Title:
Shoulder Compression Garment
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The present invention provides athletic apparel principally for bicycling. The invention provides a shoulder compression garment for bicycling configured to maintain a user's shoulders in a position closer to a user's medial torso plane relative to a relaxed position of the user's shoulders.



Inventors:
Bybee, Lia (Denver, CO, US)
Sibayan, Diana (Denver, CO, US)
Yu, Jennie (Golden, CO, US)
Application Number:
12/537240
Publication Date:
02/11/2010
Filing Date:
08/06/2009
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
2/243.1
International Classes:
A41B1/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
OSTRUP, CLINTON T
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Sheridan Ross PC (Denver, CO, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A garment, comprising: a shoulder portion configured to extend substantially around a portion of a user's shoulders, back and chest; a first strap connected to the shoulder portion to define a first arm opening; a second strap connected to the shoulder portion to define a second arm opening; and wherein the shoulder portion, the first strap, and the second strap are configured to maintain the user's shoulders in a position closer to the user's torso medial plane relative to a relaxed position of the user's shoulders.

2. The garment of claim 1, wherein the shoulder portion comprises an elastic fabric.

3. The garment of claim 2, wherein the stretch fabric comprises one of a woven and knit fabric.

4. The garment of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first and second straps comprises an elastic fabric.

5. The garment of claim 1, wherein the first strap and the second strap are sewn to the shoulder portion.

6. The garment of claim 1, wherein the shoulder portion has opposing first and second shoulder portion edges and wherein the first and second shoulder edges are connected to a closure member.

7. The garment of claim 6, wherein the closure member comprises at least one of a hook fastener, a zipper fastener, and a hook-and-loop fastener.

8. The garment of claim 1, further comprising at least one reinforcing member joined to the shoulder portion.

9. A garment, comprising a shoulder portion configured to extend substantially around a portion of a user's shoulders, back and chest and to substantially draw the user's shoulder closer to user's medial torso plane.

10. The garment of claim 9, further comprising a pair of straps connected the shoulder portion and wherein the pair of straps is configured to extend substantially around a portion of the user's back and chest.

11. The garment of claim 10, wherein the shoulder portion comprises a first elastic material and wherein the pair of straps comprises a second elastic material.

12. The garment of claim 10, wherein the shoulder portion and the pair of straps are composed of different materials.

13. The garment of claim 11 wherein one or both of the shoulder portion and the pair of straps materials comprise at least one of a laminate, a woven fabric, a knit fabric, a elastic material, a dual laminate, and a laminate having first and second layers, wherein the first layer stretches in first direction and wherein the second layer stretches in a second direction, the second direction differs from the first direction.

14. The garment of claim 10, wherein the shoulder portion has opposing first and second shoulder portion edges joined to opposing top and bottom shoulder portions, wherein each strap of the pair of straps has top and bottom strap edges joined at one end and a strap edge at the other end, wherein at least a portion of the top strap edge of each strap is connected to at least a portion of the shoulder portion bottom edge, wherein the first shoulder portion edge is connected to the strap end of one of the pair of straps and wherein the second shoulder portion edge is connected to the strap end of another pair of straps.

15. The garment of claim 14, wherein a closure member is connected to the first and second shoulder portion edges and to the strap end of each of the pair of straps and wherein the closure member is a closure element selected from the group of closure elements consisting of buttons and button holes, zipper fasteners, hook and loop fasteners, latches, rack and pinion, buckling fasteners and combinations thereof.

16. The garment of claim 14, wherein the shoulder portion comprises a reinforcing element extending vertically from about the top edge to about the bottom edge of the shoulder portion.

17. The garment of claim 10, further comprising connecting one of both of the shoulder portion and the pair of straps to one of a jersey, speedsuit, shirt, or blouse.

18. A shoulder garment, comprising a stretchable shoulder portion connected to a pair of stretchable straps to define a pair of arm openings, the shoulder portion having opposing shoulder portion edges and each of the pair of straps having a strap edge, wherein the shoulder portion edges and the pair of strap edges are connected to a closure member, wherein the pair of straps are configured to extend substantially around a portion of the user's back and chest and wherein the stretchable shoulder portion is configured to extend substantially around a portion of a user's shoulders, back and chest and to substantially draw the user's shoulders closer to user's medial torso plane.

