 rpm for 3 minutes to remove PBS. After centrifugation, a pellet of cells formed in the bottom of the tube separating them from the supernatant solution. The supernatant was discarded and the cell pellet suspended in 1 ml of fresh growth medium to which 5 μl (12.5 μg) of Fluo-4 AM (Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, Oreg.) calcium indicator was added and incubated for 30 minutes with gentle shaking. At the end of the 30 minutes, 45 ml of assay buffer (1×HBSS (Hank's Balanced Salt Solution), 20 mM HEPES (4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid)) was added to wash the cells and the resulting combination was then centrifuged at 850 rpm for 3 minutes to remove excess buffer and Fluo-4 AM calcium indicator.

The pelleted cells were re-suspended in 10 ml assay buffer and 90 μl aliquots (˜50,000 cells) per well delivered to a 96-well assay plate was placed into a fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR TETRA from Molecular Devices) and basal fluorescence recorded (excitation wave length 488 nm and emission wave length 510 nm). Then 20 μl of a test compound-being tested as a TRPV1 receptor agonist was added and fluorescence recorded. The observed value with compound pretreated cells was compared with buffer control; the difference between the two indicating a measure of effect of the test compound on the agonist (TABLES 2 and 3).

If any increase in fluorescence over background was noted, then the compound was considered an agonist. The agonist activity was expressed relative to that observed with a benchmark agonist such as 350 nM Capsaicin for TRPV1.

TABLE 1
Test
Com-
pounds180773776
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Test
Com-
pounds7772830
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TABLE 2
Concentration Tested on HEK 293 receptor expressing cells
Concentration of each
test compoundTRPM8TRPA1TRPV1
1800.001%0.001% 0.001% 
7730.004%0.02%0.02%
7760.004%0.02%0.02%
7770.004%0.02%0.02%
 285.2E−6%5.2E−5%5.2E−5%
 305.2E−5%5.2E−5%5.2E−5%
WS530
microMolar
Allyl Isothiocyanate50
(AITC)microMolar
Capsaicin350
nanoMolar

TABLE 2 illustrates the concentration of each test compound when it was tested across the HEK 293 receptor containing cells.

TABLE 3
Receptor Activity
Tested CompoundsTRPM8TRPA1TRPV1
180108.80% 68.02% 0.01%
773141.07%198.79%92.07%
776139.41%112.99%94.61%
777139.37%173.88% 60.5%
 28130.42%242.50%104.50% 
 30109.70% 38.18%16.24%
WS5  100%
Allyl Isothiocyanate  100%
(AITC)
Capsaicin  100%

TABLE 3 showed the cell based receptor activity across the three receptors (TRPM8, TRPA1, and TRPV1). Compound 28 had surprisingly high activity across all three receptors, indicating it could deliver a variety of sensations depending on the concentration, when tested in vivo.

TABLE 3 shows the impact of each structure on the following receptors: TRPM8 (cooling); TRPA1 (burning, numbing, tingling, irritation); and TRPV1 (warming). The intensity of the described test compound across three receptors (TRPM8, TRPA1, and TRPV1) was compared to that of the control test compounds (WS5 for TRPM8, Allyl Isothiocyanate for TRPA1, and Capsaicin for TRPV1). The aminoethane moiety on compounds 773 and 777 directed the underlying phenyl cyclohexanecarboxamide to shift from perceived cooling to burning (high TRPA1 activity from 777) and warming (high TRPV1 activity from 773). Further, the potency of compound 28 relative to other carboxamide structures is illustrated from TABLES 2 and 3. For instance, at a screening level of 0.0000052% compound 28 delivered 130% of WS5 activity and WS5 was tested at 0.003%. N-(4-cyanomethylphenyl)-p-menthanecarboxamide was tested at 0.001% to get to 109% of WS5 activity. Therefore, at a single concentration, compound 28 is 100× more mass efficient than the next best coolant in class, N-(4-cyanomethylphenyl)-p-menthanecarboxamide. The EC50 values, as discussed later, show it is even more mass efficient as it is diluted, since it retains high activity at very low use levels.

Compounds 28 and 30 show additional structures with the aforementioned moieties 2-amino-propanamide adjacent to a phenyl ring for cooling; and ethanolamine adjacent to a phenyl ring for warming and/or burning sensations. When the aminoethane is off a phenyl ring, the sensorial component of the molecule appeared to diminish, as shown by the lack of sensation, cooling or warming, from test compound 30. The aminoethane (test compound 777) on a naphthalene moiety delivered a burning sensation. Compound 28 was highly potent on activation of the TRPM8 receptor as shown in TABLE 3 and in the reported cooling sensations by the panelists.

Example 2

Sensory evaluation studies of coolant activity were conducted using a methodology patterned after the techniques described in M. C. Meilgaard, et al., Sensory Evaluation Techniques, 4th Ed. (2007). Five panelists brushed with a dentifrice for two minutes from TABLE 4 (SAMPLES A to G), SAMPLES C to G containing the test compounds in TABLE 1 in a flavor (peppermint) at 10 parts per million (ppm) and SAMPLE B containing 100 ppm of compound 180 (Cyclohexanecarboxamide, N-[4-(cyanomethyl)phenyl]-5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)), as the control coolant. After brush expectoration, panelists then rinsed their mouth with 15 ml of an aqueous rinse and expectorated. As shown in TABLE 5, panelists then evaluated cooling intensity, assigning a number between 0 (no cooling) to 90.

