Title:
LOCKING MECHANISMS
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A locking mechanism is provided including a male latch member a female receptacle having first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms for locking with the latch member. Locking is accomplished by moving the latch member with respect to the receptacle in a first direction, and unlocking with the latch member is accomplished by moving the latch member an additional distance further in the first direction. The first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms lock the latch member in any rotational orientation of the first direction of the latch member. Other locking mechanism embodiments include planar members and flanges for mounting to various substrates.



Inventors:
Chawla, Ajay (Troy, MI, US)
Weible, Jeromy (Waterford, MI, US)
Application Number:
13/876548
Publication Date:
12/05/2013
Filing Date:
09/30/2011
Assignee:
CONVERTIBLE SHOE, LLC (Troy, MI, US)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
A44B99/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
LEE, MICHAEL S
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Brooks Kushman (Southfield, MI, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A locking mechanism, comprising: a male latch member; and a female receptacle having first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms for locking with the latch member by moving the latch member with respect to the receptacle in a first direction, and for unlocking with the latch member by moving the latch member an additional distance further in the first direction; wherein the first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms lock the latch member in any rotational orientation of the first direction of the latch member.

2. The locking mechanism of claim 1, wherein the latch member is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof while locked with the receptacle.

3. The locking mechanism of claim 1, wherein a first and second plane including the first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms, respectively, bisect each other.

4. The locking mechanism of claim 1, wherein the latch member includes a distal end and a proximal end, and a shaft extending therebetween.

5. The locking mechanism of claim 4, wherein the distal end includes a hook.

6. The locking mechanism of claim 4, further comprising a planar handle portion disposed along the shaft.

7. The locking mechanism of claim 4, wherein the distal end includes a generally planar member oriented perpendicular to an axis of the shaft.

8. The locking mechanism of claim 4, wherein the proximal end includes a catch apparatus and a stop spaced therefrom toward the distal end along the shaft.

9. The locking mechanism of claim 8, wherein the stop has a larger diameter than the catch apparatus.

10. The locking mechanism of claim 8, wherein moving the latch member in a first direction causes the first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms to be urged open by, and then close behind, the catch apparatus, producing an audible sound to indicate locking of the latch member with the receptacle.

11. The locking mechanism of claim 1, wherein each of the resilient arms of the first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms radially opposes the next adjacent arm by an acute angle or right angle.

12. The locking mechanism of claim 11, wherein the first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms are radially extending.

13. A plastic locking mechanism, comprising: a male latch member having a distal end and a proximal end, and a shaft extending therebetween, the distal end having a generally planar end member oriented perpendicular to an axis of the shaft, the end member having apertures for receiving fasteners to secure the latch member to a substrate; and a female receptacle having a housing including a capture portion for locking with the latch member by moving the male latch member with respect to the receptacle in a first direction, and for unlocking with the latch member by moving the latch member an additional distance further in the first direction; the receptacle including resilient arms within the capture portion to hold and release the latch member, and including flanges extending from the housing and having apertures for receiving fasteners to secure the receptacle to an opposed substrate.

14. The locking mechanism of claim 13, wherein the proximal end includes a catch apparatus and a stop spaced therefrom toward the distal end along the shaft, the stop having a larger diameter than the catch apparatus.

15. The locking mechanism of claim 14, wherein moving the latch member in a first direction causes the resilient arms to be urged open by, and then springably close behind, the catch apparatus, producing an audible sound to indicate locking of the latch member with the receptacle.

16. The locking mechanism of claim 13, wherein the locking mechanism is constructed from one or more polymers derived from one or more acetal copolymer compounds.

17. A plastic locking mechanism, comprising: a male latch member having a distal end and a proximal end, and a shaft extending therebetween, the distal end having a generally planar end member oriented parallel to an axis of the shaft, the end member having a thickness that allows attachment of the end member to a substrate directly through the end member; and a female receptacle having a housing including a capture portion for locking with the latch member by moving the male latch member with respect to the receptacle in a first direction, and for unlocking with the latch member by moving the latch member an additional distance further in the first direction; the receptacle including resilient arms within the capture portion to hold and release the latch member, and including a flange extending from the housing having a thickness that allows attachment of the flange to an opposed substrate directly through the flange.

