Title:
SUBSTRUCTURE FOR A CONSTRUCTION THAT IS SELF-SUPPORTING WITHOUT THE SUBSTRUCTURE AND USE OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Substructure for a construction that is self-supporting without the substructure and use of the substructure. The invention relates to a substructure for a construction that is self-supporting without the substructure, which construction has at least one carrying component accommodating at least one force, wherein the substructure can be arranged relative to the construction in such a way that it is located at least partly in direct proximity to the at least one carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction. The invention also relates to the use of the substructure as an underpinning structure or as a reinforcement for the construction.



Inventors:
Troester, Guenther (Breitenguessbach, DE)
Application Number:
12/374785
Publication Date:
01/14/2010
Filing Date:
08/02/2006
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
14/78
International Classes:
E04H12/02; E01D19/00
View Patent Images:
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Foreign References:
EP00253071981-03-18
GB2097034A1982-10-27
DE3243852A11984-06-07
EP01275821984-12-05
DE3331355A11985-03-14
DE3526550A11987-02-05
DE3620619A11987-12-23
EP03022431989-02-08
DE4003525A11990-08-23
JPH06322819A1994-11-22
DE202006001874U12006-07-06
Primary Examiner:
AHMAD, CHARISSA L
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Workman Nydegger (Salt Lake City, UT, US)
Claims:
1. 1-32. (canceled)

33. An underpinning structure a) embodied and intended for protecting a construction that is self-supporting without the underpinning structure; b) wherein the construction has at least one carrying component accommodating at least one force; characterized in that: c) the underpinning structure is arranged relative to the construction in such a way that it is located at least partly in direct proximity to the at least one carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction; d) wherein the underpinning structure is not connected directly to the carrying component of the construction for the introduction of forces, but rather is set apart from the carrying component of the construction; e) wherein the distance is selected in such a way: e1) that season-induced and/or weather-induced material expansions and/or material contractions and/or oscillations of the carrying component of the construction, in a conventional tolerance range which is to be expected, do not lead to contacting of the underpinning structure; and e2) that, however, the underpinning structure supports the carrying component in the event of a failure and/or static yielding of the carrying component of the construction.

34. The underpinning structure as claimed in claim 33, wherein at least two structure elements in the form of a rod, a pipe, an angle profile, a cord, a cord net and/or a connecting element are provided.

35. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, which has a three-dimensional framework.

36. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, wherein at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure is located in direct proximity to the carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction in such a way that the structure portion supports the carrying component during yielding of the carrying component, accommodating the force, of the construction.

37. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, embodied and intended for protecting a roof of a building.

38. The underpinning structure as claimed in claim 33, wherein at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure runs substantially parallel to the roof.

39. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, wherein at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure runs in a substantially horizontal or arcuate manner.

40. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, wherein at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure is arranged: at least partly within or below the construction; and/or within or below or next to the carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction.

41. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, wherein at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure extends at least partly through a wall of the construction.

42. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, wherein at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure is arranged on at least one support.

43. The underpinning structure as claimed in claim 33, wherein the support is located within or outside the construction.

44. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, wherein at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure is mounted at least partly on a part of the construction or on an attachment to the construction.

45. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, which has at least one guy.

46. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, embodied and intended for protecting a bridge.

47. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, which is embodied in an at least partly arcuate manner.

48. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, with which a measuring means is associated for determining the distance between the carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction and at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure.

49. The underpinning structure as claimed in claim 33, wherein, based on at least one measured value of the measuring means, an alarm can be triggered if the distance between the carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction and the at least one structure portion of the underpinning structure reaches or drops below a limit value.

50. The underpinning structure as claim in claim 33, which is arranged at least partly on a foundation of the construction.

Description:

The invention relates to a substructure for a construction that is self-supporting without the substructure, which construction has at least one carrying component accommodating a force. The invention also relates to the use of a substructure of this type.

Constructions, of whatever type, have some or other form of carrying components, for example walls, carriers, roof carriers, struts, frames or a carrying structure in general, which impart to the construction its static strength or its static carrying force and make the construction a self-supporting construction. The term “a self-supporting construction” therefore refers to a construction which is, owing to its design having carrying components, per se capable of carrying. The constructions are designed in such a way that at least one carrying component of the construction can accommodate at least one force, generally a plurality of forces, be it weights, compressive or tensile forces.