The test compounds from TABLE 1 were placed into dentifrice 4C-4G, shown in TABLE 4 and rated for their intensity and duration of cooling, as shown in TABLES 5 and 6. The scale was 0, which is no cooling sensation, to 90, which is a sensation as cold as ice.

TABLE 4
Dentifrice formulations containing the compounds from TABLE 1
SAMPLES
A
Ingredient(Control)BCDEFG
FD&C Blue #10.045%0.045%0.045%0.045%0.045%0.045%0.045%
Color Solution
Sodium Fluoride0.243%0.243%0.243%0.243%0.243%0.243%0.243%
CARBOMER 9560.300%0.300%0.300%0.300%0.300%0.300%0.300%
Sodium Saccharin0.300%0.300%0.300%0.300%0.300%0.300%0.300%
Sodium0.419%0.419%0.419%0.419%0.419%0.419%0.419%
Phosphate,
Monobasic,
Monohydrate
Titanium Dioxide0.525%0.525%0.525%0.525%0.525%0.525%0.525%
Carboxymethycellu-0.800%0.800%0.800%0.800%0.800%0.800%0.800%
lose Sodium
Peppermint Flavor1.000%1.000%1.000%1.000%1.000%1.000%1.000%
Coolant   0%
180 0.01%
Compound 7730.001%
Compound 7760.001%
Compound 7770.001%
Compound 280.001%
Compound 300.001%
Tribasic Sodium1.100%1.100%1.100%1.100%1.100%1.100%1.100%
Phosphate
Dodecahydrate
Sodium Lauryl4.000%4.000%4.000%4.000%4.000%4.000%4.000%
Sulfate 28%
Solution
Silica, Dental15.000% 15.000% 15.000% 15.000% 15.000% 15.000% 15.000% 
Type, NF
(Zeodent 119)
SORBITOL54.673% 54.673% 54.673% 54.673% 54.673% 54.673% 54.673% 
SOLUTION LRS
USP
Water Purified,QS*QS*QS*QS*QS*QS*QS*
USP, PhEur, JP,
JSCI
*QS refers to the term quantum sufficit, meaning as much as suffices, where the remainder of the formula hole is filled with this substance.

TABLE 5
Panelists evaluated cooling properties
Initial 015304560
SAMPLETimeminutesmin.minmin.minutes
C (773)Sensory15.012.59.29.210.8
D (776)measures24.030.024.020.019
E (777)(0 = none,20.023.813.88.87.5
B (180)90 =31.031.025.013.05.0
F (28)maximum)37.044.044.051.061.0
G (30)35.028.820.013.812.5
A (No Coolant)27.522.511.36.31.3

TABLE 6
Panelists Sensory Observations
SAMPLEPanel (n = 5)
B (180)5 min delay in sensation
Cool initially, then moves into tingle/burn
Sensation lasts for 3 h (concentration dependent)
C (773)5 min delay in sensation
Persistent warming sensation
Lasts for 1 h
D (776)5 min delay in sensation
Initial tingle/warm, which turned into a cooling
sensation that moved to the back of the throat
Lasts for 2-3 h
E (777)5 min delay in sensation
Burning/tingle, almost hot sensation
Lasts for 30 min.
F (28)Cooling kicks in after 15 min. and lasts over 3
hours. The sensation starts on the lips and front of
the mouth and progresses to the back of the throat.
G (30)No cooling or other sensations observed

Results shown in TABLES 5 and 6 showed that compound 28, shown in TABLE 1, delivered intense long-lasting cooling even at a low concentration of 10 parts per million, where compound 180 at 100 parts per million was less intense over 60 minutes. Compound 28 provided a cooling sensation from 15 minutes through the duration of the test. Most panelists commented on the sensation lasting for more than 3 hours. For compound 28, the intensity of the cooling was amplified with the drinking of water, as panelists noticed that it provided a burst of cooling sensation after the water had flowed over the soft tissues of the gum and throat. Compound 776 also displayed intense cooling that lasted for two to three hours, even though it was not as intense as compound 28. Since both compounds (776 and 28) were tested at 10 parts per million, their perceived intensity would be expected to be higher and last longer as the concentration is increased. Surprisingly, compounds 773 and 777 displayed a high degree of burning and/or warming, even though their TRPM8 activity was greater than the comparative control coolant molecule WS5. Compound 30 had no sensations, even though it had TRPM8 activity greater than WS5.

An observation of the panelists was that certain flavor types would bring out a burning/tingle sensation prior to the cooling sensation. For instance, compound 28 was combined with a Wintergreen flavor, it would display a throat burn/tingle for the first half hour of use, in addition to the cool sensation. When combined with a Peppermint flavor, it would be noted as predominately cooling. These observations were consistent with an amplifying effect of specific TRP receptors. The Wintergreen flavor inherently contains two strong TRPA1 activators in Cinnamic Aldehyde and Methyl Salicylate. Since compound 28 also has a potent TRPA1 activation in addition to TRPM8, the additional A1 signals would likely be synergistic in building a stronger A1 signal to the brain, than without the flavor A1 components. Whereas, Peppermint contains predominantly TRPM8 agonists, though with much lower TRPM8 EC50's than compound 28, and thus would be synergistic with a cooling signal. Further, addition of calcium channel enhancers (calcium soluble chelants), as exemplified in US Pub. No. 2010/0086498, may provide an additional boost to the perceived cooling by amplifying the TRPM8 sensation. Such non-limiting examples of coolant enhancers would be phytic acid, polyphosphates with a chain length of greater than or equal to 3, carboxylate polymers, such as Gantrez S-97, and polyols.

