Title:
LOW-ENERGY BUILDING, ESPECIALLY SELF-SUFFICIENT ZERO-ENERGY HOUSE
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention relates to a system which can be used to air-condition buildings and other useable areas used by humans, in a completely self-sufficient manner.



Inventors:
Krecke, Edmond D. (Les Floralies, MC)
Application Number:
13/500958
Publication Date:
10/18/2012
Filing Date:
10/08/2010
Assignee:
KRECKE EDMOND D.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
165/56, 404/71, 454/284
International Classes:
E01C11/26; F28F1/00; F24F13/02; F24J3/08
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:
20060137871Air conditioning methodJune, 2006Roehm
20140069616COOLING SYSTEMMarch, 2014Wajima
20140231059HEAT EXCHANGERAugust, 2014Nietupski et al.
20120012284HEAT SINK WITH STAGGERED HEAT EXCHANGE ELEMENTSJanuary, 2012Salamon
20080216998Thermostat and testing machine provided with the sameSeptember, 2008Nakanishi et al.
20020062947Centrifugal impellerMay, 2002John Jr.
20120222839HEAT PIPE ASSEMBLYSeptember, 2012Huang
20110000647LOOP HEAT PIPEJanuary, 2011Hou
20170043436Process and Apparatus for Cooling a Metal Part During a Welding OperationFebruary, 2017Morin
20060144560Clip assembly structure for heat dissipating finsJuly, 2006Lo
20150096718PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERApril, 2015Noel-baron



Foreign References:
WO2009095232A12009-08-06
FR2274003A11976-01-02
FR2722277A11996-01-12
DE19826625A11999-12-23
FR2938900A12010-05-28
AU513830B21981-01-08
Primary Examiner:
LING, FOR K.
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Pearl Cohen Zedek Latzer Baratz LLP (New York, NY, US)
Claims:
1. 1.-104. (canceled)

105. A building with a ventilation system, comprising at least one conduit, which comprises a first pipe arranged in a second pipe so that supply and exhaust air can be guided through said conduit according to the counterflow principle, wherein said conduit is arranged in a first zone underneath the building and in a second zone in the ground adjacent to the building.

106. The building as claimed in claim 105, wherein 30 to 70% of the length of said conduit is arranged in the first zone.

107. The building as claimed in claim 105, wherein 30 to 70% of the length of the conduit is arranged in the second zone.

108. The building as claimed in claim 105, comprising walls or a roof having a core zone formed as a temperature barrier through which fluid conduits extend through which a heat exchange with the first or second zone can take place.

109. The building as claimed in claim 105, comprising fluid conduits for supply of fresh air, wherein at least sections of said fluid conduits for fresh air supply extend through an underground heat storage.

110. The building as claimed in claim 105, comprising walls or a roof having a core zone formed as a temperature barrier through which fluid conduits extend, wherein said fluid conduits are connected to a heat pump.

111. A building, comprising walls or a roof having a core zone formed as a temperature barrier through which fluid conduits extend, wherein individual segments of said fluid conduits are associated to individual rooms of the building.

112. A building as claimed in claim 111, wherein the building is connected to a underground heat storage which comprises fluid conduits arranged in the ground, wherein substances for improving the heat transfer are added to the ground adjoining said fluid conduits.

113. A building as claimed in claim 112, wherein the substances for improving the heat transfer comprise hydrophilic chemicals, water-retaining materials, metal chips or salts.

114. A landing strip for aircraft, comprising fluid conduits arranged underneath said landing strip, said fluid conduits being connected to an underground heat storage that is provided underneath said maneuvering area.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a low energy house, in particular a self-sufficient zero-energy house which can be configured to be completely independent of any external energy supply.

Low- or zero-energy houses, in particular with fluid channels in the walls of the building are known, for example from German Patent Application DE 2980495 A1 and from DE 102005034970.

The system developed by the inventor, graduated engineer and physicist Edmond D. Krecke, includes inter alia pipe-in-pipe conduits which are routed through an underground heat storage and a cold storage. Using a multi-directional valve the direction of air flow can be reversed to allow to charge the underground heat storage in summer, and to discharge it in winter and use the energy for room heating.

Furthermore, the system developed by graduated engineer and physicist Edmond D. Krecke comprises core zones in the outer walls through which fluid conduits extend. By means of these core zones, temperatures below room temperature can be used to maintain a building at a desired target temperature. A special advantage of this air-conditioning system is the fact that it guarantees a uniform temperature in summer as well as in winter.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

With respect to the approaches described above, it is an object of the invention to further simplify provision of a low-energy building, in particular a zero-energy building. Moreover, according to another aspect of the invention the use of the heat, cold and temperature barrier developed by graduated engineer and physicist Edmond D. Krecké shall be facilitated in densely built-up areas.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention, on the one hand, relates to a building with a ventilation system which has at least one conduit which includes a first pipe arranged in a second pipe so that supply and exhaust air are guidable through the conduit in counterflow. The invention thus relates to the pipe-in-pipe system already developed by the inventor in which heat and/or cold is extracted from the exhaust air.

According to the invention, the conduit is disposed in a first zone beneath the building and in a second zone in the ground adjacent to the building, preferably without being guided via a directional valve.

The inventor has found that by suitably dimensioning the pipe-in-pipe system, a reversal of the air flow for summer/winter operation can be dispensed with, depending on the climate zone.

Preferably, 30 to 60% of the length of the conduit are arranged in each of the first and second zones.

In cold zones, it has been found advantageous to arrange the larger part of the length, in particular about 60% of the length of the conduit, beneath the building, whereas in warm zones the distribution is vice versa.

In this way, a zone of lower temperature, for example from 9 to 16° C., can be formed adjacent to the building, and a zone with higher temperature, for example from 17 to 22° C., can be formed beneath the building.

Generally, in summer energy can be transferred from the supply air to the ground. In winter, by contrast, the supply air may be preheated by energy absorption from the ground. Through geothermal energy, the energy gain may be multiplied.

Because of its high efficiency, the system does not require large exhausters.

In a refinement of the invention, the building comprises walls having a core zone which is formed as a temperature barrier through which fluid conduits extend which allow a heat exchange with the first and/or second zones.

Preferably, water carrying PP pipes are laid in the walls, whereby the temperature inside the wall can be raised in the cold season with respect to the outside temperature.

So already low temperatures of 20° C. and optionally less can be used to keep the building at room temperature, even in winter. A heat pump or heating with fossil fuels is not necessary, rather the low temperature of the underground heat storage in the region of the first and/or second zones alone is sufficient.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a solar absorber is provided, for example formed as solar absorber pipes that are arranged under the roof skin, through which the first or second zone can be heated.

By means of the solar absorber especially the first zone arranged beneath the house can are brought to temperatures which exceed normal air temperatures in summer.

In a refinement of the invention, the solar absorber comprises fluid conduits which are filled with an antifreeze containing liquid. Via a heat exchanger, the solar absorber is coupled with further fluid conduits which extend through the core zone within the walls of the building and through the underground heat storage. So an antifreeze containing liquid has to be used only for the relatively small circuit of the solar absorber, whereas in the zones of the underground heat storage and in the walls which never reach a temperature below 0° C., the use of an antifreeze can be dispensed with. Rather, pure water is sufficient.

Preferably a pipe-in-pipe heat exchanger is used as a heat exchanger. In particular, with a pipe-in-pipe stainless steel heat exchanger high performances can be achieved in a very simple way. To increase storage capacity, a heat storage may be provided beneath the building and a cooling storage may be provided outside the building. Furthermore, it is suggested to couple at least one low-temperature latent heat storage, for example with sodium hydrogen phosphate as a storage medium, into the system.

In a refinement of the invention, the direction of air flow is reversible through a ventilator/exhauster. In summer, when temperatures are above room temperature, the fresh air can initially flow through the zone beneath the building and already deliver energy for storage while being cooled down a bit. Then, the fresh air flows through the second zone next to the building and is directed into the building at a temperature below room temperature. By counterflow principle, the exhaust air is first passed through the second zone in the ground and then through the first zone beneath the building.

In a refinement of the invention, the building comprises fluid conduits for supplying fresh air, wherein at least sections of these fluid conduits for supplying fresh air extend through an underground heat storage (cooling or warm storage).

Preferably, the building is equipped such that it has fluid conduits which extend through a core zone of the walls, as a temperature barrier, and which are filled with a liquid.

In summer, the underground heat storage can be heated through these fluid conduits. In winter, this heat can be used to bring the building to a sufficient temperature.

It has been found that, depending on the climate zone, for example sudden airing may lower the interior temperature of the building such that it is uncomfortably cold for a period of several hours. This problem can be resolved according to the invention by supplying the fresh air via fluid conduits which has sections that extend through the storages.

