Title:
Variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The present invention provides a variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine capable of adjusting the initiation timings and the injected amount of each injection process according to the change in the combusting pressure with the variable-coordinate-timing system.

The variable-coordination-timing system will regulate the air flow between each coordinate-channel and its associated power-cylinder to optimize the cooling effects, and the hot-combusting-medium in each power-cylinder will be mixed with a flow of compressed air at a controlled rate and pressure, which prevents the hot-combusting-medium from charging into the primary-coordinate-channel and the secondary-coordinate-channel, thereby sustaining the cooling effects of the self-cooling-16-process in continuous high power output operation.




Inventors:
Hu, Lung-tan (Aldergrove, CA)
Application Number:
12/459848
Publication Date:
11/12/2009
Filing Date:
07/09/2009
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
123/90.15
International Classes:
F02B75/02; F01L1/34
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
MCMAHON, MARGUERITE J
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Hu Lung-tan (Aldergrove, BC, CA)
Claims:
1. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft comprising: a) a primary-power-cylinder (110) and a secondary-power-cylinder (120) and a cooling-cylinder (130) and a variable-coordination-timing system operating in the 12-stroke-sequence and the self-cooling-16-process; b) said primary-power-cylinder (110) contains a primary-piston (111), said secondary-power-cylinder (120) contains a secondary-piston (121), said cooling-cylinder (130) contains a cooling-piston (131); said three cylinders are constructed with a cooling-phase between 45 degree and 150 degree; c) said primary-power-cylinder (110) includes air-intake means (112), exhaust means (118), ignition means (115), fuel supplying means; the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated said primary-piston (111) are the primary-intake-stroke, the primary-compression-stroke, the primary-power-stroke, the primary-exhaust-stroke; said four strokes associated with said primary-piston (111) will repeat in said primary-power-cylinder every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; d) said secondary-power-cylinder (120) includes air-intake means (122), exhaust means (128), ignition means (125), fuel-supplying means; the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated with said secondary-piston are the secondary-intake-stroke, the secondary-compression-stroke, the secondary-power-stroke, the secondary-exhaust-stroke; said four strokes associated with said secondary-piston (121) will repeat in said secondary-power-cylinder (120) every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; e) said cooling-cylinder (130) include air-intake means (132); the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated with said cooling-piston (131) are the first-recharge-stroke, the first-cooling-stroke, the second-recharge-stroke, and the second-cooling-stroke; said four strokes associated with said cooling-piston (131) will repeat in said-cooling-cylinder every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; f) said variable-coordination-timing system consists of a first-input-valve (161), a primary-coordinate-channel (160), a first-coordinate-valve (165), a second-input-valve (181), a second-coordinate-channel (180), a second-coordinate-valve (185), a variable-phase-camshaft (150) with an open-time between 5 degree and 90 degree, a coordination-phase-gear (151) for changing the relative phase between said variable-phase-camshaft (150) and said cooling-piston (131), an engine ECU for computing the actuation timings of the first-coordinate-valve (165) and the second-coordinate-valve (185); g) said variable-coordination-timing system will adjust the actuation timing of the first-coordinate-valve (165), so that the first-coordinate-valve (165) will only be actuated after the primary-coordinate-channel (160) has an air-pressure of at least 15 psi higher than the pressure of the primary-power-cylinder (110); said variable-coordination-timing system will also adjust the actuation timing of the second-coordinate-valve (185), so that the second-coordinate-valve (185) 14 will only be actuated after the secondary-coordinate-channel (180) has an air-pressure of at least 15 psi higher than the pressure of the secondary-power-cylinder (120); h) the 1st process of said self-cooling-16-process is the primary-intake-process, which is the process 18 that said air-intake means (112) supplies the air into said primary-power-cylinder (110); i) the 2nd process of said self-cooling-16-process is the first-recharge-process, which is the process that the air-intake means (132) supplies the air into the cooling-cylinder (130) during the first-recharge-stroke; j) the 3rd process of self-cooling-16-process is the primary-compression-process, which is the process that said primary-piston (111) compresses the air or the air-fuel mixture in said primary-power-cylinder (110); k) the 4th process of self-cooling-16-process is the first-cold-compression-process, which is the process that said cooling-piston (131) compresses the air into said primary-coordinate-channel (160) during the first-cooling-stroke; l) the 5th process of self-cooling-16-process is the primary-hot-expansion process, which is the process that the air-fuel mixture is ignited in said primary-power-cylinder (110) and said first-coordinate-valve (165) is still shut to build up the air-pressure of said primary-coordinate-channel (160); m) the 6th process of self-cooling-16-process is the first-injection-process, which is the process that the first-coordinate-valve (165) is opened by said variable-phase-camshaft (150) after the primary-coordinate-channel (160) has an air pressure at least 15 higher than the pressure of the primary-power-cylinder (110); during the first-injection-process, the compressed-air of said primary-coordinate-channel (160) will be injected into said primary-power-cylinder (110) to form a cold-expansion-medium; n) the 7th process of self-cooling-16-process is the primary-cold-expansion-process, which is the process that said cold-expansion-medium continues to expand inside said primary-power-cylinder (110) after said first-coordinate-valve (165) has shut; o) the 8th process of self-cooling-16-process is the primary-exhaust-process, which is the process that the primary-power-cylinder (110) expels said cold-expansion-medium with its associated exhaust means (118); p) the 9th process of self-cooling-16-process is the secondary-intake-process, which is the process that said air-intake means (122) supplies the air into said secondary-power-cylinder (120); q) the 10th process of self-cooling-16-process is the second-recharge-process, which is the process that said air-intake means (132) supplies the air into said cooling-cylinder (130) during the second-recharge-stroke; r) the 11th process of self-cooling-16-process is the secondary-compression-process, which is the process that said secondary-piston (121) compresses the air or the air-fuel mixture in said secondary-power-cylinder (120); s) the 12th process of self-cooling-16-process is the second-cold-compression-process, which is the process that said cooling-piston (131) compresses the air into the secondary-coordinate-channel (185) during the second-cooling-stroke; t) the 13th process of self-cooling-16-process is the secondary-hot-expansion-process, which is the process that the air-fuel mixture is ignited in said secondary-power-cylinder (120) and said second-coordinate-valve (185) is still shut to build up the air-pressure of the secondary-coordinate-channel (180); u) the 14th process of self-cooling-16-process is the second-injection-process, which is the process that the second-coordinate-valve (185) is opened by said variable-phase-camshaft (150) after the secondary-coordinate-channel (180) has an air pressure at least 15 higher than the pressure of the secondary-power-cylinder (120); during the second-injection-process, the compressed-air of said secondary-coordinate-channel (180) will be injected into said secondary-power-cylinder (120) to form a cold-expansion-medium; v) the 15th process of self-cooling-16-process is the secondary-cold-expansion-process, which is the process that said cold-expansion-medium continues to expand inside said secondary-power-cylinder (120) after the second-coordinate-valve (185) has shut; w) the 16th process of self-cooling-16-process is the secondary-exhaust-process, which is the process that said secondary-power-cylinder (120) expels said cold-expansion-medium with its associated exhaust means (128); x) the actuation timing of said first-coordinate-valve (165) can range between 15 degree after the TDC of said primary-piston and 10 degree before the TDC of said cooling-piston during the first-cooling-stroke; y) the actuation timing of said second-coordinate-valve (185) can range between 15 degree after the TDC of said secondary-piston and 10 degree before the TDC of said cooling-piston during the second-cooling-stroke; z) said variable-coordination-timing system will shift the initiation timing of each injection-process to prevent under-pressured injection and optimize the cooling effect of said self-cooling-16-process.

2. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft comprising: a) a primary-power-cylinder (110) and a secondary-power-cylinder (120) and a cooling-cylinder (130) operating in the 12-stroke-sequence and the self-cooling-16-process; said primary-power-cylinder (110) contains a reciprocating primary-piston (111), said secondary-power-cylinder (120) contains a reciprocating secondary-piston (121), said cooling-cylinder (130) contains a reciprocating cooling-piston (131); said three cylinders are constructed with a cooling-phase between 45 degree and 150 degree; b) the first 8 processes of said self-cooling-16-process are performed by said primary-power-cylinder (110) and said cooling-cylinder (130), which are the primary-intake-process, the first-recharge-process, the primary-compression-process, the first-cold-compression-process, the primary-hot-expansion-process, the first-injection-process, the primary-cold-expansion-process, the primary-exhaust-process; c) the next 8 processes of said self-cooling-16-process are performed by said secondary-power-cylinder (120) and said cooling-cylinder (130), which are the secondary-intake-process, the second-recharge-process, the secondary-compression, the second-cold-compression-process, the secondary-hot-expansion-process, the second-injection-process, the secondary-cold-expansion-process, the secondary-exhaust-process; d) the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated with said primary-piston (111) are the primary-intake-stroke, the primary-compression-stroke, the primary-power-stroke, the primary-exhaust-stroke; said four strokes associated with said primary-piston (111) will repeat in said primary-power-cylinder (110) every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; e) the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated with said secondary-piston (121) are the secondary-intake-stroke, the secondary-compression-stroke, the secondary-power-stroke, the secondary-exhaust-stroke; said four strokes associated with said secondary-piston (121) will repeat in said secondary-power-cylinder (120) every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; f) the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated with said cooling-piston (131) are the first-recharge-stroke, the first-cooling-stroke, the second-recharge-stroke, and the second-cooling-stroke; said four strokes associated with said cooling-piston (131) will repeat in said cooling-cylinder (130) every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; g) said primary-power-cylinder (110) includes air-intake means (112) for supplying air into said primary-power-cylinder (110) during the primary-intake-process; h) said primary-power-cylinder (110) includes ignition means (115) and fuel-supplying means for igniting the air-fuel mixture in said primary-power-cylinder (110) to initiate the primary-hot-expansion-process; i) said primary-power-cylinder (110) includes exhaust-means (118) for expelling the cold-expansion-medium out of said primary-power-cylinder (110) during the primary-exhaust-process; j) said secondary-power-cylinder (120) includes air-intake-means (122) for supplying air into said secondary-power-cylinder (120) during the secondary-intake-process; k) said secondary-power-cylinder (120) includes ignition means (125) and fuel-supplying means for igniting the air-fuel mixture in said secondary-power-cylinder (120) to initiate the secondary-hot-expansion-process; l) said secondary-power-cylinder (120) includes exhaust-means (128) for expelling the cold-expansion-medium out of said secondary-power-cylinder (120) during the secondary-exhaust-process; m) said cooling-cylinder (130) includes air-intake means (132) for supplying air into said cooling-cylinder (130) during the first-recharge-process and the second-recharge-process; n) a variable-coordination-timing system for controlling the initiation timings and the process durations of the first-injection-process and the second-injection-process; o) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a primary-coordinate-channel (160) and a secondary-coordinate-channel (180); p) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a first-input-valve (161) for admitting the compressed-air of said cooling-cylinder (130) into said primary-coordinate-channel (160) during the first-cold-compression-process and the first-injection-process; said first-input-valve (161) will shut during second-cold-compression-process and the second-injection-process; q) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a second-input-valve (181) for admitting the compressed-air of said cooling-cylinder (130) into said secondary-coordinate-channel (180) during the second-cold-compression-process and the second-injection-process; said second-input-valve (181) will be shut during the first-cold-compression-process and the first-injection-process; r) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a first-coordinate-valve (165) for blocking the air-passage from said primary-coordinate-channel (160) to said primary-power-cylinder 110 before the initiation of the first-injection-process; s) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a second-coordinate-valve (185) for blocking the air-passage from said secondary-coordinate-channel (180) to said secondary-power-cylinder (120) before the initiation of the second-injection-process; t) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a variable-phase-camshaft (150) coupled to a coordinate-phase-wheel (151), said coordinate-phase-wheel (151) will adjust the relative phase difference between said variable-phase-camshaft (150) and said cooling-piston (131) to shift the actuation timings of said first-coordinate-valve and said second-coordinate-valve, so that said first-coordinate-valve (165) will be opened to initiate the first-injection-process after the air-pressure of the primary-coordinate-channel (160) is at least 15 psi higher than the pressure of the primary-power-cylinder (110), and said second-coordinate-valve (185) will be opened to initiate the second-injection-process after the air-pressure of the secondary-coordinate-channel (180) is at least 15 psi higher than the pressure of the secondary-power-cylinder (120); u) said coordinate-phase-wheel (151) can have a maximum adjustable range of 90 degree, and said variable-phase-camshaft (150) can have an open-time from 5 degree to 90 degree for said first-coordinate-valve (165) and said second-coordinate-valve (185); u) the initiation timing of said first-injection-process can range between 15 degree after the TDC of said primary-piston and 10 degree before the TDC of said cooling-piston during the first-cooling-stroke; v) the initiation timing of said second-injection-process can range between 15 degree after the TDC of said secondary-piston and 10 degree before the TDC of said cooling-piston during the second-cooling-stroke.

3. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft as defined in claim 2, wherein said variable-coordination-timing system can utilize a pulley system to adjust the phase difference between said variable-phase-camshaft and said cooling-piston in order to shift the actuation timings of said first-coordinate-valve and said second-coordinate-valve.

4. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft as defined in claim 2; during the first-injection-process, the compressed-air of said primary-coordinate-channel and said cooling-cylinder is injected into said primary-power-cylinder at a controlled timing to form a cold-expansion-medium, therefore, relatively lesser compressed-air will be injected into the primary-power-cylinder at an earlier initiation timing in the lower engine output condition, while relatively more compressed-air will be injected into the primary-power-cylinder at a later initiation timing in the higher power output condition.

5. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft as defined in claim 2; during the second-injection-process, the compressed-air of the second-coordinate-channel and the cooling-cylinder is injected into said secondary-power-cylinder at a controlled timing to form a cold-expansion-medium, therefore, relatively lesser compressed-air will be injected into the secondary-power-cylinder at an earlier initiation timing in the lower engine output condition, while relatively more compressed-air will be injected into the secondary-power-cylinder at a later initiation timing in the higher power output condition.

6. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft as defined in claim 2, wherein, said ignition means of the primary-power-cylinder and the secondary-power-cylinder are spark-plugs; the fuel will be injected into the primary-power-cylinder during the primary-compression-stroke with a high-pressure fuel injector, and a spark-plug will ignite the air-fuel mixture in the primary-power-cylinder between 35 degree before the TDC of the primary-piston and 40 degree after the TDC position of the primary-piston to initiate the primary-hot-expansion-process; the fuel will be injected into the secondary-power-cylinder during the secondary-compression-stroke with a high-pressure fuel injector with a high-pressure fuel injector, and a spark-plug will ignite the air-fuel mixture in the secondary-power-cylinder between 35 degree before the TDC of the secondary-piston and 40 degree after the TDC of the secondary-piston to initiate the secondary-hot-expansion-process.

7. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft as defined in claim 2, wherein, said three cylinders can operate in the asymmetrical 12-stroke-sequence to reduce the resonance vibration, and the dual-phase-difference can be between 315 degree and 405 degree.

8. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft as defined in claim 2, wherein said fuel-supplying can be a carburetor or a direct-injection or a converter; the fuel will be supplied into the primary-power-cylinder during the primary-intake-process, and the fuel will be supplied into the secondary-power-cylinder during the secondary-intake-process.

9. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft as defined in claim 2, wherein said fuel-supplying means and said ignition means can be a diesel-fuel-injector or a fuel-pump, the primary-power-cylinder will be supplied with air during the primary-intake-process, and the fuel will be injected into the primary-power-cylinder between 35 degree before the TDC of the primary-piston and 40 degree after the TDC of the primary-piston to initiate the primary-hot-expansion-process; the secondary-power-cylinder will be supplied with air during the primary-intake-process, and the fuel will be injected into the secondary-power-cylinder between 35 degree before the TDC position of the secondary-piston and 40 degree after the TDC position of the secondary-piston to initiate the secondary-hot-expansion-process.

10. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-phase-camshaft as defined in claim 2, wherein said primary-power-cylinder and said-secondary-power-cylinder and said cooling-cylinder can be constructed in the double-crankshaft configuration.

11. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft comprising: a) a primary-power-cylinder (210) and a secondary-power-cylinder (220) and a cooling-cylinder (230) operating in the 12-stroke-sequence and the self-cooling-16-process; said primary-power-cylinder (210) contains a reciprocating primary-piston (211), said secondary-power-cylinder (220) contains a reciprocating secondary-piston (221), said cooling-cylinder (230) contains a reciprocating cooling-piston (231); said three cylinders are constructed with a cooling-phase between 45 degree and 150 degree; b) the first 8 processes of said self-cooling-16-process are performed by said primary-power-cylinder (210) and said cooling-cylinder (230), which are the primary-intake-process, the first-recharge-process, the primary-compression-process, the first-cold-compression-process, the primary-hot-expansion-process, the first-injection-process, the primary-cold-expansion-process, the primary-exhaust-process; c) the next 8 processes of said self-cooling-16-process are performed by said secondary-power-cylinder (220) and said cooling-cylinder (230), which are the secondary-intake-process, the second-recharge-process, the secondary-compression, the second-cold-compression-process, the secondary-hot-expansion-process, the second-injection-process, the secondary-cold-expansion-process, the secondary-exhaust-process; d) the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated with said primary-piston (211) are the primary-intake-stroke, the primary-compression-stroke, the primary-power-stroke, the primary-exhaust-stroke; said four strokes associated with said primary-piston (211) will repeat in said primary-power-cylinder (210) every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; e) the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated with said secondary-piston are the secondary-intake-stroke, the secondary-compression-stroke, the secondary-power-stroke, the secondary-exhaust-stroke; said four strokes associated with said secondary-piston (221) will repeat in said secondary-power-cylinder (220) every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; f) the four strokes of said 12-stroke-sequence associated with said cooling-piston (231) are the first-recharge-stroke, the first-cooling-stroke, the second-recharge-stroke, and the second-cooling-stroke; said four strokes associated with said cooling-piston (231) will repeat in said cooling-cylinder (230) every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; g) a variable-coordination-timing system for controlling the initiation timings and the process durations of the first-injection-process and the second-injection-process; h) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a primary-coordinate-channel (260) and a secondary-coordinate-channel (280); i) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a first-input-valve (261) and a second-input-valve (281) for distributing the compressed-air of said cooling-cylinder (230) during the first-cooling-stroke and the second-cooling-stroke; the compressed-air of said cooling-cylinder (230) will be directed into said primary-coordinate-channel (210) during the first-cooling-stroke with said first-input-valve (261), whereas the compress-air of said cooling-cylinder (230) will be directed into said secondary-coordinate-channel (280) during the second-cooling-stroke with said second-input-valve (281) during the second-cooling-stroke; j) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a first-coordinate-valve (265) for blocking the air-passage from said primary-coordinate-channel (260) to said primary-power-cylinder (210) before the initiation of the first-injection-process; k) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a second-coordinate-valve (285) for blocking the air-passage from said secondary-coordinate-channel (280) to said secondary-power-cylinder (220) before the initiation of the second-injection-process; l) said variable-coordination-timing system includes a variable-profile-camshaft (250) and a profile shifter (251) controlled by said engine ECU, said profile shifter (251) will shift the profiles of said variable-profile-camshaft (250) in contact with said first-coordinate-valve (265) and said second-coordinate-valve (285), thereby adjusting the actuation timings of said first-coordinate-valve (265) and said second-coordinate-valve (285), so that said first-coordinate-valve (265) will only be actuated after said primary-coordinate-channel (260) has an air-pressure 15 psi higher than the pressure of said primary-power-cylinder (210), and said second-coordinate-valve (285) will only be actuated after said secondary-coordinate-channel (280) has an air-pressure 15 psi higher than the pressure of said secondary-power-cylinder (220); m) said variable-profile-camshaft (250) can have profiles with the open-time varying from 5 degree and 90 degree; n) the initiation timing of said first-injection-process can range between 15 degree after the TDC of said primary-piston (211) and 10 degree before the TDC of said cooling-piston (231) during the first-cooling-stroke; o) the initiation timing of said second-injection-process can range between 15 degree after the TDC of said secondary-piston (221) and 10 degree before the TDC of said cooling-piston (231) during the second-cooling-stroke.

12. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein said engine ECU will control the initiation timing of each injection-process in order to prevent the hot-combusting-medium in said primary-power-cylinder or said secondary-power-cylinder to charge back into its associated coordinate-channel due to the under-pressured injection.

13. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein said engine ECU will be input with the information of the air-fuel ratio and the engine load condition to compute the pressure condition in the primary-coordinate-channel and the secondary-coordinate-channel prior to their associated injection-process, thereby utilizing said pressure condition to adjust the actuation timings of the first-coordinate-valve and the second-coordinate-valve.

14. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein said variable-profile-camshaft is actuated with hydraulic mechanisms or mechanical mechanisms to shift in the direction of the axle of said variable-profile-camshaft.

15. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein said variable-profile-camshaft will actuate each coordinate-valve with a relatively early initiation timing and longer open-time in the low power output condition; whereas said variable-profile-camshaft will actuate each coordinate-valve with a relatively late initiation timing and shorter open-time in the high power output condition.

16. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein said variable-coordination-timing system can also be employed with a movable rocker arm and a variable-profile-camshaft in the overhead-valve configuration, said movable rocket arm will shift its contacting surface on the profiles of said variable-profile-camshaft, thereby changing the open-times and the actuation timings of said first-coordinate-valve and said second-coordinate-valve.

17. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein said fuel-supplying can be a carburetor or a direct-injection or a converter; the fuel will be supplied into the primary-power-cylinder during the primary-intake-process, and the fuel will be supplied into the secondary-power-cylinder during the secondary-intake-process.

18. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein said fuel-supplying means and said ignition means can be a diesel-fuel-injector or a fuel-pump, the primary-power-cylinder will be supplied with air during the primary-intake-process, and the fuel will be injected into the primary-power-cylinder between 35 degree before the TDC of the primary-piston and 40 degree after the TDC of the primary-piston to initiate the primary-hot-expansion-process; the secondary-power-cylinder will be supplied with air during the primary-intake-process, and the fuel will be injected into the secondary-power-cylinder between 35 degree before the TDC of the secondary-piston and 40 degree after the TDC of the secondary-piston to initiate the secondary-hot-expansion-process.

19. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein, said three cylinders can be constructed in an asymmetrical 12-stroke-sequence to reduce the resonance vibration, and the dual-phase-difference can be between 315 degree and 405 degree.

20. A variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine with variable-profile-camshaft as defined in claim 11, wherein said primary-power-cylinder and said-secondary-power-cylinder and said cooling-cylinder can be constructed in the double-crankshaft configuration; said primary-power-cylinder and said secondary-power-cylinder are connected to a main-crankshaft, and said cooling-cylinder is connected to a cooling-crankshaft, and said cooling-crankshaft is coupled and synchronized with said main-crankshaft with gears or chains to rotate at the same speed.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a continuing application and a further developed configuration of the dual six-stroke self-cooling internal combustion engine; and more particularly the present invention relates to an advanced coordination control method and apparatus for enhancing the self-cooling internal combustion engine.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is a continuing application of the dual six-stroke self-cooing internal combustion engine, which was previously filed as U.S. Pat. No. 7,143,725, and the engine of this type can also be abbreviated as the self-cooling engine.

During the experiments of the original dual-six-stroke self-cooling internal combustion engine, it is found that the coordination control of the cooling cylinder to the primary-power-cylinder and the secondary-power-cylinder should be further improved to regulate the flows of the compressed-air and the hot-combusting-medium when each of their associated coordinate valve opens; improper coordination controls will cause the hot-combusting-medium to charge into each coordinating channel during each injection process, and also raise the surface temperature of the primary-coordinate-channel and the secondary-coordinate-channel, which will eventually result in the deforming of the primary-coordinate-channel and the secondary-coordinate-channel due to overheating in continuous high power output operation.

In order to prevent the turbulence from reducing the cooling effect of the self-cooling-16-process and increasing the durability of the primary-coordinate-channel and the secondary-coordinate-channel in continuous high power output operation, the present invention provides an improved coordination control, which control the actuation timing of each coordinate valve according to the pressure difference between the hot-combusting-medium and the compressed-air computed with the engine ECU.

Another problem of the original dual six-stroke self-cooling internal combustion engine is that, in the extremely low power output condition, the amount of the compressed-air injected from the cooling-cylinder should also be reduced and regulated according to the amount of the air-fuel mixture ignited in each power-cylinder to prevent the engine from ignition failure due to the excess cold air remained in each power-cylinder after each exhaust process, therefore this is one of the objective of present invention to adjust the amount of the compressed-air according to the engine load condition in order to keep the self-cooling engine within the optimal operational temperature.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is the main objective of the present invention to provide a variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine that can adjust the duration of each injection process to improve the durability and engine performance.

It is the second objective of the present invention to provide a variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine that can regulate the air flows and prevent the hot-combusting-medium from charging into each coordinate-channel during the first-injection-process and the second-injection-process, thereby ensuring an adequate amount of the compressed air is injected each power-cylinder during its associated injection-process.

It is the third objective of the present invention to provide a variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine that can improve the overall energy efficiency for a wide range of engine rpm and engine load.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1A shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 10 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the primary-intake-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1B shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 110 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the first-recharge-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1C shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 190 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the primary-compression-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1D shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 280 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the first-cold-compression-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1E shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 365 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the primary-hot-expansion-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1F shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 410 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the first-injection-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1G shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 435 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the primary-cold-expansion-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1H shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 550 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the primary-exhaust-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1I shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 370 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the secondary-intake-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1J shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 470 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the second-recharge-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1K shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 550 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the secondary-compression-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1L shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 640 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the second-cold-expansion-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1M shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 725 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the secondary-hot-expansion-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1N shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 770 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the second-injection-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1O shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 795 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the secondary-cold-expansion-process in the medium power output condition.