Cooling can be further enhanced by combining with select TRPV1 warming agents. Non-limiting examples of TRPV1 warming agents would be capsaicin, vanillyl butyl ether, vanillyl ethyl ether, zingerone, and piperine. Other warming agents have previously been described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,673,844.

Combinations of compound 28 with other TRPM8 coolants may provide a quicker onset of cooling with a higher intensity than either used alone. Combining compound 28 with another coolant would allow for even less of compound 28 to be used while still providing considerable (>3 hours) freshness longevity, which may be perceived as a cooling sensation. Examples of coolant combinations that could be used include WS23, menthane diols, menthyl carboxamide derivatives, such as WS3, WS5, N-(4-cyanomethylphenyl)-p-menthanecarboxamide, and WS12.

Example 3

Isomer Characterization of Compound 28

Two fractions of compound 28, as discussed below, were collected in gram quantities. The isomeric content of these two compound 28 fractions was characterized by LC-UV-MS using a Waters Acuity H Class, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph (UPLC), equipped with the Sample Manager, Quaternary Solvent Manager, Tunable Ultraviolet (TUV) detector, and a QDa mass selective, single-quadrupole mass analyzer (Waters Corporation, Milford, Mass.). To prepare for analysis and characterization, a solid sample of each fraction was weighed and dissolved at approximately 100 μg/mL in a solution consisting of 50% deionized water/50% methanol (MeOH, HPLC grade from EMD Millipore Corporation, Billerica, Mass.) and also containing 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, Sigma Aldrich Corporation, St. Louis, Mo.).

The separation of isomers contained within each fraction of compound 28 was achieved with a 2.1×100 mm Acuity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column with 1.7 μm particles (Waters Corporation, Milford, Mass.). A mobile phase gradient was utilized with mobile phase (A) consisting of water plus 0.1% TFA from Sigma Aldrich, and mobile phase (B) consisting of MeOH from EMD. The mobile phase composition was equilibrated prior to injection at 75% (A)/25% (B) and, following a 5 μl sample injection, the mobile phase composition was ramped linearly to 100% (B) at 10 minutes. 100% of mobile phase (B) was held for 3 minutes before ramping back to the original conditions in 2 minutes. A mobile phase flow rate of 0.4 mL/minute was maintained throughout. UV traces were obtained by monitoring detector absorbance at 215 nm. QDa positive ion mass spectra of the peaks in the UV traces shown within FIGS. 1 to 3 displayed intense protonated molecular ions at m/z 374, as expected, given the structure of compound 28, and indicating the components highlighted within FIGS. 1 to 3 are isomeric species of compound 28.

UV analysis of compound 28-fractions 1 and 2 are shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, respectively, indicating excellent retention time repeatability and a very good separation of the isomers found within these mixtures. FIG. 3 provides a UV overlay of a representative analysis from fraction 1 and fraction 2, highlighting the differences in isomeric composition for these two fractions of compound 28.

FIG. 3 shows the HPLC of the isomers of compound 28. The fraction labeled fraction 1, collected at 7.4 to 7.5 minutes corresponds to the main isomer and lesser isomers that deliver the intense cooling and a low EC50 as determined from the TRPM8 activity as shown in TABLES 7, 8 and 9 below. The fraction labeled fraction 2, collected from 7.20 to 7.38 minutes corresponded to the isomers of compound 28 with much lower TRPM8 values, which did not provide a cooling response at the dose tested as shown in TABLES 7, 8 and 9.

TRPM8 activation was determined by measuring intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) level from transfected cells with the TRPM8 receptor gene, as described in EXAMPLE 1, the results of which are shown in TABLES 7 and 8.

TABLE 7
TRPM8 Time Course Activity of compound 28
50 sec %3 min %5 min %10 min %
SampleDose50 secof WS53 minof WS55 minof WS510 minof WS5
Assay Bufferna0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
WS-530uM10059.7100.09449.3100.09468.0100.09576.0100.0
Compound 28100uM12646.0125.712520.0132.512844.0135.713187.0137.7
fraction 150uM12419.0123.512295.0130.112654.0133.713169.0137.5
25uM13046.0129.713020.0137.813354.0141.014341.0149.8
12.5uM12430.0123.612591.0133.312997.0137.313947.0145.6
6.25uM12229.0121.612775.0135.213098.0138.314102.0147.3
3.125uM11637.0115.712602.0133.412939.0136.713850.0144.6
1.563uM11114.0110.512135.0128.412499.0132.013440.0140.4
781nM9786.097.312182.0128.912618.0133.313661.0142.7
390nM7592.075.511373.0120.411968.0126.413121.0137.0
195nM5418.053.911037.0116.811824.0124.913046.0136.2
97.6nM3963.039.49744.0103.110711.0113.112011.0125.4
48.8nM2916.029.08017.084.88983.094.910224.0106.8
24.4nM1936.019.26405.067.87593.080.28879.092.7
12.2nM3018.030.08783.093.09830.0103.811065.0115.5
6.1nM884.08.83452.036.54426.046.75375.056.1