Especially stainless steel conduits are used, via which the fresh air required for the building is sucked in. While in winter the air introduced into the building can be heated in this way, in summer the underground heat storage can be used for pre-cooling the air that is introduced into the building. It is conceivable here that in summer and winter operation the air is passed though different zones of the two storages, i.e. warm and cold storage.

The invention further relates to a building, wherein walls and/or roof are provided with a core zone formed as a temperature barrier. Fluid conduits which are preferably filled with a liquid, extend through the core zone. According to the invention the fluid conduits may be connected to a heat pump, for extreme conditions.

Such a heat pump mainly serves in times of extreme cold for rapidly heating the building, for example, when the residents return after a vacation period during which the interior temperature of the building had been reduced. The heat pump ensures that the building can be brought to a desired interior temperature in a very short time. Preferably, the fluid conduits are also connected to an underground heat storage (warm and/or cold storage). This ensures that even at very low external temperatures the heat pump can be supplied with a fluid of sufficient temperature so that it operates with good efficiency.

The invention further relates to a building, in particular a building as described above, which has walls or a roof that include a core zone which is formed as a temperature barrier through which fluid conduits extend.

According to the invention, individual segments of the fluid conduits are associated to individual rooms of the building. That means, the invention suggests to lay a plurality of separate fluid circuits each of which is associated to a single room. In this way, by using room thermostats, it is possible to bring the individual rooms to different temperatures, independently from each other. It is quite conceivable here that within an underground heat storage (warm or cold storage) the fluid conduits of the individual rooms overlap, so that the underground heat storage has a substantially uniform temperature. Separate regulations for each room allow to independently call up energy in each room. In contrast to e.g. an internal distribution within the building by means of control valves, a segment-wise provision of individual circuits allows for a much simpler design. For example, it suffice to open or close the individual fluid circuits.

Furthermore, the invention relates to a building comprising a pipe-in-pipe counterflow system wherein the conduit extends through a heat storage, in particular an underground heat storage. An underground heat storage, in the simplest case, is understood as a pipe-in-pipe system which is laid in the ground, so that a temperature exchange takes place between the air carried in the pipe-in-pipe system and the ground.

According to the invention, the system comprises a first compressor for conveying air into the building, and a second compressor for conveying air out of the building. The compressors are preferably configured as fans/exhausters.

The inventor has found that by combining adjustable air extraction and adjustable air supply, the system can be used for extracting moisture and bad odors as well as smoke. For example, in normal operation extraction of air may be performed with about 40% (volume/time), and supply of air with 60%. So a slight overpressure prevails in the building. If now the air inside the building is deteriorated, for example by smoking people, a cooking place, etc., the system can be readjusted so that it extracts with 80% and feeds with only 20%. Due to the previously existing overpressure, inter alia, a very rapid exchange of the air inside the building takes place.

In a refinement of the invention, the building comprises an alarm system including an air pressure sensor. Thus, for example, the empty building can be set under positive or negative pressure. As soon as a door or window is opened by a housebreaker, the air pressure drops immediately and an alarm signal can be triggered.

The air pressure sensor is preferably connected to a control unit which at the same time forms part of an air-conditioning system. So an air-conditioning system can be provided with an additional alarm function in a particularly simple way. In fact, the only means necessary is a sensor for measuring the air pressure, which sensor may however be used at the same time for controlling the air-conditioning system, and small additional electronics.

Furthermore, the invention relates to a building which is connected to an underground heat storage which comprises fluid conduits arranged in the ground. According to the invention, substances for improving heat transfer are added to the ground adjoining the fluid conduits.

By this invention, the efficiency of an underground heat storage can be improved significantly.

For example, hydrophilic chemicals or water-retaining substances may be used. Additionally or alternatively, metal chips or salts may be used.

The invention furthermore relates to a building comprising a pipe-in-pipe system which includes a section for water condensation arranged in the conduit.

Preferably, this section for water condensation is provided as a cross-sectional enlargement.

For example, the moist exhaust air flows through the pipe-in-pipe system and is thereby cooled.

In a region of enlarged cross-section the flow rate is lowered and thus condensation is improved. Preferably, cooling fins or cooling plates are additionally arranged in this section.

The water condensate may, for example, be used to supply water to the building. For this purpose, preferably, the section for water condensation is connected, through a conduit, to the water supply system of the building. In particular, the condensate is especially useful for the operation of washing machines and dishwashers, since the condensate usually includes minerals, in particular lime, in only small amounts, if any.

The conduit is preferably made of stainless steel. Stainless steel can especially be processed as a coiled pipe. Moreover, when using stainless steel no aluminum ions are emitted into the water.

The invention furthermore relates to a heat storage for a building which comprises a substantially cylindrical concrete body, wherein at least two telescoped pipes are arranged in the concrete body.

The inventor has found that highly efficient underground heat storages can be realized even in densely built-up areas, in a small space.

To this end, a vertical bore may be placed into the ground. The outer pipe is introduced into the bore, and the adjacent space is filled with concrete. Then the inner pipe is inserted. The inner pipe is not placed on the bottom of the concrete body so that, for example, air from the inner pipe can flow downwards into the body and can then outflow between the inner pipe and the outer pipe.

The bores can be placed up to great depths, for example up to a depth of more than 50 m. In this case, an additional geothermal effect can be used.

In summer time, warm air is directed through the heat storage into the building. The air thereby cools off to about 16 to 18° C. and ensures that the building does not overheat.

In winter, cold air can be directed through this storage, even at temperatures well below 0° C., and can thereby warm up to a temperature between 16 and 18° C.

The residual heat that might be necessary to heat the building can be obtained by a heat pump, depending on the climate zone. Furthermore, the building may comprise a solar collector to cover the additional heat demand of the building.

For supply of electricity, the building preferably comprises a photovoltaic system. Additionally, a hydrogen battery can be used to power the building.

Moreover, the building may comprise a waste water treatment system which separates thin and viscous/solid components of the waste water to provide them to separate further utilization. The viscous/solid component of a toilet facility is used in pellet form as a fertilizer. Thin liquid components may be fed directly to the roots of the plants in the ground, via a drainage. Preferably the supply of the thin liquid components is effected through the ground, without exposure to the surface.

The invention moreover relates to an improved directional valve for the supply and exhaust air of a building, which valve comprises a first and a second level with a deflection shutter arranged both in the first level as well as in the second level and being actuable by a single mechanism.

By means of such a deflection shutter with two levels, the flow of supply air and exhaust air can be reversed simultaneously to direct, for example at low temperatures, the inlet air first through a cold zone of the underground heat storage and then through a warm zone and then into the building, while the exhaust air, in counterflow principle, takes the opposite direction.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the directional valve is switchable by means of a thermostat. In many cases a sophisticated control system can be dispensed with, even purely mechanical solutions are often sufficient.

The invention further relates to a directional valve for the supply and exhaust air of a building, which comprises an inner plastic tube arranged in an outer plastic tube, wherein the inner and outer tubes each have at least three ports for supply and exhaust air, and wherein a deflection shutter is arranged in the inner pipe.

The inventor has found that very inexpensive and well-functioning directional valves can be provided using tubular injection molded parts, such as of polyethylene, which can be used in the context of the invention for regulating the supply and exhaust air of the building.

The invention moreover relates to a building which comprises a pipe-in-pipe system for the supply and exhaust air which operates according to the counterflow principle, wherein at least sections of the pipe-in-pipe conduit extend through an underground heat storage having a warm and a cold zone.

The air flow directions in the warm and cold zones are reversible by means of a directional valve.

According to the invention the building comprises a second directional valve by which air from the warm zone, air from the cold zone and/or supply air can be mixed.

So, for example in summer cool night air can be added to the circulation, since otherwise in high summer the temperatures in the warm zone of the underground heat storage and in the cold zone would be so high that the building can no longer be cooled sufficiently by the air-conditioning system without having recourse to air-conditioners.

The invention furthermore relates to a building which comprises a pipe-in-pipe system for the supply and exhaust air which operates according to the counterflow principle, and wherein an aerosol can be admixed to the supply air.

In particular, it is suggested to add a flavoring agent, a coolant, or a disinfectant. In this manner, for example, the inlet air can be cooled further at very high temperatures. In times of risks of epidemics, especially during influenza epidemics, a disinfectant may be added to the inlet air.

Especially preferred, the inlet air can be disinfected using UV light. In particular, it is suggested to provide a system for cleaning the air, in which first an oxidatively acting aerosol is sprayed and then a UV treatment is performed. In this way radicals are produced that have a particular effective germicidal effect, while avoiding to have the aerosol added in an unhealthy amount.

Thus, a self-sufficient zero-energy building can be provided.

The invention also relates to a building which comprises a temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier, especially for or in means for air-conditioning buildings, and to buildings and building parts equipped with such barriers.