Constructions, such as for example houses and buildings, can in this case be at least partly protected from atmospheric influences by an external cladding and/or a roof. However, there are also constructions, such as for example antenna systems, pylon systems or power pylons, which have for example a latticed carrying structure which is directly exposed to atmospheric influences.

Irrespective of whether the construction is a closed construction, for example in the form of a building, or an open construction, for example in the form of a power pylon having a latticed carrying structure, said constructions can change, generally reduce, in particular under the influence of weather, above all if they are exposed to weather for years and years, their carrying properties, in particular their carrying capacity, as far as the influence of the forces acting on them is concerned. Thus, the influence of cold, heat, moisture, snow and ice has, inter alia, repeatedly led to the caving-in of roofs of buildings, in particular of halls, injuring persons. Furthermore, the influence of cold, heat, moisture, snow, ice and winds has lead to the breakage of latticed carrying structures, for example of power pylons, as a result of which the supply of electrical power to a portion of the population was interrupted, in some cases for days on end.

The invention is therefore based on the object of specifying a substructure of the type mentioned at the outset and a use therefor so as to provide at least a certain protection for a construction.

According to the invention, this object is achieved by a substructure for a construction that is self-supporting without the substructure, which construction has at least one carrying component accommodating at least one force, wherein the substructure can be arranged relative to the construction in such a way that it is located at least partly in direct proximity to the at least one carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction. The invention therefore proposes providing on a self-supporting construction a substructure for protecting at least one carrying component, accommodating for example a weight, tensile or compressive force, of a construction. The construction can be a building, a pylon or the like, but also a roof structure, a carrying frame or a carrying structure in general. The carrying component of the construction can for example be in the form of individual carriers, struts or the like. The substructure is in this case, as mentioned hereinbefore, not necessary in order to impart to the construction per se its carrying force or carrying capacity, but rather serves merely to protect the construction, be it in such a way that the substructure is at least partly arranged at a specific distance in direct proximity to at least one carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction or that the substructure even contacts at least one carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction in order if necessary to be able to accommodate a force or forces.

According to a variant of the invention, the substructure has at least one structure portion. The substructure or the structure portion comprises in turn at least one structure element which can for example be a rod, a pipe, an angle profile, a cord, a cord net and/or a connecting element for at least two structure elements of this type. The substructure does not in this case necessarily have to have a plurality of structure portions, but rather can also have only one structure portion. It is also possible for the structure portion to be or to embody the substructure.

A suitable substructure has been found to be a three-dimensional framework which generally comprises pipes or rods which are made of steel, can be tapered at their ends and can be connected to one another using spherical connecting elements to form larger, in particular static structures. Three-dimensional frameworks of this type are known from MERO-TSK International GmbH & Co. KG having its registered office in Würzburg, Germany. Moreover, the spherical connecting element is also referred to as a so-called Mero node which has a plurality of portions for fastening pipes or rods or for connecting pipes and/or rods to one another.

Embodiments of the invention make provision for the substructure to have what is known as an underpinning structure for at least a part of the construction. The term “underpinning” refers in this case to the fact that the substructure is not connected directly to or does not contact at least one carrying component, accommodating a force or forces, for the introduction of the force or of forces, but rather that the underpinning structure or a structure portion of the underpinning structure is located at a specific distance, selected in a defined manner, from the at least one carrying component of the construction. Preferably, the at least one structure portion of the substructure or the underpinning structure is located in direct proximity to a carrying component, accommodating a force, of the construction, i.e. at a distance selected in a defined manner from the carrying component, in such a way that the structure portion or the underpinning structure can support the carrying component at least for a specific time during static yielding of the carrying component, accommodating the force, of the construction. All references hereinbefore to an arrangement of the structure portion or of the substructure in direct proximity to the carrying component of the construction refer to the fact that the distance between the structure portion or the substructure and the carrying component of the construction is preferably as small as possible, but is selected in a defined manner in such a way that, for example, season-induced and/or weather-induced material expansions and/or contractions and also oscillations of the carrying component of the construction, in a conventional tolerance range which is to be expected, do not lead to contacting of the substructure or the structure portion with the carrying component of the construction. It is therefore clear that the distance between the structure portion or the substructure and the carrying component is accordingly selected as a function of the type of the construction and also of the material of the carrying component and also as a function of the forces and influences normally acting on the carrying component, additional account if appropriate being taken of a safety requirement.