TABLE 8
TRPM8 Time Course Activity of Isomer of compound 28
50 sec %3 min %5 min %10 min %
SampleDose50 secof WS53 minof WS55 minof WS510 minof WS5
Assay Bufferna0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
WS-530uM10059.7100.09449.3100.09468.0100.09576.0100.0
Compound 28100uM12246.0121.711826.0125.212074.0127.512287.0128.3
fraction 250uM12648.0125.712352.0130.712644.0133.513179.0137.6
25uM12110.0120.411993.0126.912284.0129.713140.0137.2
12.5uM12415.0123.412501.0132.312801.0135.213755.0143.6
6.25uM12236.0121.612644.0133.812891.0136.213793.0144.0
3.125uM11757.0116.912699.0134.412937.0136.613890.0145.1
1.563uM11331.0112.612663.0134.012954.0136.813892.0145.1
781nM10428.0103.712887.0136.413091.0138.314116.0147.4
390nM8766.087.111955.0126.512301.0129.913026.0136.0
195nM7287.072.411477.0121.512007.0126.812427.0129.8
97.6nM5007.049.810101.0106.910747.0113.511375.0118.8
48.8nM2502.024.97721.081.78488.089.69289.097.0
24.4nM2311.023.06441.068.27226.076.37848.082.0
12.2nM1814.018.05446.057.66224.065.76809.071.1
6.1nM1944.019.34350.046.04763.050.34844.050.6

The TRPM8 data shown in TABLES 7 and 8, where TABLE 7 corresponds to fraction 1 and TABLE 8 corresponds to fraction 2, compares the dose response of the two HPLC separations, of the isomers (fraction 1, fraction 2) of compound 28. As shown in TABLES 7 and 8, both fractions activate TRPM8 rapidly at 781 nM of each. However, fraction 1 continued to activate at lower and lower doses compared to fraction 2. Fraction 1 was 103.8% of the control at 5 minutes of activation from a 12.2 nM dose; whereas, fraction 2 at the same time point and dose was 65.7% of the control. At 10 minutes of activation, the 12.2 nM dose was 115.5% of the control for fraction 1 and 71.1% of the control for fraction 2. These differences in isomers were further illustrated in the EC50 values as shown in TABLE 9 below.

TABLE 9
EC50 Calculation of Isomer fractions
EC50 in
TRPM8 (μM)50 sec3 min5 min10 min
fraction 20.19720.055480.045670.0374
fraction 10.33060.001476~5.235E−008~1.148E−007

In an oral application of a compound of the present invention, such as from a dentifrice, lozenge, floss, chewing gum, or white strip, when compound 28 is split into isomers or combined, the levels of use may be from about 10% to about 70% of fraction 1 and about 10% to about 70% of fraction 2 or from about 30% to about 60% of fraction 1 and about 30% to about 60% of fraction 2. When compound 28, either isomer or combined isomers, is combined with a TRPA1 agonist, TRPV1 agonist, or both, the level of use of a TRPA1 or TRPV1 agonist would be in the range of about 0.001% to about 0.5% or from about 0.01% to about 0.2% by weight of the composition of either the TRPA1 or TRPV1 agonists, where both TRPA1 agonists and/or TRPV1 agonists may be added separately or simultaneously to the composition containing compound 28. When another TRPM8 agonist, in addition to compound 28, is used, the level of use of the additional TRPM8 agonist may be from about 0.001% to about 0.5% or from about 0.005% to about 0.3% by weight of the composition. If a TRPM8 enhancer is used, in addition to compound 28, it may be added in a range of from about 0.001% to about 0.2% or from about 0.005% to about 0.1% by weight of the composition. Compositions of the present invention may contain multiple TRPA1 and TRPV1 agonists in the ranges disclosed above to deliver the enhanced sensorial signal from compound 28.

In a topical application of a compound of the present invention, for example in shampoos and lotions, when compound 28 is split into isomers or combined, the levels of use may be from about 10% to about 70% of fraction 1 and about 10% to about 70% of fraction 2 or from about 30% to about 60% of fraction 1 and about 30% to about 60% of fraction 2. When compound 28, either isomer or combined isomers, is combined with a TRPA1 and/or a TRPV1 agonist, the level of use of a TRPA1 or TRPV1 agonist may be in the range of from about 0.001% to about 0.5% or from about 0.01% to about 0.2% by weight of the composition of either of the TRPA1 or TRPV1 agonists, where both TRPA1 agonists and TRPV1 agonists may be added separately or simultaneously to the composition containing compound 28. When another TRPM8 agonist is used, in addition to compound 28, the level of use of the additional TRPM8 agonist may be from about 0.001% to about 0.5% or from about 0.005% to about 0.3% by weight of the composition. If a TRPM8 enhancer is used, in addition to compound 28, it may be used in levels of from about 0.001% to about 0.2% or from about 0.005% to about 0.1% by weight of the composition. The compositions may contain multiple TRPA1 and TRPV1 agonists in the ranges stated to deliver the enhanced sensorial signal from compound 28.

Example 4

Compound 28 Solubility

TABLE 10
Solubility Parameter Calculation
HydrogenTotal Solubility
DispersionPolaritybondingParameter
Compound(MPa){circumflex over ( )}0.5(MPa){circumflex over ( )}0.5(MPa){circumflex over ( )}0.5(MPa){circumflex over ( )}0.5
Compound 2817.85.69.020.7

TABLE 10 outlines the Hansen solubility parameters for compound 28 and its isomers (fraction 1, fraction 2), as outlined previously. These parameters help to identify which solvents would be a good candidate for making stock solutions of >5%. Due to the low level of use in oral care products, a typical stock solution of ˜1% would be sufficient to deliver 1 to 10 ppm. Solvents for the higher (>5%) would utilize Hansen's sphere calculations and a sphere radius in the range of 5-6 would sufficiently identify solvents for the higher stock solutions. In the range of oral care use of stock solutions in the 1-5% range, solvents such as ethanol, menthol, carvone, anethol, benzyl alcohol, and the polyols commonly used in oral care products could be used to make a stock solution.