FIG. 1P shows the valve condition of the first embodiment at 910 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the self-cooling engine is performing the secondary-exhaust-process in the medium power output condition.

Sequence Table.1L shows the self-cooling-16-process with variable-phase-camshaft in the low power output condition.

Sequence Table.1M shows the self-cooling-16-process with variable-phase-camshaft in the medium power output condition.

Sequence Table.1H shows the self-cooling-16-process with variable-phase-camshaft in the high power output condition.

FIG. 2L shows the valve condition of the second embodiment at 390 degree of crankshaft reference angle in the low power output condition, wherein the first-coordinate-valve is starting to open to initiate the first-injection-process.

FIG. 2M shows the valve condition of the second embodiment at 405 degree of crankshaft reference angle in the medium power output condition, wherein the first-coordinate-valve is starting to open to initiate the first-injection-process.

FIG. 2H shows the valve condition of the second embodiment at 420 degree of crankshaft reference angle in the high power output condition, wherein the first-coordinate-valve is starting to open to initiate the first-injection-process.

Sequence Table.2L shows the self-cooling-16-process with variable-profile-camshaft in the low power output condition.

Sequence Table.2M shows the self-cooling-16-process with variable-profile-camshaft in the medium power output condition.

Sequence Table.2H shows the self-cooling-16-process with variable-profile-camshaft in the high power output condition.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine is a further improved internal combustion engine developed from the dual six-stroke self-cooling internal combustion engine; however, the operation of the self-cooling-engine will be more specifically defined with the 12-stroke-sequence and the self-cooling-16-process throughout the present invention; it should be noted that some of the components in the present invention are similar to the that of original dual six-stroke self-cooling internal combustion engine, but these components might be referred to with a more appropriate name suited for their functionalities.

Referring to FIG. 1A for the first embodiment, the structure of the variable-coordination-timing type self-cooling engine comprises at least one set of a primary-power-cylinder 110 and a secondary-power-cylinder 120 and a cooling-cylinder 130 and a variable-coordination-timing system; said one set of three cylinders will co-act in the 12-stroke sequence to perform the self-cooling-16-process to generate power to the output shaft 199.

The primary-power-cylinder 110 includes a primary-piston 111, the secondary-power-cylinder 120 includes a secondary-piston 121, the cooling-cylinder 130 includes a cooling-piston 131, and said three pistons can be coupled in the single crankshaft configuration or the double crankshaft configuration with synchronizing-gears (for driving each piston at same rotational speed). In the first embodiment, said primary-piston and said secondary-piston and said cooling-piston are connected to a main-crankshaft 100 as the single crankshaft configuration; the connecting joints between each said piston and the main-crankshaft 100 are shown in the side view for better comprehension of the piston phase of each piston.

The primary-power-cylinder 110 includes air-intake means (a primary-intake-valve 112) and exhaust-means (a primary-exhaust-valve 118) and fuel-supplying means and ignition means (115).

The secondary-power-cylinder 120 includes air-intake means (a secondary-intake-valve 122) and exhaust-means (a secondary-exhaust-valve 128) and fuel-supplying means and ignition means (115).

The cooling-cylinder includes air-intake means (a cooling-intake-valve 132).

The variable-coordination-timing system includes a primary-coordinate-channel 160, a secondary-coordinate-channel 180, a first-input-valve 161, a second-input-valve 181, a first-coordinate-valve 165, a second-coordinate-valve 185, a coordinate-phase-wheel 151, a variable-phase-camshaft 150, an engine ECU for calculating and determining the initiation timings of the first-injection-process and the second-injection-process according to the changes in the combusting pressure of the primary-power-cylinder 110 and the secondary-power-cylinder 120.

The variable-phase-camshaft 150 is coupled to the coordinate-phase-wheel 151, and said coordinate-phase-wheel 151 will control the relative phase difference between the main-crankshaft 100 and the variable-phase-camshaft 150.

The coordinate-phase-wheel 151 will be instructed by the engine ECU to shift the initiation timings of the first-injection-process and the second-injection-process in order to prevent the under-pressured injection (the under-pressured injection refers to the condition that a coordinate-channel is opened before an enough pressure difference is attained between that coordinate-channel and its associated power-cylinder to perform the injection-process).

The engine ECU will compute the engine condition and adjust the phase of the coordinate-phase-wheel 151 to generate a pressure difference of at least 15 psi between each coordinate-channel and its associated power-cylinder prior to the initiation of its associated injection-process; in plain words, the variable-coordinate-timing system will shift the coordinate-phase-wheel at an angle that will produced the following results, the air-pressure of the primary-coordinate-channel 160 will be at least 15 psi higher than the pressure of the hot-combusting-medium in the primary-power-cylinder 110 before the first-injection-process is started, and the air-pressure of the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 will be at least 15 psi higher than the pressure of the hot-combusting-medium in the secondary-power-cylinder 120 before the second-injection-process is started.

The primary-coordinate-channel 160 is an air-passage connecting between the top section of the cooling-cylinder 130 and the primary-power-cylinder 110, wherein the end of the primary-coordinate-channel 160 on the side of the cooling-cylinder 130 is the first-input-port, the end of the primary-coordinate-channel 160 on the side of the primary-cylinder 110 is the first-output-port.

The secondary-coordinate-channel 180 is an air-passage connecting between the top section of the cooling-cylinder 130 and the secondary-coordinate-channel 180, wherein the end of the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 on the side of the cooling-cylinder 130 is the second-input-port, the end of the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 on the side of the secondary-power-cylinder 120 is the second-output-port.

During the first-cooling-stroke of the 12-stroke-sequence, the first-input-port is open with the first-input-valve 161, and the second-input-port is shut with the second-input-valve 181, so that the air of the cooling-cylinder 130 will be pushed into the primary-coordinate-channel 160 through the first-input-port.

During the second-cooling-stroke of the 12-stroke-sequence, the first-input-port is shut with the first-input-valve 161, and the second-input-port is open with the second-input-valve 181, so that the air of the cooling-cylinder 130 will be pushed into the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 through the second-input-port.

In other words, the air recharged into the cooling cylinder 130 during the first-recharge-stroke will be pushed into the primary-coordinate-channel 160 during the first-cold-compression-process and the first-injection-process, whereas the air recharged into the cooling cylinder 130 during the second-recharge-stroke will be pushed into the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 during the second-cold-compression-process.

The first-coordinate-valve 165 will control the air-passage between the primary-coordinate-channel 160 and the primary-power-cylinder 110; during the first-cold-compression-process, the first-coordinate-valve 165 will remain shut to build up the air-pressure in the primary-coordinate-channel 160; the variable-coordinate-timing system will compute the engine conditions and adjust the actuation time of the first-coordinate-valve 165 to a crankshaft reference angle at which the air-pressure of the primary-coordinate-channel is at least 15 psi higher than the pressure in the primary-power-cylinder 110; once the first-coordinate-valve 165 is open to initiate the first-injection-process, the compressed-air of the primary-coordinate-channel 160 will be injected through the first-output-port to mix with the hot-combusting-medium in the primary-power-cylinder 110; the hot-combusting medium in the primary-power-cylinder 110 will be mixed with the compressed-air to form a cold-expansion-medium, thereby generating power with said cold-expansion-medium at a low temperature and high expansion pressure during the primary-cold-expansion-process.

The second-coordinate-valve 185 will control the air-passage between the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 and the secondary-power-cylinder 120; during the second-cold-compression-process, the second-coordinate-valve 185 will remain shut to build up the air-pressure in the secondary-coordinate-channel 180; the variable-coordinate-timing system will compute the engine conditions and adjust the actuation time of the second-coordinate-valve 185 to a crankshaft reference angle at which the air-pressure of the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 is at least 15 psi higher than the pressure in the secondary-power-cylinder 120; once the second-coordinate-valve 185 is open to initiate the second-injection-process, the compressed-air of the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 will be injected through the second-output-port to mix with the hot-combusting-medium in the secondary-power-cylinder 120; the hot-combusting-medium in the secondary-power-cylinder 120 will be mixed with the compressed-air to form a cold-expansion-medium, thereby generating power with said cold-expansion-medium at a low temperature and high expansion pressure during the secondary-cold-expansion-process.