When constructing modern buildings, in particular commercially or industrially used buildings, more and more glass facades or glass fronts are used, which are architecturally attractive and interesting from a design point of view and can give the residents or users a pleasant sense of space.

These advantages, however, usually go hand in hand with disadvantages such as a temperature increase in the associated interior spaces caused by the penetrating radiation, and possible energy losses when heating the buildings, due to an increased heat loss through the transparent surfaces or building fronts.

While there exist laminated glass panes having two or more successively arranged glass plates which are intended to mitigate these disadvantages, such panes, however, only reduce the input and output of energy, but cannot use the absorbed energy.

Also, blackout facilities are known, such as roller shutters, venetian blinds, and awnings which are intended to prevent an increased energy input, however, especially in case of large window, door, or wall surfaces, the absorbed energy is not provided for another positive utilization.

Another object of the invention is to provide a temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier which is easily retrofitted in existing buildings, especially at building facades.

The invention comprises a temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier, in particular a temperature or heat barrier which comprises an at least partially transparent pane or sheet, and a preferably at least partially transparent substantially planar fluid guide, with a carrier medium for thermal energy, in particular a heat carrier medium, arranged between the pane and the fluid guide, which is suitable to absorb radiation, in particular thermal radiation, and wherein the carrier medium for thermal energy is moveable relative to the pane and the fluid guide, by convection and/or externally.

A planar fluid guide in the context of the invention is to be understood as a means which enables to form an interspace behind the pane in order to guide a fluid through that interspace. Thus, the fluid guide is arranged at the inner side of and typically in parallel to the pane, so that the interspace is provided between the pane and the fluid guide.

The temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is especially intended for tempering buildings as well as for energy exploitation. When used as a heat barrier, the interspace is brought to a temperature which is at least higher than the outdoor temperature. A supply of cold, in the sense of the invention, is understood as a removal of heat. In this way, a building can be air-conditioned according to the invention, i.e. heat is discharged, or cold is supplied.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the planar fluid guide is a pane, preferably a transparent pane.

Alternatively, one or more curtains can be used as planar fluid guide, in particular transparent or translucent curtains. Such curtains are usually part of the interior design, anyway. Moreover, a curtain can easily be retrofitted in existing buildings. Also, cleaning of the outer pane is made possible by simply pulling back the curtain or curtains.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, at least a portion of the planar fluid guide is formed to be substantially transparent. Thus, the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier can be used as a window.

In a refinement of the invention, at least a portion of the planar fluid guide is substantially configured to reflect light and/or thermal radiation. According to the invention, there are provided fluid guides that reflect in a partial range of the spectrum, such as in the infrared range, as well as fluid guides which are not transparent and also reflect a large proportion of the visible light to the outside.

In a refinement of the invention, at least one further planar fluid guide is provided.

Preferably, the at least one further planar fluid guide is removable from the pane and/or at least partially movable away therefrom. Thus, different fluid guides can be used alternatively. In summer, a fluid guide may be used which predominantly reflects visible light and so reduces heating of the room. In winter, by contrast, a substantially transparent fluid guide may be used to allow plenty of light into the room and to increase direct energy input into the room.

In particular, a curtain which has an outside reflection layer is provided as a reflecting planar fluid guide.

When configured as a curtain, the fluid guides may be mounted to a building wall or the ceiling by means of a guidance so that they are movably suspended.

According to the invention, support members such as Halfen rails may be concreted into the ceiling for mounting facade elements, such as glass facades.

The window pane preferably made of glass, preferably has a thickness from 1 to 20 mm, more preferably from 5 to 13 mm, and most preferably from 8 to 9 mm.

To increase security, the pane can be made of safety glass.

According to the invention, due to the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier a window pane of single pane glass is already sufficient. Expensive double-glazing can therefore be dispensed with. When retrofitting appropriate temperature barriers, the old windows may remain installed. Particularly in buildings subject to a preservation order there is hardly any need to intervene in the visible building substance.

The at least one planar fluid guide is spaced from the pane by 2 to 50 cm, preferably by 3 to 25 cm, more preferably by 5 to 15 cm. The space can be varied depending on the application. In case air is used as a carrier medium for thermal energy, a space of about 10 cm has been found to be particularly suitable.

Furthermore, the invention comprises means for absorbing and/or releasing energy, in particular radiation or thermal energy, in particular at or in buildings, and an air-conditioning system which includes such a temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier, and a building equipped with any of the means mentioned above.

Advantageously, the carrier medium for thermal energy comprises a fluid, since the latter is provided circulating in a fluid circuit and can be optimized in its heat absorption and heat emission capabilities by use of appropriate components that will be described in more detail below.

In many cases it is very advantageous if the carrier medium for thermal energy is in gaseous form, in particular when using air as a heat carrier medium, since in this case it is possible to provide not completely closed circuits which may to a certain degree be in communication with the room air. Given an appropriate layout of the partially open circuit, this allows to supply air in defined manner and/or to beneficially adjust the indoor climate by influencing the moisture content of the air.

For such partially open circuits, transparent or non-transparent blinds can be used advantageously. Preferably, the second pane is a blind, in particular it may comprise a metallic blind.

Further, in order to increase absorption the carrier medium for thermal energy may advantageously contain CO2, nitrogen, and/or an infrared absorbing (IR absorbing) gas, which may preferably be carried in a closed fluid circuit.

In closed fluid circuits, it may further be advantageous when the fluid comprises water in liquid form, in form of droplets, or as water vapor.

To improve absorption or for specifically adjusting the color, the carrier medium for thermal energy may comprise at least one IR absorbing dye and/or other dyes effective in the visible spectrum, in dissolved or particulate form.

Furthermore, it is very advantageous in terms of heat absorption from radiation or from ambient heat if the carrier medium for thermal energy exhibits a phase transition which takes place at a defined first temperature and is suitable to absorb heat, and if the phase transition involves the absorption of evaporation heat.

In another embodiment according to the invention, the carrier medium for thermal energy is supplied in liquid form to nozzles which are arranged in front of or near the first and/or second pane, and is atomized by these nozzles, and, upon transition to the gaseous state, especially at a lower pressure than in its liquid state, absorbs heat to a greater extent. This embodiment is used in summer time.

The gaseous carrier medium for thermal energy may then be fed to a heat storage whereat or wherein it may condense and emit heat, preferably at elevated pressure.

To this end, the carrier medium for thermal energy may include Freon® and/or a CFC-free refrigerant or may form a mixture therewith, and may be moved externally using a fluid pump, in particular by applying a positive and/or negative pressure.

In a refinement of the invention, at least one pipe with openings, in particular a slotted pipe, is arranged between the pane and the planar fluid guide, for discharging the fluid. Such a pipe allows to selectively adjust the fluid flow.

Preferably, the pipe for discharging the fluid is substantially arranged in the upper region of the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier, whereas a corresponding pipe for supplying fluid is substantially arranged in the lower region of the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier. In this way a uniform fluid flow from the bottom to the top may be adjusted.

To this end, the pipe preferably extends substantially over the entire width of the temperature or heat barrier.

Moreover, the first and/or second panes advantageously have at least one coating.

In case the second pane is coated with at least one layer which enhances IR reflectance, absorption may be further increased by the reflected radiation component.

This is also successful when the second pane comprises at least one IR absorbing dye, since the pane is in direct contact with the carrier medium for thermal energy and may release heat or cold thereto.

In the sense of the present invention, the term ‘IR absorbing’ or ‘infrared absorbing’ comprises everything which at wavelengths longer than 600 nm exhibits a higher absorption than in the visible spectral range.

From an architectural point of view, it may be advantageous if the second pane comprises at least one milk glass comprising area and/or an opaque area, for example for design reasons, or in medical and sanitary facilities for protection of privacy.

If the second pane is photochromic or comprises a photochromic substance, not only can the absorption capacity be increased by the color scheme, but self-regulating systems can be provided which in case of excessive brightness hold the latter in a desired range, which for example in commercial environments brings vast advantageous for screen workstations.

For implementing the invention, the first, second, and/or third panes or sheets may comprise glass or plastics. It is very advantageous, in particular for cleaning, repair, or maintenance, if the first and/or second pane, a curtain, or a portion of the first and/or second pane is arranged to be movable or removable.

In a refinement of the invention, the planar fluid guide is designed as a curtain, which is movable around at least one roller. Thus, the curtain is easily opened or closed, especially by electrical actuation. The roller for guiding and/or moving the curtain is preferably disposed outside the pane area in the upper and/or lower region of the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier.

In a refinement of the invention, solar cells are provided, particularly printed, on the pane and/or the planar fluid guide, at least in portions thereof. In particular, substantially transparent solar cells are provided, which are preferably formed of amorphous silicon. So panes having a layer of amorphous silicon can be used, which layer provides for a tint of the panes and at the same time is used as a solar cell to produce electricity. Alternatively or in combination, solar cells can be arranged on a non-transparent fluid guide.