Example 5

Mouthwash Isomer Cooling

Mouthwashes were prepared, using conventional methods, which contained either fraction 1 or fraction 2 of compound 28 and provided to panelists to assess their cooling properties. The panelists swished the mouthwash in their mouths for 1 minute prior to expectoration. After expectoration, the time point of zero was started and time after rinse was counted from there until 12 hours. The panelists then rated the perceived refreshing experience as experienced by breathing in and noting the cool/refreshing sensation on the interior of the mouth and across the lips. The self-rated scale was from zero (no cooling) to 100 (maximum cooling).

TABLE 11
Mouthwash Formulation
IngredientsControlSample ASample BSample C
Cetylpyridinium 0.074%0.074%0.074%0.074%
Chloride USP
Compound 2800.00005% 00.0001% 
fraction 1
Compound 2800.00005% 0.0001% 0
fraction 2
Superol Vegetable   5%   5%   5%   5%
99.7% Glycerine
USP/FCC
Poloxamer 407 0.06% 0.06% 0.06% 0.06%
Sucralose NF0.015%0.015%0.015%0.015%
Saccharin Sodium 0.01% 0.01% 0.01% 0.01%
USP Granular, High
Moist
Methyl Paraben 0.02% 0.02% 0.02% 0.02%
Propyl Paraben0.005%0.005%0.005%0.005%
Peppermint Flavor 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
Purified Water USPQSQSQSQS
(Bottled)
*QS refers to the term quantum sufficit, meaning as much as suffices, where the remainder of the formula hole is filled with this substance.

TABLE 12
Results from panel testing of mouthwash with coolant fractions
Cool burn/thermal diffusion
Hours after use attributes
Rinse1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 h7 h8 h9 h
Sample A536360474340403727
Sample B27103000000
Sample C153050606050454540
Control500000000

The results in Table 12 showed that the mixture of fraction 1 and 2 of compound 28 (Sample A) delivered higher intensity of cooling during the first two hours after use compared with either fraction 1 (Sample C) or fraction 2 (Sample B) alone. The differences in cooling between fraction 1 (Sample C) and fraction 2 (Sample B) showed that the isomer (fraction 1) of compound 28 as depicted in FIG. 1 by the peak at 7.4 minutes was the isomer (fraction 1) that provided long lasting cooling properties. The isomer (fraction 2) corresponding to the peak from 7.20 to 7.38 minutes in FIG. 2 did not provide a strong nor long lasting cooling sensation. It was described as more of a burn/tingle than cool and the sensation trailed off in intensity between 1 and 2 hours. It does appear that there was synergy between fraction 1 and 2 where the non-cooling fraction 2 lifted the intensity of fraction 1. The intensity and duration of cooling for fraction 1 was unlike any previously tested coolant in that only 1 ppm of total coolant (compound 28—fraction 1 and 2) was able to deliver a cooling effect, either singly (fraction 1 or 2) or as a mixture of isomers (fraction 1 and 2) where even the most powerful commercially available coolant would take at least 15 ppm to deliver a similar initial intensity, but would not be able to match the duration of compound 28.

Example 6

Chewing Gum Cooling

Chewing Gum Preparation

The chewing gum formulations shown in TABLE 13 were prepared by melting chewing gum base in a microwave in 20 second increments until softened. Magnesium stearate was spread on a piece of wax paper and the softened chewing gum base was placed on the magnesium stearate coated portion of the wax paper. The gum base was coated with the magnesium stearate and kneaded with gloved hands until soft. The gum base was pressed to ¼ inch thick slabs; powdered sweetener and spray dried powdered flavor were added to the center of the surface of the gum. Added liquid flavor and two drops of colorant on top of the powdered sweetener and spray dried powdered flavor, letting the liquid flavor and colorant absorb into the spray dried powdered flavor and powdered sweetener, allowing mixing it into the gum base without losing any materials. Microwaved as needed to keep the gum base pliable. Sprinkled magnesium stearate and powdered sweetener (1.2 grams) onto the wax paper to be able to roll out without the gum base sticking and also to coat the outside with a small amount of sweetener. The gum base was set onto the magnesium stearate and powdered sweetener. Coated a stainless steel beaker in magnesium stearate and used it to press/roll out the outside of the gum base for initial sweetness. Used a molded press to cut the gum base into long strips and cut again in the perpendicular direction to get squares of ˜1.0 grams each. For the batch that contains the compound 28 fraction 1, the compound 28 fraction 1 was added to the liquid flavor and prepared as described above to give a finished concentration of 1 ppm.

TABLE 13
Gum Formulation
IngredientsControl (%)Coolant Formulation
Compound 28 fraction 10.00.0001
Spearmint Flavor Liquid3.992%   3.992%   
Spearmint spray dried flavor8%8%
Sucralose1%1%
Chewing gum baseQS to 25 gramsQS to 25 grams
Coating of finished gum1.245 g Xylitol/1.245 g Xylitol/
stearate per 1 gramstearate per 1 gram
cube of gumcube of gum

TABLE 14 shows the results of panelists sampling chewing gum controls and chewing gum containing compound 28 fraction 1. Panelists chewed the gum for 30 minutes and rated the in use chewing attributes of the gum. Those attributes were sweetness, flavor intensity, cooling, bitterness, and perception of freshness. The panelists rated these attributes on a 0 (no sensation of the attribute) to 100 (maximum sensation of the attribute). The data was reported on a gum without the coolant (control) compared to a gum containing compound 28 fraction 1.