19. The shoulder garment of 18, wherein one or both of the stretchable shoulder portion and the pair of stretchable straps comprise a laminate having first and second layers, wherein the first layer stretches in first direction and wherein the second layer stretches in a second direction, the second direction differs from the first direction.

20. The shoulder garment of claim 18, wherein the closure member is a closure element selected from the group of closure elements consisting of buttons and button holes, zipper fasteners, hook and loop fasteners, latches, rack and pinion, buckling fasteners and combinations thereof and wherein the stretchable shoulder portion and the stretchable pair of straps, the shoulder portion and the closure member are connected by one or more of stitching, welding, adhesives, and weaving.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/086,782 filed Aug. 6, 2008, which is incorporated herein by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention generally relates to athletic apparel and more particularly to a garment for cycling.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

Much of a bicyclist's expended energy is consumed overcoming aerodynamic drag. For velocities greater than about 15 miles per hour, the aerodynamic drag exceeds rolling and mechanical resistance. Aerodynamic drag increases as a square of the velocity and the power required for overcoming the aerodynamic drag increases as a cube of the velocity. The bicycle, representing a small cross-sectional area, is responsible for about 30% of the aerodynamic drag, and the cyclist, representing the largest cross-sectional area, is responsible for well over 60% of aerodynamic drag.

During a race or time trial, a bicyclist typically assumes an aerodynamic posture to reduce his cross-sectional area and, thereby, reduce drag. An aerodynamic posture may include reducing shoulder areal exposure by drawing the shoulders inwards towards the medial plane of the bicyclist's torso. The drawing in of the shoulders is an unnatural posture, requiring a degree of sustained concentration by the bicyclist. Furthermore, maintaining the aerodynamic posture requires muscular energy to keep the muscles flexed to draw in the shoulders.

It is therefore desirable to a bicyclist to have an apparatus that will help to maintain an aerodynamic posture without relying entirely on muscle contraction throughout a bicycle race or ride.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

One aspect of the present invention is a shoulder compression garment configured to assist a user in maintaining the user's shoulders in a tucked position, closer to a user's medial torso plane relative to the user's shoulders in a relaxed position in the absence of the garment.

Another aspect of the present invention is a shoulder compression garment having a shoulder portion connected to one or more straps. In a preferred embodiment, the one or more straps is a pair of straps. In a preferred embodiment, the one or more straps are connected to the shoulder portion to define a pair of arm openings, that is, first and second arm openings.

In an embodiment, the shoulder portion and the one or more straps are connected by one or more of stitching, welding, adhesives and weaving. Preferably, the first and second straps are sewn to the shoulder portion.

In an embodiment, the shoulder portion may be any suitable shape for extending around at least a portion of the user's shoulders, back and chest. Preferably, the shoulder portion has a shape generally resembling an arcuate- or a crescent-shape. The shoulder portion may include top and bottom shoulder portion edges joined by first and second shoulder portion edges.

In an embodiment, the one or more straps form any suitable shape configured for extending around a portion of the user's back and chest. Preferably, the one or more straps have a shape generally resembling arcuate or quarter-elliptical shapes. Each of the one or more straps have top and bottom edges that are joined together at one end and a strap edge at the other end. The strap edge includes a strap linear portion and a strap curved portion. The strap linear portion has a shape that is substantially linearly-shaped. The strap curved portion has a shape that may be one of substantially linearly-shaped or substantially curved in shape.

In an embodiment, the shoulder portion and the one or more straps are composed of a stretchable or elastic material. In this embodiment, the material is at least one of a woven fabric, a knit fabric, a laminate material, a dual laminate, a laminate having first and second layers, an elastic material, or combinations of these materials. Preferably, the stretchable and/or elastic material is one of a woven and a knit fabric. In another embodiment, the shoulder portion is a first stretchable material and the one or more straps are a second stretchable material. The first and second stretchable materials may be the same material or may be different materials.