Preferably, the solar cells are connected via substantially transparent electrical conductors.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the planar fluid guide is movable and is guided and/or maintained substantially fluid-tight by magnets that are substantially arranged at the edges thereof. This prevents the fluid from flowing into the room in large quantities. At the same time, the planar fluid guide may be mounted by means of a magnet holder.

In an alternative according to the invention, the planar fluid guides are attachable on at least one clamping strip.

According to the invention, the carrier medium for thermal energy is preferably directed through another temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier, or through a collector system, in particular in the wall or roof of a building, and can deliver heat it has collected there.

In another embodiment of the invention, the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier may be a part of a transparent building roof or a part of an interior wall of a building.

In yet another embodiment of the invention, the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier may be a part of a window or a door which is connected to the fluid circuit via flexible supply and discharge pipes and thus can contribute to both cooling in summer and heating in winter. This allows to avoid cold bridges in winter and “thermal bridges” in summer.

Especially in the winter or with colder outdoor temperatures, a carrier medium for thermal energy brought to an elevated temperature relative to an inner room may be passed through the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier, and used for climate control.

Provided that the heat carrier medium supply and discharge pipes to and/or from the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier are laid in a building floor, especially in the screed, these pipes may also be used for room climate control, especially for floor and wall air-conditioning.

Particularly preferred, the flow rate can be separately controlled and/or regulated by means of bypass lines running past the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier and past the supply and discharge pipes laid in the floor or screed, and by associated valves, which permits selective partial cooling as well as air-conditioning.

Laying supply and discharge pipes in a screed advantageously allows for retrofitting existing buildings with the temperature and heat barriers according to the invention.

Advantageously, such an air-conditioning system further comprises a heat storage, in particular an underground storage, and a fluid circulation system such as those described in the air-conditioning system or energy system for buildings in WO 97/10474, which is fully incorporated herein by reference and is made subject matter of the present disclosure and the present invention.

Also, the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier may be arranged in front of the building facade of an existing building, as a climate barrier which improves the energy balance of the building in case of air-conditioning and enables to consumption-optimize ventilation thereof.

For this purpose, in one embodiment of the invention the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier may advantageously be arranged in front of the entire surface of both window and wall sections in front of the building.

An alternative embodiment of the invention relates to a temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier with at least one partially transparent pane, wherein a carrier medium for thermal energy can be passed along an inner and/or outer surface of the pane, preferably the inner side of the pane. The carrier medium for thermal energy is movable relative to the pane, by convection or externally.

According to this embodiment, no second fluid guide is provided, rather the carrier medium for thermal energy is guided along the window as a curtain which forms a temperature barrier.

With this embodiment of the invention, especially older buildings can easily be retrofitted without great effort and without excessive intervention in the building substance.

Preferably, means for removing and/or feeding the carrier medium for thermal energy are arranged in the lower region or below the pane, and in the upper region or above the pane. Thus, the carrier medium for thermal energy may be guided along the pane from bottom to top or from top to bottom.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is designed such that in summer cold air is passed along the pane from top to bottom, and in winter warm air is passed from bottom to top.

In this way the building can be air-conditioned. To this end, preferably at least one heat storage is provided which is fed at warm temperatures. At cold outdoor temperatures the air-conditioning system can be switched. Heat energy is then extracted from the storage, and warm air is passed upwards along the pane.

In a particular embodiment of the invention, at least two storages having different temperature ranges are provided for temperature control.

The carrier medium for thermal energy is preferably supplied and discharged through pipes that have at least one opening. The pipes may have almost any shape. Preferably, the pipes are slotted to allow the carrier medium for thermal energy to flow in and out.

These slots preferably extend in the flow direction and may, additionally, include flow conditioning extensions.

This allows for an essentially laminar flow of the carrier medium for thermal energy. In this way a fluid curtain is formed, and a deranging draught caused by fluid that flows into the room as a result of turbulences is reduced.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the pane is part of a window, which can be opened. Especially in summer a cooling fluid curtain may be provided, even with the window open.

The invention also relates to a building, which comprises at least one heat storage, in particular an underground heat storage. The heat storage can store heat collected through temperature, heat, and/or cold barriers. Especially in areas with high average temperatures it is conceivable to cool down the heat storage at night, and to cool the building during the day, by means of the temperature, heat and/or cold barrier.

In a refinement of the invention two heat storages are provided for this purpose, which are maintained at different temperature levels. In this case, one heat storage serves for cooling and the other for heating.

Preferably, the building additionally comprises solar absorber pipes and/or heat exchangers which, in one particular embodiment of the invention, are fed at least partially through the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier.

Furthermore, the invention comprises a roof window which comprises a temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier according to the invention, and a modular roof. Such a roof can easily be retrofitted, in particular during renovation works.

The invention also relates to a maneuvering area, in particular a maneuvering area which is adapted as a take-off or landing strip for aircrafts. According to the invention, fluid conduits are provided beneath the maneuvering area which are connected to an underground heat storage preferably provided beneath the maneuvering area.

The inventor has found that the aspects described above which relate to tempering of buildings are also suitable to hold a maneuvering area free of ice in winter. So, in summer heat may be supplied to an underground heat storage via the fluid conduits provided beneath the maneuvering area. In winter, this energy is derived to heat the maneuvering area, and in most climate zones the extremely laborious task of keeping the maneuvering area free of ice using clearing vehicles, and the application of environmentally harmful de-icing agents can be dispensed with. By contrast, the establishing costs for the system according to the invention are relatively small, at least when building a new airport.

In a refinement of the invention, the fluid conduits are coupled to an adjacent building, especially an airport building. In particular, an airport building is provided which comprises walls that are provided with a core zone which comprises fluid conduits. So in summer time energy may be taken away from the building, thereby generally eliminating the need to air-condition the building by use of refrigeration compressors. The energy accumulated in summer can be used in winter to keep the maneuvering area free of ice.

Accordingly, the invention is also applicable for sports fields, recreational facilities, city parks, streets, and bridges. In colder climate zones, areas of arable land and greenhouses may likewise be air-conditioned according to the invention in a very economical way.

At high outdoor temperatures, the asphalt of a maneuvering area, a road, or a walkway is cooled through the fluid conduits and the discharge of heat, and thus the wear resulting from high temperatures, especially by heavy vehicles, is avoided.

The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to preferred embodiments thereof and with reference to the accompanying drawings.

In the drawings:

FIG. 1 schematically shows a pipe-in-pipe system arranged underneath and adjacent the building;

FIG. 1a schematically shows one embodiment of a low-energy building;

FIGS. 1b and 1c schematically show a maneuvering area and an airport with a maneuvering area which are equipped with fluid conduits and an underground heat storage;

FIG. 2 schematically shows a pipe-in-pipe system with an section for water condensation;

FIG. 3 schematically shows a heat storage which copes with limited space;

FIGS. 4a to 4h schematically illustrate various exemplary embodiments of directional valves;

FIGS. 5a to 5d schematically show one embodiment of the invention in which the warm zone of an underground heat storage is controlled via a directional valve;

FIG. 6 shows a wall including two temperature barriers, or a temperature barrier and a solar absorber;

FIG. 7 shows a roofing including two temperature barriers, or a temperature barrier and a solar absorber;

FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which a first embodiment of the invention has been realized wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building;

FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which a second embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein the second pane has a coating;

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which a third embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein an absorbing fluid carrier medium for thermal energy is used which includes an absorption enhancing dye;

FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which a fourth embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein an absorbing fluid carrier medium for thermal energy is used which passes through a grid-like or sponge-like heat absorbing structure;

FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which a fifth embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein a fluid carrier medium for thermal energy is used which can be atomized and exhibits a phase transition to the gaseous state;

FIG. 16 is a schematic illustration of the fluid circuits through a heat storage, in particular an underground heat storage;

FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building including a portion of a floor thereof, in which another embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building and includes a thick glass;

FIG. 18 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building including a portion of a floor thereof, in which yet another embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building and includes a double glass;

FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building including a portion of a floor thereof, in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein supply and discharge conduits are laid in the screed of the housing basement;

FIG. 20 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building including a portion of a floor thereof, in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier comprises a blind, in particular a metallic blind, as a second pane;

FIG. 21 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building including a portion of a floor thereof, in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the second pane can be removed or opened, at least partially;

FIG. 22 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building including a portion of a floor thereof, in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein the second and first panes can be removed or opened, at least partially;

FIGS. 23 and 24 are cross-sectional views of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building and wherein curtains are provided as planar fluid guides;

FIG. 25 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein a coated curtain is provided as a planar fluid guide;

FIG. 26 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein a coated second pane is provided;

FIG. 27 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, a second pane is provided, and slotted pipes are provided for supplying and discharging the fluid;

FIG. 28 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, a second pane is provided, and a ventilation system is provided for passing the fluid;

FIG. 29 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein two curtains are provided as flat fluid guides;

FIG. 30 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein a fluid guide is provided with a layer of amorphous solar cells;

FIG. 31 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein another temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier extends through the roof area of the building;

FIG. 32 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is formed as a substantially roller blind-type curtain;

FIGS. 33 and 34 are cross-sectional views of a detail of a building in which an alternative embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier does not have a fluid guide, but the carrier medium for thermal energy is directly passed along a pane; and

FIG. 35 shows, in an approximately horizontal cross-sectional view, a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized.