TABLE 14
Chewing gum panel in use attributes
DuringPerception
ChewingFlavorof
AttributesSweetnessIntensityCoolingBitternessFreshness
Control Gum43.333.330.06.730.0
Gum with56.736.736.76.733.3
compound 28
fraction 1

The gum containing compound 28 fraction 1 showed improvements in the in use sweetness profile, as shown in TABLE 14.

After the panelists stopped chewing the gum as described above, they continued to rate the perception of freshness of their breath and mouth, as shown in TABLE 15. The panelists monitored the perception of freshness delivered from the gum after use by breathing in and noting the cool sensation, along with the perception of taste, and the overall perceived feeling in their mouth and on their lips. They rated from 0 (no perception of freshness) to 100 (maximum perception of freshness) over the course of 4 hours, rating at each hour. The data is reported in Table 15 below.

TABLE 15
After Chewing Attributes
After Use Perception of Freshness1 h2 h3 h4 h
Control Gum6.70.00.00.0
Gum with compound 28 fraction 133.333.330.026.7

The data reported in TABLE 15 showed that the gum containing compound 28 fraction 1 delivered a long lasting perception of freshness, as compared to the control gum.

Example 7

TABLES 16 and 17 show shave prep compositions. The water soluble polymers (poly-ethylene oxide, hydroxyethylcellulose) were added to water and mixed by stifling until the polymers were completely dissolved (about 30 min.). The aqueous mixture was then heated and the glyceryl oleate, sorbitol and fatty acids added at about 60° C. and mixed by stifling well while the heating continues. At 80-85° C. the triethanolamine was added and mixed for about 20 minutes to form the aqueous soap phase. After cooling the aqueous soap phase to room temperature (˜25° C.), the remaining components (i.e., Lubrajel, glycerin, fragrance, colorant, botanicals) were added to the aqueous soap phase and mixed by stirring well to form the gel concentrate. Water was added if required to bring the batch weight to 100%, thereby compensating for any water loss due to evaporation. The concentrate was then combined with the volatile post-foaming agent under pressure within the filling line and filled into bottom-gassed aerosol cans with shearing through the valve under nitrogen pressure.

TABLE 16
Shave Prep Compositions
Samples
Ingredients1234
Sorbitol 70% Solution0.97%0.97%0.97%0.97%
Glycerin0.49%0.49%0.49%0.49%
WaterQSQSQSQS
Hydroxyethyl cellulose10.49%0.49%0.49%0.49%
PEG-90M20.06%0.06%0.06%0.06%
PEG-23M30.05%0.05%0.05%0.05%
PTFE0.15%0.15%0.15%0.15%
Palmitic acid7.53%7.53%7.53%7.53%
Stearic acid2.53%2.53%2.53%2.53%
Glyceryl Oleate1.94%1.94%1.94%1.94%
Triethanolamine (99%)5.88%5.88%5.88%5.88%
Lubrajel Oil4 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4%
Menthol0.15%0.15%0.15%0.15%
Fragrance0.87%0.87%0.87%0.87%
Other (e.g. Vit E, Aloe,0.10%0.10%0.10%0.10%
etc.)
Compound 7760.0001%
Compound 280.0001%  0.1%
Dye0.10%0.10%0.10%0.10%
Isopentane (and)2.85%2.85%2.85%2.85%
Isobutane
1Available as Natrosol 250 HHR from Hercules Inc., Wilmington, DE
2Available as Polyox WSR-301 from Amerchol Corp., Piscataway, NJ
3Available as Polyox WSR N-1 2K from Amerchol Corp., Piscataway, NJ
4Available as Microslip 519 from Micro Powders Inc., Tarrytown, NY
4Available from Guardian Laboratories, Hauppauge, NY
*QS refers to the term quantum sufficit, meaning as much as suffices, where the remainder of the formula hole is filled with this substance

The pre-shave prep samples shown in TABLE 17 were made by weighing out the water in a vessel sufficient to hold the entire batch. Inserted an overhead mixer with impeller into the vessel and increase agitation to create a vortex. Pre-blended the thickener and polymer powders (Polyox and HEC). Sprinkled the polymer blend into the vortex until incorporated. Heated batch to 70° C. to hydrate the polymers. Added the liquid dispersion polymer (e.g., Sepigel) to the batch and mixed until uniform and hydrated, increasing rpms to maintain good mixing. Added the surfactant (e.g., Brig 35) and mixed until uniform and dispersed. Cooled batch to below 45° C. Once below 45° C., added the perfume, preservatives and other temperature-sensitive additives. Cooled to below 35° C. and QS with water.

TABLE 17
Pre-Shave Prep
Samples
Ingredients1233
WaterQSQSQSQS
Sepigel 305 (Polyacrylamide &0.50%0.50%0.50%0.50%
C13-C14 Isoparaffin
& Laureth-7)
Polyox N13K (PEG-23M)0.50%0.50%0.50%0.50%
Natrosol 250 HHR (HEC)0.80%0.80%0.80%0.80%
Glycerin 99.7% USP/Fcc 5.0% 5.0% 5.0% 5.0%
Brij 35 (Laureth 23) 2.0% 2.0% 2.0% 2.0%
Disodium EDTA0.10%0.10%0.10%0.10%
Perfume0.15%0.15%0.15%0.15%
Glydant Plus0.20%0.20%0.20%0.20%
Menthol0.04%0.04%0.04%0.04%
Compound 7760.000001% 0.000001% 0.000001%  0.1%
Compound 280.000001% 0.000001% 0.000001%  0.1%

Example 8

Shampoo compositions, as shown below in TABLE 18, were prepared using conventional methods.

