Title:
SAFETY ARRANGEMENT FOR USE IN CONSTRUCTING A WOOD FRAME BUILDING
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
An apparatus for safety during construction of a wood frame building includes a row of hanging supports for a plank walkway with an upper hanger portion extending over a top surface of a wall and a vertical leg attached to the hanger portion and depending therefrom to a horizontal arm extending outwardly from a lower end of the vertical leg to support the planks. A row of perimeter posts stands vertically at an edge of the building for supporting horizontal rails as a perimeter fence. Each post has a horizontal flange spaced from a bottom end projecting outwardly to one side with a first nailing hole for penetration of the nail into a top edge of the perimeter board and a second outer nailing hole and a series of nailing holes in the vertical post below the flange and fastened to the outer surface of the perimeter board.



Inventors:
Barendregt, Michael (Winnipeg, CA)
Application Number:
12/188269
Publication Date:
02/11/2010
Filing Date:
08/08/2008
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
182/108
International Classes:
E04G3/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
BRADFORD, CANDACE L
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ADE & COMPANY INC. (WINNIPEG, MB, CA)
Claims:
1. Apparatus for use in providing safety against falling during construction of a wood frame building comprising: a plurality of support members for arranging in a row to support a walkway defined by horizontal planks carried on and spanning the support members; each support member comprising: a hanger portion for extending over a top surface of a wall of the building from one side to receive the walkway to an opposed side; the hanger portion having a horizontal arm with a front down-turned retaining portion for engaging the surface of the wall at the opposed side; a vertical leg attached to the hanger portion and depending therefrom; and a horizontal arm extending outwardly from a lower end of the vertical leg in a direction away from the hanger portion to support the planks.

2. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the horizontal arm is formed from wood so that the planks can be nailed to the arm.

3. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the leg is formed from wood so that the leg can be nailed to the building wall.

4. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the leg includes an inclined brace portion extending from the leg to the arm.

5. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the hanger portion is formed of metal with a depending collar for surrounding the upper end of the vertical leg.

6. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the hanger portion is adjustable in length from the leg to accommodate different thickness of wall.

7. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein there is provided a spacer on the vertical leg on the side opposite to the arm.

8. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein there is provided a vertical collar on end of the arm for receiving an end of a vertical post as a sliding fit therein.

9. The apparatus according to claim 8 wherein the vertical post is an upstanding safety post with L-brackets for supporting horizontal rails.

10. The apparatus according to claim 8 wherein the vertical post is a lifting post extending downwardly from the collar toward the ground for lifting of the support member into an installed position on the wall.

11. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein there is provided a pair of brackets arranged to be attached to a wall on a respective side of a window opening for receiving a respective hanger portion to form a window scaffold spanning the window opening.

12. The apparatus according to claim 11 wherein the bracket includes a pin for projecting through the wall at the window frame and a hook portion for engaging the hanger portion.

13. The apparatus according to claim 11 wherein the leg is arranged, with the hanger portion on the bracket, to hold the planks away from wall the to allow the passage of the window between the wall and the planks up to the window opening.

14. The apparatus according to claim 11 including a winch and a support bracket for the winch arranged to be attached to the wall above the window opening to lift the window.

15. The apparatus according to claim 1 including a plurality of perimeter post members for standing vertically at an edge of the building and for supporting horizontal rails as a perimeter fence; the posts being arranged to be located on an edge of a floor of the building defined by plurality of parallel floor joists, a sub-floor laid over the floor joists and attached thereto and a vertical perimeter board at the edge of the sub-floor; each post member comprising a vertical post having at least two vertically spaced brackets on one side for receiving and supporting the horizontal rails; each post member including a horizontal mounting flange attached to the vertical post at a position thereon spaced from a bottom end of the vertical post to define a mounting portion of the vertical post below the mounting flange; the horizontal mounting flange projecting outwardly to one side of the vertical post to a length less than six inches; the horizontal mounting flange having a first nailing hole at a position thereon such that, with the vertical post standing outside the perimeter board, the first nailing hole allows penetration of the nail therein into a top edge of the perimeter board; the horizontal mounting flange having a second nailing hole at a position thereon such that with the vertical post standing outside the perimeter board the second nailing hole allows penetration of the nail therein into a floor joist at a position spaced inwardly from the perimeter board; the mounting portion of the vertical post having a plurality of nailing holes therein by which the mounting portion of the vertical post is fastened to the outer surface of the perimeter board.