The actuation timing refers to the crankshaft reference angle at which the first-coordinate-valve/the second-coordinate-valve starts to open. The open-time refers to the opening duration of the first-coordinate-valve/the second-coordinate-valve; in the present invention, the actuation timing of the first-coordinate-valve is equivalent to the initiation timing of the first-injection-process, whereas the actuation timing of the second-coordinate-valve is equivalent to the initiation timing of the second-injection-process.

The actuation timings of the first-coordinate-valve and the second-coordinate-valve will be controlled by said variable-coordinate-timing system and said engine ECU, and said variable-coordinate-timing system can be employed with a variable-phase-camshaft and a coordinate-phase-wheel as in the first embodiment for the cost consideration, or said variable-coordinate-timing system can also be employed with a variable-profile-camshaft and a profile-shifter as in the second embodiment shown in FIG. 2M.

The actuation timing of the first-coordinate-valve (which is also equal to the initiation timing of the first-injection-process) can range from 15 degree after the TDC of the primary-piston to 10 degree before the TDC of the cooling-piston during the first-cooling-stroke; in the symmetrical 12-stroke-sequence with a cooling-phase of 90 degree as shown in Sequence Table.1, the actuation timings of the first-coordinate-valve will be in the range between 375 degree to 440 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

The actuation timing of the second-coordinate-valve (which is also equal to the initiation timing of the second-injection-process) can range from 15 degree after the TDC of the secondary-piston to 10 degree before the TDC of the cooling-piston during the second-cooling-stroke; in the symmetrical 12-stroke-sequence with a cooling-phase of 90 degree as shown in Sequence Table.1, the actuation timings of the second-coordinate-valve will be in the range between 735 degree to 800 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

The 12-stroke-sequence of the self-cooling engine contains an operation cycle of the self-cooling-16-process, and said 12-stroke-sequence can also be configured in the symmetrical 12-stroke-sequence (at the dual-phase-difference of 360 degree) and the asymmetrical 12-stroke-sequence (at a dual-phase-difference between 315 degree and 405 degree, excluding 360 degree).

The dual-phase-difference will refer to the difference in the piston position between the primary-piston and the secondary-piston, and the dual-phase-difference can be constructed in the range from 315 degree to 405 degree within the operational range of the self-cooling-16-process.

The symmetrical 12-stroke-sequence has the dual-phase-difference of 360 degree, therefore, the primary-piston will be at the TDC of the primary-intake-stroke while the secondary-piston will be at the TDC of the secondary-power-stroke, and in other words, the primary-piston and the secondary-piston have a relative phase difference of 360 degree.

The asymmetrical 12-stroke-sequence is an alternative structure for reducing the vibration resonance and is more preferable for vehicle use or other mobile transportation applications; the asymmetrical 12-stroke-sequence can be constructed with a dual-phase-difference ranging from 315 degree to 405 degree, excluding 360 degree; for example of an asymmetrical 12-stroke-sequence with a dual-phase-difference of 390 degree, the primary-piston starts the primary-intake-stroke at 0 degree of crankshaft reference angle while the secondary-piston starts the secondary-intake-stroke at 390 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

The cooling-phase will refer to the difference in the piston position between the primary-piston and the cooling-piston or the difference in the piston position between the secondary-piston and the cooling-piston; the cooling-phase can be constructed in the range from 45 degree to 150 degree.

With the reference to any of the sequence tables in the present invention, the detailed concept of the 12-stroke-sequence is defined as follows:

The four strokes associated with the primary-power-cylinder are the primary-intake-stroke, the primary-compression-stroke, the primary-power-stroke, the primary-exhaust-stroke; said associated four strokes of the primary-power-cylinder will repeat every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; said primary-intake-stroke is the down-stroke of the primary-piston for supplying the air or the air-fuel mixture (depending on the ignition method) into the primary-power-cylinder; said primary-compression-stroke is the up-stroke of the primary-piston for compressing the air or the air-fuel mixture in the primary-power-cylinder, said primary-power-stroke is the down-stroke of the primary-piston for generating power to the crankshaft; said primary-exhaust-stroke is the up-stroke of the primary-piston for expelling the cold-expansion-medium out of the primary-power-cylinder.

The four strokes associated with the secondary-power-cylinder are the secondary-intake-stroke, the secondary-compression-stroke, the secondary-power-stroke, the secondary-exhaust-stroke; said associated four strokes of the secondary-power-cylinder will repeat every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; said secondary-intake-stroke is the down-stroke of the secondary-piston for supplying the air or the air-fuel mixture into the secondary-power-cylinder; said secondary-compression-stroke is the up-stroke of the secondary-piston for compressing the air or the air-fuel mixture in the secondary-power-cylinder (depending on the ignition method); said secondary-power-stroke is the down-stroke of the secondary-piston for generating power to the crankshaft; said secondary-exhaust-stroke is the up-stroke of the secondary-piston for expelling the cold-expansion-medium out of the secondary-power-cylinder.

The four strokes associated with the cooling-cylinder are the first-recharge-stroke, the first-cooling-stroke, the second-recharge-stroke, the second-cooling-stroke; said four strokes of the cooling-cylinder will repeat every 720 degree of crankshaft rotation; said first-recharge-stroke is the down-stroke of the cooling-piston for recharging air into the cooling cylinder, said first-cooling-stroke is the up-stroke of the cooling-piston for compressing the air into the primary-coordinate-channel, said second-charging-stroke is another down-stroke of the cooling-piston for recharging air into the cooling-cylinder, said second-cooling-stroke is the up-stroke of the cooling-piston for compressing the air into the secondary-coordinate-channel.

The first 8 processes of the self-cooling-16-process are performed with the primary-power-cylinder and the cooling-cylinder, and their definitions are provided as follow:

The 1st process is the primary-intake-process, which is the process that the air-intake means supplies the air into the primary-power-cylinder.

The 2nd process is the first-recharge-process, which is the process that the air-intake means supplies the air into the cooling-cylinder.

The 3rd process is the primary-compression-process, which is the process that the primary-piston compresses the air or the air-fuel mixture in the primary-power-cylinder.

The 4th process is the first-cold-compression-process, which is the process that the cooling-piston compresses the air into the primary-coordinate-channel through the first-input-port; during this process, the first-input-valve is open and the second-input-valve is shut.

The 5th process is the primary-hot-expansion process, which is the process that the air-fuel mixture is combusting in the primary-power-cylinder as the hot-combusting-medium, and the first-coordinate-valve is still shut to build up the air-pressure in the primary-coordinate-channel.

The 6th process is the first-injection-process, which is the process that the first-coordinate-valve is opened with the variable-coordination-timing system to inject the compressed-air of the primary-coordinate-channel into the primary-power-cylinder; at the initiation of this first-injection-process, the air-pressure of the primary-coordinate-channel requires to be at least 15 psi higher than the pressure of the hot-combusting-medium of the primary-power-cylinder; during this process, said hot-combusting-medium will be mixed with said compressed-air to form a cold-expansion-medium in the primary-power-cylinder.

The 7th process is the primary-cold-expansion-process, which is the process that the cold-expansion-medium continues to expand inside the primary-power-cylinder after the first-coordinate-valve has shut the first-output-port.

The 8th process is the primary-exhaust-process, which is the process that the primary-piston expels the cold-expansion-medium out of the primary-power-cylinder with its associated exhaust means.

The next 8 processes of the self-cooling-16-process are performed with the secondary-power-cylinder and the cooling-cylinder, and their definitions are provided as follow:

The 9th process is the secondary-intake-process, which is the process that the air-intake means supplies the air into the secondary-power-cylinder.

The 10th process is the second-recharge-process, which is the process that the air-intake means supplies the air into the cooling-cylinder.

The 11th process is the secondary-compression-process, which is the process that the secondary-piston compresses the air or the air-fuel mixture in the secondary-power-cylinder.

The 12th process is the second-cold-compression-process which is the process that the cooling-piston compresses the air into the secondary-coordinate-channel through the second-input-port; during this process, the first-input-valve is shut and the second-input-valve is open.

The 13th process is the secondary-hot-expansion-process, which is the process that the air-fuel mixture is combusting in the secondary-power-cylinder and the second-coordinate-valve is still shut to build up the air-pressure in the secondary-coordinate-channel.

The 14th process is the second-injection-process, which is the process that the second-coordinate-valve is opened with the variable-coordination-timing system to inject the compressed-air of the secondary-coordinate-channel into the secondary-power-cylinder; at the initiation of this second-injection-process, the air-pressure of the secondary-coordinate-channel requires to be at least 15 psi higher than the pressure of the hot-combusting-medium of the secondary-power-cylinder; during this process, said hot-combusting-medium will be mixed with said compressed-air to form a cold-expansion-medium in the secondary-power-cylinder.

The 15th process is the secondary-cold-expansion-process, which is the process that the cold-expansion-medium continues to expand inside the secondary-power-cylinder after the second-coordinate-valve has shut the second-output-port.

