Title:
Substructure and crawl space enclosure for factory constructed buildings
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A building support system assembled on a ground interface such as, but not limited to, an in-situ poured continuous concrete grade beam, using a plurality of adjustable stanchions and pre-cast cementitious panels. The fabricated stanchions attach to the building perimeter structural element and to said ground interface. Pre-cast cementitious panels with shear capacity attach to the stanchions, enclose the crawl space, retain soil, provide weather protection and with all components acting together transfer gravity, wind, snow and seismic forces from said building to said ground interface. The system has provisions for crawl space ventilation.



Inventors:
Lilien, Arthur (Poway, CA, US)
Lilien, Duane S. (Escondido, CA, US)
Application Number:
12/079514
Publication Date:
10/01/2009
Filing Date:
03/27/2008
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/745.02
International Classes:
E02D27/32
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
HIJAZ, OMAR F
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DUANE S. LILEN (ESCONDIDO, CA, US)
Claims:
We claim:

1. A factory built building substructure with crawl space enclosure and a method of installation comprising: a. A plurality of metal stanchions having upper and lower ends connected by a metal all-thread rod. b. An adaptation at said upper end to engage the perimeter structural member of said factory built buildings and a metal pipe to engage said all-thread rod c. An adaptation at said lower end to engage a ground interface using a flat plate with anchoring bolts and a rectangular steel tube with contained nut to engage said all-thread rod. d. A nut is attached to said all-thread rod as a means to rotate said all-thread rod which changes the height of said stanchion. e. Flat surfaces on said upper and lower ends of said stanchions to adhere and fasten pre-cast cemetitious panels as a means of transferring forces between components and enclosing said crawl space. f. A screened gap between the top of said pre-cast cementatious panels and said perimeter structural member of said factory built building as a means of ventilation. g. A metal angle and a structural metal “T” shape to attache said pre-cast cemetitious panels where no stanchions are necessary.

2. A substructure and crawl space enclosure according to claim 1 wherein the number and placement of said metal stanchions and said pre-cast cementitious panels is determined by each individual said factory built building's mass, configuration and the natural forces it is subjected to.

3. A substructure and crawl space enclosure according to claim 1 that transfers gravity, wind, snow and seismic loads of said factory built building to said ground interface by mean of a combination of said stanchions and said attached per-cast cementitious panels as a structurally unified assembly more effectively then said structural components working independently.

4. A method for installing said factory built buildings whereas: Said ground interface is constructed in advance. A plurality of said factory built building modules are maneuvered into position by delivery truck and commercially available jacks and rollers. A plurality of said stanchions are attached and adjusted to bear the load of said factory built building modules safely before work takes place underneath. Said factory built building modules are attached together according to the manufacturers instructions. Utilities are connected. Said pre-cast cementitious panels are adhered, fastened, waterproofed and backfilled.

5. A method according to claim 4 wherein a structurally unified assembly is the result.

6. A method according to claim 4 wherein a crane to lift said building modules into place is unnecessary for one story installations.

7. A substructure and crawl space enclosure according to claim 1 that has no metal components that are in direct contact with earth thus avoiding corrosion.

Description:

REFERENCES CITED

U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
3,831,3298/1974Lear52/126
4,458,4637/1984Behrend52/295
4,680,9047/1987Stoeker52/169.12
4,738,0614/1988Herndon52/126.6
5,664,3779/1997Angelo and Kambozia52/295
6,076,3206/2000Butler52/294

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The purpose of the invention is to facilitate a new and improved apparatus and method for installing factory constructed buildings that require perimeter support. These structures include factory built housing, commercial modular buildings and some manufactured homes. Conventionally said buildings are set on masonry block or stem wall foundations, which are often faulty dimensionally and out of level. These faults result in unsatisfactory results such as out of level floors, out of plumb walls, doors, and windows. Installation is often hazardous using either costly cranes or labor intensive sliding, adjusting and attaching. Utility connections are made working through tiny/access doors and working around internal walls with limited openings, slowing productivity. Other inventors have developed apparatus and methodology to alleviate some of these problems. Previous inventions either do not have the structural capacity to support buildings for the required gravity, wind, snow, and seismic loads and are therefore no more than skirting. Others require temporary blocking and leveling while the building is in a precarious state. Leveling is required before embedding these apparatus in concrete or other cementitious materials. Many have inadequately protected metal components in close proximity to earth, which promotes corrosion.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION AND METHOD OF USE

The invention requires the installation of a ground interface or “foundation”, such as a continuous reinforced concrete grade beam which is either cast in-situ or pre-cast, or isolated concrete footings, either cast in-situ or pre-cast, or a treated wood foundation in a gravel bed. Said ground interface is engineered to transmit gravity, wind, snow, and seismic forces to the earth and below frost level if necessary. Said ground interface is laid so that the top surface is level with the surrounding grade. If the building modules are to be set in a pit, with the crawl space below grade, then a ramp must be graded to facilitate installation. Said building modules can then be maneuvered via truck close to their final location on the temporary running gear used for overland transportation to the site. Said temporary running gear is installed at the factory where said building modules are built. Said building modules can be maneuvered into their exact locations over said ground interface using commercially available rollers and jacks. This process is not dangerous as said modules still possess their wheels and hitch's or carriers, which prevent falling. A plurality of support stanchions, one of the components of the invention, are then positioned and attached to the perimeter structural members of said building modules using nut and bolt fasteners. Said stanchions are attached to said ground interface with anchoring bolts. Said building modules are then lifted off said wheels and hitches or carriers by said stanchion's adjustable screw. Said temporary wheels and axles or carrier can then be safely removed. Said stanchions allow for fine leveling, to 1/16th of an inch. Said building's utilities can be easily connected to the underside of said building modules as the perimeter of said crawl space is wide open. The pre-cast cementitous panels, which are a component of the invention, are then attached to said stanchions via commercially available panel adhesive and screw fasteners. Said metal stanchions and said pre-cast cementitious panels once attached together constitute the complete invention and became a single structural entity with greater capacity to transmit gravity, wind, snow and seismic forces to said ground interface than the components can independently. Said invention is labor saving, adjustable, and extremely strong. Said invention also allows for future re-leveling in the event of differential settlement. Ventilation for said crawl space is accomplished by a screened gap between said pre-cast cementitious panel and the underside of said building modules. Said gap may be hidden by said building's stucco screed or exterior sheathing. Said pre-cast cementitious panels can be backfilled with earth so that the floor level inside said building can be closer to the outside grade.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the fabricated metal stanchion and pre-cast cementitious panel used in the perimeter application of the preferred embodiment depicted in bold between the factory constructed building and the ground interface.

FIG. 2 is a front elevation view of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a front elevation view of the structural connection between said pre-cast cementitious panels where said fabricated metal stanchion is not required.

FIG. 4 is a cross section elevation view of FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 is a cross section plan view of FIG. 1.

FIG. 6 is a cross section elevation view of FIG. 3.

FIG. 7 is a cross section plan view of FIG. 3.

FIG. 8 is a front elevation view of said fabricated metal stanchion as used between factory constructed building modules.

FIG. 9 is a plan view of the location of said fabricated metal stanchion in FIG. 8 on the ground interface.

FIG. 10 is a plan view of the alternate location of said fabricated metal stanchion in FIG. 8 on the ground interface.

FIG. 11 is a side elevation view of FIG. 8.

FIG. 12 is a cross-section plan view of FIG. 11.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

There are four main components that constitute the substructure and crawl space enclosure for factory constructed buildings. Two of said main components of the preferred embodiment of the invention are located in FIGS. 1, 2, and 4, between 6 and 11. The first main component 2 is a pre-cast cementitious panel. The second main component is a fabricated metal stanchion assembly composed of 1, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 21. The third main component, a splicing assembly, FIGS. 3, 6 and 7, which is composed of structural metal “T” 1 and metal angle 19 used to structurally connect pre-cast cementitious panels 2 together where a fabricated metal stanchion is not needed. The fourth main component is a fabricated metal stanchion assembly, FIGS. 8 and 11, composed of 1, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 18. Said stanchion is used between factory constructed building modules for support where pre-cast cementatous panels 2 are not needed.

Item 6 is the ground interface to which said invention is mounted. Said ground interface 6 as illustrated is embodied as a concrete grade beam with steel reinforcing bars 5. The size of said grade beam 6 and amounts of said steel reinforcing 5 is dictated by the individual soil, gravity, wind, snow, and seismic conditions for the individual location where said invention is used and varies on each installation. Said ground interface 6 can have other embodiments such as individual pre-cast concrete footings or treated lumber set in a gravel bed. Said invention is mounted to the ground interface by anchoring bolts 4. Said invention supports a factory built building structure by the perimeter structural member 11, which in the illustrated embodiment is a steel “I” beam. Said buildings may have other embodiments for said perimeter structural components 11 such as a steel “C” channel, laminated wood beams or rim joists. If the main structural member 11 is another embodiment then structural metal “T” 1 will be modified to attach to said embodiment. Said fabricated stanchions attach to said building structural member 11 at structural metal “T” 1 by nut and bolt fasteners 8. Said building's floor joists 10 and structural stiffeners 14, are not part of the invention but are identified for understanding.

The first major component, pre-cast cementitous panel 2 in this embodiment is cast two inches thick, is approximately two feet tall, four feet long and may or may not have a tongue and groove on the ends.

The second major component, a stanchion assembly is fabricated from 1, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 21, FIG. 1, 2, and 4. In the preferred embodiment said items are welded together starting at the top with the structural “T” 1 which mates flange to flange with the “I” beam perimeter structural member 11 of the factory constructed building module,with nut and bolt fasteners 8. Structural metal “T”1 has holes for screw fasteners 3 to connect pre-cast cementitious panels 2. Between 1 and 2, commercially available panel adhesive 9 is applied during assembly. Welded to structural metal “T”1 is a round structural metal tube 15 designed to have a metal all-thread rod 12 inserted into it with a small clearance. The relationship of these items is shown in FIG. 5, a cross sectional illustration of structural metal “T”1 with attached parts. Metal all-thread rod 12 is designed to turn inside the round structural metal tube 15 when rotated. A threaded nut 17 welded to the metal all-thread rod 12 is used to facilitate rotating with a wrench. The lower end of metal all-thread rod 12 is threaded into a large threaded nut 18, as shown in plan view FIG. 12, which is welded into a rectangular structural metal tube 7. Metal all-thread rod 12 has a threaded nut 13, threaded onto it between threaded nut 17 and threaded nut 18 to be used as a lock nut against said threaded nut 18. Structural metal tube 7 is welded to the metal base plate 16. The metal base plate contains holes which allow the anchoring bolts 4 to be inserted into the ground interface 6. See FIG. 2, the base plate 16, also has metal fins 21 welded to it for the commercially available panel adhesive 9 and screw fasteners 3 to attach said pre-cast cementitious panel 2 to the lower part of the stanchion.

The third main component, a splicing assembly, FIGS. 3, 6 and 7, composed of structural metal “T” 1 and metal angle 19 used to structurally connect pre-cast cementitious panels 2 together where a fabricated metal stanchion is not needed. Structural “T” shape 1 mates flange to flange with the “I” beam perimeter structural member 11 of the factory constructed building module with nut and bolt fasteners 8. Structural metal “T”1 has holes for screw fasteners 3 to connect to pre-cast cementitious panels 2. Between 1 and 2, commercially available panel adhesive 9 is applied during assembly. On one side metal angle 19 has holes to attach screw fasteners 3 to pre-cast cementitious panel 2. Between 19 and 2, commercially available panel adhesive 9 is applied during assembly. On the other leg the metal angle 19 has holes for anchoring bolts 4 to mount to the ground interface 6.

The fourth major component, a stanchion assembly composed of 1, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 18 used between building modules, FIGS. 8 and 11. Said stanchion is constructed the same as the second major component but lacks metal fins 21 which are unnecessary as no pre-cast cementitious panels 2 are attached. Since said stanchions are supporting two adjacent building modules the ground interface 6 is widened and said stanchions support both modules on one ground interface 6, FIGS. 9 and 10.

Ventilation of the crawl space is accommodated by a screened gap 23, FIG. 4 and 6, between the building sheathing, said pre-cast cementitious panel 2 and modular building perimeter element 11.

Joints between said pre-cast cementitious panels 2 are caulked. A concrete screed 26 is poured between said pre-cast cementitious panel 2 and the ground interface 6 to seal the area and imbed any of the exposed portion of the stanchion in concrete, FIG. 4 and 6. Commercially available waterproofing 25 is applied to the outside of the pre-cast cementitous panels 2.

Calculations for the required gravity, wind, snow, and seismic loads and building geometry dictate the placement and number of required stanchions assemblies, splicing assemblies and pre-cast cementitious panels 2.

Method of Use

The ground interface, which will serve as the building foundation, is installed by commonly practiced means, and if site cast cementitious in-situ, allowed to cure. The first building module is then maneuvered into position by delivery truck or commonly used jacks and rollers. The height of the stanchions is adjusted down by rotating the all-thread rod, using a wrench on the attached nut, to the correct height to fit under the building modules as they sit on their wheels and hitches. The stanchions are attached to the perimeter structural member of the building modules by nut and bolt fasteners. When all stanchions are installed the stanchions are adjusted to the desired building height. The anchoring bolts are installed into the ground interface, the building module is leveled and the locknuts are tightened. If there are subsequent building modules, they are moved in adjacent to the last module and the process is repeated. When all modules are set, it is safe to remove all running gear, attach the modules as called for by the manufacturer, and connect the utilities and install insulation. After all work is completed under the building modules the cementitious pre-cast panels are attached to the stanchions and splices around said building perimeter with adhesive and screw fasteners. A screen is installed in the vent area above said pre-cast cementitious panel and the perimeter structural member of said building modules. The joints between said pre-cast cementitious panels are caulked. A concrete screed is poured between said pre-cast cementitious panel and the ground interface to seal the area and imbed any of the exposed portion of the stanchion in concrete. Waterproofing is applied to the outside of the pre-cast cementitious panels, across said concrete cant and onto the ground interface. Said pre-cast cementitious panels can be backfilled if desired. No metal is in direct contact with earth, the stanchions can be galvanized to prevent corrosion.

SCOPE OF INVENTION

The invention can be used as a support for all factory built building modules including modular homes, manufactured homes that require perimeter blocking and commercial modular buildings. Unlike masonry block or concrete stem wall foundations said invention eliminates time consuming and laborious work, there is no possibility of directional or leveling inaccuracy. Unlike other substructure systems there is no danger while working under temporarily supported units before the structure is on the foundation. Labor necessary to install is minimal. There is no metal that comes in contact or proximity of the earth, and in the event of differential settlement the building can be re-leveled. The unique combination of steel stanchions and pre-cast cementitious panels, working as a single structural entity, is extremely effective at transferring gravity, wind, snow and seismic loads to the ground interface. The system can be used under extreme conditions and to support multi-story buildings. The invention can also be used as a replacement foundation for deficient buildings.

Inventors have disclosed inventions that address some but not all of the properties of this disclosed invention. Research yielded many inventions which used panelized systems designed to enclose the crawl spaces of manufactured buildings and retain soil when backfilled, but do not support the structure. These structures are all supported by separate systems of piers located inboard of the structures perimeter. The ability of the currently disclosed invention to support structures and simultaneously enclose the crawl space makes this invention different and superior to the many patents which disclose non-load bearing skirting systems. Donald Lear, U.S. Pat. No. 3,831,329 disclosed an invention which supports a building floor structure using adjustable steel piers. The Lear patent addresses ease of construction and the ability to re-level a structure after soil heaving or failure but does not address transferring any forces to the ground. It is obviously intended to transfer gravity and perhaps snow loads, but there is little apparent shear capacity in the system for wind or seismic loads and no claims are made to enclose the crawl space with the invention. Behrend U.S. Pat. No. 4,458,463 disclosed a system which allows for the leveling of a structure using a steel pier mounted on anchor bolts set in concrete. The anchor bolts are deficient in resisting lateral forces and the invention stresses re-adjustability in conditions of shifting soil rather than stability and force resistance. Current building codes will not allow for construction in such conditions. The invention does not include a crawl space enclosure. Stoecker U.S. Pat. No. 4,680,904 disclosed an adjustable perimeter enclosure designed to separate the underside of a trailer from the atmosphere. The invention appears similar to said disclosed invention in its embodiment but does not claim any of the same capabilities. It will not support the structure or allow backfilling to grade. The principle claim of the invention is of a skirting system which is easily relocated. Hermdon U.S. Pat. No. 4,738,061 invented an adjustable building support system with backfillable skirting. The invention has the same goals as said disclosed invention but is designed to support manufactured homes which are supported by a steel frame set in from the perimeter of the structure. Hermdons invention is not suitable for perimeter supported factory built structures. The load bearing components were not integrated with the soil retaining components and therefore the fiberglass skirting does not contribute any lateral structural strength to the structure. The invention is designed to meet federal codes but not the current stricter local codes. The lack of lateral strength will cause the system to be deficient in carrying wind and seismic forces to the ground interface. Angelo and Nareghi U.S. Pat. No. 5,664,377 disclosed a support system for manufactured or modular homes. The Angelo and Nareghi invention does not possess all the advantages of the said disclosed invention. The system requires potentially hazardous and time consuming pre-leveling on temporary blocking. The stanchions are hung from the structure and geo-textile bags are attached to the stanchions and pumped full of concrete while the building is temporarily blocked in place. The footing is cast on the surface of the earth and does not extend below the frost level in cold climates. The patent does not teach a soil retaining system for the crawl space in below ground installations. Butler U.S. Pat. No. 6,076,320 disclosed a system using vertical corrugated sheets for support and retaining earth. The Butler system requires hazardous pre-leveling on temporary blocking. Labor intensive trenches must be dug under the blocked-up building modules. The system is hung off the building structure and is cast in concrete. The corrugated sheets are in close proximity to the earth and even with a coating can be subject to corrosion when backfilled. The equipment used for temporary blocking must be dismantled under the structure and be hauled out through a small access door. Although the Butler invention possesses the strength necessary to transfer gravity, snow, wind and seismic loads to the ground, as required by current building codes, it is very labor intensive to install in comparison to the currently disclosed invention and is potentially subject to corrosion when backfilled. None of the prior art integrate the support and enclosure panels structurally to form a system with the adjustability, ease of installation, safety, ventilation and structural capacity of the currently disclosed invention.