16. Apparatus for use in providing safety against falling during construction of a wood frame building comprising: a plurality of perimeter post members for standing vertically at an edge of the building and for supporting horizontal rails as a perimeter fence; the posts being arranged to be located on an edge of a floor of the building defined by plurality of parallel floor joists, a sub-floor laid over the floor joists and attached thereto and a vertical perimeter board at the edge of the sub-floor; each post member comprising a vertical post having at least two vertically spaced brackets on one side for receiving and supporting the horizontal rails; each post member including a horizontal mounting flange attached to the vertical post at a position thereon spaced from a bottom end of the vertical post to define a mounting portion of the vertical post below the mounting flange; the horizontal mounting flange projecting outwardly to one side of the vertical post to a length less than six inches; the horizontal mounting flange having a first nailing hole at a position thereon such that, with the vertical post standing outside the perimeter board, the first nailing hole allows penetration of the nail therein into a top edge of the perimeter board; the horizontal mounting flange having a second nailing hole at a position thereon such that with the vertical post standing outside the perimeter board the second nailing hole allows penetration of the nail therein into a floor joist at a position spaced inwardly from the perimeter board; the mounting portion of the vertical post having a plurality of nailing holes therein by which the mounting portion of the vertical post is fastened to the outer surface of the perimeter board.

17. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the brackets are L-shaped.

18. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein there is provided a brace along one side edge of the horizontal mounting flange and connecting from the flange to the vertical post.

19. The apparatus according to claim 1 wherein the post is a tube and the holes in the mounting portion extend diametrically through the tube.

Description:

This invention relates to an apparatus for use in providing safety against falling during construction of a wood frame building

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Buildings constructed from wood frames are common in North America and generally the building is constructed by a framing crew who assemble a series of floor joists to lay on a basement wall which are then fastened together to carry a sheathing sub-floor. On top of each floor as it is formed is applied a perimeter frame and internal framing to define the upstanding walls.

Up until now the persons in the framing crew often stand and work in unsafe locations elevated considerably from the ground or other horizontal surfaces onto which they may fall.

More attention is being given in recent years to improving the safety conditions of workers even though the workers themselves may resent such intrusions and are generally happy with the unsafe conditions on which they work since they perceive them to be convenient.

There remains therefore a significant requirement for components which can be used by a framing crew to improve their safety situation while retaining the convenience of operation to avoid significant reduction in efficiency of the framing system.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is one object of the invention to provide an apparatus for use in providing safety against falling during construction of a wood frame building.

According to one aspect of the invention there is provided an apparatus for use in providing safety against falling during construction of a wood frame building comprising:

a plurality of support members for arranging in a row to support a walkway defined by horizontal planks carried on and spanning the support members;

each support member comprising:

a hanger portion for extending over a top surface of a wall of the building from one side to receive the walkway to an opposed side;

the hanger portion having a horizontal arm with a front down-turned retaining portion for engaging the surface of the wall at the opposed side;

a vertical leg attached to the hanger portion and depending therefrom;

and a horizontal arm extending outwardly from a lower end of the vertical leg in a direction away from the hanger portion to support the planks.

Preferably the horizontal arm is formed from wood so that the planks can be nailed to the arm. However the arm can be formed from metal such as aluminum.

Preferably the leg is formed from wood so that the leg can be nailed to the building wall. However the arm leg also be formed from metal such as aluminum.

Preferably the leg includes an inclined brace portion extending from the leg to the arm, particularly where the elements are formed from wood.

Preferably the hanger portion is formed of metal with a depending collar for surrounding the upper end of the vertical leg for fixed attachment to the wooden leg to ensure effective transfer of forces therebetween.

Preferably the hanger portion is adjustable in length from the leg to accommodate different thickness of wall.

Preferably there is provided a spacer on the vertical leg on the side opposite to the arm to hold the leg away from the wall and retain the leg vertical.

Preferably there is provided a vertical collar on the end of the arm for receiving an end of a vertical post as a sliding fit therein.