The substructure is provided, for example, for a roof of a building, for example a hall, wherein the substructure or a structure portion of the substructure can run substantially parallel to the roof. If the building is for example a hall having a flat roof, then the structure portion or the substructure runs substantially horizontally parallel to the flat roof, if appropriate so as also to be adapted to the pitch of the roof. However, the structure portion or the substructure can also run in an arcuate manner or in adaptation to the carrying component to be protected, adapted to the shape thereof.

The substructure or the structure portion of the substructure is located at least partly within or below the construction and/or within or below or next to the carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction. For example, the structure portion or the substructure can be located below a roof structure of a construction or within a ceiling or a carrying structure of a construction.

Depending on the design conditions and the requirements placed on the construction or the use of the construction, the structure portion or the substructure can extend, for example in the case of a building, at least partly through a wall of the construction if said structure portion or said substructure cannot be mounted within the construction.

According to a variant of the invention, the structure portion or the substructure can be arranged at least on a support, wherein the support can be located within or outside the construction. If the support is located outside the construction, the substructure or the structure portion of the substructure extends, for example in the case of a building, at least partly through a wall of the construction. Should the design conditions of the construction and also the use of the construction permit it, the substructure or the structure portion of the substructure can be mounted at least partly on a part of the construction or on an attachment to the construction. For example, the structure portion or the substructure can be mounted on a part of the wall of a construction or on an attachment to the wall of the construction or on a foundation of the construction.

In addition, the substructure can have at least one guy which is preferably located outside the construction and generally brought about using a cord or pipes.

According to a further variant of the invention, the substructure is provided for a bridge and can, in particular for this purpose, be embodied in an at least partly arcuate manner.

According to one embodiment of the invention, a measuring means is associated with the substructure for determining the distance between the carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction and the substructure or the structure portion of the substructure. A measuring means of this type comprises for example a plurality of distance sensors which can be arranged for example on the substructure and detect continuously or at specific discrete points in time measured values from which the distance between the carrying component of the construction and the substructure can be determined. If the distance between the carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of the construction and the substructure reaches or even drops below a preferably predefinable limit value, an alarm can be triggered based on the measured value or values of the measuring means. This allows, on the one hand, changes in the carrying properties of at least one carrying component of the construction to be registered comparatively rapidly and, on the other hand, measures, such as for example the evacuation of a building, to be introduced in order to avoid injury to persons, resulting for example from the roof of the construction caving in.

According to a variant of the invention, the substructure is located preferably at least partly within the construction and contacts the carrying component, accommodating the force, of the construction at least one specific point for the introduction of force from the construction into the substructure. Generally, the substructure is in this case designed and arranged at least partly in the construction in such a way that the substructure and the force-accommodating carrying component contact each other as continuously as possible for the introduction of a force from the construction into the substructure. However, it can occasionally occur, depending on the atmospheric conditions and also on the materials of the carrying component of the construction and of the substructure, that the carrying component of the construction and the substructure do not enter into contact. However, the distance between the carrying component of the construction and the substructure is in this case generally so small that, in the case of marked stressing of the carrying component of the construction as a result of the introduction of forces into the carrying component of the construction, be it as result of atmospheric influences or other influences, the carrying component of the construction and the substructure enter into contact, thus allowing force again to be introduced from the construction into the substructure. As the substructure is generally embodied in such a way that it contacts a plurality of force-accommodating carrying components of the construction at a plurality of specific points, it is almost impossible, even under disadvantageous ambient conditions, for there to be any contact whatsoever between the construction and the substructure. Variants of the invention make provision in this case for a structure element of the substructure, preferably a connecting element such as the Mero node, to contact a force-accommodating carrying component of the construction at a specific point for the introduction of force from the construction into the substructure.

The substructure is provided, for example, for a construction having a latticed structure and/or carrying structure comprising struts. A construction of this type is for example a pylon, for example a power pylon. A pylon of this type can have a tower-like pylon body and/or at least one carrying arm, but generally a plurality of carrying arms, arranged on the pylon body. The substructure is, in the case of a pylon of this type, arranged at least partly in the pylon body and/or in a carrying arm of the pylon body.