TABLE 18
Samples
IngredientsABCDEFGH
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLE3S)666
Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLE1S)10.510.5121212
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)1.51.5777
Cocamidopropyl Betaine11.251.51.51.5111
Cocamide MEA11.51.51.51.5
Glycol Distearate1.51.51.51.51.51.51.51.5
Zinc Pyrithione11111111
Zinc Carbonate1.611.611.611.611.611.611.611.61
Menthol0.450.450.450.450.450.450.45
Compound 280.090.090.090.090.090.090.090.09
Fragrance0.70.70.70.70.70.70.70.7
Guar Hyrdroxypropyltrimonium0.30.30.30.30.30.230.230.23
Chloride (LMW)
Polyquaternium-100.10.10.1
(HMW)
Polyquaternium 76 (AM: Triquat)0.010.010.010.01
Stearyl Alcohol1.29
Cetyl Alcohol0.71
Dimethicone1.70.80.80.81.70.80.80.8
Hydrochloric acidQSQSQSQSQSQSQSQS
Preservative0.050.050.050.050.050.050.050.05
Sodium ChlorideQSQSQSQSQSQSQSQS
Sodium Xylene SulfonateQSQSQSQSQSQSQSQS
Sodium Benzoate (22)0.270.270.270.270.270.270.270.27
Water and Minors (QS to 100%) (23)QSQSQSQSQSQSQSQS

Conditioner compositions, as shown below in TABLES 19-23, were prepared using conventional methods.

DEFINITIONS OF COMPONENTS USED IN TABLES 19-22

  • 1. Polyquaternium-6:Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) supplied with a tradename Merquat 100 from Lubrizol, having a charge density of about 6.2 meq/g, and molecular weight of about 150,000 g/mol
  • 2. Polyquaternium-6:Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) supplied with a tradename Merquat 106 from Lubrizol having a charge density of about 6.2 meq/g, and molecular weight of about 15,000 g/mol
  • 3. Zinc pyrithione: having a particle size of from about 1 to about 10 microns
  • 4. Zinc carbonate: having a particle size of from about 1 to about 10 microns
  • 5. Aminosilicone: Terminal aminosilicone which is available from Momentive Performance Materials having a viscosity of about 10,000 mPa·s, and having following formula:


(R1)aG3-a-Si—(—OSiG2)n-O—SiG3-a(R1)a

  • wherein G is methyl; a is an integer of 1; n is a number from 400 to about 600; R1 is a monovalent radical conforming to the general formula CqH2qL, wherein q is an integer of 3 and L is —NH2.

TABLE 19
Samples
Ingredients12345
Polyquaternium-610.0750.075
Polyquaternium-620.0750.0750.075
Zinc pyrithione30.750.750.750.750.75
Zinc carbonate41.61.61.61.61.6
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium2.5
chloride
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium2.62.61.22
methosulfate
Dicetyl dimethyl ammonium0.35
chloride
Cetyl alcohol11111.4
Stearyl alcohol2.42.42.32.33.4
Aminosilicone50.50.50.50.52
Preservatives0.90.90.90.90.9
Compound 2800000
Perfume0.50.50.50.50.5
Deionized Waterq.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%

TABLE 20
Samples
Ingredients678910
Polyquaternium-610.0750.075
Polyquaternium-620.0750.0750.075
Zinc pyrithione30.750.750.750.750.75
Zinc carbonate41.61.61.61.61.6
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium2.5
chloride
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium2.62.61.22
methosulfate
Dicetyl dimethyl ammonium0.35
chloride
Cetyl alcohol11111.4
Stearyl alcohol2.42.42.32.33.4
Aminosilicone50.50.50.50.52
Preservatives0.90.90.90.90.9
Compound 280.090.090.090.090.09
Perfume0.50.50.50.50.5
Deionized Waterq.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%

TABLE 21
Samples
Ingredients1112131415
Polyquaternium-610.0750.075
Polyquaternium-620.0750.0750.075
Zinc pyrithione30.750.750.750.750.75
Zinc carbonate4
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium2.5
chloride
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium2.62.61.22
methosulfate
Dicetyl dimethyl ammonium0.35
chloride
Cetyl alcohol11111.4
Stearyl alcohol2.42.42.32.33.4
Aminosilicone50.50.50.50.52
Preservatives0.90.90.90.90.9
Compound 2800000
Perfume0.50.50.50.50.5
Deionized Waterq.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%

TABLE 22
Samples
Ingredients1617181920
Polyquaternium-610.0750.075
Polyquaternium-620.0750.0750.075
Zinc pyrithione30.750.750.750.750.75
Zinc carbonate4
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium2.5
chloride
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium2.62.61.22
methosulfate
Dicetyl dimethyl ammonium0.35
chloride
Cetyl alcohol11111.4
Stearyl alcohol2.42.42.32.33.4
Aminosilicone50.50.50.50.52
Preservatives0.90.90.90.90.9
Compound 280.090.090.090.090.09
Perfume0.50.50.50.50.5
Deionized Waterq.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%q.s. to 100%

Samples 6-10, in TABLE 20, provided a cooling sensation to consumers in comparison to Samples 1-5, in TABLE 19. In Samples 16-20, TABLE 22, there was a cooling sensation to consumers in comparison to Samples 11-15, in TABLE 21.