FIG. 1 schematically shows a pipe-in-pipe system which does not require any directional valve. The pipe-in-pipe system comprises a pipe-in-pipe conduit 2 which is only shown as one line in this schematic view. Conduit 2 is disposed beneath the building 1 and also adjacent to the building. In winter operation, fresh air indicated by arrows 3 is fed into the building, and exhaust air indicated by arrows 4 is discharged from the building. Fresh air 3 and exhaust air 4 are guided past each other according to the counterflow principle.

By virtue of conduit 2, an underground heat storage is provided under the building. The temperature of the heat storage under the building is higher than adjacent to the building.

Exhaust air 4 gradually releases heat and eventually is directed out of the building.

FIG. 1a schematically shows a building which comprises an underground heat storage 33 beneath the building which is surrounded by an insulation layer 36 and thus forms a warm zone.

The house is equipped with a pipe-in-pipe system by which exhaust air is removed from and inlet air is supplied to the house, according to the counterflow principle.

In summer, the warm air is first passed through the warm zone of underground heat storage 33 where it gives off part of its heat, then the air passes through a cold zone 37 provided adjacent to the building, and is then directed into the building 1. So on the one hand heat is withdrawn from the hot air, which heat can be used for heating the house in winter, on the other hand building 1 can be cooled at the same time.

In winter, the cold air is directed into the house in the opposite direction. First the air is preheated in cold zone 37, then heated further in warm zone 33, and then directed into the house.

Control may for example be effected through schematically illustrated directional valve 20.

Directional valve 20 is substantially cylindrical and comprises a cover 30 via which the incoming air flows into directional valve 20.

Then the inlet air passes two filters 32.

Below filters 32, a thermostat-controlled deflection shutter 26 is disposed which allows to switch over between winter and summer operation.

Further, building 1 comprises a solar absorber 34 which is arranged on the roof of building 1.

The walls of building 1 comprise a fluid carrying core zone 38 which serves as a temperature barrier.

Water pipes in core zone 38 lead to warm zone 33 and/or cold zone 37. Through core zone 38, the relatively low temperatures prevailing in the regions of the underground heat storage can be used for tempering the building. Provided there is an appropriate insulation at the inner surface of core zone 38, temperatures below room temperature are sufficient to keep the interior of building 1 at room temperature.

Solar absorber 34 is coupled to the water-carrying conduits of core zone 38 via a pipe-in-pipe heat exchanger 35. Since in the core zone and in the underground heat storage the temperature is always above 0° C., through the use of the heat exchanger an antifreeze has only to be added to the water circuit of solar absorber 34.

Also, solar absorber 34 ensures the hot water supply for building 1.

If, additionally, a photovoltaic system (not shown) is provided, an energetically self-sufficient house can be provided.

In an alternative constructional arrangement, not shown, the fluid-carrying conduits for supplying the underground heat storage are only disposed adjacent to the building.

Especially for larger multi-family buildings it has proven to be particularly suitable to just dig a trench of a depth of at least two, in particular three meters around the building, and to introduce a heat insulating material, such as Styrodur®, into this trench in vertical alignment, as an insulation. On the side of the so-formed insulation layer which faces the building, fluid-carrying conduits are installed which are connected to the temperature barrier within the walls of the building. It has turned out that in this way a large underground heat storage is formed underneath the building, which can be brought to a temperature of 23° C. to 27° C. and more, in summer. The heat penetrates into deeper and colder layers, so that even in winter much energy can be derived in the short term from the underground heat storage by the reverse effect, since the underlying heat rises and a temperature of up to 20° C. or more will be maintained throughout the winter.

FIG. 1b schematically shows a maneuvering area 70, which is particularly adapted as a take-off and landing strip. Underneath maneuvering area 70 fluid conduits 71 are laid in a serpentine-like pattern through which the maneuvering area can be kept free of ice.

The fluid conduits 71 are connected to an underground heat storage (not shown) which may for example be arranged below the maneuvering area. In preparing such a maneuvering area it is usually necessary anyway to dig into the soil relatively deeply to provide a sufficiently stable substructure for the surface layer of the maneuvering area. Underneath the tarmac structure, fluid carrying conduits can then be laid, which together with the surrounding ground form an underground heat storage. The system is regulated via distribution station 72. For example, the maneuvering area may comprise temperature sensors (not shown) through which the distribution station 72 detects when there is a risk of frost and then retrieves energy from the underground heat storage disposed underneath maneuvering area 70 in order to supply heat to the fluid conduits 71 and to hold the maneuvering area 70 free of ice. In summer, the distribution station 72 can see from the temperature sensors (not shown) when the temperature in fluid conduits 71 is above the temperature of the underground heat storage and can then heat the underground heat storage.

In particular maneuvering areas covered with asphalt, including roads, sidewalks, and bridges, for example, have a very high level of solar energy per unit area.

The system for keeping a maneuvering area free of ice may be coupled with a system for controlling the temperature of a building, in particular an airport building 73, as schematically shown in FIG. 1c. In this exemplary embodiment, distribution station 72 of the maneuvering area 70 is connected with an airport terminal 73 which comprises walls with fluid-carrying conduits (not shown) to form a temperature barrier. Especially in the summer months thermal energy may be withdrawn from airport building 73 through the energy barrier and may be fed into an underground heat storage beneath maneuvering area 70. It will be appreciated that another underground heat storage can be arranged beneath or adjacent to the airport terminal 73.

The illustrated system allows to keep the maneuvering area 70 free of ice and to air-condition the airport terminal 73. It only requires little electrical energy for operating the control and for operating the pumps which circulate the fluid. This energy can be obtained, for example, via solar cells. In this way, the entire airport complex can be supplied with energy in a climate-neutral manner, including that for keeping the maneuvering area free of ice.

FIG. 2 schematically shows a pipe-in-pipe system with a section for water condensation 7.

The pipe-in-pipe system consists of an inner pipe 5 and an outer pipe 6.

In the section for water condensation 7 the cross-section of both pipes is enlarged.

Moist air flowing into the inner pipe, due to its lower flow rate resulting from the larger cross-section, has enough time for the water to condense.

Through a water outlet 8 the water is fed into the water supply of the building.

For better condensation, additionally, cooling fins 9 are arranged in the section for water condensation.

FIG. 3 schematically shows a heat storage 10 which can be accommodated in small areas.

The heat storage comprises a cylinder 11 of concrete. An outer pipe 13 and an inner pipe 12 are inserted into concrete cylinder 11.

When manufacturing the heat storage 10, initially a bore is drilled into the ground 14 to a depth of more than 10 meters, preferably more than 50 meters.

Then outer pipe 13 is inserted and the space between outer pipe 13 and ground 14 is filled with concrete.

Subsequently, inner pipe 12 is inserted. Suitable spacers (not illustrated) prevent that inner pipe 12 touches the bottom of heat storage 10. Thus, for example, air can flow through the inner pipe from the top downwards into the heat storage, reverse its flow direction at the bottom of heat storage 10, and flow upwards and out. Preferably, a surrounding insulation (not shown) is provided in the upper pipe portion.

It will be appreciated that the heat storage at its top comprises a lid with ports for connection to an air-conditioning system of a building.

FIGS. 4a to 4h show a variety of embodiments of directional valves which can be used in the context of the invention.

FIG. 4a shows a two-story directional valve 20 which includes a lower level 21 and an upper level 22.

At both levels 21, 22, a deflection shutter 26 is provided by which the air flow can be reversed simultaneously at the two levels 21, 22.

In the illustrated view, directional valve 20 is switched to summer operation.

The supply air is fed into directional valve 20 via port 23 which is connected to the outer pipe of a pipe-in-pipe counterflow system.

Through chamber 25 the air flows into the upper level 22 and is first fed into the warm zone 15, via deflection shutter 26 and another port, then passes through cold zone 16 arranged adjacent to the building, then re-enters on the other side of the upper chamber 22 and is directed into the building.