In the case of a pylon of this type, provision may be made to have at least one supporting strut run between a carrying arm of the pylon and a structure portion, arranged in the pylon body, of the substructure and/or between a structure portion, arranged in the carrying arm of the pylon, of the substructure and a structure portion, arranged in the pylon body, of the substructure.

According to a variant of the invention, the substructure can be arranged at least partly on a foundation of the construction. In the case of the pylon, the foundation of the pylon can for example be used to arrange the substructure thereon. In addition, provision may in this case be made for the substructure at least substantially to follow the latticed structure of the carrying structure of the pylon. However, the substructure does not necessarily have to be arranged on the foundation of the construction or the pylon.

According to one embodiment of the invention, the substructure is preferably configured in such a way that it can be retrofitted in a simple manner in or on a construction. The retrofitting of the substructure does not in this case generally require the use of heavy lifting apparatuses or the provision of additional foundations. In addition, the substructure, especially if it is embodied as a three-dimensional framework, does not alter the external appearance and also it does not restrict the use of the construction.

The invention provides for the use of one of the foregoing substructures for supporting at least one carrying component, accommodating at least one force, of a construction in the event of static failure of the carrying component, accommodating the force, of the construction. In this case, the substructure is therefore a pure auxiliary structure for the purposes of safety, should static failure of a carrying component of a construction, for example failure of a roof, occur.

However, the substructure can also be used to reinforce a self-supporting construction; this is beneficial when constructions are to be protected, owing to years of operation and owing to atmospheric influences acting thereon, wherein in this case the substructure and the construction are preferably brought into contact at specific points, thus allowing force to be introduced from the construction into the substructure.

Exemplary embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the appended schematic drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a partly cut-away view of the arrangement of a substructure below the roof of a hall;

FIG. 2 is a schematic plan view onto the hall from FIG. 1, the covering having been removed and the substructure modified;

FIG. 3 shows a further embodiment of an arrangement of a substructure under the roof of a hall;

FIGS. 4 and 5 are schematic, partly cut-away views of the arrangement of structure portions between roof carriers;

FIG. 6 shows a further embodiment of an arrangement of a substructure under the roof of a hall;

FIG. 7 is a side view of a bridge with a substructure arranged therebelow;

FIGS. 8 and 9 are two views of a power pylon, provided with a substructure, for overhead power lines; and

FIG. 10 shows the pylon, provided with an extended substructure, for overhead power lines from FIGS. 4 and 5.

FIG. 1 is a simplified, partly cut-away view of a hall 1 having, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, four carrying walls which surround the hall and of which two side walls 2 of the hall 1 are shown in a cut-away view in FIG. 1. Arranged on the side walls 2 are roof carriers or roof trusses which run between the side walls 2 and of which a roof carrier 3 is shown in FIG. 1. The side walls 2 are, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, structural walls.

The roof carriers 3 of the hall 1 are, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, wooden beams extending transversely over the hall 1. The wooden beams can be solid wood beams but also beams made of glued wood. However, it is also possible to make the roof carriers 3 from steel or from another suitable material which is capable of carrying. A covering 4, which is mounted on the roof carriers 3, is arranged on the roof carriers 3 in the case of the present exemplary embodiment. The roof carriers 3 are carrying components of a carrying or roof structure, carrying the covering 4, of the hall 1. The roof carriers 3 each accommodate, as carrying components of the hall 1, a part of the weight of the covering 4 and also further forces acting in particular on the covering 4, be it compressive or tensile forces or the like.

The roof structure of the hall 1, in particular the roof carriers 3 of the hall 1, are subjected to particularly high loads whenever, in addition to the weight of the covering 4, other loads also act on said covering; this can be the case for example in winter, when masses of snow and ice are located on the covering 4. Phenomena of ageing and influences which can be undesirable, such as for example moisture seeping onto the roof carriers 3 through the covering 4, can cause individual roof carriers 3 or else all the roof carriers 3 to change their carrying properties and no longer to be able permanently to withstand the forces acting thereon, so that in particular in the event of high loads acting on the roof structure (this can be the case as a result of masses of snow and ice in winter) there is a risk that the roof will cave in.