In one embodiment, at least a portion of the top strap edge of each strap is connected to at least a portion of the shoulder portion bottom edge. In another embodiment, the first shoulder portion edge is connected to the strap end of one of the pair of straps and the second shoulder portion edge is connected to the strap end of another the pair of straps.

In a preferred embodiment, the shoulder compression garment of any of the embodiments described herein includes one or more closure member(s). The closure member substantially joins together one or both of the first and second shoulder portion edges and the strap linear portion edges. The closure member may include, without limitation, stitches, rivet fasteners, adhesive, welds, hook and eye fasteners, buttons and buttoning devices, zipper fasteners, buckling devices, latches, hook and loop fasteners, rack and pinion fasteners, lacing, weavings, or combinations of any of these closures. In a preferred embodiment, the closure member is one of zipper fasteners, hook and loop fasteners, a buckling device, buttons and button holes, latches, and rack and pinion fasteners. In one configuration, portions of the closure member are joined proximate the first and second shoulder portion ends. In another configuration, portions of the closure member are joined proximate the strap linear portions.

In a preferred embodiment, the elastic material is formed from a laminate material having first and second stretchable layers. Preferably, the first layer is generally more stretchable in a first direction than in other directions relative to the first direction and the second layer is generally more stretchable in a second direction than in other directions relative to the second direction. In this particularly preferred embodiment, the first and second directions may differ and may have differing degrees of stretch. Preferably, the first and second directions are substantially orthogonal.

In another aspect of the invention, a shoulder compression garment of any one of the embodiments described herein is connected at one or both of the shoulder portion and the pair of straps, to a jersey, speedsuit, shirt or blouse.

In yet another aspect of the invention, the shoulder compression garment of any one of the embodiments described herein includes at least one reinforcing member positioned about the shoulder portion.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 depicts a perspective view of an example of a shoulder compression garment with the shoulder compression garment positioned on a user.

FIG. 2 depicts a plan view of the shoulder compression garment of FIG. 1 in a partially assembled state with dimensions of an exemplary shoulder compression garment indicated.

FIG. 3 depicts a front perspective view of the shoulder compression garment of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 depicts a back perspective view of the shoulder compression garment of FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 depicts a perspective view of a second example of a shoulder compression garment. Various types of closure members are shown in the figure. Optional reinforcing members are also shown in the figure.

FIG. 6 depicts a user's shoulder posture when the user is wearing the shoulder compression garment.

FIG. 7 depicts a back view of the user wearing the shoulder compression garment.

FIG. 8 depicts a side view of the user wearing the shoulder compression garment.

FIG. 9 depicts a user's shoulder posture when the user relaxes the shoulder after removing the shoulder compression garment. This figure is provided for comparison with the user's shoulder posture depicted in FIG. 6.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

The invention provides an apparatus to be worn by a bicyclist that aids the bicyclist in maintaining an aerodynamic position while riding a bicycle. In one aspect of this invention, the apparatus is a garment that compresses the bicyclist's shoulders into a position that is aerodynamic when the bicyclist is positioned on a bicycle. Several preferred embodiments of this aspect of the invention are described below with reference to the figures of this disclosure.

FIG. 1 depicts a perspective view of one embodiment of a shoulder compression garment of the present invention 100 positioned about a user. FIG. 2 depicts a plan view of the shoulder compression garment 100 (of FIG. 1) in a partially assembled state. With reference to the specific embodiments of the invention depicted in FIGS. 1 through 8, the shoulder compression garment 100 includes a shoulder portion 106 and a pair of straps 108. In one embodiment, the shoulder compression garment 100 may be of a unitary construction. That is, the shoulder portion 106 and the pair of straps 108 may be formed from a single, continuous piece of material. In another embodiment, the pair of straps 108 may be formed separately from the shoulder portion 106 from one or more pieces of material. That is, the pair of shoulder straps 108 may be a single piece of material or two or more pieces of material. The pair of straps 108 and the shoulder portion 106 may be formed from the same or differing materials. Preferably, the shoulder compression garment 100 may include one or both of a closure member 132 and one or more reinforcing members 134.