The flow direction of the exhaust air is controlled through the lower chamber 21, the exhaust air exits directional valve 20 through port 24 which is coupled to the inner pipe of a pipe-in-pipe system, and is expelled into the open air after having passed warm zone 16 and cold zone 15.

Directional valve 20 may, for example, be formed of stainless steel or aluminum and allows particularly simple reversal of the air flow of both supply air and exhaust air.

FIG. 4b schematically shows an alternative embodiment of a directional valve in which injection molded polyethylene parts may be used.

Directional valve 20 consists of an outer plastic tube 29, in which an inner plastic tube (not shown) is inserted. Directional valve 20 is closed by a lid 30.

On each of four sides of the directional valve, conduits 2 can be connected which comprise an inner pipe 27 and an outer pipe 28. In the illustrated view, one of the conduits leads into the adjacent ground 39.

The directional valve 20 should preferably be installed in a depth of about 2 to 3 m.

FIG. 4c shows an alternative embodiment of a directional valve 20 which comprises an internal rotary slide. Preferably, this directional valve has also at least two levels, whereby the flow direction of supply and exhaust air can be reversed simultaneously, as with the directional valve of FIG. 4a.

FIG. 4d shows another embodiment of a directional valve 20. Deflection shutter 26 by means of which summer and winter operation can be set, can be seen arranged in directional valve 20. Deflection shutter 26 bears against sealing lips 31.

FIG. 4e shows a side view of double-level directional valve 20 having a lower level 21 and an upper level 22.

The port of upper level 22 is slightly smaller, since it is intended for the inner pipe of a pipe-in-pipe system, while the outer pipe is connected to the port of lower level 21.

Referring to FIG. 4f, the figure illustrates that via a directional valve fresh air can be supplied at the same time. For this purpose, the deflection shutter 26 may take intermediate positions in which the air can be mixed.

FIG. 4g shows another embodiment of a directional valve 20 which is additionally configured as an air inlet.

Directional valve 20 has a lid 30 through which the outside air can flow into the directional valve 20.

A filter 32 which here comprises three filter layers is arranged below lid 30, to filter the air which is supplied to the building.

Below filter 32, a deflection shutter 26 is provided in order to be able to switch between summer and winter operation.

FIG. 4h schematically shows a directional valve, which is especially designed for large buildings.

This directional valve 20 comprises two deflection shutters, 26a and 26b, by which the air flow in the warm and cold circuits is reversible.

Furthermore, locking flaps 40 are provided.

FIG. 5a schematically shows an air-conditioning system in summer operation.

According to the counterflow principle, the air first flows through a cold zone 16, then arrives at the directional valve 20a. If the air has a temperature below the temperature of the warm zone 15, for example, it may directly be directed into the building. The warm zone 15 comprises conduits laid in a serpentine-like pattern, preferably laid beneath the building. When energetically thermo-retrofitting existing buildings, the warm zone 15 may be laid adjacent to an existing building.

Preferably the warm zone is insulated all around, for example with Styrodur®. Besides a prolonged storage of high temperatures, this prevents the building from being heated more than intended through the warm zone 15 which is arranged under the building, in summer.

The cold zone 16 is preferably arranged adjacent to the building and is insulated from the warm zone 15. Preferably, the cold zone 16 also comprises conduits that are laid in a serpentine-like or meandering pattern (not shown).

Via a second directional valve 20b which is formed as a directional valve having two levels, outside air, for example, can be supplied to directional valve 20a and mixed in directional valve 20a with preheated air.

In the diagram of FIG. 5b, outer air is added to the room air via directional valve 20b.

FIG. 5c schematically shows an alternative embodiment in which the second directional valve is omitted.

Shown is the summer operation in which the outside air first passes through warm zone 15 and then through cold zone 16 of the ground storage and then is directed into the interior of the building via directional valve 20a. The air which has a temperature above the room temperature, has thereby cooled down.

FIG. 5d shows the winter operation in which the deflection shutters of directional valve 20a are switched such that outside air is first preheated in cold zone 16, then passes through warm zone 15 beneath the house via directional valve 20a, and is then directed into the building via directional valve 20a.

FIG. 6 shows an embodiment of the invention which comprises two temperature barriers. Here, the wall has an inner insulation 51. Adjacent thereto a temperature barrier layer 52 extends which comprises a concrete layer provided with fluid conduits 53. This embodiment additionally comprises a second temperature barrier 54 which is likewise equipped with fluid conduits and is formed as an absorber layer which preferably includes capillary tubes 55. Exterior plaster 56 is provided on the second temperature barrier 54; it will be understood that depending on the climate zone another insulation may be provided on the exterior surface to protect the second temperature barrier against frost.

The fluid passages may be configured as plastic pipes or capillary tube mats, for example. In this case, the pipes or mats of the second temperature barrier function as a solar collector. By use of additional absorber circuits (not shown) energy is stored in the summer. The insulation of the outer wall may be reduced to 2 to 5 cm of insulation material, and with an additional insulation between the temperature barrier layer and the solar absorber layer a thin but highly effective wall can are provided.

FIG. 7 schematically shows a roof area 60. Below the roof rafters 61, oriented strand boards (OSB) (not shown) are attached. A temperature barrier layer 52 is encapsulated within a cladding material. The second temperature barrier 54 which is formed as an absorber layer comprises fluid conduits 62 laid between the roof rafters or capillary mats. Since the fluid conduits 62 of the second temperature barrier 54 are protected from the weather by a overlaid roofing 63, they do not need to be embedded in a sealing compound, but can be laid loose.

According to the invention, in particular the roof structure with an absorber layer (not shown) is particularly simple. A rafter roof is provided with wood fiber boards suitable for wallpapering, below the rafters. Ideally, the space between the rafters is one meter, so that Styropor® insulation panels can be inserted between the rafters without cropping. So Styropor® panels of a thickness of about 5 cm are placed on the OSB boards, optionally foamed together, and fixed. Then, a temperature barrier of plastic pipes is laid onto the Styropor® panels in a meandering pattern transversely to the rafters, is guided until the roof ridge and then coupled, via ventilation valves, to a closed circuit. Alternatively, instead of the meandering plastic pipe, capillary tube mats may be installed. The space between the rafters is then sealed with a casting compound, and another Styropor® insulation layer of a thickness of 5 cm is applied. This Styropor® insulation layer then combines with the still wet casting compound. Then, further plastic pipes are laid onto the second Styropor® insulation layer in a meandering pattern, as an absorber layer, and are connected. Since these solar absorber pipes are protected against environmental influences by the overlying roofing they do not necessarily have to be embedded in a casting compound. In this way, the techniques can be installed very easily, with extremely slim roof insulation and optimal energetic efficiency, and can be used for cooling and tempering attics.

Embodiments with both closed and at least partially open fluid circuits will now be described below.

Closed systems correspond to the embodiments of FIGS. 11 to 15 and FIGS. 17 to 19, while at least temporarily partially open systems are illustrated in the embodiments of FIGS. 20 to 22.

In closed systems, there is substantially no communication of the heat carrier medium with the interior, that means no entry of the heat carrier medium into the interior space.

For example, completely closed fluid circuits may be provided such as those described in WO 97/10474, and the temperature and heat barrier may be part of the circuit described therein, for example with water as a heat carrier medium which in summer or on hot days heats an underground heat storage and in winter or on cold days derives this heat for heating purposes.

Furthermore, partially closed circuits may be provided for the heat carrier medium, for example when air is used as a carrier medium for thermal energy, wherein the carrier medium for thermal energy is guided in a manner substantially closed towards the interior of the building, but is in communication with the exterior of the building, as it is the case when guiding the exhaust air relative to the inlet air according to the counterflow principle.

Furthermore, the invention comprises partially open systems, preferably with air as the heat carrier medium, wherein the moving air can supply air-conditioned air and discharge exhaust air, and wherein for discharging a selected negative pressure can be set for the corresponding openings between the interior and the fluid circuit, and wherein for supplying a selected positive pressure can be set for the corresponding openings between the interior and the fluid circuit, as compared to the air pressure in the interior, respectively.

This positive and/or negative pressure may be adjusted in predefined manner through fluid pumps, in particular fans and/or exhausters, so that anytime a room climate is adjustable at an optimum for the user. To this end, appropriate humidification or de-humidification of the supplied room air can be effected.

In the description below, the term ‘fluid pump’ is intended to comprise fans, exhausters, liquid pumps, or pumps which are suitable to convey gaseous and liquid components.

When implementing the invention, many embodiments thereof may be incorporated into existing energy systems or air-conditioning systems, in particular those as described in WO 97/10474, so that heat or cold bridges are completely avoidable, especially in zones of large glass areas and of windows or doors.

