Title:
Enhanced Lubricant Formulation
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
An enhanced lubricant formulation is provided as a formulation that improves upon existing lubricant systems by enhancing the tribological properties. The formulation utilizes inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles combined with an existing lubricant to reduce friction and recondition the interfacing surfaces of moving parts. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles are uniform symmetrical and spherical structure that provides a rolling effect between two interfacing surfaces. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles additionally exfoliate portions of their lamellar exterior as a tribological film that reduces the surface roughness on interfacing surfaces resulting in a decrease in friction. The formulation reduces the requirement for frequent replacement of the lubricant and additionally provides improved performance under conditions of extreme temperature and pressure.



Inventors:
Hatfield, Roc (Safety Harbor, FL, US)
Application Number:
14/099335
Publication Date:
06/12/2014
Filing Date:
12/06/2013
Assignee:
N1 TECHNOLOGIES INC (Daytona Beach, FL, US)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
977/773
International Classes:
C10M125/22
View Patent Images:



Foreign References:
WO2011030315A12011-03-17
Other References:
"Nano-Based Engine Oil Lubricant Reduces Fuel Consumption by more than 5%" (March 2009)
Fullerene-like WS.sub.2 Nanoparticles: Superior Lubricants for Harsh Conditions By Lev Rapoport, Niles Fleischer and Reshef Tenne Adv. Mater. 2003 15 No. 7-8 April 17
Primary Examiner:
WEISS, PAMELA HL
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Sinorica LLC dba Thoughts to Paper (Germantown, MD, US)
Claims:
What it is claimed is:

1. An enhanced lubricant formulation comprises: a host lubricant; inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles of tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2); the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being suspended throughout the host lubricant; the IF-WS2 nanoparticles having an average particle size diameter between 10-30 nm; the IF-WS2 nanoparticles comprise as multilayered exterior; the multilayered exterior comprises a plurality of lamellae; and the plurality of lamellae being separable under conditions of stress, wherein the separated lamellae form a tribological film.

2. The enhanced lubricant formulation in claim 1 wherein, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles having an average particle size diameter about 10 nm.

3. The enhanced lubricant formulation in claim 1 wherein, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being about 0.5% to 7.0% (v/v) in the formulation.

4. The enhanced lubricant formulations as claimed in claim 1 comprises: a carrier fluid, wherein the carrier fluid is a mineral oil; the host lubricant being an engine oil; the IF-WS2 nanoparticles and the carrier fluid being blended with the engine oil; the carrier fluid being equivalent in volume to the IF-WS2.

5. The enhanced lubricant formulation in claim 4 wherein, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being about 3.1% (v/v) in an additive formulation.

6. The enhanced lubricant formulation in claim 4 wherein, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being about 0.8% (v/v) in an engine oil replacement formulation.

7. The enhanced lubricant formulations in claim 1 wherein, the base lubricant is a Lithium based grease.

8. The enhanced lubricant formulation in claim 7 wherein the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being 6.0% (v/v) in a grease formulation.

9. An enhanced lubricant formulation comprises: a host lubricant; inorganic fullerene-like nanoparticles of tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2); the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being suspended throughout the host lubricant; the IF-WS2 nanoparticles having an average particle size diameter about 10 nm; the IF-WS2 nanoparticles comprise as multilayered exterior; The multilayered exterior comprises a plurality of lamellae; the plurality of lamellae being separable under conditions of stress, wherein the separated lamellae form a tribological film; and the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being about 0.5% to 7.0% (v/v) in the host lubricant.

10. The enhanced lubricant formulations as claimed in claim 9 comprises: a carrier fluid, wherein the carrier fluid is a mineral oil; the host lubricant being an engine oil; the IF-WS2 nanoparticles and the carrier fluid being blended with the engine oil; and the carrier fluid being equivalent in volume to the IF-WS2.

11. The enhanced lubricant formulation in claim 10 wherein, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being about 3.1% (v/v) in an additive formulation.

12. The enhanced lubricant formulation in claim 10 wherein, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being about 0.8% (v/v) in an engine oil replacement formulation.

13. The enhanced lubricant formulations in claim 9 wherein, the base lubricant is a lithium grease.

14. The enhanced lubricant formulation in claim 13 wherein the IF-WS2 nanoparticles being 6.0% (v/v) in a grease formulation.