TABLE 23
Samples
Ingredients212223242526
Behenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride2.252.25
Isopropyl alcohol0.60.50.50.60.50.5
Behentrimonium methosulfate1.81.81.81.8
Cetyl alcohol1.91.11.11.91.11.1
Stearyl alcohol4.62.82.84.62.82.8
Preservatives0.90.90.90.90.90.9
Aminosilicone 12.81.30.352.81.30.35
Compound 280.090.090.09
Perfume0.50.50.50.50.50.5
Deionized Waterq.s. toq.s. toq.s. toq.s. toq.s. toq.s. to
100%100%100%100%100%100%

Leave on hair compositions, as shown below in TABLE 24, were prepared using conventional methods.

TABLE 24
Samples
1234567
ActiveActiveActiveActiveActiveActiveActive
Ingredientswt %)wt %wt %wt %wt %wt %wt %
WaterQ.S.QSQSQSQSQSQS
Alcohol 100% (Ethanol)505005060250
Isoproryl Alcohol0000000
Acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate0.350.50.20000
crosspolymer *1
Carbomer *20000000
Polyacrylamide *30000.5000
C13-14 Isoparaffin *30000.5000
Laureth 7 *30000.1000
Polyacrylate crosspolymer-6 *400000.500
Dehydroxanthan Gum *50000.25000
Cetyl Alcohol, Sodium000002.50
Polyacrylate, Glyceryl Stearate,
Polysorbate 80, and
Caprylic/Capric Triglycerinde *6
Acrylates/Aminoacrylates/C10-0000001.5
30 Alkyl PEG-20 Itaconate
Copolymer *7
Zinc pyrithione *8a0.10.20.070.10.10.10.1
Zinc Carbonate *8b00.200000
PEG/PPG 20/23 Dimethicone0100000
430 *9
Bis-PEG/PPG-16/16 PEG/0.7001000
PPG 16/16 Dimethicone *10
Polyquaternium-4 *1110000001
Panthenol0.150.500.15000
Niacinamide2.5003000
Caffeine0.75001.25000
Glycerin0.5505000
Argania Spinosa0000000
Kernel Oil *12
Propylene Glycol0010000
Menthol000.50000
Polyvinylpyrrolidone *130100000
Polyethylene Low Density00.500000
Powder *14
Tapicoa Starch0010000
Polymethylsilsesuioxane *15
Benzyl Alcohol000.50000
Methylisothiazolinone *16000.050000
PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor000.50000
Oil *17
Tetrahydroxypropyl0.1200.140000
Ethylenediamine *18
Triethanolamine *1900.100000
Glycolic Acid *200000000.25
Citric Acid0000.0080.0050.0050.005
Compound 280.090.090.090.090.090.090.09
*1 as in Carbopol Ultrez 21 available from Lubrizol (Wickliffe, OH)
*2 as in Carbopol Ultrez 30 available from Lubrizol
*3 as in Sepigel 305 from Seppic (Puteaux, France)
*4 as in SepiMax Zen from Seppic
*5 as in Amaze XT from AkzoNovel (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
*6 as in Jeesperse CPW-CG-02 from Jeen (Fairfield, New Jersey)
*7 as in Structure Plus from Akzo Nobel
*8a as in ZPT from Lonza Personal Care (Basel, Switzerland)
*8b as in Zinc Carbonate from Brueggemann Chemical (Newtown, PA)
*9 as in Silsoft 430 Dimethicone Copolyol from Momentive (Waterford, NY)
*10 as in Abil Care 85 from Evonik (Zurich, Switzerland)
*11 as in Celquat H-100 from Akzo Nobel
*12 as in Lipofructyl Argan LS9779 from BASF (Ludwigshafen, Germany)
*13 as in PVP K-30 from ISP Technologies (Wayne, New Jersey)
*14 as in Microthene FN 510-00 from Equistar Chemicals (Houston, TX)
*15 as in Dry Flo TS from Akzo Nobel
*16 as in Neolone 950 from Rohm and Haas (Philadelphia, PA)
*17 as in Cremophor RH-40 Surfactant from BASF
*18 as in Neutrol Te from BASF
*19 as in Trolamine from Dow Chemical (Houston, TX)
*20 as in Glypure from DuPont (Wilmington, DE)

The dimensions and values disclosed herein are not to be understood as being strictly limited to the exact numerical values recited. Instead, unless otherwise specified, each such dimension is intended to mean both the recited value and a functionally equivalent range surrounding that value. For example, a dimension disclosed as “40 mm” is intended to mean “about 40 mm.”

Every document cited herein, including any cross referenced or related patent or application and any patent application or patent to which this application claims priority or benefit thereof, is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety unless expressly excluded or otherwise limited. The citation of any document is not an admission that it is prior art with respect to any invention disclosed or claimed herein or that it alone, or in any combination with any other reference or references, teaches, suggests or discloses any such invention. Further, to the extent that any meaning or definition of a term in this document conflicts with any meaning or definition of the same term in a document incorporated by reference, the meaning or definition assigned to that term in this document shall govern.

While particular embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated and described, it would be obvious to those skilled in the art that various other changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. It is therefore intended to cover in the appended claims all such changes and modifications that are within the scope of this invention.