Preferably the vertical post is an upstanding safety post with L-brackets for supporting horizontal rails.

As an alternative, the vertical post can be used as a lifting post extending downwardly from the collar toward the ground for lifting of the support member into an installed position on the wall.

As an alternative use, there is provided a pair of brackets arranged to be attached to a wall on a respective side of a window opening for receiving a respective hanger portion to form a window scaffold spanning the window opening.

Preferably the bracket includes a pin for projecting through the wall at the window frame and a hook portion for engaging the hanger portion.

Preferably the leg is arranged, with the hanger portion on the bracket, to hold the planks away from wall the to allow the passage of the window between the wall and the planks up to the window opening.

Preferably there is also provided a winch and a support bracket for the winch arranged to be attached to the wall above the window opening to lift the window.

As a further important feature there is provided a plurality of perimeter post members for standing vertically at an edge of the building and for supporting horizontal rails as a perimeter fence;

the posts being arranged to be located on an edge of a floor of the building defined by plurality of parallel floor joists, a sub-floor laid over the floor joists and attached thereto and a vertical perimeter board at the edge of the sub-floor;

each post member comprising a vertical post having at least two vertically spaced brackets on one side for receiving and supporting the horizontal rails;

each post member including a horizontal mounting flange attached to the vertical post at a position thereon spaced from a bottom end of the vertical post to define a mounting portion of the vertical post below the mounting flange;

the horizontal mounting flange projecting outwardly to one side of the vertical post to a length less than six inches;

the horizontal mounting flange having a first nailing hole at a position thereon such that, with the vertical post standing outside the perimeter board, the first nailing hole allows penetration of the nail therein into a top edge of the perimeter board;

the horizontal mounting flange having a second nailing hole at a position thereon such that with the vertical post standing outside the perimeter board the second nailing hole allows penetration of the nail therein into a floor joist at a position spaced inwardly from the perimeter board;

the mounting portion of the vertical post having a plurality of nailing holes therein by which the mounting portion of the vertical post is fastened to the outer surface of the perimeter board.

There fore according to a second aspect of the invention there is provided an apparatus for use in providing safety against falling during construction of a wood frame building comprising:

a plurality of perimeter post members for standing vertically at an edge of the building and for supporting horizontal rails as a perimeter fence;

the posts being arranged to be located on an edge of a floor of the building defined by plurality of parallel floor joists, a sub-floor laid over the floor joists and attached thereto and a vertical perimeter board at the edge of the sub-floor;

each post member comprising a vertical post having at least two vertically spaced brackets on one side for receiving and supporting the horizontal rails;

each post member including a horizontal mounting flange attached to the vertical post at a position thereon spaced from a bottom end of the vertical post to define a mounting portion of the vertical post below the mounting flange;

the horizontal mounting flange projecting outwardly to one side of the vertical post to a length less than six inches;

the horizontal mounting flange having a first nailing hole at a position thereon such that, with the vertical post standing outside the perimeter board, the first nailing hole allows penetration of the nail therein into a top edge of the perimeter board;

the horizontal mounting flange having a second nailing hole at a position thereon such that with the vertical post standing outside the perimeter board the second nailing hole allows penetration of the nail therein into a floor joist at a position spaced inwardly from the perimeter board;

the mounting portion of the vertical post having a plurality of nailing holes therein by which the mounting portion of the vertical post is fastened to the outer surface of the perimeter board.

Preferably the brackets are L-shaped.

Preferably there is provided a brace along one side edge of the horizontal mounting flange and connecting from the flange to the vertical post.

Preferably the post is a tube and the holes in the mounting portion extend diametrically through the tube.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

One embodiment of the invention will now be described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view through basements walls of a building on which is attached a perimeter scaffold supported from the top edge of the walls.

FIG. 2 is a similar cross sectional view through a building at a second stage where a wall has been built on top of the basement wall and wherein the scaffold is applied on the inside of the erected wall.

FIG. 3 is a similar cross sectional view to that of FIG. 1 on an enlarged scale showing further construction of the perimeter scaffold and further showing a perimeter safety fence arranged to prevent a person from falling outwardly from the first floor when constructed.

FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of a scaffold support used in the embodiments of FIGS. 1 to 3.

FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of the support of FIG. 4 showing in further detail the arrangement of the hanging support member.

FIG. 6 is a top plan view of a fence post of FIG. 3.

FIG. 7 is a front elevational view of a window installation scaffold arrangement utilizing the components previously shown.

FIG. 8 is an isometric view of the window scaffold of FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is a side elevational view of the scaffold of FIG. 7.

In the drawings like characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in the different figures.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In FIG. 1 is shown a first condition of building a conventional wood frame building wherein a basement wall 10 is firstly assembled commonly from poured concrete although other materials can be used. The basement walls upwardly from the excavated hole to a height which can be as much as 12 feet. It commonly accepted that for safety a worker cannot stand on a surface which is more than 8 feet from the ground or other horizontal surface onto which the worker can fall and hence in a first condition of assembly of the building, a scaffold 11 is provided which is mounted on the outside surface 12 of the basement wall so as to be spaced upwardly from the excavated ground 13 on the outside of the basement wall.

The scaffold 11 is formed from a plurality of supports 14 which are attached to the wall and carry a walkway 15 formed by separate planks 16 carried on the supports 14.

In FIG. 2, in a second operation, the same scaffold 11 is mounted on the inside 17 of a first floor wall 18 mounted on top of a first floor 19 carried on the top of the basement walls 12. Thus in the second condition, the walkway 15 is provided on the inside of the building so that the walkway is spaced at a height from the floor 19 which is less than the stipulated 8 feet, whereas the top of the 18 may be spaced from the outside ground 13 by a distance significantly greater than 8 feet.

In FIG. 3 the scaffold 11 is shown on the top of the concrete wall 12. In this condition the floor joists 20 of the first floor 19 are applied on top of the concrete wall 12 and a floor sheathing 21 is applied on top of the floor joists 20. A perimeter or “rim” board 22 is applied onto the ends of the floor joists 20 so as to connect the floor joists in parallel spaced arrangement with the sub-floor 21 extending over the floor joists and over the rim board 22. Thus the rim board 22 defines an upper edge 22A and an outer surface 22B. The concrete wall 12 has wood facing members 23 and 24 embedded in the upper edge of the concrete wall on the outside and inner surfaces respectively.

On to the first floor 20 is applied a perimeter fence generally indicated at 24 which is formed by a series of posts 25 which carry vertically spaced rails 26 and 27. The post 25 are attached around the periphery of the floor 19 prior to the assembly of the perimeter frame of the wall 18 to be applied on top of the floor 19 around the outside edge of the floor 19.

The supports for the scaffold 11 are shown in more detail in FIG. 4. Thus the support comprises a hanger member generally indicated at 27 which supports a depending leg 28 which in turn supports a horizontal arm 29. On top of the horizontal arm 29 is applied the planks 16 forming the walkway 15.

The hanger member 27 is formed from metal and forms a plate 30 with a depending inner flange 31 which extends downwardly from an inner end 32 of the plate 30. The plate 30 slides in a flat sleeve 33 so that the distance of the flange 31 from the leg 28 can be modified by inserting a pin 34 through the plate 30 and through an associated hole in the sleeve 33 thus locking the plate at a predetermined position relative to the leg 28. The hanger member 27 can thus be suspended over the top surface of the wall which it is to be applied. The sleeve 33 as shown in FIG. 5 carries a pair of depending straps 36 and 37 along the front and rear of the leg 28. Around the bottom of the legs 37 and 38 is provided a collar 39 which surrounds the leg 28. The collar is fastened to the leg by a series of nails or other fasteners indicated at 40 which pass through holes in the collar and engage into the leg 28. The leg 28 is reinforced by a second parallel leg portion 28A which extends downwardly to a bottom end 28B below the arm 29. The leg 28 and the strengthening leg 28A are both formed from wood and preferably from a 2×4 wood member. The hanger member 27 including the collar 40 and the straps 36 and 37 is preferably formed from metal so as to provide a rigid attachment at the upper end which can be readily fastened to the wooden depending leg structure defined by the leg members 28 and 28A. A further depending leg member 28C extends downwardly from the arm 29 and provides a support for that arm at the inner end at the leg 28. A brace 43 extends diagonally upwardly from the lower end 28B to the end of the arm 29 spaced outwardly from the leg 28. The arm 29 and the brace 43 are also formed from 2×4 lumber. The selection of wood for the manufacture of these components allows a framing crew to readily attach the support to the frame of the building using conventional nails readily to the hand of the framer. Thus the planks 16 can be readily fastened by nails to the arm 29. Thus the leg 28 can be readily fastened to the outside surface of the building all using regular nails readily available. After the installation of the scaffold has been used and requires to be disassembled, framing crews are well experienced in separating the nailed components of the walkway and the support from the building using conventional claws and other separation techniques.