It is therefore proposed, as a safety measure, in particular at times when high loads act on the roof carriers, to arrange, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, below the roof structure of the hall 1 or below the force-accommodating carrying components in the form of the roof carriers 3, at least one substructure 5 below at least one roof carrier 3 in such a way that at least one structure portion 6 of the substructure 5 is located at least partly in direct proximity to a carrying component, accommodating a force, in the form of a roof carrier 3. The substructure can in this case also extend over the entire extension of the roof structure of the hall 1. However, it is also possible to assign a substructure of this type only to individual roof carriers 3 which are exposed to particular loads, or else to arrange the substructure, unlike as shown in FIG. 1, at right angles or transversely, at an angle other than 90°, to the course of the roof carriers 3. In the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 1, a respective substructure 5 having a structure portion 6 is associated with each roof carrier 3.

In the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the structure portion 6 of the substructure 5 is arranged on supports 7, 8 of the substructure 5 outside the hall 1. In order to be able to bring this about, the side walls 2 of the hall 1 each have an opening 9 below a roof carrier 3. However, preferably, an opening 9 is not present, as shown in FIG. 1, directly below a roof carrier 3, but rather arranged laterally offset from a roof carrier 3 in order not to lose the carrying capacity of the side wall 2. In this case, the structure portion 6 is adapted accordingly, i.e. said structure portion has at least one transverse component to guide the structure portion 6 laterally away from a roof carrier 3 and through the opening, arranged laterally to the roof carrier 3, in the side wall.

The dimensions of the opening 9 are embodied in such a way that the structure portion 6, which is associated with a roof carrier 3 and has, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, a beam-like or right parallelepiped outer structure, can be guided through the opening 9. As previously mentioned, the structure portion 6 is mounted outside the hall 1 on supports 7 and 8.

FIG. 2 shows, in a schematic plan view onto the hall 1 from which the covering 1 has been removed, a variant of a substructure 5, in which the substructure 5 has structure portions 6 which extend transversely over the hall 1 and which are guided through openings (not shown) in the side walls 2 of the hall 1, which are located laterally offset below the roof carriers 3. The structure portions 6 are in this case mounted outside the hall 1 on supports 7. The substructure 5 has in this case one or more structure portions which are arranged transversely to the structure portions 6 and which are located at least partly in direct proximity below the roof carriers 3.

In the case of the present exemplary embodiment, a structure portion 6 is embodied as a three-dimensional framework and has accordingly rods 21 and/or pipes and also connecting elements 22 for connecting the rods and/or pipes to one another. The connecting elements are generally what are known as Mero nodes 22, such as are used for example by MERO-TSK International GmbH & Co. KG for constructing three-dimensional frameworks. In the case of the present exemplary embodiment, the support 8 is also embodied as a three-dimensional framework. However, alternatively, the support can also be, as shown based on the example of the support 7, a pylon which is made of wood or steel or another suitable material and can be provided with a guy 10 for reinforcing the underpinning structure 5. The guy 10 is generally a steel cord or a pipe system which is accordingly fastened in the ground and allows corresponding bracing of the substructure 5.

Moreover, the openings 9 in the side walls 2 of the hall 1 are, in a manner not illustrated in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, accordingly sealed after passing through the structure portion 6 or 36 respectively; this can be carried out for example by walling-in, by an internal and external cladding filled with insulation or in another suitable manner.

As may be seen from FIG. 1, the substructure 5, in particular the structure portion 6, does not contact the carrying components, in the form of the roof carriers 3, carrying the roof of the hall 1 and thus does not display a carrying function for the hall 1 per se, which is a self-supporting construction. The substructure 5, which can also be referred to as the underpinning structure, is an auxiliary structure and serves to secure the hall 1, in particular to secure the roof or the roof carriers 3 of the hall 1. The underpinning structures 5 and in particular the structure portions 6 of the substructures 5 have the task of preventing, in the event of static failure, which has suddenly commenced or has already been apparent for a certain period of time, of the carrying function of a carrying structure such as the roof of the hall 1, the roof from caving in, in the event of one or more roof carriers 3 breaking, possibly injuring persons in the process. Should one or more roof carriers 3 of the hall 1 indeed fail, a respective structure portion 6 of a substructure 5 intercepts the failing or breaking roof carrier 3 and prevents or delays, at least for a specific period of time, the roof of the hall 1 from caving in, so that persons who may be in the hall 1 can leave the hall 1 before the hall 1 caves in. The substructures 5 therefore serve, in the event of failure of the roof structure of the hall 1, to support the roof structure, in particular the roof carriers 3. The structure portions 6 are in this case arranged in direct proximity to the roof carriers 3, the structure portions 6 being located at a distance, which is selected in a defined manner, below the roof carriers 3.