18. The locking mechanism of claim 17, wherein the proximal end includes a catch apparatus and a stop spaced therefrom toward the distal end along the shaft, the stop having a larger diameter than the catch apparatus.

19. The locking mechanism of claim 18, wherein moving the latch member in a first direction causes the resilient arms to be urged open by, and then springably close behind, the catch apparatus, producing an audible sound to indicate locking of the latch member with the receptacle.

20. The locking mechanism of claim 17, wherein the locking mechanism is constructed from one or more polymers derived from one or more acetal copolymer compounds.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of U.S. provisional Application No. 61/388,112 filed Sep. 30, 2010, the disclosure of which is incorporated in its entirety by reference herein.

TECHNICAL FIELD

Embodiments relate to locking mechanisms, such as rotational locking mechanisms and locking mechanisms for mounting to various substrates.

BACKGROUND

Locking mechanisms including a male latch member and female latch receiver are employed for many purposes. However, such locking mechanisms may not be easily locked and unlocked, often requiring precise orientation of the latch member and latch receiver in order to accomplish the desired engagement. In addition, it is typically difficult to determine if the latch member and receiver are properly or positively locked once engaged.

SUMMARY

In one embodiment, a locking mechanism is provided including a male latch member a female receptacle having first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms for locking with the latch member. Locking is accomplished by moving the latch member with respect to the receptacle in a first direction, and unlocking with the latch member is accomplished by moving the latch member an additional distance further in the first direction. The first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms lock the latch member in any rotational orientation of the first direction of the latch member.

In another embodiment, a plastic locking mechanism is provided comprising a male latch member having a distal end and a proximal end, and a shaft extending therebetween. The distal end has a generally planar end member oriented perpendicular to an axis of the shaft, and the end member has apertures for receiving fasteners to secure the latch member to a substrate. The locking mechanism further comprises a female receptacle having a housing including a capture portion for locking with the latch member by moving the male latch member with respect to the receptacle in a first direction, and for unlocking with the latch member by moving the latch member an additional distance further in the first direction. The receptacle includes resilient arms within the capture portion to hold and release the latch member, and includes flanges extending from the housing and having apertures for receiving fasteners to secure the receptacle to an opposed substrate.

In another embodiment, a plastic locking mechanism is provided comprising a male latch member having a distal end and a proximal end, and a shaft extending therebetween, the distal end having a generally planar end member oriented parallel to an axis of the shaft, the end member having a thickness that allows attachment of the end member to a substrate directly through the end member. The locking mechanism further comprises a female receptacle having a housing including a capture portion for locking with the latch member by moving the male latch member with respect to the receptacle in a first direction, and for unlocking with the latch member by moving the latch member an additional distance further in the first direction. The receptacle includes resilient arms within the capture portion to hold and release the latch member, and includes a flange extending from the housing having a thickness that allows attachment of the flange to an opposed substrate directly through the flange.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of the specification, illustrate one or more embodiments of the present invention. These drawings, together with the detailed description of the one or more embodiments given below, are intended to explain the principles of the invention and do not limit its scope.

FIG. 1 is an exploded, perspective view of a rotational locking mechanism according to one embodiment;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a male latch member of the rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 1 according to one embodiment;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a female receptacle of the rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 1 according to one embodiment;

FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of the assembled rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 1;

FIG. 5 is an end elevational view of the assembled rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 1;

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the assembled rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 1 taken at line A-A of FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is an exploded, perspective view of a rotational locking mechanism according to another embodiment;

FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a male latch member of the rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 7 according to one embodiment;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view of a female receptacle of the rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 7 according to one embodiment;

FIG. 10 is a side elevational view of the assembled rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 7;

FIG. 11 is an end elevational view of the assembled rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 7;

FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of the assembled rotational locking mechanism of FIG. 7 taken along line A-A of FIG. 11;

FIG. 13 is an exploded, perspective view of a locking mechanism according to another embodiment;