The wood components of the support are fastened together using conventional fastening plates 45 which bridge the junctions between the components and are fastened through those components to communicate forces therebetween.

An outer edge of the arm 29 is attached a vertical sleeve 46 carried on a pair of flanges 47 attached to the sides of the arm 29. The vertical sleeve 46 provides a support for a post 48 attached to the end of the arm 29 and standing upwardly from that end. Post 48 includes a pair of L-shaped brackets 50 and 51 at vertically spaced positions along the length of the post with each bracket being arranged to receive a 2×4 lumber piece indicated at 52 to provide a framing fence along the side of the walkway 15. The bottom of the post 48 includes a stop member 48A which sits against the top edge of the sleeve 46 to prevent the post from sliding through the sleeve 46. A removable pin 54 is inserted through aligned holes in the sleeve and the lower end of the post to lock the post into position.

In this way the walkway is formed by suspending over the top edge of the wall a plurality of the supports at spaced positions along the length of the wall, following which the planks are placed over the supports to extend along the building. The spacing between the supports is arranged relative to the length of the planks to provide adequate support for the planks to provide a complete walkway.

At corners, modified supports are provided which are arranged to extend diagonally from the corner. Such supports can therefore include bracing wings on the hanger member which engage the corner and form a right angle receptacle for the corner extending along the walls at the corner at the 90° spacing. Thus the arm 29 on such a corner member extends diagonally outwardly from the corner and provides support for the ends of planks extending along both the first wall and a second wall at right angles to that first wall.

In FIG. 3 is shown the perimeter fence 24 defined by the posts 25 and the rails 26 and 27. The posts 25 carry the L-shaped brackets 60 similar to the brackets of the posts 48. Thus the rails 26 and 27 are inserted into the L-shaped brackets to provide a perimeter fence around the periphery of the floor.

The post 25 is tubular as shown in the plan view of FIG. 6. At a position along the length of the tubular post spaced from the bottom end is attached a horizontal mounting flange 62. This mounting flange has an outer end 63 spaced from the post 25 and an inner end 64 welded to the side of the post. The horizontal mounting flange 62 is braced by a triangular brace 66 arranged along one side edge of the flange 62. Thus the main body of the flange remains flat and unencumbered by the presence of the triangular brace 66 along one side edge.

The flange 62 has a length to the edge 63 which is less than 6 inches. Thus the edge 63 is spaced from the edge 67 of the rim board 22 and the sub-floor 21 by a distance less than 6 inches. This allows a wall frame 68 to be assembled on the floor with the edge 69 of the wall frame spaced from the edge 67 by a distance equal to the 6 inch spacing so that the frame can then be elevated by simply lifting the edge of the frame spaced away from the edge of the building until the base plate of the frame moves to the position with its outer edge at the edge 67 and its inner edge at the line 69. In this way the perimeter frame can remain in place until the wall frame is completed and constructed and the perimeter frame can be removed only when the wall frame is ready to be erected to close off the side wall of the building.

The flange 62 has a first nailing hole 70 and a second nailing hole 71. The first nailing hole 70 is spaced from the post 25 by a distance such that a nail inserted through that nailing hole engages into the top surface 22A of the rim board 22. The nailing hole 71 is spaced outwardly from the hole 70 so that a nail inserted into the nailing hole 71 enters into the sub-floor and through the sub-floor into the floor joist 20 adjacent the rim board 22.