Description:

The current application claims a priority to the U.S. Provisional Patent application serial number 61/735,877 filed on Dec. 11, 2012.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to a lubricant formulation. More specifically, the present invention is an ultra high performance engine oil and additive built with nano-technology.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

It is well known that lubricants are integral in maintaining and extending the life of a mechanical system. Mechanical systems contain a plurality of moving parts that regularly engage in order to transfer or translate motion. These moving parts generate heat as a result of friction which over time damages the moving parts reducing their functionality or requiring their replacement. Lubricants reduce friction experienced between moving parts by functioning as an intermediate fluid barrier that prevents or reduces direct contact between the moving parts. In some mechanical system lubricants additionally functions as a transport fluid that removes or transfers heat away from the moving parts as well as any particles or debris that may appear.

in order to achieve their function, an ideal lubricants posses a high boiling point, a low freezing point, thermal stability, hydraulic stability, and a high viscosity index. Although a plurality of substances can exhibit theses properties, petroleum derived oil based compounds are the most commonly used. Petroleum derived oil based lubricants are advantageous for a plurality of reasons. They have anti-corrosive properties that protect the metal components of a mechanical system from corrosion and oxidation. Additionally they have a low electrical conductivity, which prevents a static charge to build up as a result of friction which could potentially affect or damage electrical components. Although petroleum derived oil based lubricants are advantageous for a plurality of reasons, their prevalence can mostly be attributed to their inexpensive manufacturing cost.

While petroleum derived oil based lubricants are effective they suffer from several disadvantages. These lubricants comprise a plurality of long hydrocarbon chains of varying lengths. The intermolecular interaction experienced between these hydrocarbon chains provides the petroleum derived oil based lubricants with their lubricating properties. While the interactions between the hydrocarbon chains provide the petroleum derived oil with its lubricating properties, it unfortunately provides a cohesive affinity for combustion bi-products such as soot. Over time the combustion bi-products build up within the petroleum derived oil based lubricants decreasing their effectiveness as a lubricant. This undesirable interaction requires petroleum derived oil based lubricants to be frequently replaced in order to maintain their functionality. Another disadvantage occurs in systems that operate under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. Although oil based lubricants are thermally and hydraulically stable, prolonged exposure to extreme conditions of temperature and pressure reduces the viscosity and heat capacity of the lubricant rendering it in effective. Although alternative lubricants exist that can overcome some these disadvantages, they can be cost prohibitive or offer only slight improvements over existing petroleum or oil based lubricants.

It is therefore the object of the present invention to provide an enhanced lubricant formulation that improves upon existing lubricant systems by enhancing the tribological properties of the existing lubricant. The formulation utilizes inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles combined with an existing lubricant to reduce friction and recondition interfacing surfaces of moving parts. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles are uniform symmetrical and spherical structure that provides a rolling effect between two interfacing surfaces. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles additionally exfoliate portions of their lamellar exterior as a tribological film that reduces the surface roughness on interfacing surfaces resulting in a decrease in friction. The formulation reduces the requirement for frequent replacement of the lubricant and additionally provides improved performance under conditions of extreme temperature and pressure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a scanning electron microscope image displaying the cross section of an inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide nanoparticle.

FIG. 2 is a representative image displaying a cross sectional perspective view of the inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide nanoparticle.

FIG. 3 is a representative image displaying the formation of a tribological film on a pair of interfacing surfaces of a mechanical system.

DETAIL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE INVENTION

All illustrations of the drawings are for the purpose of describing selected versions of the present invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

Referencing FIG. 1, the present invention is an enhanced lubricant formulation that reduces mechanical wear to machinery while additionally providing effective lubrication and heat reduction in high stress systems. The present invention accomplishes this through the use of a nanoparticle additive blended with a host lubricant that imparts improved heat capacity and friction reducing properties as well as surface reconditioning properties to the host lubricant. In the current embodiment of the present invention, the enhanced lubricant formulation comprises the host lubricant and inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles. The host lubricant is an existing lubricating agent that reduces the friction and heat between the moving parts of a mechanical system. The host lubricant functions as a carrier for the IF-WS2 nanoparticles, allowing the IF-WS2 to be evenly distributed throughout a desired mechanical system. The inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) nanoparticles are hollow multilayered spherical particles that improve tribological properties of the host lubricant. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles accomplish this through a uniform symmetrical and spherical structure that provides a rolling effect between two interfacing surfaces even in conditions of extreme temperature and pressure. Under conditions of extreme temperature and pressure, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles additionally exfoliate portions of their lamellar exterior as a tribological film. The tribological film collects on the interfacing surfaces filling crevices and smoothing out jagged edges resulting in a significant reduction in friction, heat, and wear between said interfacing surfaces.