In the detailed description which follows, first reference is made to FIG. 11 which is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building generally designated by reference numeral 100, in which a first embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200 is part of an outer wall 300 of the building.

The temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200 comprises a first, at least partially transparent pane 400, and a second, preferably at least partially transparent pane 500, with a carrier medium for thermal energy 600 arranged between the first and the second pane.

The first, at least partially transparent pane 400 is retained in the housing wall 300 in fluid-tight manner, by means of seals schematically indicated in FIG. 11. The second, preferably at least partially transparent pane 500 is disposed behind the first pane 400, and is also kept fluid-tight by means of schematically indicated seals.

The carrier medium for thermal energy 600 is adapted to absorb radiation, in particular heat radiation, and is moved relative to the first and second panes 400, 500 by convection and/or externally, whereby by means of this medium a heat transfer of absorbed radiation or absorbed heat is effected from the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200 to a heat storage, in particular an underground heat storage 1700 which will described in more detail below with reference to FIG. 16.

For this transfer, the carrier medium for thermal energy comprises a fluid which can be moved by convection or externally, using fluid pumps. According to the invention ‘moved externally’ is to be understood as any movement of the fluid produced by an underpressure or an overpressure, in particular by using supplying and/or discharging fluid pumps that are adapted to produce this movement.

In the first embodiment of the invention, the carrier medium for thermal energy 600 is gaseous and comprises air, CO2, nitrogen, and/or, as desired, another IR absorbing gas.

Reference is now made to FIG. 12, which is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building, in which a second embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein at least the second pane 500 has a coating 700.

In this embodiment, the second pane 500 is coated with at least one layer that increases IR reflectance, and may further comprise at least one IR absorbing dye.

Furthermore, second pane 500 may have a milk glass comprising and/or opaque area 800 which may extend over the entire surface of second pane 500 or only over a portion thereof.

In another embodiment according to the invention, the second pane may be photochromic or include a photochromic substance.

Reference is now made to FIG. 13, which is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 in which a third embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200 is likewise part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein a fluid carrier medium for thermal energy 600 is used, in particular a water-containing carrier medium which includes an absorption enhancing dye.

Preferably, the carrier medium for thermal energy comprises the at least one IR absorbing dye in dissolved form or as an particulate admixture.

In this way, this embodiment of the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200 can be incorporated into the fluid circuit of an energy system for buildings according to WO 97/10474.

FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 in which a fourth embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200 is part of an outer wall 300 of the building, and wherein an absorbing fluid carrier medium for thermal energy is used which passes through a grid-like or sponge-like heat absorbing structure 900.

The grid-like or sponge-like heat-absorbing structure 900 comprises an at least IR absorbing color at the surface thereof or within the solid material, and thus considerably increases absorption of the light that passes through the first pane, and transfers the absorbed energy in form of heat to the carrier medium for thermal energy 600 which flows therethrough.

The structure 900 may comprise a firm grid of metal or plastics, or alternatively metallic blinds which can be opened or closed, preferably driven by a motor in a manner that will be known to a person skilled in the art, and which can be moved in between or away from the first and second panes 400, 500, likewise driven by a motor.

FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 in which a fifth embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200 is part of an outer wall 300 of the building, and wherein a fluid carrier medium for thermal energy 600 is used which can be atomized and exhibits a phase transition to the gaseous state.

In this embodiment, the carrier medium for thermal energy may comprise, as a fluid, water in liquid form, in form of droplets, or as water vapor, depending on the location within the fluid circuit 1000.

Alternatively, the carrier medium for thermal energy 600 may comprise Freon® and/or a CFC-free refrigerant, or may consist thereof.

Here, the carrier medium for thermal energy 600 exhibits a phase transition which takes place at a defined first temperature and is suitable to absorb heat, and the phase transition involves the absorption of evaporation heat.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 15, the carrier medium for thermal energy 600 is supplied in liquid state and with overpressure, via supply conduit 1100 of fluid circuit 1000, to nozzles 1200 illustrated only schematically, and is atomized by the nozzles. Thereby, mist 1300 is produced which comprises very finely divided droplets, the entire surface of the droplets being many times larger than the surface of the liquid in supply conduit 1100, whereby evaporation of the heat carrier medium and extraction of evaporation heat are strongly promoted.

Moreover, additionally a negative pressure can be generated by means of discharge pipe 1400 of fluid circuit 1000, which again strongly promotes evaporation.

During the transition to the gaseous state, in particular at this lower pressure than in the liquid state, the carrier medium for thermal energy 600 consequently absorbs considerable heat.

The carrier medium for thermal energy 600 is moved by one or more fluid pumps, in particular by applying a positive and/or negative pressure along discharge pipe 1400 of fluid circuit 1000, so that it is directed to the heat storage 1700 in which condensation can take place by increasing the pressure, in particular by means of a fluid pump, so that condensation heat is supplied. After this condensation, the carrier medium for thermal energy 600 is again in liquid state and may again be supplied to nozzles 1200 accordingly.

Reference is now made to FIG. 16, which is a schematic illustration of the fluid circuits passing a heat storage 1700, in particular an underground heat storage, which is crossed by the first fluid circuit 1000 and which comprises at least one further fluid circuit 1500, to which circuits it can emit heat or from which it can absorb heat.

In the further fluid circuit 1500, for example, another temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 1600 according to the invention is arranged which may supply heat to the fluid circuit 1500 or may extract heat therefrom for heating purposes.

Generally, a carrier medium for thermal energy heated to an elevated temperature with respect to an inner room can be circulated through temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200 and through temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 1600, which can be used as a heater.

Due to the separation of fluid circuits 1000 and 1500, the heat supply to and heat extraction from the fluid circuits can be controlled separately. So, simultaneously, heat can be absorbed at a warmer side of the building and delivered to a colder side of the building.

Or, when the outside temperatures are higher, heat may be absorbed in all fluid circuits, or all fluid circuits may deliver heat to temperature or heat barriers 200, 1600, for air-conditioning purposes.

According to the invention, it is likewise possible to use more than two separate and separately regulated and controllable fluid circuits and more than one heat storage.

Advantageously, the supply pipes and/or discharge pipes 1100, 1400 for the heat carrier medium 600 to and/or from the temperature, heat, and/or cold barriers 200, 2000 are laid in a floor 1800 of a building or in a screed 1900, as illustrated in FIGS. 18 to 22, for example.

In this case, a carrier medium for thermal energy 600 heated to an elevated temperature relative to an inner room can be circulated through the temperature, heat, and/or cold barriers 200, 1600, 2000 and through the supply and discharge pipes 1100, 1400 arranged in the floor, which in this way can be used as a heater, especially for separately controllable and/or adjustable floor and wall conditioning.

FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 including a portion of a floor 1800 thereof, in which the first pane 400 of the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200, 2000 is part of an outer wall 300 of the building and comprises a thick glass 2100.

Supply air and exhaust air pipes preferably extend through the floor and/or the ceilings of the building. Depending on the season, energy release to or energy absorption from floor or ceiling already occurs in the supply air pipe or exhaust air pipe; this effect is referred to as “concrete activation.”

FIG. 18 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 including a portion of a floor 1800 thereof, in which the first pane 400 of the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200, 2000 is part of an outer wall 300 of the building and comprises a double glass 2200.

FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 including a portion of a floor 1800 thereof, in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein supply and discharge conduits are laid in the screed 1900 of a floor of the housing 1800.

The first and/or second panes 400, 500 of the above temperature or heat barriers 200, 1600, 2000 may comprise glass or plastics or may consist of these materials.

Advantageously, the first and/or second panes or a portion of the first or second panes is arranged to be movable or removable.

The panes may be arranged to be removable in such a manner that they can be removed as a whole, for example with ledges arranged in front thereof, which ledges can be latched or bolted and, when mounted, ensure a secure fit of the panes 400, 500.

FIG. 20 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 including a portion of a floor 1800 thereof, in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier 200, 2000 each comprises a blind, in particular a metallic blind 2300, 2400, as a respective second pane 500.

These blinds 2300, 2400 may be moved down and up relative to the first pane 400, as exemplified in FIG. 20 by the roller 3300 and the arrows near blinds 2300, 2400, whereby a partially open fluid circuit 2500, 2600 is formed when blinds 2300, 2400 are lowered.

The partially open fluid circuit 2500, 2600 is preferably provided with air as a carrier medium for thermal energy 600 and allows to remove more or less exhaust air from inner room 2700 of building 100 through a selective negative pressure, for example in discharge pipe 1400.

Also, through a selective positive pressure, for example in supply pipe 1100, the partially open fluid circuit 2500, 2600 allows to feed more or less supply air, for example into inner room 2800 of building 100.

If for example in this embodiment the first pane 400 is adapted to be removable, when blind 2400 is drawn up an enlarged passage to the outside can be provided, for example to a balcony or a terrace.