The variant shown in FIG. 2 of the substructure 5 also displays the effects described hereinbefore.

FIG. 3 to 5 show, compared to the exemplary embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1, a variant of a substructure 5 for the hall 1. The substructure 5 of FIG. 3 has, like that in FIG. 1, structure portions 6 which extend substantially parallel to the roof carriers 3 and transversely over the hall 1, although these are arranged, in the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 3, not below a roof carrier 3 but rather, as may be seen in particular from FIGS. 4 and 5, between or next to the roof carriers 3. FIG. 3 indicates merely schematically a structure portion 6 running between two roof carriers 3. The structure portion 6 extends, in a manner comparable to that in FIG. 1, on both sides in each case through an opening (not shown) or an aperture in a side wall 2. The opening is located between two roof carriers 3 and is preferably protected by a cap piece. Outside the hall, the structure portion 6 is mounted again on supports 8 and 7.

As may be seen in particular from FIGS. 4 and 5 which show non-exclusive examples of possible structure add-ons of the structure portions 6, the structure portions 6 are connected via cross members 32 or load cross members 32 which are arranged below a roof carrier 3 at a specific distance from the roof carrier 3. In FIGS. 4 and 5, each cross member 32 connects two structure portions 6. However, a cross member 32 can also connect a plurality of structure portions 6 or all structure portions 6 to one another. A cross member can in this case run parallel to a roof carrier 3 or else transversely to a roof carrier 3. What matters is that a cross member can, in the event of yielding of a roof carrier 3, intercept the roof carrier 3 and support it at least for a specific time.

The variant of a substructure according to FIG. 3 to 5 offers the advantage that almost no ceiling height is lost within the hall as a result of the substructure, so that the possible uses of the hall are not restricted.

The exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 6 differs from the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 1 in that the structure portion 6 of a substructure 5 is not mounted on supports arranged outside the hall 1.

In the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 6, the structure portion 6 of the substructure 5 is mounted on one side on a support 7 which is located, as mentioned hereinbefore, within the hall 1 in the case of the present exemplary embodiment. On the other side of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 6, the structure portion 6 of the substructure 5 on a part of the hall 1 is mounted, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, on a bracket 11 of the side wall 2 of the hall 1. As described previously for the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 1, each roof carrier 3 can have associated with it a substructure 5 which has a structure portion 6 and can be mounted, as shown in FIG. 6, on a bracket 11 and supports 7. However, the structure portion 6 can also extend over the entire hall 1 or structure portions 6 can be provided in various regions of the hall 1. As in the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the structure portion 6 of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 6 is also embodied as a three-dimensional framework.

Moreover, any desired mixed forms between the exemplary embodiments shown in FIG. 1 to 6 are possible, in particular as far as the mounting of a structure portion 6 is concerned. Thus, the structure portions 6 or the substructures per se can be mounted, for example, only on brackets 11 or only on supports 7 or 8 within or outside the hall 1. Also possible is the mounting of structure portions, running between roof carriers, on brackets between the roof carriers, the structure portions being connected via cross members.