The bottom end of the post as best shown in FIG. 3 extends beyond the flange 62 to provide a mounting portion 25A extending downwardly below the sub-floor 21. This portion 25A includes a series of holes 25B for receiving conventional nails 25C which engage through the tubular post into the rim board 22 or into the facing plate 23 of the wall.

The nails 25C in the lower part of the post prevent the post from twisting side to side. Any forces tending to push the post away from the edge of the building, for example if a worker were to fall against the perimeter fence, is resisted by the presence of the nails through the holes 70 and 71. Such outward force tends to move the flange 62 horizontally at right angles to the nails 70A through the holes 70 and 71. It will be appreciated that the nails in this direction provide the maximum strength so that sufficient force is provided to prevent a person falling against the fence from pushing the fence over the edge of the building and continuing to fall to the ground below.

However in the reverse direction, the fence post can be readily removed by pulling the fence post inwardly across the top of the floor so that the upper end of the post is pulled horizontally inwardly of the building. This acts to pull the nails 25C out of the rim board and the facing board 23 while the flange 62 acts as a fulcrum. The nails can thus be readily removed after being released from the boards by this pulling action. The pulling action also release slightly the nail 78 through the hole 70 and subsequently the hole 70A through the hole 71 again by pulling inwardly using the inner edge 63 of the flange 62 as a fulcrum.

Turning now to FIGS. 7, 8 and 9, the scaffold arrangement previously described is used for installation of a window 80 in a window opening 81 in a wall 82. In this arrangement the support members previously described are used an indicated at 83 and 84 on each side of the window opening 81 to provide a support for the planks 16 of the walkway. The planks are arranged below a bottom edge 85 of the window opening. In this arrangement the flange 31 of the hanger member 27 is engaged into a receptacle 86 of a bracket 87 attached to the wall on a respective side of the window opening. The bracket 87 comprises a pin 88 which engages through the wall with a wing nut 89 on the inside pulling the bracket 87 against the outside surface of the wall. The bracket 87 then provides the receptacle 86 into which the flange 31 is engaged so that the hanger member carries the leg 28 downwardly along the side of the window opening just outside the window opening. The leg 28 carries a spacer 89 which supports the leg 28 vertically at spaced position from the outside surface 90 of the wall. In this way the planks 16 are located at a spaced distance D from the outside surface 90 of the wall. This spacing of the planks 16 from the wall allows the window 80 to be pulled upwardly between the supports 83 and 84 and between the wall surface 90 and the planks 16 by a winch 92 carrying a cable 93.

The winch 92 is attached to the header of the window opening. In use, therefore, the framing crew can install windows into the various window openings in the framed structure. This is done by the framer reaching out through the opening to install a bracket for the winch 92. On each side of the window opening at a distance spaced sufficiently to receive the window therebetween, the brackets 87 are attached to the wall again by the framer reaching through the window opening to attach the outside portion of the bracket to the pin 88. With the brackets in place, the supports 83 and 84 are attached to the brackets and the planks attached across the supports. One person can therefore be located on the outside standing on the walkway and another person on the inside of the building with either of those persons operating the winch to lift the window which is carefully guided as it slides vertically up the outside surface 90 of the wall to a position aligned with the opening whereupon the window can be inserted into the opening managed by the persons on the inside and outside allowing the window to be nailed in place using the nailing fins from the exterior in a conventional manner. The person on the outside is therefore properly supported on a walkway during the operation and is not obliged to stand on any ladders or require any external scaffolding. The outside walkway can include the outside rails forming the restraining fence to prevent danger of any falling. When the installation is complete, the outside person can climb down from the raised position of the scaffold to the ground and can remove the scaffolds simply from the exterior by lifting away the planks and by lifting the supports using a vertical post having a height sufficient to reach on the ground. The vertical post can therefore be inserted into the sleeve 46 from the lower end. In this way the support can be raised to a required position and lifted into place by the operator from the ground lifting the support through the vertical post. When the support is in position, the vertical post can be removed leaving the support hanging either from the bracket 86 as previously described or hanging over the top edge of the wall when required.

Since various modifications can be made in my invention as herein above described, and many apparently widely different embodiments of same made within the spirit and scope of the claims without department from such spirit and scope, it is intended that all matter contained in the accompanying specification shall be interpreted as illustrative only and not in a limiting sense.