The shoulder portion 106 may be any suitable shape for extending around a portion of the user's shoulders, back 140 and chest 142. Preferably, the shoulder portion 106 has a shape resembling an arcuate- or a crescent-shape. With reference to FIG. 2, the shoulder portion 106 may include opposing top 112 and bottom 114 shoulder portion edges joined by opposing first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges. The shoulder portion 106 may have a generally symmetrical shape. That is, the shoulder portion 106 may have first 136 and second 138 shoulder portions that are generally mirror images of one another.

The pair of straps 108 may be first 108a and second 108b straps. The first 108a and second 108b straps may be similar in shape to one another. More specifically, the first 108a and second 108b straps may be mirror images of one another. The pair of straps 108 may have any suitable shape configured for extending around at least a portion of the user's back 140 and chest 142. Preferably, the pair of straps 108 may have a shape generally resembling arcuate- or quarter elliptical shapes. The pair of straps 108 may include top 120 and bottom 122 strap edges that are joined together at one end 124 and a strap edge 126 at the other end. The strap edge may include a strap linear portion 128 and a strap curved portion 130. The strap linear portion 128 has a shape that is substantially linearly-shaped. The strap curved portion 130 has a shape that may be substantially linearly-shaped or substantially curved-shaped. The strap curved and linear portions meet at an angle 144. The angle 144 ranges from about 5 degrees to about 180 degrees, preferably from about 40 degrees to about 140 degrees. More preferably the angle 144 ranges from about 80 degrees to about 120 degrees.

In a preferred embodiment, at least a portion of the top edge 120 of each strap is joined to at least a portion of the shoulder portion bottom edge 114. Further, the strap linear portion 128 of the first strap 108a may be joined to one of the first 116 or second 118 shoulder portion edge, and the linear portion 128 of the second strap 108b may be joined to the other of the first 116 or second 118 of the shoulder portion edge. When the first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges and the first 108a and the second 108b straps are so joined, the shoulder portion 106 and the first strap 108a define a first arm opening 110a and the shoulder portion 106 and the second strap 108b define a second arm opening 110b. The first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges and the first 108a and second 108b straps may be joined by any suitable fabric joining method, including, but not limited to, stitching or heat welding.

The shoulder portion 106 and the pair of straps 108 may be any material suitable for forming athletic apparel. Preferably, the material is stretchable and/or elastic material. The apparel material may be a woven fabric, a knit fabric, a laminate material, an elastic material or a combination thereof. The knit or woven fabric may be one of a woven or knit spandex, nylon, lycra, polyester, or some combination thereof. The elastic material may include rubbers and/or elastomers. Preferably, the elastic material includes, without limitation, natural rubbers, styrene-butadiene rubbers, polybutadienes, ethylene-propylene rubbers, butyl rubbers, halobutyl rubbers, nitrile rubbers, acrylic elastomers, chlorinated polyethylenes, choloroprenes, chlorosulfonated polyethylenes, epichlorohydrins, fluoroelastomers, fluorosiliciones, polysulfides, silicones, urethanes, vinyl acetate copolymers and combinations thereof.

In some configurations, the laminate material may have first and second stretchable layers. The first and second stretchable layers may be in contact or may be separated by one or more other layers positioned between the first and second stretchable layers. The first layer is generally more stretchable in a first direction (that is, along a first axis) than in any direction other than the first axis. Similarly, the second layer is generally more stretchable in a second direction than in directions other than the second direction. Preferably, the first and second directions differ. More preferably, the first and second directions are substantially orthogonal. In one embodiment, the first layer has an elasticity in a first direction substantially equal to the elasticity of a second layer in a second direction. In another embodiment, the elasticity of the first layer and the second layer differs.

The closure member 132 may be any suitable closure member 132 for joining two or more apparel elements. The closure member 132 may join the first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges together. In some configurations, the closure member 132 may join the first 128a and second 128b strap linear portions together. Stated another way, when the closure member 132 is engaged, the engaged closure member 132 substantially joins together one or both of the first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges and the first 128a and second 128b strap linear portions. Preferably, the closure member 132 reversibly joins together one or both of the first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges and the first 128a and second 128b strap linear portions. The closure member 132 may include without limitation stitches, rivet fasteners, adhesives, welds, hook and eye fasteners, buttons and buttoning devices, zipper fasteners, lacing, buckling devices, a hook and loop (e.g. Velcro™) fastener, rack and pinion fasteners, weavings, or combinations thereof.