In the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 6, a measuring means is additionally associated with the substructures 5 in each case for automatically determining the distance between a roof carrier 3 of the hall 1 and a structure portion 6 of a substructure 5. In this case, the distance from the structure portion 6 associated with the roof carrier does not have to be determined in the case of each roof carrier 3. The measuring means comprises, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, measuring sensors 12, two of which are shown in FIG. 6 and which interact with an evaluation unit 13. The measuring sensors 12 can be mechanical or electronic measuring sensors with, for example, strain gauges attached to the measuring sensors, wherein the measuring sensors can cause for example the closing of an electric switch to trigger an alarm signal. The measuring sensors can be measuring sensors which operate in a contactless manner, for example ultrasonic sensors, or measuring sensors which operate on the basis of contact. For example, a measuring sensor can contact the roof beam 3 and the structure portion 6 and be provided with strain gauges. The measuring sensors 12 are in this case connected, in a manner not shown in FIG. 6, to the evaluation unit 13, which can be a computing means, for example via cables. The measured values of the measuring sensors 12 can however also be transmitted to the evaluation unit 13 wirelessly via free electromagnetic waves. If the evaluation unit 13 ascertains that the distance between a roof carrier 3 and a structure portion 6 of a substructure 5 reaches or drops below a preferably predefinable limit value, then said evaluation unit can cause the triggering of an alarm, for example an alarm signal in the form of a visual or acoustic alarm signal. The alarm signal has in this case a warning function and instructs, for example, persons in the hall 1 to leave the hall as promptly as possible. An alarm signal can also be forwarded automatically to the police, the fire brigade or other emergency services.

A further exemplary embodiment, in the case of which a substructure is Mused as an underpinning structure, is shown in FIG. 7 for a bridge 14 over a river 15. Below the bridge 14, a substructure 16 is arranged between two banks 17. The substructure 16 can also be arranged on a foundation 30, indicated in FIG. 7, for example of a dam 31. The substructure 16 is, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, formed from a three-dimensional framework 18 and cords 19 and has a structure portion 20 which is arranged roughly in the center of the bridge 14, below the bridge 14, at a specific distance, which is selected in a defined manner, from the bridge 14. The substructure 16 is, in the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 7, embodied in a substantially arcuate manner and serves in turn, in the event of a failure of the bridge 14, be it as a result of excessive loads acting on the bridge 14 or as a result of ageing phenomena of the bridge 14, to support said bridge at least for a specific period of time until preferably all persons and vehicles who were on the bridge at the moment of the failure have left the bridge before it caves in.

Moreover, the underpinning structure 16 can also have, in a comparable manner to the exemplary embodiment described in relation to FIG. 6, a measuring means for determining the distance between the substructure 16, or the structure portion 20 of the substructure 16, and the bridge 14. In the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 3 to 5, at least one measuring sensor can be associated with at least one cross member.

The substructure has been described hereinbefore based on the example of a three-dimensional framework having inter alia pipes, rods and/or connecting nodes. However, the substructure does not necessarily have to be embodied in the form of a three-dimensional framework, but rather can also be a cord structure, for example using cord nets, or a structure using other suitable materials. As the substructure does not have any carrying function, it can be embodied in a comparatively compact manner and is thus suitable for subsequent integration into an existing construction.

Furthermore, the underpinning structure can be provided for constructions other than the roof of a building or a bridge.

Moreover, components which, in the exemplary embodiments shown, correspond at least substantially with regard to their function and configuration are provided with the same reference numerals.

FIG. 8 to 10 show further exemplary embodiments of a substructure according to the invention, wherein, in the case of the exemplary embodiments shown in FIG. 8 to 10, the self-supporting construction has a carrying structure comprising a latticed structure and struts. The construction is in the present case a pylon 40 for overhead power lines. The pylon 40 has a tower-like pylon body 41 and also, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, four carrying arms 42. The pylon 40 is arranged with four feet 43 on a foundation 44. The latticed structure of the carrying structure of the pylon 40 comprises interconnected struts or rods which are generally made of a metal. Pylons 40 of this type are exposed to atmospheric influences for years on end, and this can negatively influence the carrying structure of the pylon 40 in its carrying function and its carrying properties. In the past, in particular under disadvantageous atmospheric conditions, for example when snow and ice cling to the carrying structure of a pylon 40 and expose said pylon to particular loads, pylons of this type have therefore broken.

The invention therefore proposes arranging a substructure within a construction, which has at least one carrying component accommodating at least one force, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment within the pylon 40 which has components, accommodating at least one force, in the form of rods 45, in such a way that the substructure contacts the carrying components, accommodating at least one force, in the form of rods 45 at specific points for the introduction of force from the pylon 40 into the substructure, thus reinforcing the pylon 40 and leading to substantial rigidity and an increase in the carrying capacity of the pylon 40.

As illustrated in FIG. 8, a substructure 50 is arranged within the pylon 40. The substructure 50 has rod elements 51 and node elements 52 connecting said rod elements to one another. As may be seen from FIG. 8, the substructure 50 follows or the rod elements 51, which are connected to one another via the node elements 52, follow substantially the latticed structure of the carrying structure of the pylon 40. The substructure 50 is in this case arranged on foot wedges 53 which use as a rest the same foundation 44 as the pylon 40. The substructure 50 is arranged in the pylon 40 in such a way that, in the case of the present exemplary embodiment, node elements 52 rest against or contact rods 45 of the pylon 40, thus allowing force to be introduced into the substructure 50 from the pylon 40 via the node elements 52 in order to reinforce the pylon 40. The contacting does not in this case necessarily have to take place between a node element 52 and a rod 45. On the contrary, the contacting can be provided between the substructure and the pylon via elastomers or buffer elements, for example rubber buffers, or specific screw connections are provided.

The substructure 50 is, in the case of the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 8 two 10, again embodied as a three-dimensional framework in which the previously mentioned node elements 52, which can be Mero nodes, connect rod elements 21 or pipe elements 51 to one another. However, the substructure 50 does not necessarily have to be embodied as a three-dimensional framework, but rather can also have rods and nodes, angle profiles, cords and other structure elements which in combination can be connected to one another so as to form the substructure and can be made of metallic or other suitable carrying load-accommodating materials.

However, the embodiment of the substructure as a three-dimensional framework allows comparatively good adaptation to an existing geometry such as that of the pylon 40, so that a force can be introduced in the desired manner, if possible on each node element 52.

The substructure 50 does not in this case necessarily have to reinforce the pylon 40 completely over its entire internal volume. On the contrary, it is possible, as shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, for only a part of the tower-like pylon body, which is exposed to particular loads, to have a substructure 50 for the purposes of reinforcement. This produces an embodiment of the reinforcement as a tower in the tower, as a result of which forces can be introduced into the reinforcement comparatively well and comparatively slender embodiments of the reinforcement are possible. In addition, this embodiment of the reinforcement does not take up any additional ground area. Moreover, the reinforcement can also be located only in an upper portion of the pylon 40 or of the pylon body 41.

It is however also possible additionally to reinforce all carrying arms 42 or, as shown in FIG. 10, the two lower carrying arms 42 partly with the aid of the substructure 50. The substructure 50 has for this purpose two further structure portions in the form of the mounts 54.

In order further to increase the load, a supporting strut 55 can be arranged between the carrying arm 42 of the pylon 40 and a structure portion 56, arranged in the pylon body, of the substructure 50 and/or between a structure portion 54, arranged in the carrying arm 42 of the pylon 40, of the substructure 50 and a structure portion 56, arranged in the pylon body, of the substructure 50. Four supporting struts of this type are shown in FIG. 10.

The reinforcement of a construction with the aid of the substructure has been described hereinbefore based on the example of a pylon, in particular a pylon for overhead power lines. However, other constructions can also be reinforced using a substructure of this type, thus increasing the rigidity and the carrying capacity thereof.

The described substructure can in this case be retrofitted into a construction in an advantageously simple manner, as the substructure can be embodied in a comparatively compact manner.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMERALS

    • 1 Hall
    • 2 Side wall
    • 3 Roof carrier
    • 4 Covering
    • 5 Substructure
    • 6 Structure portion of the substructure
    • 7, 8 Supports
    • 9 Opening in the side wall
    • 10 Guy
    • 11 Bracket
    • 12 Measuring sensor
    • 13 Evaluation unit
    • 14 Bridge
    • 15 River
    • 16 Substructure
    • 17 Bank
    • 18 Arcuate portion of the substructure
    • 19 Cord
    • 20 Structure portion of the substructure
    • 21 Rod
    • 22 Connecting element (Mero node)
    • 30 Foundation
    • 31 Dam
    • 32 Cross member
    • 40 Pylon
    • 41 Pylon body
    • 42 Carrying arm
    • 43 Foot of the pylon
    • 44 Foundation
    • 45 Rod
    • 50 Substructure
    • 51 Rod element
    • 52 Node element
    • 53 Foot of the substructure
    • 54 Mount (structure portion)
    • 55 Supporting strut
    • 56 Structure portion