The 16th process is the secondary-exhaust-process, which is the process that the secondary-piston expels the cold-expansion-medium out of the secondary-power-cylinder with its associated exhaust means.

The fuel supplying means and the ignition means are equipped in the primary-power-cylinder and the secondary-power-cylinder, and the fuel-supplying means can be a high-pressure fuel injector or direct injector or converter (generally for LPG) or carburetor or fuel-pump or any other currently known fuel-supplying means; the ignition means can be a spark plug or a direct-injection or a high pressure fuel injector depending on the fuel type.

The primary-power-cylinder will be ignited between 35 degree before the TDC of the primary-piston and 40 degree after the TDC of the primary-piston during the first-cooling-stroke; the primary-power-cylinder will be ignited to commence the primary-hot-expansion-process for at least 10 degree of crankshaft rotation.

The secondary-power-cylinder will be ignited between 35 degree before the TDC of the secondary-piston and 40 degree after the TDC of the secondary-piston during the second-cooling-stroke; the secondary-power-cylinder will be ignited to commence the secondary-hot-expansion-process for at least 10 degree of crankshaft rotation.

The initiation timing of each injection-process can range from 15 degree after the TDC of the primary-piston/secondary-piston to 10 degree before the TDC of the cooling-piston during each associated cooling-stroke.

The earliest possible initiation timing of each injection-process will also be corrected according to the ignition timing of the primary-power-cylinder and the secondary-power-cylinder; for example, assuming the condition that the primary-power-cylinder is ignited at 375 degree of crankshaft reference angle, the earliest possible initiation timing (actuation timing of the first-coordinate-valve) is then corrected to 385 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

Next, the first embodiment will be explained in further details with the crankshaft-reference angle and the drawing of FIG. 1A to FIG. 1P; for the ease of comprehension, the first embodiment is configured in the simplest form with the cooling-phase of 90 degree and the dual-phase-difference of 360 degree (symmetrical 12-stroke-sequence) and a fixed open-time of 30 degree for each injection process.

In this first embodiment, the variable-phase-camshaft 150 will shift a fixed open-time of 30 degree between 375 degree and 450 degree of crankshaft reference angle according to the actuation timing of the first-coordinate-valve 165 determined by the engine ECU; the variable-phase-camshaft 150 will shift a fixed open-time of 30 degree between 735 degree and 810 degree of crankshaft reference angle according to the actuation timing of the second-coordinate-valve 185 determined by the engine ECU.

Sequence Table.1M demonstrates the self-cooling-16-process of the first embodiment operating in the medium power output condition with the variable-coordination-timing system, assuming that the air-pressure of the each coordinate-channel (the primary-coordinate-channel 160 and the secondary-coordinate-channel 180) will raise to 15 psi higher than the pressure of the its associated power-cylinder at 45 degree after the TDC of its associated piston (primary-piston 111 and secondary-piston 121), so the engine ECU instructs the variable-phase-camshaft 150 to actuate the first-coordinate-valve 165 at 405 degree of crankshaft reference angle and the second-coordinate-valve 185 at 765 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

Sequence Table.1H will demonstrate the possible shifts in the self-cooling-16-process of the first embodiment after the engine load increases to high power output; as the overall combusting pressure in the each power-cylinder increases in the high power output condition, assuming that the air-pressure of the primary-coordinate-channel 160 will raise to 15 psi higher than the pressure of the primary-power-cylinder 110 at 420 degree of crankshaft reference angle, and the air-pressure of the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 can raise to 15 psi higher than the pressure of the secondary-power-cylinder 120 at 780 degree of crankshaft reference angle, so the engine ECU will instruct the variable-phase-camshaft 150 with the coordinate-phase-wheel 151 to actuate the first-coordinate-valve 165 at 420 degree of crankshaft reference angle and the second-coordinate-valve 185 at 780 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

Sequence Table.1L demonstrates the possible shifts of the self-cooling-16-process of the first embodiment in the extremely low power output condition; as the overall combusting pressure in each power-cylinder decreases, assuming that the required pressure conditions are met at 390 degree for the primary-coordinate-channel 160 and 750 degree for the secondary-coordinate-channel 180, so the engine ECU instruct the variable-phase-camshaft 150 to actuate the first-coordinate-vale 165 at 390 degree of crankshaft reference angle and the second-coordinate-valve 185 at 750 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

Now referring to Sequence Table.1M and FIG. 1A to FIG. 1P for the detailed valve conditions in the medium power output condition:

As shown in FIG. 1A is the beginning of the primary-intake-process (1st process), the primary-intake-valve 112 is open to supply air into the primary-power-cylinder 110, wherein the primary-piston 111 is moving toward its BDC, this process duration is from 0 degree to 180 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1A shows the valve condition at 10 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1B is the beginning of the first-recharge-process (2nd process), the cooling-intake-valve 132 is open to supply air into the cooling-cylinder 130, wherein the cooling-piston 131 is moving toward its BDC, this process duration is from 90 degree to 270 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1B shows the valve condition at 110 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1C is the beginning of the primary-compression-process (3rd process), the primary-intake-valve 112 is shut and the primary-piston 111 is moving toward its TDC to compress the air in the primary-power-cylinder 110, this process duration is from 180 degree to 360 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1C shows the valve condition at 190 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

During either the primary-intake-process or the primary-compression-process, the fuel will be supplied into the primary-power-cylinder 110 with its fuel-supplying means. The primary-power-cylinder 110 will be ignited with the air and the fuel therein between 35 degree prior to TDC of the primary-piston and 40 degree after TDC of the primary-piston, the ignition timing can be assumed as 360 degree of crankshaft reference angle in Sequence Table.1M.

As shown in FIG. 1D is the beginning of the first-cold-compression-process (4th process), the first-input-valve 161 will be opened while the second-input-valve 181 will be shut, so the cooling-piston 131 will compress the air into the primary-coordinate-channel 160 through the first-input-port during the first-cold-compression-process, this process duration is from 270 degree to 405 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1D shows the valve condition at 280 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1E is the beginning of the primary-hot-expansion-process (5th process), the air and the fuel are ignited in the primary-power-cylinder 110 to generate power to the main-crankshaft 100; during the primary-hot-expansion-process, the primary-coordinate-channel 160 will continue to increase the air-pressure therein until the initiation of the first-injection-process; the engine ECU will adjust the coordinate-phase-wheel 151 to actuate the first-coordinate-valve 161 at 405 degree as shown in Sequence Table.1M; this duration process is from 360 degree to 405 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1E shows the valve condition at 365 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1F is the beginning of the first-injection-process (6th process), the first-coordinate-valve 165 is actuated to open for a duration of 30 degree of crankshaft rotation; the first-coordinate-valve 165 will be open from 405 degree to 435 degree to inject the compressed-air of the primary-coordinate-channel 160 as shown in Sequence Table.1M, and a small portion of the compressed-air will remain in the primary-coordinate-channel 160 when the first-coordinate-valve 165 closes; this process duration is form 405 degree to 435 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1F shows the valve condition at 410 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1G is the beginning of the primary-cold-expansion-process (7th process), the primary-piston 111 continues to move toward its BDC after the cold-expansion-medium has formed in the primary-power-cylinder 110, and the cold-expansion-medium continues to expand and push the primary-piston 111, this process duration is from 435 degree to 540 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1G shows the valve condition at 435 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1H is the beginning of the primary-exhaust-process (8th process), the primary-exhaust-valve 118 is open to expel the cold-expansion-medium as the primary-piston 111 moves toward its TDC, this process duration is from 540 degree to 720 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1H shows the valve condition at 550 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1I is the beginning of the secondary-intake-process (9th process), the secondary-intake-valve 128 is open to supply air into the secondary-power-cylinder 120, wherein the secondary-piston 121 is moving toward its BDC, this process duration is from 360 degree to 540 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1I shows the valve condition at 370 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1J is the beginning of the second-recharge-process (10th process), the cooling-intake-valve 132 is open to supply air into the cooling-cylinder 130, wherein the cooling-piston 131 is moving toward its BDC, this process duration is from 450 degree to 630 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1J shows the valve condition at 470 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1K is the beginning of the secondary-compression-process (11th process), the secondary-intake-valve 122 is shut, and the secondary-piston 121 is moving toward its TDC to compress the air in the secondary-power-cylinder 120, this process duration is from 540 degree to 720 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1K shows the valve condition at 550 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

During either the secondary-intake-process or the secondary-compression-process, the fuel will be supplied into the secondary-power-cylinder 120 with its fuel-supplying means. The secondary-power-cylinder 120 will be ignited with the air and the fuel therein between 35 degree prior to TDC of the secondary-piston and 40 degree after TDC of the secondary-piston, the ignition timing can be assumed as 720 degree of crankshaft reference angle in Sequence Table.1M.