FIG. 21 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 including a portion of a floor 1800 thereof, wherein the second pane 500 can be removed or opened, at least partially, in a section 2900. A support 3900 is disposed in the ceiling of the building, here provided as a Halfen rail embeddable in concrete, to hold glass elements of the facade.

FIG. 22 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 including a portion of a floor 1800 thereof, wherein the first and second panes 400, 500 can be removed or opened, at least partially, in sections 2900 and 3000, respectively.

FIGS. 23 and 24 are cross-sectional views of a detail of a building 100 in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein curtains 3100, 3200 are provided as planar fluid guides. As curtains, an inner curtain 3200 and an outer curtain 3100 are provided. Outer curtain 3100 has a reflective coating and is preferably closed in summer in case of strong sunlight. By contrast, inner curtain 3200 is transparent. The curtains can be moved around deflection rollers 3300 and pulled to the side wall. At the top of the view of FIG. 23, outer curtain 3100 is opened. FIG. 24 shows both curtains 3100, 3200 closed in summer.

FIG. 25 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein a coated curtain 3400 is provided as a planar fluid guide. The coating is a reflection layer which is only provided on the outer side of curtain 3400 and so permits the inner side of the coated curtain 3400 to be designed as desired. Coated curtain 3400 is mounted to building 100 using magnetic rails 4000.

FIG. 26 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein a coated second pane 3500 is provided instead of a coated curtain.

FIG. 27 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building 100 in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, a second pane is provided, and slotted pipes 3600, 3700 are provided for supplying and discharging the fluid. Slotted pipes 3600, 3700 are substantially arranged in the lower and upper region of the temperature, heat and/or cold barrier. The fluid is introduced through a lower slotted pipe 3600 and is discharged through an upper slotted pipe 3700. Since the pipes extend along substantially the entire width of the pane a very uniform air flow can be achieved.

FIG. 28 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, a second pane is provided, and a ventilation system is provided for passing the fluid. A fluid flow is produced by means of fans 3800 disposed between first pane 400 and second pane 500.

It is not necessary for the temperature or heat barriers described above to be formed as a part of the building, rather they may likewise be arranged in front of the building's facade, as a climate barrier, in which case the supply and discharge conduits 1100, 1400 preferably are arranged behind less transparent or non-transparent areas of panes 500, 400 and the heat storage 1700 may be located in front of the building 100. In this case, the temperature and heat barrier according to the invention may, as an alternative, be arranged in front of the entire area of both window and wall sections of the building.

Also, the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier may be part of a transparent building roof, or part of an interior wall.

In a further embodiment of the invention, the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier may be part of a window or a door, and the supply and discharge conduits are adapted to be flexible, so that in each case fluid circulation can be maintained even though mobile elements are arranged in the circuit. For this purpose, the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier according to the invention may be formed either less transparent or substantially completely transparent.

FIG. 29 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building, in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein two curtains are provided as flat fluid guides. An upper curtain 4100 can be move downward electrically, around a deflection roller 3300. Upper curtain 4100 is coated with a reflective layer and can be lowered in case of strong sunlight. A lower curtain 4200, by contrast, is transparent. As illustrated in the figure, the two curtains may be partially lowered and raised, respectively, so that a planar fluid guide is only provided in the upper region.

FIG. 30 substantially corresponds to FIG. 29. Upper curtain 4100 is formed as a type of a roller blind and has a layer of solar cells of amorphous silicon 4300 instead of a reflective layer. Thus, under solar irradiation upper curtain 4100 serves to produce electric current.

FIG. 31 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is part of an outer wall of the building, and wherein another temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier extends through the roof zone 4500 of the building 100. Below roofing 4400, hoses 4600 are arranged, which serve as solar absorber pipes. Upon solar irradiation, heated air is directed from the facade into the roof zone where this heat, in addition to the heat introduced through the roofing, can be dissipated via the hoses and so can be supplied to a heat storage (not shown).

FIG. 32 is a cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier is substantially formed as a type of a roller blind 2400 which is guided along lateral guide channels 4800. The lateral guide channels comprise magnets 4700 which ensure a substantially fluid-tight engagement of the blind.

FIGS. 33 and 34 are cross-sectional views of a detail of a building 100 in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized, wherein the temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier does not have a fluid guide, rather the carrier medium for thermal energy is directly passed along a pane. In this exemplary embodiment, the pane is formed as a window 4900.

FIG. 33 shows an example of the operation in winter. Windows 4900 are closed. Through slotted pipes 3600 arranged in the lower region of windows 4900, warm air is introduced from a heat storage (not shown). The outflow openings (not shown) of slotted pipes 3600 are designed aerodynamically such that the airflow is directed upwards. Through slotted pipes 3700 arranged in the upper region, the warm air is discharged. So a kind of a curtain of hot air is produced, which forms a heat barrier.

FIG. 34 shows the operation in the summer. Windows 4900 are opened, for supply of fresh air. The flow direction is now reversed: cool air is introduced through upper slotted pipes 3700 and is discharged through the lower slotted pipes. Thereby the air heats up. Via a heat exchanger (not shown), the so collected heat energy is supplied to a heat storage (not shown).

FIG. 35 shows an approximately horizontal cross-sectional view of a detail of a building in which an embodiment of the invention has been realized which comprises an outer curtain 3100 and an inner curtain 3200 which are arranged behind a pane 4900 that is arranged between outer walls 300. Outer curtain 3100 is made of a substantially transparent plastic material, and is stretched by means of magnetic rails (not shown) which are arranged in the ceiling and in the floor. Thus, the curtain forms a substantially transparent pane. Inner curtain 3200 which is provided with a printed photovoltaic layer on the outward-facing side, especially serves as light protection.

It will be understood that the subject matter of the invention is not limited to a combination of the features of the embodiments as described above, rather a person skilled in the art will combine these features in any way, as appropriate.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMERALS

  • 1 building
  • 2 conduit
  • 3 fresh air
  • 4 exhaust air
  • 5 inner pipe
  • 6 outer pipe
  • 7 section for water condensation
  • 8 water outlet
  • 9 cooling fins
  • 10 heat storage
  • 11 concrete cylinder
  • 12 inner pipe
  • 13 outer pipe
  • 14 ground
  • 15 warm zone
  • 16 cold zone
  • 20 directional valve
  • 21 lower level
  • 22 upper level
  • 23 port
  • 24 port
  • 25 chamber
  • 26 deflection shutter
  • 27 inner pipe
  • 28 outer pipe
  • 29 plastic tube
  • 30 cover
  • 31 sealing lip
  • 32 filter
  • 33 underground heat storage
  • 34 solar absorbers
  • 35 heat exchanger
  • 36 insulation
  • 37 cold zone
  • 38 core zone
  • 39 underground heat storage
  • 40 check valve
  • 50 wall
  • 51 insulation
  • 52 temperature barrier
  • 53 conduit
  • 54 temperature barrier
  • 55 capillary tube
  • 56 exterior plaster
  • 60 roof area
  • 61 rafter
  • 62 fluid conduit
  • 63 roofing
  • 70 maneuvering area
  • 71 fluid conduit
  • 72 distribution station
  • 73 airport building
  • 100 building
  • 200 temperature, heat, and/or cold barrier
  • 300 outer wall of building
  • 400 first, at least partially transparent pane
  • 500 second, preferably at least partially transparent pane
  • 600 heat carrier medium
  • 700 coating
  • 800 milk glass and/or opaque area
  • 900 grid-like or sponge-like heat-absorbing structure
  • 1000 fluid circuit
  • 1100 supply pipe
  • 1200 nozzles
  • 1300 mist
  • 1400 discharge pipe
  • 1500 further fluid circuit
  • 1600 further temperature or heat barrier
  • 1700 heat storage, in particular underground heat storage
  • 1800 floor
  • 1900 screed
  • 2000 temperature or heat barrier
  • 2100 thick glass
  • 2200 double glass
  • 2300 blind, in particular a metallic blind
  • 2400 blind, in particular a metallic blind
  • 2500 partially open fluid circuit
  • 2600 partially open fluid circuit
  • 2700 inner room
  • 2800 inner room
  • 2900 section of pane 500
  • 3000 section of pane
  • 3100 outer curtain
  • 3200 inner curtain
  • 3300 deflection roller
  • 3400 coated curtain
  • 3500 coated pane
  • 3600 lower slotted pipe
  • 3700 upper slotted pipe
  • 3800 fan
  • 3900 support
  • 4000 magnetic rail
  • 4100 upper curtain
  • 4200 lower curtain
  • 4300 layer of amorphous silicon
  • 4400 roofing
  • 4500 roof zone
  • 4600 hose
  • 4700 magnet
  • 4800 guide channel
  • 4900 window