Portions of the closure member 132 may be joined to the shoulder portion 106 proximate the first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges. In another configuration, portions of the closure member 132 may be joined proximate the first 128a and second 128b strap linear portions. In yet another configuration, the first strap linear portion 128a may be joined to the first shoulder portion edge 116 and the second strap linear portion 128b may be joined to the second shoulder portion edge 118. In other words, the portions of closure member 132 may be joined proximate one or both of the first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges and the first 128a and second 128b strap linear portions.

The closure member 132 may be joined to the first 116 and second 118 shoulder portion edges and/or the first 128a and second 128b strap linear portions by any suitable joining method. Suitable joining methods include, without limitation, stitching, welding, adhesive joining, riveting, weaving, interlacing, and combinations thereof.

The shoulder portion 106, first strap 108a and second strap 108b of the shoulder compression garment 100 may be sized relative to the user to bias the user's shoulders laterally towards the user's torso medial plane when the shoulder compression garment 100 is positioned on the user as shown in FIG. 1. The closure member 132 may be engaged prior to, or simultaneously with, the biasing of the user's shoulders laterally towards user's medial torso plane. The biasing of the user's shoulders towards the medial torso plane may create the aerodynamic posturing 150 of the user's shoulders.

The biasing of a bicyclist's shoulders by the shoulder compression garment 100 may reduce shoulder lateral outward extension (FIG. 9, 148) away from the torso medial plane. Furthermore, the biasing of the bicyclist's shoulders toward the medial torso plane decreases the areal exposure of the bicyclist's shoulders. It is further believed that when the bicyclist's shoulders are biased towards the torso medial plane the bicyclist's shoulders fall, at least partially, within a slipstream created by the bicyclist's head. Positioning the bicyclist's shoulders within the slipstream created by the bicyclist's head substantially reduces at least some, if not most, of the aerodynamic drag associated with the bicyclist's shoulders.

The shoulder compression garment 100 may aid the user in maintaining the user's shoulders in an aerodynamic posture 150 by opposing movement of the user's shoulders towards the user's natural lateral outward extension 148. In one embodiment, the compression garment is sized to substantially assist and/or compress the user's shoulders in the aerodynamic posture 150 as opposed to the lateral outward extension 148. Preferably, the elastic and/or stretchable properties of the shoulder compression garment 100 may form a compression force for maintaining the user's shoulders in the aerodynamic posture 150. The elastic and/or stretchable properties of the shoulder compression garment 100 may also provide a degree of comfort to the user when wearing the shoulder compression garment 100, compared to a garment substantially lacking elasticity, as a shoulder compression garment lacking elasticity may make it more difficult for the user to breath when worn by the user. For at least these reasons, a stretchable and/or elastomeric material is preferred for the shoulder compression garments of the present invention.

When the user wears the shoulder compression garment 100, the shoulder portion 106 of the shoulder compression garment 100 may extend substantially around at least a portion of the user's shoulders, back 140 and chest 142. In particular, the shoulder portion 106 extends around an upper portion of the user's back 140, the outer and upper portions of the user's shoulders, and an upper portion of the user's chest 142. More specifically, when worn by a user, the shoulder portion 106 is preferably positioned about at least some, if not most, of the user's deltoid 158, subscapularis 160, supra capularis 162, infraspinatus 164, trapezius 166 and pectoral 166 muscles. The shoulder portion 106 also helps to stabilize the garment on the user and to prevent the garment from sliding up or down the torso of the user.