FIG. 14 is a perspective view of a male latch member of the locking mechanism of FIG. 13 according to one embodiment;

FIG. 15 is a perspective view of a female receptacle of the locking mechanism of FIG. 13 according to one embodiment;

FIG. 16 is an exploded, perspective view of a locking mechanism according to another embodiment;

FIG. 17 is a perspective view of a male latch member of the locking mechanism of FIG. 16 according to one embodiment; and

FIG. 18 is a perspective view of a female receptacle of the locking mechanism of FIG. 16 according to one embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

As required, detailed embodiments of the present invention are disclosed herein; however, it is to be understood that the disclosed embodiments are merely exemplary of the invention that may be embodied in various and alternative forms. The figures are not necessarily to scale; some features may be exaggerated or minimized to show details of particular components. Therefore, specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting, but merely as a representative basis for teaching one skilled in the art to variously employ the present invention.

Except where expressly indicated, all numerical quantities in this description indicating amounts of material or conditions of reaction and/or use are to be understood as modified by the word “about” in describing the broadest scope of the present invention. Practice within the numerical limits stated is generally preferred.

The description of a single material, compound or constituent or a group or class of materials, compounds or constituents as suitable for a given purpose in connection with the present invention implies that mixtures of any two or more single materials, compounds or constituents and/or groups or classes of materials, compounds or constituents are also suitable. Also, unless expressly stated to the contrary, percent, “parts of,” and ratio values are by weight. Description of constituents in chemical terms refers to the constituents at the time of addition to any combination specified in the description, and does not necessarily preclude chemical interactions among constituents of the mixture once mixed. The first definition of an acronym or other abbreviation applies to all subsequent uses herein of the same abbreviation and applies mutatis mutandis to normal grammatical variations of the initially defined abbreviation. Unless expressly stated to the contrary, measurement of a property is determined by the same technique as previously or later referenced for the same property.

Where published documents are referenced in this application, the disclosures of these documents in their entireties are hereby incorporated by reference into this application to more fully describe the state of the art to which one or more of the embodiments of the present invention pertain.

Several locking mechanisms are disclosed herein. Each locking mechanism includes a female receptacle for locking with a male latch member. The latch member locks with the receptacle by moving the latch member with respect to the receptacle in a first direction. The latch member is unlocked from the receptacle by moving the latch member an additional distance further in the first direction. The receptacle includes resilient arms to hold and release the latch member. U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2010/0095493 directed to a locking mechanism, such as for convertible shoes, is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

FIG. 1 depicts a perspective view of a rotational locking mechanism 10 according to one embodiment. Locking mechanism 10 includes a male latch member 12 and a female receptacle 14 for receiving latch member 12. FIG. 2 shows a perspective view of latch member 12, which in one embodiment includes a hook 16 at the distal end thereof which may be used for hanging items or capturing a loop or ring. Latch member 12 may also include a handle portion 18, which may have a flattened, planar configuration as depicted herein, as well as ribs 20 to provide a grip surface. Latch member 12 includes a shaft 22 extending from handle portion 18, with a stop or ring 24 adjacent handle portion 18 and a catch apparatus 26 spaced therefrom at the proximal end of latch member 12. In one embodiment, ring 24 has a larger diameter than catch apparatus 26, and catch apparatus 26 may have a tapered, cone-like configuration as shown herein.

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of female receptacle 14 according to one embodiment. Receptacle 14 includes a housing 28 having a capture portion 30 and a mounting portion 32. Mounting portion 32 may be generally flat as depicted herein, and may include apertures 34 for receiving fasteners, such as screws or nails, to secure receptacle 14 to a substrate. Capture portion 30 may be generally cylindrical as shown, although other configurations are also contemplated. Capture portion 30 houses resilient arms 36 with capture notches 38 for holding male latch member 12. Arms 36 are configured to span the perimeter or circumference of capture portion 30, such that latch member 12 can be inserted into receptacle 14 in any orientation and be engaged by arms 36 for locking Furthermore, such a configuration allows latch member 12 to be rotatable about its longitudinal axis while in the locked position. While four arms 36 are shown, it is understood that the present invention is not limited to this number.