Referencing FIG. 2, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are hollow multilayered spherical particles that are evenly distributed throughout the host lubricant. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles improve the lubricating properties of the host lubricant through their friction reducing properties and their surface re-conditioning properties. The friction reducing properties of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles can be attributed to their uniformly symmetrical and spherical structure. The structural characteristics of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles permit them to function as macroscopic ball bearings between interfacing surfaces. Referencing FIG. 3, when interfacing surfaces that are in motion, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles translate movement from either surface into a rolling effect that reduces friction and prevents direct contact between said interfacing surfaces. The spherical geometry of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles additionally provides macroscopic structural properties that allow the IF-WS2 nanoparticles to withstand conditions of extreme temperature and pressure without deformation. Due to their ability to retain their spherical structure in extreme conditions, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles allow a host lubricant to function beyond its expected limits. The surface re-conditioning properties of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are attributed to their multilayered exterior. The multilayered exterior of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles comprises a plurality of lamellae. The plurality of lamellae are tungsten disulfide (WS2) sheets that layer a hollow core forming an onion-like fullerene. Although, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are able to withstand conditions of extreme temperature and pressure, they are susceptible to deterioration by friction. Friction caused by interfacing surfaces creates a condition of repeated stress that causes the plurality of lamellae to slowly separate. The separation of the plurality of lamellae is an exfoliation of the outer most lamella of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles. The exfoliated lamellae act as an adherent film that collects on the crevices and jagged edges of the interfacing surfaces. The collected film has tribological properties that reduce the surface roughness resulting in a reduction in friction. The tribological film is persistent and remains adhered to interfacing surfaces even following the removal of the host lubricant. As a result of tribological film's persistent nature, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles functions as a surfaces re-conditioning agent.

Referencing FIG. 3, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are uniformly sized in order to ensure the desired macroscopic interactions. In the current embodiment of the present invention, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are provided with an average particle size diameter ranging between 10 nm to 30nm. The average particle size diameter was experimentally determined as being optimal for IF-WS2 nanoparticles being used as an additive. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles with the aforementioned average size range were determined to effectively disperse in a plurality of host lubricant with varying viscosities. The aforementioned average size diameter resulted in an even dispersal of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles throughout a mechanical system. The aforementioned size range allows for improved macroscopic interactions between IF-WS2 nanoparticles allowing for a more consistent rolling motion when interacting with interfacing surfaces. Furthermore the aforementioned size range resulted in the plurality of lamellae being optimally sized to fit and adhere to microscopic fractures and jagged edges of an interfacing surface. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention the average particle size diameter is about 10 nm. The preferred average particle size diameter improved interaction between the IF-WS2 nanoparticles and host lubricants such as an engine oil or a lithium grease. The preferred average particle size diameter was experimentally determined to be optimally suited for the conditions associated with an engine oil installed in an engine system. Additionally, the preferred average particles size diameter was determined to optimally blend with lithium grease even with the higher viscosity index relative to an engine oil.

The IF-WS2 nanoparticles are provided as a percentage of the total volume of the enhanced lubricant formulation. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles are suspended in the host lubricant and have a variable density that is dependent on their average particle size diameter. Although stoichiometric ratio can be utilized for the enhanced lubricant formulation, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles and their ability to provide tribological enhancing properties to the host lubricant is more accurately related as a volumetric percentage of the formulation. In the current embodiment of the present invention, the IF-WS2 nanoparticle is found being about 0.5% to 7.0% v/v of the formulation. The aforementioned range was experimentally determined as the optimal range in which the IF-WS2 nanoparticles of variable density would be able to effectively permeate throughout the host lubricant enhancing its antifriction and surface reconditioning properties.

TABLE 1
Inorganic fullerene-like Tungsten
Host LubricantDisulfide Nanoparticles % (v/v)
Engine Oil0.5%-4.0%
Lithium Grease6.0%

The host lubricant is the lubricating agent that reduces the friction and heat between moving parts of a mechanical system. In the current embodiment of the present invention, the host lubricant functions as transport medium for the IF-WS2 nanoparticles, where the host lubricant suspends the IF-WS2 particles allowing them to interact as needed. In the present invention, the host lubricant can be provided as an engine oil or a lithium grease. Engine oil, commonly referred to as motor oil, is a lubricant with specific viscosity and temperature ratings that allow it to function as a lubricating agent in a combustion engine. Lithium grease is a lubricant grease that is optimally suited for automotive applications for its high tolerance to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. It should be noted that due to differences in application between the engine oil and the lithium grease, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are provided differing percent volumes for each host lubricant formulation. In the embodiment where the host lubricant is an engine oil, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are found being about 0.5% to 4.0% v/v of the formulation, wherein the value ranges were experimentally determined. In the embodiment where the host lubricant is a lithium grease, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are found being about 6.0% of the formulation, wherein the value was experimentally determined.