When a user wears the compression garment, the first 108a and second 108b straps may be substantially positioned inferior to the axillae 172 and extend about the back 140 and chest 142 of the user. The first 108a and second 108b straps cooperate with the shoulder portion 106 to prevent the shoulder compression garment 100 from moving about the torso of the user, such as sliding superior (that is, up the user's torso towards the user's head) or inferior (that is, down the user's torso towards the user's waist) and/or twisting about the torso and/or shoulders of the user. More particularly, positioning at least some of the shoulder portion 106 on a superior surface 174 of the user's shoulders and positioning the pair of straps 108 inferior to user's axillae 172 and about the chest 142 and back 140 of the user, restricts the shoulder compression garment 100 and helps to prevent movement about the user's torso . For example, the engagement of shoulder portion 106 of the compression garment about the superior surface 174 of the user's shoulders may prevent inferior movement of shoulder compression garment 100. Stated in another way, any movement of the compression garment towards the user's waist could be substantially prevented by the shoulder portion 106 engaging the superior surface 174 of the user's shoulders. In an analogous manner, any superior movement of the shoulder compression garment 100 towards the user's head may at least be prevented by the axillae 172 engaging one or both of the first 108a and second 108b straps. The engagement of one or both of the first 108a and second 108b straps with the axillae 172 substantially prevents further superior movement of the shoulder compression garment 100.

FIG. 3 depicts a plan view of the shoulder compression garment 100 of FIG. 2 with some dimensions of the shoulder compression garment 100 indicated. The shoulder portion 106 has a shoulder portion width 176 where the shoulder compression garment 100 is positioned about the user's deltoid and trapezius muscles. Preferably, the shoulder portion width 176 is formed sufficiently large to stabilize the shoulder compression garment 100 on the user's shoulders. If shoulder portion width 176 about the deltoid and trapezius muscles is too narrow, the user's shoulders may return to their laterally extended position (148, FIG. 9) relative to the user's torso as the shoulder compression garment 100 may not have sufficient elastic force to maintain the user's shoulders in a position laterally closer to the user's medial torso plane. Shoulder portion width 176 may be varied, depending upon the size of the user. Sufficient shoulder portion width 176 may be measured as intervals of a length from about the user's elbow to about the top of the user's shoulder. In a preferred embodiment, the shoulder portion width 176 varies from about ⅛ to about 9/10 of the distance from the user's elbow to the top of the user's shoulder. In a more preferred embodiment, the shoulder portion width 176 varies from about ⅙ to about ⅔ of the interval from about the user's elbow to the top of the user's shoulder.

The shoulder compression garment 100 may be an individual garment or may be incorporated into other clothing, such as a bicycling speedsuit, jersey, bib or the like. If incorporated into other clothing, the shoulder compression garment 100 may have its own closure member 132 or may share a common closure member with the clothing. The shoulder compression garment 100 may be joined to the other clothing by any suitable fabric connection method, including by sewing or heat welding the shoulder compression garment 100 to the other clothing.

The shoulder compression garment may include one or more reinforcing members formed from any suitable rigid or semi-rigid material, such as a boning or the like. The one or more reinforcing members may be positioned on the shoulder portion 106 of the shoulder compression garment 100 proximate a leading edge of the user's shoulder (as viewed from the front of the user) when the shoulder compression garment 100 is worn by the user. Each reinforcing member may extend vertically from the top 112 edge to the bottom edge 114 of the shoulder portion 106. In some versions of the shoulder compression garment 100, the one or more reinforcing members are omitted.

All directional references (e.g., upper, lower, upward, downward, left, right, leftward, rightward, top, bottom, above, below, inner, outer, vertical horizontal, clockwise, and counterclockwise) are only used for identification purposes to aid the reader's understanding of the examples of the invention, and do not create limitations, particularly as to the position, orientation, or use of the invention unless specifically set forth in the claims. Joinder references (e.g., attached, coupled, connected, joined, and the like) should be construed broadly and may include intermediate members between a connection of elements and relative movement between elements. As such, joinder references do not necessarily infer that two elements are directly connected and/or in fixed relation to each other.

In some instances, components are described with reference to “ends” having a particular characteristic and/or being connected with another part. However, those skilled in the art will recognize that the present invention is not limited to components which terminate immediately beyond their points of connection with other parts. Thus, the term “end” should be interpreted broadly, in a manner that includes areas adjacent, rearward, forward of, or otherwise near the terminus of a particular element, link, component, part, member or the like.

In is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative only and not limiting. Changes in detail or structure may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention set forth in this disclosure.