Title:
INTRATHECAL BACLOFEN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS AND RELATED DELIVERY SYSTEM
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
According to the subject invention, there is disclosed, a dosage and packaging configuration which includes the use of color-coded pre-filled syringes and vials to fill and refill infusion systems with existing and new dosage forms of intrathecal baclofen.



Inventors:
Foster, John J. (Stillwater, MN, US)
Prentice, Thomas R. (Lake Elmo, MN, US)
Strantz, Angela S. (Hazelwood, MO, US)
Application Number:
14/725714
Publication Date:
09/17/2015
Filing Date:
05/29/2015
Assignee:
MALLINCKRODT LLC
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/567
International Classes:
A61M5/31; A61K9/00; A61K31/197; A61K47/02; A61M5/315
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Other References:
Boca et al. (Pharmaceutical Technology (September 2002), pp. 62-70)
Boca et al. (Pharmaceutical Technology (September 2002), pp. 62-70)
Primary Examiner:
GOTFREDSON, GAREN
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MERCHANT & GOULD P.C. (MINNEAPOLIS, MN, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A drug delivery system comprising a labeled pre-filled syringe containing a sterile aqueous solution of baclofen that is suitable for intrathecal delivery, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen was sterilized by heating at 121° C. for a F0 value of 7 minutes.

2. The drug delivery system of claim 1, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen contains no more than 0.5% of 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrrolidone by weight of baclofen.

3. The drug delivery system of claim 1, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen further comprises sodium chloride.

4. The drug delivery system of claim 1, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen is substantially free of any particulates.

5. The drug delivery system of claim 1, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen has a baclofen concentration from about 0.5 mg/mL to about 4.0 mg/mL.

6. The drug delivery system of claim 5, wherein the labeled pre-filled syringe contains from 5 mL to 40 mL of the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen.

7. The drug delivery system of claim 5, further comprising a color-coding system indicative of the concentration of baclofen in the labeled pre-filled syringe, size of the pre-filled syringe, or both.

8. The drug delivery system of claim 7, further comprising a plunger, wherein the color-coding system is on the plunger, on a label of the labeled pre-filled syringe, or both.

9. The drug delivery system of claim 1, wherein the labeled pre-filled syringe further comprises a leur-lock tip.

10. A drug delivery system comprising a labeled pre-filled syringe containing a sterile aqueous solution of baclofen that is suitable for intrathecal delivery, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen contains no more than 0.5% of 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrrolidone by weight of baclofen.

11. The drug delivery system of claim 10, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen further comprises sodium chloride.

12. The drug delivery system of claim 10, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen is substantially free of any particulates.

13. The drug delivery system of claim 10, wherein the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen has a baclofen concentration from about 0.5 mg/mL to about 4.0 mg/mL.

14. The drug delivery system of claim 13, wherein the labeled pre-filled syringe contains from 5 mL to 40 mL of the sterile aqueous solution of baclofen.

15. The drug delivery system of claim 13, further comprising a color-coding system indicative of the concentration of baclofen in the labeled pre-filled syringe, size of the pre-filled syringe, or both.

16. The drug delivery system of claim 15, further comprising a plunger, wherein the color-coding system is on the plunger, on a label of the labeled pre-filled syringe, or both.

17. The drug delivery system of claim 10, wherein the labeled pre-filled syringe further comprises a leur-lock tip.

Description:

This application is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/403,190, filed Mar. 12, 2009, which claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/037,544, filed Mar. 18, 2008, and a continuation-in-part application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/574,733, filed Dec. 18, 2014, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/701,342 (now U.S. Pat. No. 8,969,414), filed Feb. 5, 2010, which claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/150,337, filed Feb. 6, 2009, the disclosure of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties.

The present invention relates generally to a syringe vial or vial that is filled in advance with a liquid to be injected. More specifically, the present invention is directed to pre-filled syringes and vials to fill and refill infusion systems with existing and new forms of intrathecal baclofen.

Baclofen is a skeletal muscle relaxant and antispastic agent. Baclofen is a structural analog of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and may exert its effects by stimulation of the GABAB receptor subtype. Baclofen is the generic (USAN) name (USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug Names 2003) for 4-amino-3-(p-chlorophenyl)butyric acid, a derivative of γ-aminobutyric acid. Its structural formula is:

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Baclofen is a white to off-white, odorless or practically odorless crystalline powder, with a molecular weight of 213.66 g/mol. It is slightly soluble in water, very slightly soluble in methanol, and insoluble in chloroform. Baclofen can be administered orally, but when injected directly into the intrathecal space of a patient effective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations are achieved with resultant plasma concentrations 100 times less than those occurring with oral administrations.

As indicated in US patent application 2006/0009523, which is hereby incorporated by reference, baclofen solutions having concentrations in the range of about 3 to about 8 mg/mL can be obtained by mixing the appropriate quantity of baclofen with an aqueous diluent and heating the solution to a temperature of at least about 30° C., at least about 40° C., at least about 5° C., preferably at least about 60° C., and most preferably at least about 70° C. and a temperature of less than about 90° C., less than about 95° C., less than about 100° C., less than about 121° C., or most preferably less than the temperature at which baclofen thermal degrades to a significant degree. The heat is applied while simultaneously subjecting the solution to intense agitation, e.g. sonication, high-speed stirring, etc. The temperature range of at least about 60° C. to at less than about 100° C. is most preferred. Further, it is generally preferable, although not required, that the aqueous solution be heated to a temperature lower than its boiling point to prevent significant evaporation of the aqueous solvent during dissolution. Dissolution temperatures of 100° C. or higher that do not boil off the aqueous solvent can be obtained by means known to those of skill in the art, such as by increasing the atmospheric pressure that the solution is subjected to during heating. One common means of achieving this result is by autoclaving the solution.

Stable baclofen solutions can be produced by acidification and back titration. Baclofen solutions having concentrations up to about 10.0 mg/mL can be prepared by dissolving baclofen in an acidic solution, preferably one having a pH lower than the pKa1 of baclofen. For example, pH values lower than about 3.87, lower than about 3.0, lower than about 2.0, lower than about 1.5, or even lower than a pH of about 1.0 can be used advantageously. Surprisingly, once the baclofen has been dissolved in the acidic solution, and prior to pharmaceutical administration, the baclofen solution can be back titrated to a pH of 4.0 to 8.5 without precipitation of baclofen particulates. The titration is carried out by adding a base to the acidic solution until the pH is adjusted to a pH in the desired range. A final pH of 5.0 to 7.0 is currently preferred for baclofen solutions intended for pharmaceutical uses such as intrathecal injection, but pH ranges of 4.5 to 8.0 and of 4.0 to 8.5 can also be suitable for such uses. These pH ranges are intended to be illustrative of appropriate values for uses such as intrathecal injection. The appropriate pH ranges for any particular pharmaceutical application will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the final pH of the baclofen solution can be any pharmaceutically acceptable pH appropriate for a given use. In addition, baclofen solutions prepared by this method can be stored at a pH that is not appropriate for a given pharmaceutical use so long as the solution is titrated to a pharmaceutically acceptable pH prior to administration.

Alternately, stable baclofen solutions can be produced by alkalinization and back titration. That is, solutions having concentrations of baclofen of about 10.0 mg/mL or lower can be prepared by dissolving baclofen in a basic solution, preferably one having a pH higher than the pKa2 of baclofen. For example, solutions of pH higher than about 9.62, higher than about 10.0, higher than about 11.0, higher than about 12.0, and even higher than the pH of about 13.0 can be used advantageously. Once the baclofen is dissolved in the basic solution the pH can be back titrated to a pH of about 4.0 to 8.5, or preferably can be titrated to a pH of 5.0 to 7.0, or to other pH values appropriate for pharmaceutical uses such as intrathecal injection, as discussed above. For use in other applications, pharmaceutical or otherwise, or during storage prior to use the baclofen solution can be titrated to a lower pH or can be maintained for some period of time at the original basic pH.

Presently, intrathecal baclofen is stored in ampoules. Typical procedure for filling infusion systems includes breaking the ampoules to open them, removing the drug from the ampoule and filtering it using a syringe with an in-line filter and needle, removing the needle from the syringe and replacing it with a catheter that includes a second in-line filter and needle. The needle is then inserted through the skin into the implanted pump reservoir and the fluid is dispensed and filtered, filling the infusion system reservoir with the drug. This process may need to be done from 1 to 4 times for a single filling, depending on the reservoir size and the ampoule configuration selected. There are multiple issues with the current process and the need to enhance safety with intrathecal drugs is paramount.

As used herein, the terms below have the meanings indicated.

The term “pre-filled,” as used herein, means containing an exact, pre-determined dose of a sterile pharmaceutical composition.

The present invention implements a pre-filled syringe that is ready for immediate delivery to the infusion system. The packaging system includes a syringe with a leur-lock tip filled with intrathecal baclofen, a color coding system (label) for the various concentrations of the drug product and size of syringe, a package, a label, and instructions for use.

Since the drug in the syringe is already prepared, the process of drawing up and filtering the drug into a syringe prior to refilling the infusion system is eliminated. Eliminating this process makes filling and refilling the infusion system safer and easier. The pre-filled syringe is easier to use because the practitioner does not have to draw up and filter the drug while administering the therapy to the patient. The syringe's label or plunger is color coded by concentration and syringe sizes, thereby reducing practitioner error and increasing safety to the recipient. Higher concentration formulations will be available to reduce the number of times the recipient must be injected with the needle. The pre-filled syringe also eliminates the potential of contamination of the drug with glass particles from the ampoule, bacteria and the like.

Further features and advantages of the invention, as well as the structure and operation of various embodiments of the invention, are described in detail below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is an illustration of the pre-filled syringe according to an exemplary embodiment.

FIG. 2 is an illustration of the pre-filled syringe as used with an infusion system.

The barrel 14 is made of glass or plastic having two open ends. The pre-filled syringe 10 can have sizes of 5 milliliters, 20 milliliters, or 40 milliliters. One end of the barrel 14 is closed off by a plunger 11 that forces the medical liquid (not shown) to the other end of the barrel 14 when dispensing. A gasket 12 is attached to the plunger 11 for sealing the medical liquid in the barrel 14. The gasket 12 is made of a rubbery elastic material, such as natural rubber or synthetic rubber. The dispensing end of the barrel 14 is dosed off by a leur-lock tip 13. The leer-lock tip 13 mates with the infusion system for dispensing the medical liquid.

The pre-filled syringe 10 is filled with a medical fluid, in particular, intrathecal baclofen. The solution comprises baclofen USP, Sodium Chloride, and water and is approved by the Food and Drug Administration, The solution is formed aseptically, is terminally sterilized as described below, and inserted into sterilized syringes. The dosages of intrathecal baclofen are 2.5 milligrams per 5 milliliters, 40 milligrams per 20 milliliters, 80 milligrams per 40 milliliters, 80 milligrams in 20 milliliters, or 160 milligrams in 40 milliliters. The available high concentrations and large syringe sizes eliminate the need for multiple operations to fill the pump reservoir, thus reducing the potential of practitioner error and thereby increasing the safety of the recipient. Further, the syringes have minimal head space, which leads to a decrease in degradation of the baclofen solution via oxidation. The label or plunger 11 of each pre-filled syringe 10 has a distinct color for identifying the dosages. The color-coded system further helps to eliminate practitioner error of injecting the wrong dose. The product is packaged, labeled, and sterilized.

FIG. 2 displays the pre-filled syringe 10 as used with the pump system. Pump refill kits are commercially available from Medtronic® and include a catheter 23 for connecting the pre-filled syringe to the pump 21. Intrathecal baclofen may be dispensed from the pre-filled syringe 10, through the catheter 23, into the pump 21 without the baclofen being drawn and filtered. The pump 21 then pumps the intrathecal baclofen through a second catheter 22 to a desired location in the body. The pre-filled syringe can be used with the Medtronic SynchroMed Infusion System®, the Johnson and Johnson Codman® division pumps, and InSet® technologies pumps.

In an alternative embodiment, the baclofen may be stored in a vial. The vial can be made of glass or plastic. It may be closed off at the top by a stopper with crimp top. Flip off tops may be used for tamper proof and color coding. Color coding is done by concentration and syringe sizes, thereby reducing practitioner error and increasing safety to the recipient. Types of stopper that may be used include rubber and plastic. The size of the vial may be 20 milliliters or 40 milliliters. In the 20 milliliter vial, the concentration of intrathecal baclofen may be 500 micrograms per milliliter, 2000 micrograms per milliliter, or 4000 micrograms per milliliter. In the 40 milliliter vial, the concentration of baclofen may be 2000 micrograms per milliliter or 4000 micrograms per milliliter.

The baclofen solution is aseptically inserted into vials and the vials are terminally sterilized. Common sterilization protocols call for heating the solution to 121.1° C. with a sterilization time (F0) of about 30 minutes. Baclofen, however, is heat-sensitive and forms a poorly soluble degradation product, 4-(4-chloropheyl)-2-pryyolidone (4-CPP), upon exposure to heat. For example, baclofen solutions sterilized by moist heat contain up to 1.4 wt % of 4-CPP, which is higher than the permissible level for the marketed product (Sigg et al., Solubility and Stability of Intrathecal Baclofen Solutions at High Concentrations: Implications for Chronic Use in the SynchroMed Infusion System, White Paper 2007, Minneapolis: Medtronic Neurological). Therefore, it is desirable to find and implement a sterilization method that utilizes less harsh conditions in order to prevent this thermal degradation from taking place, while continuing to meet sterility standards. Accordingly, vials containing baclofen solutions are steam heated at 121.1° C. for a F0 of 7 minutes. Said terminally sterilized baclofen solutions contain less than 0.5 wt % of 4-CPP. The level of 4-CPP in said terminally sterilized baclofen solutions is less than that in previous formulations. For example, Lioresal Intrathecal (Medtronic) contains 0.6 wt % of 4-CPP.

Because the vials of baclofen solution are terminally sterilized, there is no need to filter the baclofen solution before use. This leads to an overall reduction in time needed to administer the baclofen solution versus the existing delivery methods which involve cracking open the ampoules and filtering the solution before administration to a patient in need, and additionally reduces the potential of practitioner error and thereby increases the safety of the recipient.

The method of processing the vials may cause baclofen to precipitate from solution or adsorb to the surface of the glass vial. Therefore, treating the glass vials with a coating intended to deactivate the reactivity of the glass surface may prevent this unwanted precipitation. This coating typically reacts with the hydroxyl groups of the glass and forms a more stable covalent bond. Silanization is one method of deactivating the glass surface, wherein the glass surface is reacted with silanes. The hydroxyl groups of the glass attack and displace the alkoxy groups on the silane thus forming a covalent —Si—O—Si— bond, rendering the glass surface inert.

In another embodiment, the vial described herein is coated with a compound that deactivates the glass surface, so possible reactions between baclofen and the glass are eliminated. Possible vials with this coating include vials treated with SCHOTT Type I plus® coating technology.

In a further embodiment, the vial described herein is silanized to prevent adsorption and precipitation of baclofen.

The presence of oxygen may lead to the oxidation of baclofen. In order to reduce the chances of oxidation of the baclofen solution while in vials, a blanket of nitrogen gas is laid across the vials before they are sealed to displace any oxygen present. Oxidation of the baclofen solution in syringes is minimized by the lack of head space in the syringes, which limits the presence of any gases, including oxygen, within the syringe.

In yet another embodiment, the baclofen solution is stored under a nitrogen atmosphere within the vial.

From the foregoing description, one skilled in the art can easily ascertain the essential characteristics of this invention, and without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, can make various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to various usages and conditions.

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of 4.0 mg/mL Baclofen Solution

To 1 L of hot water was added 630.0 g sodium chloride, and the mixture was stirred for 10±2 minutes. To the resulting solution was added 280.0 g baclofen and 2 L hot water. The mixture was then stirred for 45 minutes. The resulting solution was diluted to 70 L with hot water and stirred for at least an additional 10 minutes.

EXAMPLE 2

Preparation of 2.0 mg/mL Baclofen Solution

To 1 L of hot water is added 315.0 g sodium chloride, and the mixture is stirred for 10±2 minutes. To the resulting solution is added 140.0 g baclofen and 2 L hot water. The mixture is then stirred for 45 minutes. The resulting solution is diluted to 70 L with hot water and stirred for at least an additional 10 minutes.

EXAMPLE 3

Preparation of 0.5 mg/mL Baclofen Solution

To 1 L of hot water was added 78.75 g sodium chloride, and the mixture was stirred for 10±2 minutes. To the resulting solution was added 35.0 g baclofen and 2 L hot water. The mixture was then stirred for 45 minutes. The resulting solution was diluted to 70 L with hot water and stirred for at least an additional 10 minutes.

EXAMPLE 4

Sterilization Protocol

A baclofen solutions described above were aseptically transferred to vials. The vials containing the solution were then steam-heated to 121.1° C. so that the F0 for the resulting terminally sterilized solution was 7 minutes.

EXAMPLE 5

Percent 4-CPP Found in Baclofen Solutions

The percent of 4-CPP found in 0.5 mg/mL and 4.0 mg/mL baclofen solutions prepared as described above is presented in the tale below.

Baclofen solutionPercent (wt %) of 4-CPP
0.5 mg/mL (#2118-101)0.346
0.5 mg/mL (#2118-102)0.436
0.5 mg/mL (#2118-103)0.39
4.0 mg/mL (#2133-101)0.377
4.0 mg/mL (#2133-102)0.415
4.0 mg/mL (#2137-101)0.442





 
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