Engine oil is a lubricant that is specifically designed for use in a combustion engine. The Engine oil utilized by the present invention can be provided as a fractionated petroleum distillate, commonly referred to as convention engine oil, a synthetic lubricant composition, or a blend of the conventional engine oil and the synthetic composition. In the current embodiment of the present invention, the enhanced lubricant formulation is an engine oil formulation that comprises a volume of engine oil, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles, and a carrier fluid. The volume of engine oil is the quantity of engine oil that is utilized by the enhanced lubricant formulation. The IF-WS2 nanoparticles are provided as a dry powder volume that is mixed with the engine oil forming a suspension. The suspension of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles allows for them to effectively permeate throughout the mechanical system. The carrier fluid is provided for its ability to hydrate the powder form of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles. The hydration of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles prior to being mixed with the engine oil facilitates suspension by providing a lower viscosity intermediary that separates the IF-WS2 nanoparticles prior to being introduced into the high viscosity engine oil. The carrier fluid is a mineral oil that is provided in equivalent volume to the volume of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles. Mineral oil is a petroleum distillate containing alkanes ranging in lengths of fifteen to forty carbons per hydrocarbon chain. In the current embodiment, the mineral oil is selected from a grade of mineral oils with a lower viscosity relative to the engine oil that permits it to sufficiently hydrate the IF-WS2 nanoparticles while still being soluble in engine oil. It should be noted that to ensure even distribution of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles within the engine oil formulation, the engine oil formulation is mixed using a mechanical agitator such as a paint mixer.

The engine oil formulation is provided in two versions that relate specifically to their application. The engine oil formulation can be provided as an additive formulation or as an engine oil replacement formulation. The additive formulation is added to an existing volume of engine oil installed within a mechanical system. The engine oil replacement formulation that replaces existing conventional, synthetic or semi-synthetic engine oil utilized in an engine.

TABLE 2
EngineInorganic Fullerene-likeMineral
OilTungsten DisulfideOil
Engine Oil Formulation% (v/v)Nanoparticles % (v/v)% (v/v)
Additive Formulation98.4%0.8%0.8%
Engine Oil Formulation93.8%3.1%3.1%

The additive formulation is the concentrated formulation that is added to an existing volume of engine oil installed within a mechanical system. The additive formulation contains a volume of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles that is intended to effectively permeate the existing volume of engine oil in order to improve its tribological properties. In the current embodiment, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are found being about 3.1% v/v of the additive formulation. The additive formulation can be provided as a 32 fluid ounce (fl. oz) additive, where engine oil is 30 fl. oz, while the dry powder form of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles and the mineral oil would each be 1.0 fl. oz.

The engine oil replacement formulation is the combined formulation containing the IF-WS2 nanoparticles, which replaces existing conventional, synthetic or semi-synthetic engine oil utilized in an engine. As a result of being a replacement engine oil, the engine oil replacement formulation is able to provide an exact volumetric percentage of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles present within any mechanical system that utilizes the engine oil formulation. Resultantly the engine oil replacement formulation is optimally suited for an engine system that requires precise volumetric quantities. In the current embodiment, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are found being about 0.8% v/v of the engine oil replacement formulation. The engine oil replacement formulation can be provide as a 32 fluid ounce (fl. oz) engine oil formulation, where the engine oil is 31 fl. oz, while the dry powder form of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles and the mineral oil would each be 0.5 fl. oz.

Lithium grease is a lubricant grease that is optimally suited for automotive applications for its high tolerance to extreme conditions. Lithium grease has a higher viscosity compared to the engine oil allowing for better lubrication in mechanical systems that frequently experience extreme pressure conditions. In the current embodiment of the present invention, lithium grease and a dry powder volume of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are directly combined in order to form a lithium grease formulation. it should be noted that due to expected extreme pressure conditions of the lithium grease formulation, that the dry powder volume of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are not hydrated with a mineral oil in order to prevent lowering the viscosity of the lithium grease formulation. Resultantly, the lithium grease formulation requires a mechanical means of combining the lithium grease and the IF-WS2 nanoparticles. It should be noted that any mechanical means that does not alter the functionality of the formulation can potentially be utilized. In the current embodiment, the IF-WS2 nanoparticles are found being about 6.0% (v/v) in the lithium grease formulation. The aforementioned value was experimentally determined as being the optimal volumetric percentage of IF-WS2 as the deterioration rate of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles would be higher as a result of the constant friction experienced between interfacing surfaces.