As shown in FIG. 1L is the beginning of the second-cold-compression-process (12th process), the second-input-valve 181 will be opened while the first-input-valve 161 will be shut, so the cooling-piston 131 will compress the air into the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 through the second-input-port during the second-cold-compression-process, this process duration is from 630 degree to 765 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1L shows the valve condition at 640 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1M is the beginning of the secondary-hot-expansion-process (13th process), the air and the fuel are ignited in the secondary-power-cylinder 120 to generate power to the main-crankshaft 100; during the secondary-hot-expansion-process, the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 will continue to increase the air-pressure therein until the initiation of the second-injection-process; the engine ECU will adjust the coordinate-phase-wheel 151 to actuate the second-coordinate-valve 185 at 765 degree as shown in Sequence Table.1M; this duration process is from 720 degree to 765 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1M shows the valve condition at 725 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1N is the beginning of the second-injection-process (14th process), the second-coordinate-valve 185 is actuated to open for a duration of 30 degree of crankshaft rotation, the second-coordinate-valve 185 will open from 765 degree to 795 degree to inject the compressed-air of the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 as shown in Sequence Table.1M, and a small portion of the compressed-air will remain in the secondary-coordinate-channel 180 when the second-coordinate-valve 185 closes; this process duration is from 765 degree to 795 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1N shows the valve condition at 770 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1O is the beginning of the secondary-cold-expansion-process (15th process), the secondary-piston 121 continues to move toward its BDC after the cold-expansion-medium has formed in the secondary-power-cylinder 120, and the cold-expansion-medium continues to expand and push the secondary-piston 121; this process duration is from 795 degree to 900 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1O shows the valve condition at 795 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

As shown in FIG. 1P is the beginning of the secondary-exhaust-process (16th process), the secondary-exhaust-valve 128 is open to expel the cold-expansion-medium as the secondary-piston 121 moves toward its TDC, this process duration is from 900 degree to 1080 degree of crankshaft reference angle in this condition; FIG. 1P shows the valve condition at 910 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

In this first embodiment, the variable-coordination-timing system demonstrates a fixed open-time of 30 degree within the range of 375 degree to 450 degree for the first-injection process and the range of 735 degree to 810 degree for the second-injection process; however, it should be noted that said fixed open-time can be configured in the range from 5 degree to 90 degree within the operational range of the self-cooling-16-process.

In this first embodiment, the coordinate-phase-wheel 151 has an adjustable range of 30 degree; however, the maximum adjustable range can be configured to as much as 90 degree depending on the overall engine configuration, and the coordinate-phase-wheel 151 can be actuated with the build-in hydraulic mechanisms or gears or pins to change the phase-difference between the main-crankshaft 100 and the variable-phase-camshaft 150.

Now comparing the amount of the compressed-air being transferred during each injection-process in the high power output condition and the low power output condition; in the high power output condition as shown in Sequence Table.1H, since the first-coordinate-valve 165 is open until the cooling-piston 131 reaches its TDC position, about more than 95% of the air previously charged in the cooling-cylinder 130 should be injected into the primary-power-cylinder 110; in the low power output condition as shown in Sequence Table.1L, since the first-coordinate-valve 165 is only open until 30 degree before the TDC position of the cooling-piston 131, a portion (up to 50%) of the compressed-air may remain in the cooling-cylinder 130 and the primary-coordinate-channel 160.

By reducing the amount of the air injected in the low power output condition may prevent each power-cylinder from over-cooling, as it is necessary for the engine cylinder to be kept above a certain temperature (about 80 degree Celsius) for the air-fuel mixture to ignite in the idling rpm, since over-cooling may cause ignition failure when the self-cooling engine is operating in the cold weather.

Another alternative structure of the variable-coordination-timing system can be adapted with a pulley system to rotate with the coordinate-phase-wheel instead of the internal gear mechanisms, wherein the variable-phase-camshaft will be coupled to the main-crankshaft with chains, and the two pulleys will shift their relative position to adjust the length of the chains in order to change the relative phase between the variable-phase-camshaft and the crankshaft; the functionality of this alternative variable-coordination-timing system are identical to the one utilizing the coordinate-phase-wheel.

This first embodiment can be easily adapted with a variable-phase-camshaft of different open-time and a coordinate-phase-wheel of different adjustable range; for example, if the first embodiment is adapted with a variable-phase-camshaft of 15 degree open-time and a phase-wheel of 45 degree adjustable range, the variable-coordination-timing system will then be able to open the first-coordinate-valve for 15 degree in the range of 375 degree to 450 degree of crankshaft reference angle for the first-injection-process, while the adjustable range for the initiation timing of the first-injection-process will be from 375 degree to 435 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

For another example, if the first-embodiment is configured with an open-time of 40 degree and an adjustable range of 20 degree for the coordinate-phase-wheel, the variable-coordination-timing system will then be able to open the first-coordinate-valve for 40 degree in the range of 390 degree to 450 degree of crankshaft reference angle for the first injection process, while the adjustable range for the initiation timing of the first-injection-process will be from 390 degree to 410 degree of crankshaft reference angle.

Now referring to FIG. 2M for the second embodiment of the present invention, the second embodiment will actuate the first-coordinate-valve 265 and the second-coordinate-valve 285 with a variable-profile-camshaft 250 as shown in FIG. 2M; the variable-profile-camshaft 250 will be able to shift in the direction of its axle by a profile shifter 251 (controlling with hydraulic mechanisms or mechanical mechanisms), and the variable-profile-camshaft 250 will have different actuation timings and open-times as the contacting profile with each coordinate valve changes, therefore, the second embodiment can have a more ideal and flexible open-time according to changes in the power output, however the manufacturing cost may be relatively higher than the first embodiment.

The operation cycle of the self-cooling-16 processes are the same as that of the first embodiment, while the second embodiment has a more flexible open-time; Sequence Table.2M, Sequence Table.2H, Sequence Table.2L shows the possible shifts of the process durations utilizing the variable-profile-camshaft; the second embodiment use only three profiles for the ease of explanation, however in the actual construction, a continuous variable profile which has a continuously gradual change in the actuation timing and the open-time as the profile shifter moves along is preferable.

For quick reference, the components of the second embodiment are labeled as follows: the primary-power-cylinder 210, the secondary-power-cylinder 220, the cooling-cylinder 230, the primary-piston 211, the secondary-piston 221, the cooling-piston 231, the primary-intake-valve 212, the primary-exhaust-valve 218, the secondary-intake-valve 222, the secondary-exhaust-valve 228, the cooling-intake-valve 232, the primary-coordinate-channel 260, the secondary-coordinate-channel 280, the first-input-valve 261, the first-coordinate-valve 265, the second-input-valve 281, the second-coordinate-valve 285, the main-crankshaft 200, the variable-profile-crankshaft 250, the profile-shifter 251, the first-high-power-profile 273, the first-medium-power-profile 272, the first-low-power-profile 271, the second-high-power-profile 283, the second-medium-power-profile 282, the second-low-power-profile 281, the primary-spark-plug 215, the secondary-spark-plug 225, the output shaft 299.

In the low power output condition as shown in Sequence Table.2L and FIG. 2L, as the profile shifter 251 shifts the contacting profile of the first-coordinate-valve 165 to the first-low-power-profile 271, and the contacting profile of the second-coordinate-valve 185 to the second-low-power-profile 281; the open-time of each coordinate-valve is adjusted to about 50 degree of crankshaft rotation, the actuation timing of each coordinate-valve is shifted to an early angle, 390 degree of crankshaft reference and 750 degree of crankshaft reference angle, according to the required pressure condition (where each coordinate-valve can attain a pressure at least 15 psi higher than its associated power-cylinder after ignition) determined by the engine ECU; FIG. 2L shows the valve condition at 390 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the first-injection-process is initiating by opening the first-coordinate-valve 265 with the first-low-power-profile 271.

In the medium power output condition as shown in Sequence Table.2M and FIG. 2M, as the profiler shifter 251 shifts the contacting profile of the first-coordinate-valve 165 to the first-medium-power-profile 272, and the contacting profile of the second-coordinate-valve 185 to the second-medium-power-profile 282; the open-time of each coordinate-valve is shorten to about 40 degree of crankshaft rotation, the actuation timing of each coordinate-valve is shifted to an moderate angle, 405 degree of crankshaft reference and 765 degree of crankshaft reference angle, according to the required pressure condition (where each coordinate-valve can attain a pressure at least 15 psi higher than its associated power-cylinder after ignition) determined by the engine ECU; FIG. 2M shows the valve condition at 405 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the first-injection-process is initiating by opening the first-coordinate-valve 265 with the first-medium-power-profile 272.

In the high power output condition as shown in Sequence Table.2H and FIG. 2H, as the profile shifter 251 shifts the contacting profile of the first-coordinate-valve 165 to the first-high-power-profile 273, and the contacting profile of the second-coordinate-valve 185 to the second-high-power-profile 283; the open-time of each coordinate-valve is shorten to about 30 degree of crankshaft rotation, the actuation timing of each coordinate-valve is shifted to the latest possible angle, 420 degree of crankshaft reference angle and 780 degree of crankshaft reference angle, according to the required pressure condition (where each coordinate-valve can attain at least 15 psi higher than its associated power-cylinder after ignition) determined by the engine ECU; FIG. 2M shows the valve condition at 405 degree of crankshaft reference angle, wherein the first-injection-process is initiating by opening the first-coordinate-valve 265 with the first-high-power-profile 273.

In short, the variable-coordination-timing system of the variable-profile-camshaft type will have a profile with later actuation timing and shorter open-time for each coordinate-valve in the high power output condition; as the engine load decreases, said actuation timings will be delayed according to the crankshaft reference angle at which the require pressure condition is met.

Generally the contacting profile of the variable-profile-camshaft can gradually change its actuation timing and the open-time at a continuous and smooth rate; the contacting profiles (the high-power-profile, the medium-power-profile, the low-power-profile) as referred in the second embodiment are only classified for the ease of the comprehension, whereas the maximum range of the open-time can be adjusted between 5 degree and 90 degree with the variable-profile-camshaft, and the maximum range of the actuation timing of the first-coordinate-valve can be adjusted between 15 degree after the TDC of the primary-piston and 10 degree before the TDC of the cooling-piston during the first-cooling-stroke, the maximum range of the actuation timing of the second-coordinate-valve can be adjusted between 15 degree after the TDC of the secondary-piston and 10 degree before the TDC of the cooling-piston during the second-cooling-stroke.

The variable-coordination-timing system of the variable-profile-camshaft type can also be employed with a movable rocker arm and a variable-profile-camshaft in the overhead-valve configuration, said movable rocket arm will be shift its contact surface with said variable-profile-camshaft, thereby providing an open-time according to the required pressure condition.

The self-cooling engine can be constructed in the single crankshaft configurations and the double crankshaft configurations; in the single-crankshaft configurations, the primary-piston and the secondary-piston and the cooling-piston are all coupled with one crankshaft; in the double-crankshaft configurations, the primary-piston and the secondary-piston are coupled to one crankshaft, while the cooling-piston is coupled to another crankshaft, and the two crankshaft will be synchronized with gears or chains to rotate at the same speed.

Since the self-cooling engine is not a well-known topic in the current industry field, it may be necessary to state the purpose of the self-cooling engine again as in the prior art (dual six-stroke self-cooling internal combustion engine); in most of the current internal combustion engines, the heat current conducting through the cylinder wall and the engine head is the source of their heat loss, and this heat current is proportional to the temperature difference between the cylinder and the expansion medium (combusting medium), therefore, by increasing the amount of the expansion medium with the injection process of the self-cooling-16-process and lowering the overall temperature will conserve relatively more energy in the expansion medium, since the heat current through the cylinder wall and the engine head is greatly reduced, in other words, a higher percentage of the energy released in the combustion process will remain in the expansion medium, thus resulting in a cooler expansion with higher expansion pressure comparing to the conventional engine, and the required cooling-capacity will be reduced to about half of that of the conventional engine.

Many other alternative embodiments may be developed based on the principle and the structure elements set by the claims of the present invention and should still be considered within the scope of the present invention.

SEQUENCE TABLE 1L
The self-cooling-16-process in low power output condition
(actuation timings set to 390 degree and 750 degree with the variable-phase-camshaft)
NOTE:
1st = Primary-intake-process
2nd = First-recharge-process
3rd = Primary-compression-process
4th = First-cold-compression-process
5th = Primary-hot-expansion-process
6th = First-injection-process
7th = Primary-cold-expansion-process
8th = Primary-exhaust-process
9th = Secondary-intake-process
10th = Second-recharge-process
11th = Secondary-compression-process
12th = Second-cold-compression-process
13th = Secondary-hot-expansion-process
14th = Second-injection-process
15th = Secondary-cold-expansion-process
16th = Secondary-exhaust-process

SEQUENCE TABLE 1M
The self-cooling-16-process with medium power output condition
(actuation timings set to 405 degree and 765 degree with the variable-phase-camshaft)
NOTE:
1st = Primary-intake-process
2nd = First-recharge-process
3rd = Primary-compression-process
4th = First-cold-compression-process
5th = Primary-hot-expansion-process
6th = First-injection-process
7th = Primary-cold-expansion-process
8th = Primary-exhaust-process
9th = Secondary-intake-process
10th = Second-recharge-process
11th = Secondary-compression-process
12th = Second-cold-compression-process
13th = Secondary-hot-expansion-process
14th = Second-injection-process
15th = Secondary-cold-expansion-process
16th = Secondary-exhaust-process

SEQUENCE TABLE 1H
The self-cooling-16-process with high power output condition
(actuation timings set to 420 degree and 780 degree with the variable-phase-camshaft)
NOTE:
1st = Primary-intake-process
2nd = First-recharge-process
3rd = Primary-compression-process
4th = First-cold-compression-process
5th = Primary-hot-expansion-process
6th = First-injection-process
7th = Primary-cold-expansion-process
8th = Primary-exhaust-process
9th = Secondary-intake-process
10th = Second-recharge-process
11th = Secondary-compression-process
12th = Second-cold-compression-process
13th = Secondary-hot-expansion-process
14th = Second-injection-process
15th = Secondary-cold-expansion-process
16th = Secondary-exhaust-process

SEQUENCE TABLE 2H
The self-cooling-16-process with high power output condition
(actuation timings set to 420 degree and 780 degree with the variable-profile-camshaft)
NOTE:
1st = Primary-intake-process
2nd = First-recharge-process
3rd = Primary-compression-process
4th = First-cold-compression-process
5th = Primary-hot-expansion-process
6th = First-injection-process
7th = Primary-cold-expansion-process
8th = Primary-exhaust-process
9th = Secondary-intake-process
10th = Second-recharge-process
11th = Secondary-compression-process
12th = Second-cold-compression-process
13th = Secondary-hot-expansion-process
14th = Second-injection-process
15th = Secondary-cold-expansion-process
16th = Secondary-exhaust-process

SEQUENCE TABLE 2L
The self-cooling-16-process in low power output condition
(actuation timings set to 390 degree and 750 degree with the variable-profile-camshaft)
NOTE:
1st = Primary-intake-process
2nd = First-recharge-process
3rd = Primary-compression-process
4th = First-cold-compression-process
5th = Primary-hot-expansion-process
6th = First-injection-process
7th = Primary-cold-expansion-process
8th = Primary-exhaust-process
9th = Secondary-intake-process
10th = Second-recharge-process
11th = Secondary-compression-process
12th = Second-cold-compression-process
13th = Secondary-hot-expansion-process
14th = Second-injection-process
15th = Secondary-cold-expansion-process
16th = Secondary-exhaust-process

SEQUENCE TABLE 2H
The self-cooling-16-processes with high power output condition
(actuation timings set to 420 degree and 780 degree with the variable-profile-camshaft)
NOTE:
1st = Primary-intake-process
2nd = First-recharge-process
3rd = Primary-compression-process
4th = First-cold-compression-process
5th = Primary-hot-expansion-process
6th = First-injection-process
7th = Primary-cold-expansion-process
8th = Primary-exhaust-process
9th = Secondary-intake-process
10th = Second-recharge-process
11th = Secondary-compression-process
12th = Second-cold-compression-process
13th = Secondary-hot-expansion-process
14th = Second-injection-process
15th = Secondary-cold-expansion-process
16th = Secondary-exhaust-process

SEQUENCE TABLE 2M
The self-cooling-16-process with medium power output condition
(actuation timings set to 405 degree and 765 degree with the variable-profile-camshaft)
NOTE:
1st = Primary-intake-process
2nd = First-recharge-process
3rd = Primary-compression-process
4th = First-cold-compression-process
5th = Primary-hot-expansion-process
6th = First-injection-process
7th = Primary-cold-expansion-process
8th = Primary-exhaust-process
9th = Secondary-intake-process
10th = Second-recharge-process
11th = Secondary-compression-process
12th = Second-cold-compression-process
13th = Secondary-hot-expansion-process
14th = Second-injection-process
15th = Secondary-cold-expansion-process
16th = Secondary-exhaust-process