In one embodiment, capture portion 30 includes first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms 36. In this embodiment, a first and second plane including the first and second pairs of opposing resilient arms 36, respectively, bisect each other, and the arms 36 are radially extending. In addition, each of the resilient arms 36 of the first and second pairs of resilient arms radially opposes the next adjacent arm by an acute or right angle.

With reference now to FIGS. 4-5 and the sectional view of FIG. 6, locking of mechanism 10 is achieved by pressing latch member 12 in a first direction (indicated by arrow 1 in FIG. 6) into receptacle 14, such that resilient arms 36 are urged open by, and then springably close behind, catch apparatus 26. FIG. 6 depicts a sectional side view of locking mechanism 10 in a locked position. As shown in FIG. 6, ring 24 rests upon resilient arms 36 while locking mechanism 10 is in the locked position. Unlocking of mechanism 10 is achieved by pressing latch member 12 further in the first direction into the receptacle 14 such that ring 24 urges open resilient arms 36 while being pressure captured in capture notches 38 and is subsequently dislodged by catch apparatus 26 during withdrawal in a second direction (indicated by arrow 2 in FIG. 6) of latch member 12, thereby completely unlocking mechanism 10.

Locking may be indicated by an audible clicking sound that signals that catch apparatus 26 has been captured by the resilient arms 36. Disengagement is achieved by grasping handle portion 18 and pushing latch member 12 deeper into receptacle 14 in the first direction 1, thus forcing ring 24 to urge open resilient arms 36. During this action, ring 24 is removably captured by resilient arm notches 38, and an audible clicking sound may signal that ring 24 has been captured. Latch member 12 is then withdrawn in the second direction 2 as previously described. This provides a secure, hidden-type connection that can be easily and quickly engaged and disengaged.

Although not shown, springs may be disposed within capture portion 30 to reduce creep of resilient arms 36 tending to be induced by ring 24 resting upon arms 36 while locking mechanism 10 is in the locked position over multiple uses of locking mechanism 10. The springs may include spring arms disposed below resilient arms 36, wherein spring arms are in a first position while the locking mechanism 10 is in the locked position. Spring arms may springably extend upward into a second position after withdrawal of latch member 12 from receptacle 14. The upward force exerted by spring arms against resilient arms 36 helps to reduce creep of resilient arms 36, thereby maintaining an opening length between resilient arms 36 over multiple uses of locking mechanism 10. In one or more embodiments, maintaining the opening length enhances the reliability of the locking mechanism 10. Excessive creep of resilient arms 36 may cause unintended unlocking of the locking mechanism 10.

Turning now to FIGS. 7-9, a rotational locking mechanism 40 is illustrated according to another embodiment. Locking mechanism 40 includes a male latch member 42 and a female receptacle 44, wherein female receptacle may be substantially similar to receptacle 14 of mechanism 10. In particular, with reference to FIG. 9, receptacle 44 includes a housing 46 having a capture portion 48 and a mounting portion 50. Mounting portion 50 may be generally flat as depicted herein, and may including apertures 52 for receiving fasteners to secure receptacle 44 to a substrate. Capture portion 48 may be generally cylindrical as shown, although other configurations are also contemplated. Capture portion 48 houses resilient arms 54 with capture notches 56 for holding latch member 42. Arms 54 are configured to substantially occupy the perimeter or circumference of capture portion 48, such that latch member 42 can be inserted into receptacle 44 in any orientation for locking, and latch member 42 is rotatable about its longitudinal axis while in the locked position. As with the embodiment of FIGS. 1-6, while four arms 54 are shown, it is understood that the present invention is not so limited.

Referring to FIG. 8, latch member 42 may include a generally planar distal end member 58 with a shaft 60 extending therefrom, wherein member 58 is oriented perpendicular to an axis of the shaft 60. As with the embodiment of FIGS. 1-6, a stop or ring 62 is provided along shaft 60 adjacent member 58 and a catch apparatus 64 is spaced therefrom at the proximal end of latch member 42. Latch member 42 and receptacle 44 may be suitable for automotive applications, such as the installation of interior or exterior trim components. Other applications where the flat profile of latch member 42 is advantageous are also contemplated.

As shown in FIGS. 10-11 and the sectional view of FIG. 12, locking of mechanism 40 is achieved by pressing latch member 42 in a first direction (indicated by arrow 1 in FIG. 12) into receptacle 44, such that resilient arms 54 are urged open by, and then springably close behind, catch apparatus 64. FIG. 12 depicts a sectional side view of locking mechanism 40 in a locked position. As shown in FIG. 12, ring 62 rests upon resilient arms 54 while locking mechanism 40 is in the locked position. Unlocking of mechanism 40 is achieved by pressing latch member 42 further in the first direction into the receptacle 44 such that ring 62 urges open resilient arms 54 while being pressure captured in capture notches 56 and is subsequently dislodged by catch apparatus 64 during withdrawal in a second direction (indicated by arrow 2 in FIG. 12) of latch member 42, thereby completely unlocking mechanism 40.

As with the previous embodiment, springs (not shown) may be disposed within capture portion 48 to reduce creep of resilient arms 54 tending to be induced by ring 62 resting upon arms 54 while locking mechanism 40 is in the locked position over multiple uses of locking mechanism 40. In addition, locking may be indicated by an audible clicking sound that signals that catch apparatus 64 has been captured by the resilient arms 54. During disengagement, when ring 62 is removably captured by resilient arm notches 56, an audible clicking sound may signal that ring 62 has been captured.

With reference now to FIG. 13, a locking mechanism 70 is illustrated according to one embodiment. Locking mechanism 70 includes a male latch member 72 and a female receptacle 74 for receiving latch member 72. FIG. 14 shows a perspective view of latch member 72, which in one embodiment has a generally planar end member 76 having slots 78 or other apertures sized to receive fasteners, such as screws, nails, or the like, which may be used to secure latch member 72 to a cabinet body, cabinet door, or other substrate. Latch member 72 includes a shaft 80 extending from end member 76, wherein end member 76 is oriented perpendicular to an axis of shaft 80. A stop 82 is disposed on the shaft 80 and a catch apparatus 84 spaced from stop 82 at the proximal end of latch member 72.

FIG. 15 is a perspective view of female receptacle 74 according to one embodiment. Receptacle 74 includes a housing 86 which may be generally rectangular with flanges 88 extending therefrom including slots 90 or other apertures for receiving fasteners to secure receptacle 74 to a cabinet body, cabinet door, or other substrate, such as opposed to that which latch member 72 is mounted. Housing 86 includes resilient arms 92 with capture notches 94 for holding male latch member 72. While two arms 92 are shown, it is understood that the present invention is not limited to this number.

Locking of mechanism 70 is achieved by pressing latch member 72 in a first direction into receptacle 74, such that resilient arms 92 are urged open by, and then springably close behind, catch apparatus 84. Stop 82 rests upon resilient arms 92 while locking mechanism 70 is in the locked position. Unlocking of mechanism 70 is achieved by pressing latch member 72 further in the first direction into the receptacle 74 such that stop 82 urges open resilient arms 92 while being pressure captured in capture notches 94 and is subsequently dislodged by catch apparatus 84 during withdrawal of latch member 72 in a second direction, thereby completely unlocking mechanism 70.

As with the previous embodiments, springs (not shown) may be disposed within housing 86 to reduce creep of resilient arms 92 tending to be induced by stop 82 resting upon arms 92 while locking mechanism 70 is in the locked position over multiple uses of locking mechanism 70. In addition, locking may be indicated by an audible clicking sound that signals that catch apparatus 84 has been captured by the resilient arms 92. During disengagement, when stop 82 is removably captured by resilient arm notches 84, an audible clicking sound may signal that stop 82 has been captured.

Lastly, turning to FIG. 16, a locking mechanism 100 according to an embodiment is depicted. Locking mechanism 100 includes a male latch member 102 and a female receptacle 104 for receiving latch member 102. FIG. 17 shows a perspective view of latch member 102, which in one embodiment has a generally planar, thin end member 106. Although a generally trapezoidal shape of end member 106 is depicted, it is understood that end member 106 is not limited to this configuration. In one embodiment, end member 106 may be sewn in to a pocket in the fabric of a purse, curtain, clothing, or other substrate, where end member 106 is thin enough to allow attachment to the substrate directly through the end member 106 without requiring apertures. Of course, in another embodiment, apertures may be provided. Latch member 102 includes a shaft 108 extending from end member 106, with a stop 110 disposed thereon and a catch apparatus 112 spaced from stop 110 at the proximal end of latch member 102.

FIG. 18 is a perspective view of female receptacle 104 according to one embodiment. Receptacle 104 includes a housing 114 which may be generally rectangular with a flange 116 extending therefrom. As with end member 106, in one embodiment flange 116 may be sewn into a pocket in the fabric of a purse, curtain, clothing or other substrate, such as opposed to the substrate to which the latch member 102 is attached, where flange 116 is thin enough to allow attachment to the substrate directly through the flange 116 without requiring apertures. For example, a receptacle 104 may be affixed to a purse body and a latch member 102 may be affixed to a purse flap, or vice versa. Of course, in another embodiment, apertures may be provided. Housing 114 includes resilient arms 118 with capture notches 120 for holding male latch member 102. While two arms 118 are shown, it is understood that the present invention is not limited to this number.

With reference to previous embodiments, locking of mechanism 100 is achieved by pressing latch member 102 in a first direction into receptacle 104, such that resilient arms 118 are urged open by, and then springably close behind, catch apparatus 112. Stop 110 rests upon resilient arms 118 while locking mechanism 100 is in the locked position. Unlocking of mechanism 100 is achieved by pressing latch member 102 further in the first direction into the receptacle 104 such that stop 110 urges open resilient arms 118 while being pressure captured in capture notches 120 and is subsequently dislodged by catch apparatus 112 during withdrawal of latch member 102 in a second direction, thereby completely unlocking mechanism 100.

Springs (not shown) may be disposed within housing 114 to reduce creep of resilient arms 118 tending to be induced by stop 110 resting upon arms 118 while locking mechanism 100 is in the locked position over multiple uses of locking mechanism 100. In addition, locking may be indicated by an audible clicking sound that signals that catch apparatus 112 has been captured by the resilient arms 118. During disengagement, when stop 110 is removably captured by resilient arm notches 120, an audible clicking sound may signal that stop 110 has been captured.

The locking mechanisms of one or more embodiments of the present invention have numerous applications in addition to those mentioned above. The locking mechanisms of one or more embodiments of the present invention may be capable for mass production through plastic injection molding using a variety of plastic materials, including polyoxymethylene and nylon resins and their polymers to form the female receptacle and/or male latch member such that optimum operation, strength, and durability are achieved.

In one embodiment, the plastic material is comprised of one or more polymers derived from one or more acetal copolymer compounds. Such plastic material may be utilized to form the female receptacle and/or the male latch member. It has been unexpectedly found that female receptacles made of plastic materials including one or more acetal copolymer compounds is superior to female receptacles made of plastic materials including one or more acetal homopolymers with respect to addressing the resilient arm creep issue. Further, acetal copolymer female receptacles and male latch members achieve greater sewability into various substrates according to one or more embodiments.

Non-limiting examples of suitable acetal copolymer plastic materials include CELCON M90, M90-FM050 and F90-45 black acetal copolymers available from Ticona Engineering Polymers of Florence, Kentucky; IUPITAL F20-03 acetal copolymers available from Mitsubishi Enginerering-Plastics Corp. of New York, N.Y.; and DURACON M90-44 acetal copolymers available from Polyplastics Co., Ltd. of Tokyo, Japan. Other materials that may be used in accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention include BASF Ultraform N 2320, POM DM120 and PA 66-A3K.

While exemplary embodiments are described above, it is not intended that these embodiments describe all possible forms of the invention. Rather, the words used in the specification are words of description rather than limitation, and it is understood that various changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Additionally, the features of various implementing embodiments may be combined to form further embodiments of the invention.