In an additional embodiment, lithium grease can be substituted for an inorganic grease that includes but are not limited to aluminum, aluminum complex, sodium, polyurea, PTFE, calcium, calcium complex, barium, barium complex grease formulations.

In an additional embodiment the host lubricant can be provided as any carrier oil product. In this additional embodiment, the carrier oil can be utilized as part of a paint formulation. In this additional embodiment, the paint formulation would be optimally suited for protecting the hull of a sea going vessel as the tribological properties of the IF-WS2 nanoparticles would reduce friction as well as reduce bioaccumulation.

The present invention is an ultra high performance engine oil and additive built with nano-technology. The present invention comprises a plurality of Tungsten Nano-Spheres that creates a thin lubricating layer of rolling Nano-particles on the surface of engine parts. This Nano-layer creates a unique triple effect, it reduces friction due to the rolling action of the Nano-particles, reduces wear benefiting from the special tribological film that is formed and resurfaces worn and brazed areas extending engine life. Other main benefits of the present invention are; decreases wear, decreases emissions, prolongs engine life, and decreases engine noise.

The enhanced lubricant formulation is a surface-reconditioning nanoparticle lubricant for use in engine oil. The enhanced lubricant formulation has a “double action” effect: Multi-layers WS2 nano-spheres lower friction and heat, thereby reducing mechanical wear. At the same time, friction causes nano-spheres to release tribofilms that attach to surface crevices and re-smoothen them, thereby extending mechanical efficiency. The enhanced lubricant formulation is a formulated brand oil concentrate mixed with proprietary super-strong Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) multi-layered nanofullerene particles.

The enhanced lubricant formulation functions as an engine oil treatment for automotive and generator 4-stroke engines, Including private cars, trucks, industrial engines, boats & motorbikes. The formulation is suitable for all types of engines: gasoline & diesel, modern or classic. The formulation is Suitable for all types of oils: synthetic, semi-synthetic or mineral. The formulation can be used as an anti-friction/anti-wear (AF/AW) additive as part of the additives package of fully-formulated ready to use engine oil or as a top up after market product.

The formulation is especially formulated for low friction—significantly reduces friction in engines in comparison to traditional lubricants. The formulation utilizes nano-technology to minimize engine wear, wherein the special formula creates a tenacious tribofilm that remains even after oil change, protecting the user's engine meaning longer equipment life and extended maintenance intervals. The formulation is a Two-for-One solution that does not need separate additives and would provide a simpler and less expensive means of provide the aforementioned benefits.

In an embodiment of the invention, the formulation is provided in ready to use additive 32 ounce bottles that is an Oil concentrate form optimally suited for mixing into a variety of host oils.

The enhanced lubricant formulation is able to perform in this way because of the addition of Tungsten Nano spheres to the oil. These nano-particles because of their circular shape provide a rolling mechanism as the oil moves over the engine parts and that cuts down on the wear of those parts and helps save gas by greatly reducing friction in the process.

Extensive evaluation of has proven that the enhanced lubricant formulation does indeed reduce friction, wear and temperature significantly better than other solid lubricants. One very unique feature of the enhanced lubricant formulation is its ability to prolong the operation and engine service life of any vehicle by providing a thin and protective film that slips into the rough and creviced metal surfaces of the engine parts. This film is released by the nano-particles that make the enhanced lubricant formulation so revolutionary.

The underlying technique is the formation of a protective shield around the moving parts of the engine in order to avoid wear and tear, reduce heat and enhance mileage. The performance of the enhanced lubricant formulation is attributed to the inclusion of Tungsten nano spheres to the oil. Owing to their spherical structure, the nanoparticles facilitate a rolling mechanism when the oil slides over the engine parts. This greatly reduces the wear and tear of the parts, subsequently leading to reduction in friction and thereby lowering fuel consumption.

A distinctive feature of the lubricants is the formation of thin, protective films that can slide over the rough and fissured metal surfaces of the engine components, thereby extending the operational life of the engine.

Although the invention has been explained in relation to its preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that many other possible modifications and variations can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed.