Title:
NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES AND POLYPEPTIDES ENCODED THEREBY USEFUL FOR MODIFYING PLANT CHARACTERISTICS IN RESPONSE TO COLD
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Methods and materials for modulating cold tolerance levels in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to transform plant cells. Also disclosed are plants having increased levels of cold tolerance and plant products produced from plants having increased cold tolerance levels.



Inventors:
Christensen, Cory (Simi Valley, CA, US)
Okamuro, Jack (Oak Park, CA, US)
Kwok, Shing (Woodland Hills, CA, US)
Pennell, Roger (Malibu, CA, US)
Application Number:
11/779266
Publication Date:
09/24/2009
Filing Date:
07/17/2007
Assignee:
CERES, INC. (Thousand Oaks, CA, US)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
435/6.13, 435/419, 536/23.6, 800/289, 800/298, 800/306, 800/312, 800/314, 800/320, 800/320.1, 800/320.2, 800/320.3, 800/322
International Classes:
A01H5/00; A01H1/02; C07H21/04; C12N5/10; C12N15/82; C12Q1/68
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
KUMAR, VINOD
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DENTONS US LLP (CHICAGO, IL, US)
Claims:
1. A method of producing a plant, said method comprising growing a plant cell comprising an exogenous nucleic acid, said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide, wherein the HMM bit score of the amino acid sequence of said polypeptide is greater than 20, said HMM based on the amino acid sequences depicted in one of FIGS. 1-7, and wherein said plant has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said nucleic acid.

2. A method of producing a plant, said method comprising growing a plant cell comprising an exogenous nucleic acid, said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide having 80 percent or greater sequence identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42, and wherein a plant produced from said plant cell has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said nucleic acid.

3. A method of producing a plant, said method comprising growing a plant cell comprising an exogenous nucleic acid, said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence having 80 percent or greater sequence identity to a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 6, 8, 19, 33, 39 and 41, wherein a plant produced from said plant cell has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said nucleic acid.

4. A method of modulating the level of cold tolerance in a plant, said method comprising introducing into a plant cell an exogenous nucleic acid, said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide, wherein the HMM bit score of the amino acid sequence of said polypeptide is greater than 20, said HMM based on the amino acid sequences depicted in one of FIGS. 1-7, and wherein a plant produced from said plant cell has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said exogenous nucleic acid.

5. A method of modulating the level of cold tolerance in a plant, said method comprising introducing into a plant cell an exogenous nucleic acid, said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide having 80 percent or greater sequence identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42, wherein a plant produced from said plant cell has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said nucleic acid.

6. The method of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein said polypeptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 2-5,7,9-18, 20-32, 34-38, 40, 42-46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82-89, 109 and 204-229.

7. A method of modulating the level of cold tolerance in a plant, said method comprising introducing into a plant cell an exogenous nucleic acid, said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence having 80 percent or greater sequence identity to a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 6, 8, 19, 33, 39 and 41, wherein a plant produced from said plant cell has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said nucleic acid

8. A plant cell comprising an exogenous nucleic acid said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide, wherein the HMM bit score of the amino acid sequence of said polypeptide is greater than 20, said HMM based on the amino acid sequences depicted in one of FIGS. 1-7, and wherein said plant has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said nucleic acid.

9. A plant cell comprising an exogenous nucleic acid said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide having 80 percent or greater sequence identity to an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42, wherein a plant produced from said plant cell has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said nucleic acid.

10. A plant cell comprising an exogenous nucleic acid said exogenous nucleic acid comprising a regulatory region operably linked to a nucleotide sequence having 80 percent or greater sequence identity to a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1, 6, 8, 19, 33, 39 and 41, wherein a plant produced from said plant cell has a difference in the level of cold tolerance as compared to the corresponding level in a control plant that does not comprise said nucleic acid.

11. A transgenic plant comprising the plant cell of any one of claims 8-10.

12. The transgenic plant of claim 11, wherein said plant is a member of a species selected from the group consisting of Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum, sudangrass), Miscanthus giganteus (miscanthus), Saccharum sp. (energycane), Populus balsamifera (poplar), Zea mays (corn), Glycine max (soybean), Brassica napus (canola), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Gossypium hirsutum (cotton), Oryza sativa (rice), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Beta vulgaris (sugarbeet), or Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet).

13. A transgenic plant comprising the plant cell of claim 11, wherein said polypeptide is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42.

14. A vegetative product comprising plant tissue from a transgenic plant according to claim 11.

15. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence having 95% or greater sequence identity to a nucleotide sequence set forth in the Sequence Listing.

16. An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide having 80% or greater sequence identity to an amino acid sequence set forth in the Sequence Listing.

17. A method of identifying whether a genetic polymorphism is associated with variation in a trait, said method comprising: a) determining whether one or more genetic polymorphisms in a population of plants is associated with the locus for a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of the polypeptides depicted in FIGS. 1-7 and functional homologs thereof; and b) measuring the correlation between variation in said trait in plants of said population and the presence of said one or more genetic polymorphisms in plants of said population, thereby identifying whether or not said one or more genetic polymorphisms are associated with variation in said trait.

18. A method of making a plant line, said method comprising: a) determining whether one or more genetic polymorphisms in a population of plants is associated with the locus for a polypeptide selected from the group consisting of the polypeptides depicted in FIGS. 1-7 and functional homologs thereof; b) identifying one or more plants in said population in which the presence of at least one allele at said one or more genetic polymorphisms is associated with variation in a trait; c) crossing each said one or more identified plants with itself or a different plant to produce seed; d) crossing at least one progeny plant grown from said seed with itself or a different plant; and e) repeating steps c) and d) for an additional 0-5 generations to make said plant line, wherein said at least one allele is present in said plant line.

19. The method of claim 17 or 18, wherein said trait is the level of cold tolerance.

20. The method of claim 17 or 18, wherein said population is a population of switchgrass plants.

Description:

This application is a Continuation-In-Part of copending application Ser. No. 11/778,060 which is a Continuation-in-Part of copending application Ser. No. 11/248,547 filed on Oct. 12, 2005, and this application is also a Continuation-In-Part of copending application Ser. No. 11/248,547 filed on Oct. 12, 2005, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference and for which priority is claimed under 35 U.S.C. § 120.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to isolated polynucleotides, polypeptides encoded thereby, and the use of those products for making transgenic plants with improved tolerances to environmental stresses such as low or chilling temperatures.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic (i.e. pathogen infection and insect herbivory) and abiotic (i.e. high or low temperature, drought, flood and salinity) stresses. To survive these challenges to their sessile life, plants have developed elaborate mechanisms to perceive external signals and to manifest adaptive responses with proper physiological and morphological changes (Bohnert et al. 1995). Plants exposed to cold or chilling conditions typically have low yields of biomass, seeds, fruit and other edible products. The term “chilling sensitivity” is used for the description of physiological and developmental damages in the plant caused by low, but above freezing, temperatures. Important agricultural crop plants such as corn, soybean, rice and cotton have tropical ancestors that make them chilling sensitive. In some countries or agricultural regions of the world chilling temperatures are a significant cause of crop losses and a primary factor limiting the geographical range and growing season of many crop species. Another example is that chilling conditions can cause significant concern in early spring planting of corn or canola. Poor germination and reduced growth of chilling sensitive crops in the spring results in less ground coverage, more erosion and increased occurrence of weeds leading to less nutrient supply for the crop.

Typically, chilling damage includes wilting, necrosis or ion leakage from cell membranes, especially calcium leakage, and decreased membrane fluidity, which consequently impacts membrane dependent processes such as: photosynthesis, protein synthesis, ATPase activity, uptake of nitrogen, etc. (see Levitt J (1980) Chilling injury and resistance. In Chilling, Freezing, and High Temperature Stresses: Responses of Plant to Environmental Stresses, Vol 1., T T Kozlowsky, ed, Academic Press, New York, pp 23-64; Graham and Patterson (1982) Annu Rev Plant Physiol 33: 347-372; Guy (1990) Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 41: 187-223; and Nishida and Murata (1996) Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47: 541-568.). In addition, cold temperatures are often associated with wet conditions. The combination of cold and wet can result in hypoxic stress on the roots, causing an even more severe reduction of growth rate but, more critically, can be lethal to the plants, especially sensitive plant species such as corn and cotton.

Yet it has been observed that environmental factors, such as low temperature, can serve as triggers to induce cold acclimation processes allowing plants responding thereto to survive and thrive in low temperature environments. It would, therefore, be of great interest and importance to be able to identify genes that regulate or confer improved cold acclimation characteristics to enable one to create transformed plants (such as crop plants) with improved cold tolerance characteristics such as faster germination and/or growth and/or improved nitrogen uptake under cold conditions to improve survival or performance under low or chilling temperatures.

In the fields of agriculture and forestry efforts are constantly being made to produce plants with an increased growth potential in order to feed the ever-increasing world population and to guarantee the supply of reproducible raw materials. This is done conventionally through plant breeding. The breeding process is, however, both time-consuming and labor-intensive. Furthermore, appropriate breeding programs must be performed for each relevant plant species.

Progress has been made in part by the genetic manipulation of plants; that is by introducing and expressing recombinant nucleic acid molecules in plants. Such approaches have the advantage of not usually being limited to one plant species, but instead being transferable among plant species. There is a need for generally applicable processes that improve forest or agricultural plant growth potential. Therefore, the present invention relates to a process for increasing the growth potential in plants under low temperature, chilling or cold conditions, characterized by expression of recombinant DNA molecules stably integrated into the plant genome.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention, therefore, relates to isolated polynucleotides, polypeptides encoded thereby and the use of those products for making transgenic plants with improved cold tolerance.

The present invention also relates to processes for increasing the growth potential in plants due to cold acclimation, recombinant nucleic acid molecules and polypeptides used for these processes and their uses, as well as to plants with an increased growth potential due to improved cold acclimation. Unless otherwise defined, all scientific and technical terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skilled in the art to which this invention belongs.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1 is an alignment of ME01451. In all the alignment figures shown herein, a dash in an aligned sequence represents a gap, i.e., a lack of an amino acid at that position. Identical amino acids or conserved amino acid substitutions among aligned sequences are identified by boxes. FIG. 1 and the other alignment figures provided herein were generated using the program MUSCLE (Edgar (2004) Nuc. Acids Res. 32(5):1792-1797).

FIG. 2 is an alignment of ME02779.

FIG. 3 is an alignment of truncated mutant of ME02779.

FIG. 4 is an alignment of ME03944.

FIG. 5 is an alignment of ME05304.

FIG. 6 is an alignment of truncated mutant of ME05304.

FIG. 7 is an alignment of ME03186.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

1. Definitions

The following terms are utilized throughout this application:

Amino acid: As used herein, “amino acid” refers to one of the twenty biological occurring amino acids and to synthetic amino acids, including D/L optical isomers.

Cell type-preferential promoter or Tissue-preferential promoter: As used herein, these phrases refer to a promoter that drives expression preferentially in a target cell type or tissue, respectively, but may also lead to some transcription in other cell types or tissues as well.

Cold: Plant species vary in their capacity to tolerate low temperatures. Chilling-sensitive plant species, including many agronomically important species, can be injured by cold, above-freezing temperatures. At temperatures below the freezing-point of water most plant species will be damaged. Thus, “cold” can be defined as the temperature at which a given plant species will be adversely affected as evidenced by symptoms such as decreased photosynthesis and membrane damage (measured by electrolyte leakage). Since plant species vary in their capacity to tolerate cold, the precise environmental conditions that cause cold stress can not be generalized. However, cold tolerant plants are characterized by their ability to retain their normal appearance or recover quickly from low temperature conditions. Such cold tolerant plants produce higher biomass and yield than plants that are not cold tolerant. Differences in physical appearance, recovery and yield can be quantified and statistically analyzed using well known measurement and analysis methods.

Plant seeds vary considerably in their ability to germinate under cold conditions. Seeds of many plant species will not germinate at temperatures less than 10° C. Once seeds have imbibed water they become very susceptible to disease, water and chemical damage. Seeds that are tolerant to cold stress during germination can survive for relatively long periods under which the temperature is too low to germinate. Since plant species vary in their capacity to tolerate cold during germination, the precise environmental conditions that cause cold stress during germination can not be generalized. However, plants that tolerate cold during germination are characterized by their ability to remain viable or recover quickly from low temperature conditions. Such cold tolerant plants germinate, become established, grow more quickly and ultimately produce more biomass and yield than plants that are not cold tolerant. Differences in germination rate, appearance, recovery and yield can be quantified and statistically analyzed using well known measurement and analysis methods.

Constitutive Promoter: Promoters referred to herein as “constitutive promoters” actively promote transcription under most, but not necessarily all, environmental conditions and states of development or cell differentiation. Examples of constitutive promoters include the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S transcript initiation region, the 1′ or 2′ promoter derived from T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and other transcription initiation regions from various plant genes, such as the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter, known to those of skill.

Control Plant: “Control plant” refers to a plant that does not contain the exogenous nucleic acid present in the transgenic plant of interest, but otherwise has the same of similar genetic background as such a transgenic plant. A suitable control plant can be a non-transgenic segregant from a transformation experiment, or a transgenic plant that contains an exogenous nucleic acid other than the exogenous nucleic acid of interest.

Domain: “Domains” are groups of substantially contiguous amino acids in a polypeptide that can be used to characterize protein families and/or parts of proteins. Such domains have a “fingerprint” or “signature” that can comprise conserved primary sequence, secondary structure, and/or three-dimensional conformation. Generally, domains are correlated with specific in vitro and/or in vivo activities. A domain can have a length of from 10 amino acids to 400 amino acids, e.g., 10 to 50 amino acids, or 25 to 100 amino acids, or 35 to 65 amino acids, or 35 to 55 amino acids, or 45 to 60 amino acids, or 200 to 300 amino acids, or 300 to 400 amino acids.

Down-regulation: “Down-regulation” refers to regulation that decreases production of expression products (mRNA, polypeptide, or both) relative to basal or native states.

Endogenous: The term “endogenous,” within the context of the current invention refers to any polynucleotide, polypeptide or protein sequence which is a natural part of a cell or organism regenerated from said cell.

Exogenous: “Exogenous” with respect to a nucleic acid indicates that the nucleic acid is part of a recombinant nucleic acid construct, or is not in its natural environment. For example, an exogenous nucleic acid can be a sequence from one species introduced into another species, i.e., a heterologous nucleic acid. Typically, such an exogenous nucleic acid is introduced into the other species via a recombinant nucleic acid construct. An exogenous nucleic acid can also be a sequence that is native to an organism and that has been reintroduced into cells of that organism. An exogenous nucleic acid that includes a native sequence can often be distinguished from the naturally occurring sequence by the presence of non-natural sequences linked to the exogenous nucleic acid, e.g., non-native regulatory sequences flanking a native sequence in a recombinant nucleic acid construct. In addition, stably transformed exogenous nucleic acids typically are integrated at positions other than the position where the native sequence is found. It will be appreciated that an exogenous nucleic acid may have been introduced into a progenitor and not into the cell under consideration. For example, a transgenic plant containing an exogenous nucleic acid can be the progeny of a cross between a stably transformed plant and a non-transgenic plant. Such progeny are considered to contain the exogenous nucleic acid.

Expression: As used herein, “expression” refers to the process of converting genetic information of a polynucleotide into RNA through transcription, which is catalyzed by an enzyme, RNA polymerase, and into protein, through translation of mRNA on ribosomes.

Functionally Comparable Proteins: This phrase describes those proteins that have at least one characteristic in common. Such characteristics include sequence similarity, biochemical activity, transcriptional pattern similarity and phenotypic activity. Typically, the functionally comparable proteins share some sequence similarity or at least one biochemical. Within this definition, homologs, orthologs and analogs are considered to be functionally comparable. In addition, functionally comparable proteins generally share at least one biochemical and/or phenotypic activity.

Functionally comparable proteins will give rise to the same characteristic to a similar, but not necessarily the same, degree. Typically, comparable proteins give the same characteristics where the quantitative measurement due to one of the comparables is at least 20% of the other; more typically, between 30 to 40%; even more typically, between 50-60%; even more typically between 70 to 80%; even more typically between 90 to 100% of the other.

Heterologous polypeptide: “Heterologous polypeptide” as used herein refers to a polypeptide that is not a naturally occurring polypeptide in a plant cell, e.g., a transgenic Panicum plant transformed with and expressing the coding sequence for a nitrogen transporter from a Zea plant.

Heterologous sequences: “Heterologous sequences” are those that are not operatively linked or are not contiguous to each other in nature. For example, a promoter from corn is considered heterologous to an Arabidopsis coding region sequence. Also, a promoter from a gene encoding a growth factor from corn is considered heterologous to a sequence encoding the corn receptor for the growth factor. Regulatory element sequences, such as UTRs or 3′ end termination sequences that do not originate in nature from the same gene as the coding sequence, are considered heterologous to said coding sequence. Elements operatively linked in nature and contiguous to each other are not heterologous to each other. On the other hand, these same elements remain operatively linked but become heterologous if other filler sequence is placed between them. Thus, the promoter and coding sequences of a corn gene expressing an amino acid transporter are not heterologous to each other, but the promoter and coding sequence of a corn gene operatively linked in a novel manner are heterologous.

Inducible Promoter An “inducible promoter” in the context of the current invention refers to a promoter which is regulated under certain conditions, such as light, chemical concentration, protein concentration, conditions in an organism, cell, or organelle, etc. A typical example of an inducible promoter which can be utilized with the polynucleotides of the present invention is rd29a, the promoter from an Arabidopsis gene and which is induced by cold or dehydration (Baker et al. (1994) Plant Mol. Biol. 24:701). Examples of environmental conditions that may affect transcription by inducible promoters include anaerobic conditions, elevated temperature and/or the presence of light.

Isolated nucleic acid: “Isolated nucleic acid” as used herein includes a naturally-occurring nucleic acid, provided one or both of the sequences immediately flanking that nucleic acid in its naturally-occurring genome is removed or absent. Thus, an isolated nucleic acid includes, without limitation, a nucleic acid that exists as a purified molecule or a nucleic acid molecule that is incorporated into a vector or a virus. A nucleic acid existing among hundreds to millions of other nucleic acids within, for example, cDNA libraries, genomic libraries, or gel slices containing a genomic DNA restriction digest, is not to be considered an isolated nucleic acid.

Masterpool: The “master pools” discussed in these experiments are a pool of seeds from five independent transformation events of the same exogenous nucleotide sequence.

Modulation: As used herein, “Modulation” of the level of a compound or constituent refers to the change in the level of the indicated compound or constituent that is observed as a result of expression of, or transcription from, an exogenous nucleic acid in a plant cell. The change in level is measured relative to the corresponding level in control plants.

Misexpression: The term “misexpression” refers to an increase or a decrease in the transcription of a coding region into a complementary RNA sequence as compared to the wild-type. This term also encompasses expression of a gene or coding region for a different time period as compared to the wild-type and/or from a non-natural location within the plant genome.

Nucleic acid and polynucleotide: “Nucleic acid” and “polynucleotide” are used interchangeably herein, and refer to both RNA and DNA, including cDNA, genomic DNA, synthetic DNA, and DNA or RNA containing nucleic acid analogs. Polynucleotides can have any three-dimensional structure. A nucleic acid can be double-stranded or single-stranded (i.e., a sense strand or an antisense strand). Non-limiting examples of polynucleotides include genes, gene fragments, exons, introns, messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, siRNA, micro-RNA, ribozymes, cDNA, recombinant polynucleotides, branched polynucleotides, nucleic acid probes and nucleic acid primers. A polynucleotide may contain unconventional or modified nucleotides.

Operably linked: As used herein, “operably linked” refers to the positioning of a regulatory region and a sequence to be transcribed in a nucleic acid so that the regulatory region is effective for regulating transcription or translation of the sequence. For example, to operably link a coding sequence and a regulatory region, the translation initiation site of the translational reading frame of the coding sequence is typically positioned between one and about fifty nucleotides downstream of the regulatory region. A regulatory region can, however, be positioned as much as about 5,000 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation site, or about 2,000 nucleotides upstream of the transcription start site.

Percentage of sequence identity: “Percentage of sequence identity,” as used herein, is determined by comparing two optimally aligned sequences over a comparison window defined by the length of the longest sequence, where the polynucleotide or amino acid sequence in the comparison window may comprise additions or deletions (e.g., gaps or overhangs) as compared to the reference sequence (which does not comprise additions or deletions) for optimal alignment of the two sequences. The percentage is calculated by determining the number of positions at which the identical nucleic acid base or amino acid residue occurs in both sequences to yield the number of matched positions, dividing the number of matched positions by the total number of positions in the window of comparison and multiplying the result by 100 to yield the percentage of sequence identity. Optimal alignment of sequences for comparison may be conducted by the local homology algorithm of Smith and Waterman (1981) Add. APL. Math. 2:482, by the homology alignment algorithm of Needleman and Wunsch (1970) J Mol. Biol. 48:443), by the search for similarity method of Pearson and Lipman (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 85: 2444, by computerized implementations of these algorithms (GAP, BESTFIT, BLAST, PASTA, and TFASTA in the Wisconsin Genetics Software Package, Genetics Computer Group (GCG), 575 Science Dr., Madison, Wis.), or by inspection. Given that two sequences have been identified for comparison, GAP and BESTFIT are preferably employed to determine their optimal alignment. Typically, the default values of 5.00 for gap weight and 0.30 for gap weight length are used. The term “substantial sequence identity” between polynucleotide or polypeptide sequences refers to polynucleotide or polypeptide comprising a sequence that has at least 80% sequence identity, preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90% and most preferably at least 95%, even more preferably, at least 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% sequence identity compared to a reference sequence using the programs.

Query nucleic acid and amino acid sequences were searched against subject nucleic acid or amino acid sequences residing in public or proprietary databases. Such searches were done using the Washington University Basic Local Alignment Search Tool Version 1.83 (WU-Blast2) program. The WU-Blast2 program is available on the internet from Washington University. A WU-Blast2 service for Arabidopsis can also be found on the internet. Typically the following parameters of WU-Blast2 were used: Filter options were set to “default,” Output format was set to “gapped alignments,” the Comparison Matrix was set to “BLOSUM62,” Cutoff Score (S value) was set to “default,” the Expect (E threshold) was set to “default,” the Number of best alignments to show was set to “100,” and the “Sort output” option was set to sort the output by “pvalue.”

Plant Promoter: A “plant promoter” is a promoter capable of initiating transcription in plant cells and can drive or facilitate transcription of a nucleotide sequence or fragment thereof of the instant invention. Such promoters need not be of plant origin. For example, promoters derived from plant viruses, such as the CaMV35S promoter or from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the T-DNA promoters, can be plant promoters. A typical example of a plant promoter of plant origin is the maize ubiquitin-1 (ubi-1) promoter known to those of skill.

Polypeptide: “Polypeptide” as used herein refers to a compound of two or more subunit amino acids, amino acid analogs, or other peptidomimetics, regardless of post-translational modification, e.g., phosphorylation or glycosylation. The subunits may be linked by peptide bonds or other bonds such as, for example, ester or ether bonds. Full-length polypeptides, truncated polypeptides, point mutants, insertion mutants, splice variants, chimeric proteins, and fragments thereof are encompassed by this definition.

Progeny: As used herein, “progeny” includes descendants of a particular plant or plant line. Progeny of an instant plant include seeds formed on F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6 and subsequent generation plants, or seeds formed on BC1, BC2, BC3, and subsequent generation plants, or seeds formed on F1BC1, F1BC2, F1BC3, and subsequent generation plants. The designation F1 refers to the progeny of a cross between two parents that are genetically distinct. The designations F2, F3, F4, F5 and F6 refer to subsequent generations of self- or sib-pollinated progeny of an F1 plant.

Regulatory region: As used herein, “regulatory region” refers to a nucleic acid having nucleotide sequences that influence transcription or translation initiation and rate, and stability and/or mobility of a transcription or translation product. Regulatory regions include, without limitation, promoter sequences, enhancer sequences, response elements, protein recognition sites, inducible elements, protein binding sequences, 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), transcriptional start sites, termination sequences, polyadenylation sequences, introns, and combinations thereof. A regulatory region typically comprises at least a core (basal) promoter. A regulatory region also may include at least one control element, such as an enhancer sequence, an upstream element or an upstream activation region (UAR). For example, a suitable enhancer is a cis-regulatory element (−212 to −154) from the upstream region of the octopine synthase (ocs) gene. Fromm et al., The Plant Cell, 1:977-984 (1989).

Specific Promoter: In the context of the current invention, “specific promoters” refers to promoters that have a high preference for being active in a specific tissue or cell and/or at a specific time during development of an organism. By “high preference” is meant at least a 3-fold, preferably 5-fold, more preferably at least 10-fold still more preferably at least a 20-fold, 50-fold or 100-fold increase in transcription in the desired tissue over the transcription in any other tissue. Typical examples of temporal and/or tissue specific promoters of plant origin that can be used with the polynucleotides of the present invention, are: SH-EP fromVigna mungo and EP-C1 from Phaseolus vulgaris (Yamauchi et al. (1996) Plant Mol. Biol. 30:321-9.); RCc2 and RCc3, promoters that direct root-specific gene transcription in rice (Xu et al. (1995) Plant Mol. Biol. 27:237) and TobRB27, a root-specific promoter from tobacco (Yamamoto et al. (1991) Plant Cell 3:371).

Stringency: “Stringency” as used herein is a function of probe length, probe composition (G+C content), salt concentration, organic solvent concentration and temperature of hybridization or wash conditions. Stringency is typically compared by the parameter Tm, which is the temperature at which 50% of the complementary molecules in the hybridization are hybridized, in terms of a temperature differential from Tm. High stringency conditions are those providing a condition of Tm−5° C. to Tm−10° C. Medium or moderate stringency conditions are those providing Tm−20° C. to Tm−29° C. Low stringency conditions are those providing a condition of Tm−40° C. to Tm−48° C. The relationship of hybridization conditions to Tm (in ° C.) is expressed in the mathematical equation


Tm=81.5−16.6(log10[Na+])+0.41(% G+C)−(600/N) (1)

where N is the length of the probe. This equation works well for probes 14 to 70 nucleotides in length that are identical to the target sequence. The equation below for Tm of DNA-DNA hybrids is useful for probes in the range of 50 to greater than 500 nucleotides, and for conditions that include an organic solvent (formamide).


Tm=81.5+16.6 log {[Na+]/(1+0.7[Na+])}+0.41(% G+C)−500/L 0.63(% formamide) (2)

where L is the length of the probe in the hybrid (P. Tijessen, “Hybridization with Nucleic Acid Probes” In Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, P. C. vand der Vliet, ed., c. 1993 by Elsevier, Amsterdam.) The Tm of equation (2) is affected by the nature of the hybrid; for DNA-RNA hybrids Tm is 10-15° C. higher than calculated, for RNA-RNA hybrids Tm is 20-25° C. higher. Because the Tm decreases about 1° C. for each 1% decrease in homology when a long probe is used (Bonner et al., (1973) J. Mol. Biol. 81:123), stringency conditions can be adjusted to favor detection of identical genes or related family members.

Equation (2) is derived assuming equilibrium. Therefore, hybridizations according to the present invention are most preferably performed under conditions of probe excess and for sufficient time to achieve equilibrium. The time required to reach equilibrium can be shortened by using a hybridization buffer that includes a hybridization accelerator such as dextran sulfate or another high volume polymer.

Stringency can be controlled during the hybridization reaction or after hybridization has occurred by altering the salt and temperature conditions of the wash solutions used. The formulas shown above are equally valid when used to compute the stringency of a wash solution. Preferred wash solution stringencies lie within the ranges stated above; high stringency is 5-8° C. below Tm, medium or moderate stringency is 26-29° C. below Tm and low stringency is 45-48° C. below Tm.

Superpool: As used in the context of the current invention, a “superpool” refers to a mixture of seed from 100 different “master pools.” The master pools are of 5 different events with the same exogenous nucleotide sequence transformed into them. Thus, while the superpool contains an equal amount of seed from 500 different events, it only represents 100 transgenic plants with a distinct exogenous nucleotide sequence transformed into them.

T0: As used in the current application, the term “T0” refers to the whole plant, explant or callus tissue inoculated with the transformation medium.

T1: As used in the current application, the term T1 refers to either the progeny of the T0 plant, in the case of whole-plant transformation, or the regenerated seedling in the case of explant or callous tissue transformation.

T2: As used in the current application, the term T2 refers to the progeny of the T1 plant. T2 progeny are the result of self-fertilization or cross pollination of a T1 plant.

T3: As used in the current application, the term T3 refers to second generation progeny of the plant that is the direct result of a transformation experiment. T3 progeny are the result of self-fertilization or cross pollination of a T2 plant.

Up-regulation: “Up-regulation” refers to regulation that increases the level of an expression product (mRNA, polypeptide, or both) relative to basal or native states.

Vector: “Vector” refers to a replicon, such as a plasmid, phage, or cosmid, into which another DNA segment may be inserted so as to bring about the replication of the inserted segment. Generally, a vector is capable of replication when associated with the proper control elements. The term “vector” includes cloning and expression vectors, as well as viral vectors and integrating vectors. An “expression vector” is a vector that includes a regulatory region.

2. Important Characteristics of the Polynucleotides of the Invention

The genes and polynucleotides of the present invention are of interest because when they are misexpressed (i.e. when expressed at a non-natural location or in an increased or decreased amount) they produce plants with improved low temperature, chilling or cold tolerance as discussed below and as evidenced by the results of various experiments. These traits can be used to exploit or maximize plant products. For example, the genes and polynucleotides of the present invention are used to increase the expression of genes that render the plant more tolerant to low temperature, chilling or cold conditions. As a consequence, such transgenic plants do better and grow faster under low temperature, chilling or cold conditions, leading to reduced costs for the farmer and, better yield under low temperatures.

3. The Polynucleotides and Polypeptides of the Invention

The polynucleotides of the invention and the proteins expressed thereby are set forth in the Sequence Listing. Such Sequence Listing consists of functionally comparable proteins.

Functionally comparable proteins are those proteins that have at least one characteristic in common. Such characteristics can include sequence similarity, biochemical activity and phenotypic activity. Typically, the functionally comparable proteins share some sequence similarity. Within this definition homologs, orthologs and analogs are considered to be functionally comparable.

Also, these comparables generally share at least one biochemical and/or phenotypic activity. For example, biochemical activity comparables are proteins that act on the same reactant to give the same product.

Another class of comparables is phenotypic comparables that both give the same physical characteristic, such as increased low temperature, chilling or cold tolerance. Proteins can be considered phenotypic comparables even if the proteins give rise to the same physical characteristic, but to a different degree.

4. Use of the Polynucleotides and Polypeptides to Make Transgenic Plants

To use the sequences of the present invention or a combination of them or parts and/or mutants and/or fusions and/or variants of them, recombinant DNA constructs are prepared which comprise the polynucleotide sequences of the invention inserted into a vector and which are suitable for transformation of plant cells. The construct can be made using standard recombinant DNA techniques (see Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Second Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1989, New York) and can be introduced to the species of interest by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation or by other means of transformation as referenced below.

The vector backbone can be any of those typical in the art such as plasmids, viruses, artificial chromosomes, BACs, YACs and PACs and vectors of the sort described by

  • (a) BAC: Shizuya et al. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 8794-8797; Hamilton et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 9975-9979;
  • (b) YAC: Burke et al. (1987) Science 236:806-812;
  • (c) PAC: Sternberg N. et al. (1990) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. January; 87:103-7;
  • (d) Bacteria-Yeast Shuttle Vectors: Bradshaw et al. (1995) Nucl Acids Res 23: 4850-4856;
  • (e) Lambda Phage Vectors: Replacement Vector, e.g., Frischauf et al. (1983) J. Mol. Biol 170: 827-842; or Insertion vector, e.g., Huynh et al., In: Glover N M (ed) DNA Cloning: A practical Approach, Vol. 1 Oxford: IRL Press (1985); T-DNA gene fusion vectors Walden et al. (1990) Mol Cell Biol 1: 175-194; and
  • (g) Plasmid vectors: Sambrook et al., infra.

Typically, the construct comprises a vector containing a sequence of the present invention with any desired transcriptional and/or translational regulatory sequences such as promoters, UTRs, and 3′ end termination sequences. Vectors can also include origins of replication, scaffold attachment regions (SARs), markers, homologous sequences, introns, etc. The vector may also comprise a marker gene that confers a selectable phenotype on plant cells. The marker typically encodes biocide resistance, particularly antibiotic resistance, such as resistance to kanamycin, bleomycin, or hygromycin, or herbicide resistance, such as resistance to glyphosate, chlorosulfuron or phosphinotricin.

A plant promoter is used that directs transcription of the gene in all tissues of a regenerated plant and may be a constitutive promoter, such as the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S. Alternatively, the plant promoter directs transcription of a sequence of the invention in a specific tissue (tissue-specific promoters) or is otherwise under more precise environmental or developmental control (inducible promoters). Typically, preferred promoters to use in the present invention are cold inducible promoters. Many cold-inducible genes, including the cis-elements which confer cold induction, have been identified (Shinozaki et al. (2003) Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 6:410). Examples of such cold-inducible genes include RD29A (Yamaguchi-Shinozaki and Shinozaki (1994) Plant Cell 6:251) and CBF/DREB1 (Stockinger et al. (1997) PNAS 94:1035. Another preferred embodiment of the present invention is to use seedling specific promoters, endosperm specific promoters and leaf specific promoters. Various plant promoters, including constitutive, tissue-specific and inducible, are known to those skilled in the art and can be utilized in the present invention.

Alternatively, misexpression can be accomplished using a two component system, whereby the first component consists of a transgenic plant comprising a transcriptional activator operatively linked to a promoter and the second component consists of a transgenic plant that comprises sequence of the invention operatively linked to the target-binding sequence/region of the transcriptional activator. The two transgenic plants are crossed and the sequence of the invention is expressed in their progeny. In another alternative, the misexpression can be accomplished by having the sequences of the two component system transformed in one transgenic plant line.

Transformation

Nucleotide sequences of the invention are introduced into the genome or the cell of the appropriate host plant by a variety of techniques. These techniques for transforming a wide variety of higher plant species are well known and described in the technical and scientific literature. See, e.g. Weising et al. (1988) Ann. Rev. Genet. 22:421; and Christou (1995) Euphytica, v. 85, n.1-3:13-27.

Processes for the transformation of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants are known to the person skilled in the art. A variety of techniques is available for the introduction of DNA into a plant host cell. These techniques include transformation of plant cells by injection, microinjection, electroporation of DNA, PEG, use of biolistics, fusion of cells or protoplasts, and via T-DNA using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Agrobacterium rhizogenes or other bacterial hosts, as well as further possibilities.

In addition, a number of non-stable transformation methods that are well known to those skilled in the art may be desirable for the present invention. Such methods include, but are not limited to, transient expression and viral transfection.

Seeds are obtained from the transformed plants and used for testing stability and inheritance. Generally, two or more generations are cultivated to ensure that the phenotypic feature is stably maintained and transmitted.

One of skill will recognize that after the expression cassette is stably incorporated in transgenic plants and confirmed to be operable, it can be introduced into other plants by sexual crossing. Any of a number of standard breeding techniques can be used, depending upon the species to be crossed.

The nucleic acids of the invention can be used to confer the trait of increased tolerance to low temperature, chilling or cold conditions without reduction in fertility on essentially any plant, including chilling sensitive crop plants such as corn, soybean, rice and cotton.

The nucleotide sequences according to the invention encode appropriate proteins from any organism, in particular from plants, fungi, bacteria or animals.

The process according to the invention can be applied to any plant, preferably higher plants, pertaining to the classes of Angiospermae and Gymnospermae. Plants of the subclasses of the Dicorylodenae and the Monocotyledonae are particularly suitable. Dicotyledonous plants belong to the orders of the Magniolales, Illiciales, Laurales, Piperales Aristochiales, Nymphaeales, Ranunculales, Papeverales, Sarraceniaceae, Trochodendrales, Hamamelidales, Eucomiales, Leitneriales, Myricales, Fagales, Casuarinales, Caryophyllales, Batales, Polygonales, Plumbaginales, Dilleniales, Theales, Malvales, Urticales, Lecythidales, Violales, Salicales, Capparales, Ericales, Diapensales, Ebenales, Primulales, Rosales, Fabales, Podostemales, Haloragales, Myrtales, Cornales, Proteales, Santales, Rafflesiales, Celastrales, Euphorbiales, Rhamnales, Sapindales, Juglandales, Geraniales, Polygalales, Umbellales, Gentianales, Polemoniales, Lamiales, Plantaginales, Scrophulariales, Campanulales, Rubiales, Dipsacales, and Asterales. Monocotyledonous plants belong to the orders of the Alismatales, Hydrocharitales, Najadales, Triuridales, Commelinales, Eriocaulales, Restionales, Poales, Juncales, Cyperales, Typhales, Bromeliales, Zingiberales, Arecales, Cyclanthales, Pandanales, Arales, Lilliales, and Orchidales. Plants belonging to the class of the Gymnospermae are Pinales, Ginkgoales, Cycadales and Gnetales.

The process is preferably used with plants that are important or interesting for agriculture, horticulture, biomass for bioconversion and/or forestry. Examples are tobacco, oilseed rape, sugar beet, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, beans, peas, citrus fruits, avocados, peaches, apples, pears, berries, plumbs, melons, eggplants, cotton, soybean, sunflowers, roses, poinsettia, petunia, guayule, cabbages, spinach, alfalfa, artichokes, corn, wheat, rice, rye, barley, grasses such as switch grass or turf grass, millet, hemp, bananas, poplars, eucalyptus trees and conifers.

Homologs Encompassed by the Invention

It is well known in the art that one or more amino acids in a native sequence can be substituted with other amino acid(s), the charge and polarity of which are similar to that of the native amino acid, i.e. a conservative amino acid substitution, resulting in a silent change. Conservative substitutes for an amino acid within the native polypeptide sequence can be selected from other members of the class to which the amino acid belongs. Amino acids can be divided into the following four groups: (1) acidic (negatively charged) amino acids, such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid; (2) basic (positively charged) amino acids, such as arginine, histidine, and lysine; (3) neutral polar amino acids, such as serine, threonine, tyrosine, asparagine, and glutamine; and (4) neutral nonpolar (hydrophobic) amino acids such as glycine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, proline, phenylalanine, tryptophan, cysteine, and methionine.

In a further aspect of the present invention, nucleic acid molecules of the present invention can comprise sequences that differ from those encoding a protein or fragment thereof selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 2-5,7,9-18, 20-32, 34-38, 40 and 42-46 due to the fact that the different nucleic acid sequence encodes a protein having one or more conservative amino acid changes.

Polypeptides

Polypeptides described herein include cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides. Cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides can be effective to modulate cold tolerance levels when expressed in a plant or plant cell. Such polypeptides typically contain at least one domain indicative of cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides, as described in more detail herein. Cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides typically have an HMM bit score that is greater than 20, as described in more detail herein. In some embodiments, cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides have greater than 80% identity to SEQ ID NOs: 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40, and 42, as described in more detail herein.

In some embodiments, a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide is truncated at the amino- or carboxy-terminal end of a naturally occurring polypeptide. A truncated polypeptide may retain certain domains of the naturally occurring polypeptide while lacking others. Thus, length variants that are up to 5 amino acids shorter or longer typically exhibit the cold tolerance-modulating activity of a truncated polypeptide. In some embodiments, a truncated polypeptide is a dominant negative polypeptide. SEQ ID NOs 7 and 40 set forth the amino sequences of cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides that are truncated at the 3′ end relative to the naturally occurring polypeptides SEQ ID NOs 9 and 34, respectively. Expression in a plant of such a truncated polypeptide confers a difference in the level of cold tolerance in a tissue of the plant as compared to the corresponding level in tissue of a control plant that does not comprise the truncation.

A. Functional Homologs Identified by Reciprocal BLAST

In some embodiments, one or more functional homologs of a reference cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide defined by one or more of the pfam descriptions indicated above are suitable for use as cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides. A functional homolog is a polypeptide that has sequence similarity to a reference polypeptide, and that carries out one or more of the biochemical or physiological function(s) of the reference polypeptide. A functional homolog and the reference polypeptide may be natural occurring polypeptides, and the sequence similarity may be due to convergent or divergent evolutionary events. As such, functional homologs are sometimes designated in the literature as homologs, or orthologs, or paralogs. Variants of a naturally occurring functional homolog, such as polypeptides encoded by mutants of a wild type coding sequence, may themselves be functional homologs. Functional homologs can also be created via site-directed mutagenesis of the coding sequence for a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide, or by combining domains from the coding sequences for different naturally-occurring cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides (“domain swapping”). The term “functional homolog” is sometimes applied to the nucleic acid that encodes a functionally homologous polypeptide.

Functional homologs can be identified by analysis of nucleotide and polypeptide sequence alignments. For example, performing a query on a database of nucleotide or polypeptide sequences can identify homologs of cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides. Sequence analysis can involve BLAST, Reciprocal BLAST, or PSI-BLAST analysis of nonredundant databases using a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide amino acid sequence as the reference sequence. Amino acid sequence is, in some instances, deduced from the nucleotide sequence. Those polypeptides in the database that have greater than 40% sequence identity are candidates for further evaluation for suitability as a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide. Amino acid sequence similarity allows for conservative amino acid substitutions, such as substitution of one hydrophobic residue for another or substitution of one polar residue for another. If desired, manual inspection of such candidates can be carried out in order to narrow the number of candidates to be further evaluated. Manual inspection can be performed by selecting those candidates that appear to have domains present in cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides, e.g., conserved functional domains.

Conserved regions can be identified by locating a region within the primary amino acid sequence of a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide that is a repeated sequence, forms some secondary structure (e.g., helices and beta sheets), establishes positively or negatively charged domains, or represents a protein motif or domain. See, e.g., the Pfam web site describing consensus sequences for a variety of protein motifs and domains on the World Wide Web at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and HMMI janelia farm research campus. A description of the information included at the Pfam database is described in Sonnhammer et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 26:320-322 (1998); Sonnhammer et al., Proteins, 28:405-420 (1997); and Bateman et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 27:260-262 (1999). Conserved regions also can be determined by aligning sequences of the same or related polypeptides from closely related species. Closely related species preferably are from the same family. In some embodiments, alignment of sequences from two different species is adequate.

Typically, polypeptides that exhibit at least about 40% amino acid sequence identity are useful to identify conserved regions. Conserved regions of related polypeptides exhibit at least 45% amino acid sequence identity (e.g., at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, or at least 90% amino acid sequence identity). In some embodiments, a conserved region exhibits at least 92%, 94%, 96%, 98%, or 99% amino acid sequence identity.

Amino acid sequences of functional homologs of the polypeptide set forth in SEQ ID NOs 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42 are provided in FIGS. 1-7, respectively. In some cases, a functional homolog of SEQ ID NOs 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42 has an amino acid sequence with at least 80% sequence identity, e.g., 50%, 52%, 56%, 59%, 61%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 97%, 98%, or 99% sequence identity, to the amino acid sequence set forth in the Sequence Listing.

The identification of conserved regions in a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide facilitates production of variants of cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides. Variants of cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides typically have 10 or fewer conservative amino acid substitutions within the primary amino acid sequence, e.g., 7 or fewer conservative amino acid substitutions, 5 or fewer conservative amino acid substitutions, or between 1 and 5 conservative substitutions. A useful variant polypeptide can be constructed based on one of the alignments set forth in any one of FIGS. 1-7. Such a polypeptide includes the conserved regions, arranged in the order depicted in the Figure from amino-terminal end to carboxy-terminal end. Such a polypeptide may also include zero, one, or more than one amino acid in positions marked by dashes. When no amino acids are present at positions marked by dashes, the length of such a polypeptide is the sum of the amino acid residues in all conserved regions. When amino acids are present at all positions marked by dashes, such a polypeptide has a length that is the sum of the amino acid residues in all conserved regions and all dashes.

B. Functional Homologs Identified by HMMER

In some embodiments, useful cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides include those that fit a Hidden Markov Model based on the polypeptides set forth in any one of FIGS. 1-7. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a statistical model of a consensus sequence for a group of functional homologs. See, Durbin et al., Biological Sequence Analysis. Probabilistic Models of Proteins and Nucleic Acids, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (1998). An HMM is generated by the program HMMER 2.3.2 with default program parameters, using the sequences of the group of functional homologs as input. The multiple sequence alignment is generated by ProbCons (Do et al., Genome Res., 15(2):330-40 (2005)) version 1.11 using a set of default parameters: —c, —consistency REPS of 2; —ir, —iterative-refinement REPS of 100; —pre, —pre-training REPS of 0. ProbCons is a public domain software program provided by Stanford University.

The default parameters for building an HMM (hmmbuild) are as follows: the default “architecture prior” (archpri) used by MAP architecture construction is 0.85, and the default cutoff threshold (idlevel) used to determine the effective sequence number is 0.62. HMMER 2.3.2 was released Oct. 3, 2003 under a GNU general public license, and is available from various sources on the World Wide Web such as the HMMER page on the HHMI janelia farm research campus website; the Eddy Lab Home page on the HHMI janelia farm research campus website; and HMMER 2.3.2 download available on the Fish & Richardson website. Hmmbuild outputs the model as a text file.

The HMM for a group of functional homologs can be used to determine the likelihood that a candidate cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide sequence is a better fit to that particular HMM than to a null HMM generated using a group of sequences that are not structurally or functionally related. The likelihood that a subject polypeptide sequence is a better fit to an HMM than to a null HMM is indicated by the HMM bit score, a number generated when the candidate sequence is fitted to the HMM profile using the HMMER hmmsearch program. The following default parameters are used when running hmmsearch: the default E-value cutoff (E) is 10.0, the default bit score cutoff (T) is negative infinity, the default number of sequences in a database (Z) is the real number of sequences in the database, the default E-value cutoff for the per-domain ranked hit list (dome) is infinity, and the default bit score cutoff for the per-domain ranked hit list (domT) is negative infinity. A high HMM bit score indicates a greater likelihood that the subject sequence carries out one or more of the biochemical or physiological function(s) of the polypeptides used to generate the HMM. A high HMM bit score is at least 20, and often is higher.

The cold tolerance-modulating polypeptides discussed below fit the indicated HMM with an HMM bit score greater than 20 (e.g., greater than 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500). In some embodiments, the HMM bit score of a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide discussed below is about 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95% of the HMM bit score of a functional homolog provided in one of Table 7. In some embodiments, a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide discussed below fits the indicated HMM with an HMM bit score greater than 20, and has a domain indicative of an cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide. In some embodiments, a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide discussed below fits the indicated HMM with an HMM bit score greater than 20, and has 80% or greater sequence identity (e.g., 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or 100% sequence identity) to an amino acid sequence shown in any one of FIGS. 1-7.

Polypeptides are shown in Table 7 that have HMM bit scores greater than 20 when fitted to an HMM generated from the amino acid sequences set forth in FIGS. 1-7, respectively.

In another aspect, biologically functional equivalents of the proteins or fragments thereof of the present invention can have about 10 or fewer conservative amino acid changes, more preferably about 7 or fewer conservative amino acid changes and most preferably about 5 or fewer conservative amino acid changes. In a preferred embodiment, the protein has between about 5 and about 500 conservative changes, more preferably between about 10 and about 300 conservative changes, even more preferably between about 25 and about 150 conservative changes, and most preferably between about 5 and about 25 conservative changes or between 1 and about 5 conservative changes.

Inhibition of Expression of a Cold Tolerance-Modulating Polypeptide

Polynucleotides and recombinant constructs described herein can be used to inhibit expression of a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide in a plant species of interest. See, e.g., Matzke and Birchler, Nature Reviews Genetics 6:24-35 (2005); Akashi et al., Nature Reviews Mol. Cell. Biology 6:413-422 (2005); Mittal, Nature Reviews Genetics 5:355-365 (2004); Dorsett and Tuschl, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 3: 318-329 (2004); and Nature Reviews RNA interference collection, October 2005 at nature.com/reviews/focus/mai. A number of nucleic acid based methods, including antisense RNA, ribozyme directed RNA cleavage, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), e.g., RNA interference (RNAi), and transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) are known to inhibit gene expression in plants. Antisense technology is one well-known method. In this method, a nucleic acid segment from a gene to be repressed is cloned and operably linked to a regulatory region and a transcription termination sequence so that the antisense strand of RNA is transcribed. The recombinant construct is then transformed into plants, as described herein, and the antisense strand of RNA is produced. The nucleic acid segment need not be the entire sequence of the gene to be repressed, but typically will be substantially complementary to at least a portion of the sense strand of the gene to be repressed. Generally, higher homology can be used to compensate for the use of a shorter sequence. Typically, a sequence of at least 30 nucleotides is used, e.g., at least 40, 50, 80, 100, 200, 500 nucleotides or more.

In another method, a nucleic acid can be transcribed into a ribozyme, or catalytic RNA, that affects expression of an mRNA. See, U.S. Pat. No. 6,423,885. Ribozymes can be designed to specifically pair with virtually any target RNA and cleave the phosphodiester backbone at a specific location, thereby functionally inactivating the target RNA. Heterologous nucleic acids can encode ribozymes designed to cleave particular mRNA transcripts, thus preventing expression of a polypeptide. Hammerhead ribozymes are useful for destroying particular mRNAs, although various ribozymes that cleave mRNA at site-specific recognition sequences can be used. Hammerhead ribozymes cleave mRNAs at locations dictated by flanking regions that form complementary base pairs with the target mRNA. The sole requirement is that the target RNA contains a 5′-UG-3′ nucleotide sequence. The construction and production of hammerhead ribozymes is known in the art. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,254,678 and WO 02/46449 and references cited therein. Hammerhead ribozyme sequences can be embedded in a stable RNA such as a transfer RNA (tRNA) to increase cleavage efficiency in vivo. Perriman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92(13):6175-6179 (1995); de Feyter and Gaudron, Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 74, Chapter 43, “Expressing Ribozymes in Plants”, Edited by Turner, P. C., Humana Press Inc., Totowa, N.J. RNA endoribonucleases which have been described, such as the one that occurs naturally in Tetrahymena thermophila, can be useful. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,987,071 and 6,423,885.

PTGS, e.g., RNAi, can also be used to inhibit the expression of a gene. For example, a construct can be prepared that includes a sequence that is transcribed into an RNA that can anneal to itself, e.g., a double stranded RNA having a stem-loop structure. In some embodiments, one strand of the stem portion of a double stranded RNA comprises a sequence that is similar or identical to the sense coding sequence of a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide, and that is from about 10 nucleotides to about 2,500 nucleotides in length. The length of the sequence that is similar or identical to the sense coding sequence can be from 10 nucleotides to 500 nucleotides, from 15 nucleotides to 300 nucleotides, from 20 nucleotides to 100 nucleotides, or from 25 nucleotides to 100 nucleotides. The other strand of the stem portion of a double stranded RNA comprises a sequence that is similar or identical to the antisense strand of the coding sequence of the cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide, and can have a length that is shorter, the same as, or longer than the corresponding length of the sense sequence. In some cases, one strand of the stem portion of a double stranded RNA comprises a sequence that is similar or identical to the 3′ or 5′ untranslated region of an mRNA encoding a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide, and the other strand of the stem portion of the double stranded RNA comprises a sequence that is similar or identical to the sequence that is complementary to the 3′ or 5′ untranslated region, respectively, of the mRNA encoding the cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide. In other embodiments, one strand of the stem portion of a double stranded RNA comprises a sequence that is similar or identical to the sequence of an intron in the pre-mRNA encoding a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide, and the other strand of the stem portion comprises a sequence that is similar or identical to the sequence that is complementary to the sequence of the intron in the pre-mRNA. The loop portion of a double stranded RNA can be from 3 nucleotides to 5,000 nucleotides, e.g., from 3 nucleotides to 25 nucleotides, from 15 nucleotides to 1,000 nucleotides, from 20 nucleotides to 500 nucleotides, or from 25 nucleotides to 200 nucleotides. The loop portion of the RNA can include an intron. A double stranded RNA can have zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, or more stem-loop structures. A construct including a sequence that is operably linked to a regulatory region and a transcription termination sequence, and that is transcribed into an RNA that can form a double stranded RNA, is transformed into plants as described herein. Methods for using RNAi to inhibit the expression of a gene are known to those of skill in the art. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,034,323; 6,326,527; 6,452,067; 6,573,099; 6,753,139; and 6,777,588. See also WO 97/01952; WO 98/53083; WO 99/32619; WO 98/36083; and U.S. Patent Publications 20030175965, 20030175783, 20040214330, and 20030180945.

Constructs containing regulatory regions operably linked to nucleic acid molecules in sense orientation can also be used to inhibit the expression of a gene. The transcription product can be similar or identical to the sense coding sequence of a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide. The transcription product can also be unpolyadenylated, lack a 5′ cap structure, or contain an unsplicable intron. Methods of inhibiting gene expression using a full-length cDNA as well as a partial cDNA sequence are known in the art. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,231,020.

In some embodiments, a construct containing a nucleic acid having at least one strand that is a template for both sense and antisense sequences that are complementary to each other is used to inhibit the expression of a gene. The sense and antisense sequences can be part of a larger nucleic acid molecule or can be part of separate nucleic acid molecules having sequences that are not complementary. The sense or antisense sequence can be a sequence that is identical or complementary to the sequence of an mRNA, the 3′ or 5′ untranslated region of an mRNA, or an intron in a pre-mRNA encoding a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide. In some embodiments, the sense or antisense sequence is identical or complementary to a sequence of the regulatory region that drives transcription of the gene encoding a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide. In each case, the sense sequence is the sequence that is complementary to the antisense sequence.

The sense and antisense sequences can be any length greater than about 12 nucleotides (e.g., 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, or more nucleotides). For example, an antisense sequence can be 21 or 22 nucleotides in length. Typically, the sense and antisense sequences range in length from about 15 nucleotides to about 30 nucleotides, e.g., from about 18 nucleotides to about 28 nucleotides, or from about 21 nucleotides to about 25 nucleotides.

In some embodiments, an antisense sequence is a sequence complementary to an mRNA sequence encoding a cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide described herein. The sense sequence complementary to the antisense sequence can be a sequence present within the mRNA of the cold tolerance-modulating polypeptide. Typically, sense and antisense sequences are designed to correspond to a 15-30 nucleotide sequence of a target mRNA such that the level of that target mRNA is reduced.

In some embodiments, a construct containing a nucleic acid having at least one strand that is a template for more than one sense sequence (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more sense sequences) can be used to inhibit the expression of a gene. Likewise, a construct containing a nucleic acid having at least one strand that is a template for more than one antisense sequence (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more antisense sequences) can be used to inhibit the expression of a gene. For example, a construct can contain a nucleic acid having at least one strand that is a template for two sense sequences and two antisense sequences. The multiple sense sequences can be identical or different, and the multiple antisense sequences can be identical or different. For example, a construct can have a nucleic acid having one strand that is a template for two identical sense sequences and two identical antisense sequences that are complementary to the two identical sense sequences. Alternatively, an isolated nucleic acid can have one strand that is a template for (1) two identical sense sequences 20 nucleotides in length, (2) one antisense sequence that is complementary to the two identical sense sequences 20 nucleotides in length, (3) a sense sequence 30 nucleotides in length, and (4) three identical antisense sequences that are complementary to the sense sequence 30 nucleotides in length. The constructs provided herein can be designed to have any arrangement of sense and antisense sequences. For example, two identical sense sequences can be followed by two identical antisense sequences or can be positioned between two identical antisense sequences.

A nucleic acid having at least one strand that is a template for one or more sense and/or antisense sequences can be operably linked to a regulatory region to drive transcription of an RNA molecule containing the sense and/or antisense sequence(s). In addition, such a nucleic acid can be operably linked to a transcription terminator sequence, such as the terminator of the nopaline synthase (nos) gene. In some cases, two regulatory regions can direct transcription of two transcripts: one from the top strand, and one from the bottom strand. See, for example, Yan et al., Plant Physiol., 141:1508-1518 (2006). The two regulatory regions can be the same or different. The two transcripts can form double-stranded RNA molecules that induce degradation of the target RNA. In some cases, a nucleic acid can be positioned within a T-DNA or plant-derived transfer DNA (P-DNA) such that the left and right T-DNA border sequences, or the left and right border-like sequences of the P-DNA, flank or are on either side of the nucleic acid. See, US 2006/0265788. The nucleic acid sequence between the two regulatory regions can be from about 15 to about 300 nucleotides in length. In some embodiments, the nucleic acid sequence between the two regulatory regions is from about 15 to about 200 nucleotides in length, from about 15 to about 100 nucleotides in length, from about 15 to about 50 nucleotides in length, from about 18 to about 50 nucleotides in length, from about 18 to about 40 nucleotides in length, from about 18 to about 30 nucleotides in length, or from about 18 to about 25 nucleotides in length.

In some nucleic-acid based methods for inhibition of gene expression in plants, a suitable nucleic acid can be a nucleic acid analog. Nucleic acid analogs can be modified at the base moiety, sugar moiety, or phosphate backbone to improve, for example, stability, hybridization, or solubility of the nucleic acid. Modifications at the base moiety include deoxyuridine for deoxythymidine, and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine and 5-bromo-2′-deoxycytidine for deoxycytidine. Modifications of the sugar moiety include modification of the 2′ hydroxyl of the ribose sugar to form 2′-O-methyl or 2′-O-allyl sugars. The deoxyribose phosphate backbone can be modified to produce morpholino nucleic acids, in which each base moiety is linked to a six-membered morpholino ring, or peptide nucleic acids, in which the deoxyphosphate backbone is replaced by a pseudopeptide backbone and the four bases are retained. See, for example, Summerton and Weller, 1997, Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev., 7:187-195; Hyrup et al., Bioorgan. Med. Chem., 4:5-23 (1996). In addition, the deoxyphosphate backbone can be replaced with, for example, a phosphorothioate or phosphorodithioate backbone, a phosphoroamidite, or an alkyl phosphotriester backbone.

In some embodiments, nucleic acid based inhibition of gene expression does not require transcription of the nucleic acid.

Identification of Useful Nucleotide Sequences

The nucleotide sequences of the invention were identified by use of a variety of screens under low temperature, chilling or cold conditions recognized by those skilled in the art to be predictive of nucleotide sequences that provide plants with improved tolerance to low temperature, chilling or cold conditions. One or more of the following screens were, therefore, utilized to identify the nucleotide (and amino acid) sequences of the invention.

1. Cold Germination Superpool Screen

0.5×MS Media is prepared and the pH adjusted to 5.7 using 10N KOH. Seven g/l of Phytagar is added prior to autoclaving.

Individual superpool and control seeds are sterilized in a 30% bleach solution for 5 minutes. Seeds are then rinsed repeatedly with sterile water to eliminate all bleach solution. Seeds are sown on media plates in a monolayer, including wild-type and positive controls. Plates are wrapped in aluminum foil and placed at 4° C. for three days to stratify. At the end of this time, the foil is removed and plates are transferred to an 8° C. Percival with fluorescent bulbs emitting a light intensity of ˜100 μEinsteins.

Approximately 10 days after transfer to 8° C., seeds are examined microscopically to identify those that have germinated (defined as cotyledon emergence and expansion). Seedlings with more expanded and greener cotyledons compared to the wild-type population in the same plate are collected. DNA from these candidate seedlings is extracted and the transgene amplified using PCR. The PCR product is sequenced to determine the identity of the transgene and consequently the ME line from which the candidate is derived.

2. Cold Germination Assay

Independent transformation events of the ME lines identified in the Superpool screen are assayed in two generations to validate the cold tolerance phenotype. Media is prepared and seeds sterilized as described above for the Cold Germination Superpool Screen.

Two events with 27 seeds from each event are sown in a latin square layout on square Petri dishes together with 27 wild-type control seeds. Following 3 days of stratification at 4° C., plates are transferred to 8° C. in the light and grown as above. Approximately 10 days after transfer, plates are imaged on a flat-bed scanner. Plate images are analyzed using WinRhizo software to determine the area of each seedling. Subsequently, plates are transferred to 22° C. for several days of growth and then sprayed with Finale™ to identify transgenic seedlings. Seedling area and transgene status data are entered into a database. Events are considered positive for the low temperature, chilling or cold-tolerant phenotype if the seedling area of the transgenic plants within an event is significantly different by a one-tailed student's t-test than the seedling area of the pooled non-transgenic seedlings across all the events for that ME line.

REFERENCES

  • Levitt (1980) Chilling injury and resistance. In T T Kozlowsky, ed, Chilling, Freezing, and High Temperature Stresses: Responses of Plant to Environmental Stresses, Vol 1. Academic Press, New York, pp 23-64.
  • Graham and Patterson (1982) Annu Rev Plant Physiol 33: 347-372.
  • Guy (1990) Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 41: 187-223.
  • Nishida and Murata (1996) Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47: 541-568.

EXAMPLES

Summary

Trait area(s)Cold
Sub-trait AreaCold - germination and vigor
Coding sequence/1. Vector Construct Sequence Identifier 14298746
Species of Origincorresponding to Clone 30087 - ME01451; encodes a 164 amino
acid protein of unknown function from Arabidopsis.
2. Vector Construct Sequence Identifier 14298770
corresponding to Clone 30469 - ME02779 encodes a 78 amino acid
protein with identity to the N-terminal half of an
Arabidopsis class I nonsymbiotic hemoglobin.
3. Vector Construct Sequence Identifier 14301197
corresponding to Clone 271922 - ME03944 encodes a 92 amino acid
60s ribosomal protein L37a protein from Arabidopsis.
4. Vector Construct Sequence Identifier 14296769
corresponding to Clone 2403 - ME05304 encodes a truncated
ubiquitin-like protein from Arabidopsis.
5. Vector Construct Sequence Identifier 14301334
corresponding to Clone 674166 - ME03186 from Glycine max
encodes a 210 amino acid protein with similarity to the ethylene-
responsive element binding protein (ERF) family.
Species in whichArabidopsis thaliana
Clone was Tested
Promoter35S, a strong constitutive promoter
Insert DNA typecDNA

Introduction:

How plants respond to stress in the environment dictates their ability to survive and reproduce. There are probably many mechanisms by which plants regulate the temperatures under which they will germinate (Lu and Hills, 2003). Finding genes that result in stress tolerance when over-expressed has proved difficult because of the large amount of cross-talk and regulation among gene families.

Over-expression of these genes could be useful for increasing low temperature, chilling or cold tolerance in crops. If successfully deployed, low temperature, chilling or cold tolerant genes could enhance crop productivity following intermittent or sustained low temperature, chilling or cold periods that occur early in the growing season when seeds are germinating. Assuming conservation of processes controlling vegetative physiology across species, these genes and proteins are likely to function similarly in other species.

Assays described here focus on low temperature, chilling or cold tolerance in germinating seedlings. The ability to germinate and grow under low temperature, chilling or cold, and wet conditions would allow a longer growing season and mitigate damage caused by unexpected low temperature, chilling or cold periods. If this trait is recapitulated in crops overexpressing these genes, the result could be very valuable in agriculture in many crops and environments and make a significant contribution to sustainable farming. Furthermore, low temperature, chilling or cold tolerance may be modulated by expressing these clones under the control of a low temperature, chilling or cold inducible promoter.

Materials and Methods:

Generation and Phenotypic Evaluation of T1 Events.

Wild-type Arabidopsis Wassilewskija (Ws) plants were transformed with a Ti plasmid containing different Clones in the sense orientation relative to the 35S promoter, by Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation. The Ti plasmid vector used for this construct, CRS 338, contains the Ceres-constructed, plant selectable marker gene phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) which confers herbicide resistance to transformed plants. Ten independent transformation events were selected and evaluated for their qualitative phenotype in the T1 generation by selecting Finale™-resistant plants and observing their physical characteristics.

Screening for Low Temperature, Chilling or Cold Germination Candidates.

All superpools (n 91) were screened for cold germination by plating seeds on MS media and germinating them at 8° C. Candidates were chosen based on a comparison to wild-type controls. The candidates were processed as follows.

Process Flow:

Procedure for 1) identifying the candidate from a cold germination superpool screen, 2) confirming the phenotype in the second and third generations and 3) determining the lack of significant negative phenotypes.

    • 1. Superpools screened for Cold Germination
    • 2. Cold tolerant candidates identified
    • 3. Independent events tested for Cold Germination and Finale™ resistance in two generations
    • 4. For all candidates, at least 2 Events were significantly tolerant to cold in 2 generations
    • 5. Tested positive events for negative phenotypes

Growth Conditions and Planting Schema Under Cold Germination.

Up to five independent T2 transformation events were evaluated for each line under cold conditions. Subsequently, T3 generation seeds for up to five events were evaluated under cold germination conditions. In these assays, the seedling area (a measure of timing of germination and cotyledon expansion) for transgenic plants within an event was compared to the seedling area for non-transgenic segregants pooled across all plates for that line.

Preparation of plates and seed sowing were performed by sowing seeds on 0.5×MS plates and grown at 8° C. Plates were scored on day 10, and analyzed for cotyledon area. After the Cold Germination Assay was complete, plates were transferred to 22° C. and insert-containing plants were identified by spraying the seedlings with Finale™. Transgenic plants are Finale™ resistant.

Screening for Negative Phenotypes.

The events described in this report were analyzed for negative phenotypes. None of the events had (a) reduction in germination of more than 25%, (b) delay in onset of flowering more than 4 days in 50% or more of plants relative to in-flat control, (c) reduction in fertility as evidenced by visual observation of reduction in silique fill or silique number, (d) a reduction in seed dry weight by 25% or more relative to control, or (e) more than 30% reduction in rosette diameter at maturity.

Results:

Example 1

ME01451

TABLE 1-1
ConstructEvent/GenerationPlant StageAssayResult
35S:: 30087-01/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 30087-05/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 30087-01/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 30087-05/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
    • Ectopic expression of Clone 30087 under the control of the 35S promoter induces the following phenotypes:
      • Early germination at 8° C. resulting in larger seedlings after 10 days of growth in the cold.
    • Plants from Events −01 and −05 which are heterozygous or homozygous for Clone 30087 do not show any negative phenotypes under long-day conditions.
    • The gene corresponding to Clone 30087 is up-regulated in developing seedlings, seeds and siliques and down-regulated in drought, heat and ABA.

Two Events of ME01451 Showed Significant Early Germination Under Cold Conditions in Both Generations.

All five events of ME01451 were sown as described in the Cold Germination Assay in both the T2 and the T3 generations. Two events, −01 and −05, were significant in both generations at p=0.05 using a one-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance (Table 1-2). ME01451 transgenic seedlings were significantly larger than the pooled non-transgenic segregants.

TABLE 1-2
T-test comparison of seedling area between transgenic seedlings and pooled
non-transgenic segregants after 10 days at 8° C.
Pooled
TransgenicNon-Transgenicst-test
LineEventsAvgSENAvgSENp-value
ME01451ME01451-010.00860.0005250.00670.0006540.00702
ME01451ME01451-01-990.01060.0006220.00790.0010140.01374
ME01451ME01451-050.01040.0006180.00670.0006540.00002
ME01451ME01451-05-990.01250.0007250.00790.0010140.00035

Two Events of ME01451 Show 3:1 and 15:1 Segregation for Finale™ Resistance.

Events −01 and −05 segregated 15:1 and 3:1 (R:S), respectively, for Finale™ resistance in the T2 generation (data not shown).

Qualitative Analysis of the T1 Plants:

The physical appearance of all ten T1 plants was identical to the controls.

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the T2 Plants:

Events −01 and −05 of ME01451 exhibited no statistically relevant negative phenotypes.

    • Germination
      • No detectable reduction in germination rate.
    • General morphology/architecture
      • Plants appeared wild-type in all instances.
    • Days to flowering
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Rosette area 7 days post-bolting
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Fertility (silique number and seed fill)
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls

Example 2

ME02779

TABLE 2-1
ConstructEvent/GenerationPlant StageAssayResult
35S:: 30469-01/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 30469-03/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 30469-01/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 30469-03/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
    • Ectopic expression of Clone 30469 under the control of the 35S promoter induces the following phenotypes:
      • Early germination at 8° C. resulting in larger seedlings after 10 days at 8° C.
    • Plants from Events −01 and −03 which are heterozygous or homozygous for Clone 30469 do not show any negative phenotypes under long-day conditions.
    • The gene corresponding to Clone 30469 is down-regulated in ABA, heat, and germinating seeds and up-regulated in high nitrogen and most cold and drought treatments.
    • Clone 30469 encodes a class I nonsymbiotic hemoglobin. These proteins can play a role in acclimation to hypoxic conditions, possibly explaining the cold tolerance phenotype (Hunt et al., 2001). Clone 30469 is a splice variant of a gene that encodes a longer protein.

Two Events of ME02779 Showed Significant Early Germination Under Cold Conditions in Both Generations.

Five events of ME02779 were sown as described in the Cold Germination Assay in both the T2 and the T3 generations. Two events, −01 and −03 were significant in both generations at p=0.05 using a one-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance (Table 2-2). ME02779 transgenic seedlings were significantly larger than the pooled non-transgenic segregants.

TABLE 2-2
T-test comparison of seedling area between transgenic seedlings and pooled non-
transgenic segregants after 10 days at 8° C.
Pooled Non-
TransgenicTransgenicst-test
LineEventsAvgSENAvgSENp-value
ME02779ME02779-010.00770.0007120.00400.001430.01738
ME02779ME02779-01-990.00510.0005210.00340.0002290.00077
ME02779ME02779-030.01110.0007190.00850.0007400.00433
ME02779ME02779-03-990.00520.0006200.00340.0002290.00293

Two Events of ME02779 Show 3:1 Segregation for Finale™ Resistance.

Events −01 and −03 segregated 3:1 (R:S) for Finale™ resistance in the T2 generation (data not shown).

Qualitative Analysis of the T1 Plants:

The physical appearance of nine of the ten T1 plants was identical to the controls except for Event −09, which exhibited small rosettes and reduced fertility.

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the T2 Plants:

Events −01 and −03 of ME02779 exhibited no statistically relevant negative phenotypes.

    • Germination
      • No detectable reduction in germination rate.
    • General morphology/architecture
      • Plants appeared wild-type in all instances.
    • Days to flowering
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Rosette area 7 days post-bolting
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Fertility (silique number and seed fill)
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls

Example 3

ME03944

TABLE 3-1
ConstructEvent/GenerationPlant StageAssayResult
35S:: 271922-02/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 271922-06/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 271922-02/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 271922-06/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
    • Ectopic expression of Clone 271922 under the control of the 35S promoter induces the following phenotypes:
      • Early germination at 8° C. resulting in larger seedlings after 10 days at 8° C.
    • Plants from Events −02 and −06 which are heterozygous or homozygous for Clone 271922 do not show any negative phenotypes under long-day conditions.
    • The gene corresponding to Clone 271922 shows little differential regulation in transcription profiling experiments on wildtype.
    • Clone 271922 encodes a 60s ribosomal protein L37a.

Two Events of ME03944 Showed Significant Early Germination Under Cold Conditions in Both Generations.

Four events of ME03944 were sown as described in the Cold Germination Assay in both the T2 and the T3 generations. Two events, −02 and −06, were significant in both generations at p≦0.05 using a one-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance (Table 3-2). The T3 lines are indicated as −99 which indicates that the seeds are the bulked progeny from several T2 plants. ME03944 transgenic seedlings were significantly larger than the pooled non-transgenic segregants.

TABLE 3-2
T-test comparison of seedling area between transgenic seedlings and pooled
non-transgenic segregants after 10 days at 8° C.
Pooled Non-
TransgenicTransgenicst-test
LineEventsAvgSENAvgSENp-value
ME03944ME03944-020.01150.0004230.00690.0006353.4023E−08
ME03944ME03944-02-990.00700.0008150.00510.0004290.0173
ME03944ME03944-060.01060.0006180.00690.0006352.7850E−05
ME03944ME03944-06-990.00770.0007210.00510.0004290.0011

Two Events of ME03944 Show 3:1 Segregation for Finale™ Resistance.

Events −02 and −06 segregated 3:1 (R:S) for Finale™ resistance in the T2 generation (data not shown).

Qualitative Analysis of the T1 Plants:

The physical appearance of five of the six T1 plants was identical to the controls. Event −03 exhibited a small rosette and curled leaves.

Other Characteristics:

Seedlings from ME03944-06 exhibited elongated hypocotyls. This phenotype co-segregated with Finale™ resistance.

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the T2 Plants:

Events −02 and −06 of ME03944 exhibited no statistically relevant negative phenotypes.

    • Germination
      • No detectable reduction in germination rate.
    • General morphology/architecture
      • Plants appeared wild-type in all instances.
    • Days to flowering
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Rosette area 7 days post-bolting
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Fertility (silique number and seed fill)
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls

Example 4

ME05304

TABLE 4-1
ConstructEvent/GenerationPlant StageAssayResult
35S:: 2403-01/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 2403-04/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 2403-01/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S:: 2403-04/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
    • Ectopic expression of Clone 2403 under the control of the 35S promoter induces the following phenotypes:
      • Early germination at 8° C. resulting in larger seedlings after 10 days at 8° C.
    • Plants from Events −01 and −04 which are heterozygous or homozygous for Clone 2403 do not show any negative phenotypes under long-day conditions.
    • The gene corresponding to Clone 2403 shows little differential regulation in transcript profiling experiments on wildtype.
    • Clone 2403 encodes a truncated ubiquitin-like protein.

Two Events of ME05304 Showed Significant Early Germination Under Cold Conditions in Both Generations.

Four events of ME05304 were sown as described in the Cold Germination Assay in both the T2 and the T3 generations. Two events, −01 and −04 were significant in both generations at p≦0.05 using a one-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance (Table 4-2). The T3 lines are indicated as −99 which indicates that the seeds are the bulked progeny from several T2 plants.

TABLE 4-2
T-test comparison of seedling area between transgenic seedlings and pooled
non-transgenic segregants after 10 days at 8° C.
Pooled
TransgenicNon-Transgenicst-test
LineEventsAvgSENAvgSENp-value
ME05304ME05304-010.01420.0009200.00790.0006390.0000
ME05304ME05304-01-990.00610.0005170.00490.0003270.0213
ME05304ME05304-040.01010.0007150.00790.0006390.0099
ME05304ME05304-04-990.00670.0005220.00490.0003270.0014

Two Events of ME05304 Show 3:1 Segregation for Finale™ Resistance.

Events −01 and −04 segregated 3:1 (R:S) for Finale™ resistance in the T2 generation (data not shown).

Qualitative Analysis of the T1 Plants:

The physical appearance of seven of the ten T1 plants was identical to the controls. The other three events exhibited the following phenotypes: late flowering (Events −01, −02 and −08), dark green rosette leaves (Events −01 and −08) and shorter petioles (Events −02 and −08). Event −01 did not reproduce the late-flowering phenotype in the T2 generation.

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the T2 Plants:

Events −01 and −04 of ME05304 exhibited no statistically relevant negative phenotypes.

    • Germination
      • No detectable reduction in germination rate.
    • General morphology/architecture
      • Plants appeared wild-type in all instances.
    • Days to flowering
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Rosette area 7 days post-bolting
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Fertility (silique number and seed fill)
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.

Example 5

ME03186

TABLE 5-1
ConstructEvent/GenerationPlant StageAssayResult
35S::674166-04/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S::674166-04/T4 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S::674166-05/T2 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
35S::674166-05/T3 Finale resistant plantsSeedlingCold GerminationSignificant at p ≦ .05
    • Ectopic expression of Clone 674166 under the control of the 35S promoter results in early germination at 8° C. resulting in larger seedlings after 10 days at 8° C.
    • Plants from Events −04 and −05 which are hemizygous or homozygous for Clone 674166 do not show any negative phenotypes under long-day conditions.

Two Events of ME03186 Showed Significant Early Germination Under Cold Conditions in Both Generations.

Two events, −04 and −05 were significant in two generations at p≦0.05 using a one-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance (Table 5-2). ‘−99’ signifies that seeds were pooled from several plants.

TABLE 5-2
T-test comparison of seedling area between transgenic seedlings and control non-
transgenic segregants after 10 days at 8° C.
Control
Event-TransgenicNon-Transgenicsat-test
EventsGenAvgSENAvgSENp-value
ME03186-04-99b04-T30.00450.0003350.00300.0002311.37E−05
ME03186-04-9904-T30.00920.0003480.00510.0005123.72E−10
ME03186-04-99-0304-T40.01070.0002700.00830.0005342.72E−05
ME03186-04-99-0404-T40.01200.0004620.00830.0005343.61E−08
ME03186-04-99-0704-T40.01070.0003690.00830.0005344.91E−05
ME03186-04-99-0804-T40.01100.0003690.00830.0005345.53E−06
ME03186-05b05-T20.00510.0005220.00380.000560.0332
ME03186-0505-T20.00670.0003530.00540.000590.0106
ME03186-05-0405-T30.00500.0003500.00370.000390.0008
aTransgenic seedlings were compared to non-transgenic segregants within a seed line except for the T4generation of Event-04. Since these seed lines were homozygous, they were compared to pooled non-transgenic segregants from another T4 generation event that was grown in the same flat as the T4generation of Event-04.
bThese events were sown twice. The first time was to identify ME03186 as a hit. They were repeated the second time with two generations to identify ME03186 as a candidate.

Two Events of ME03186 Show 3:1 Segregation for Finale™ Resistance.

Event −05 segregated 3:1 (R:S) for Finale™ resistance in the T2 generation. T2 generation seed was not available for Event −04. However, the T3 generation seeds that were pooled from several T2 plants segregated approximately 2:1 in a manner consistent with a single insert (see Table 5-2).

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the T2 Plants (Screening for Negative Phenotypes):

Events −04 and −05 of ME03186 exhibited no statistically significant negative phenotypes.

    • Germination
      • No detectable reduction in germination rate.
    • General morphology/architecture
      • Plants appeared wild-type in all instances.
    • Days to flowering
      • No observable or statistical differences between experimentals and controls.
    • Rosette area 7 days post-bolting

REFERENCES

  • Hunt et ak, (2001) Plant Mol Biol 47: 677-692.
  • Lu and Hills (2002) Plant Physiol. 129:1352-8

Example 6

Clone 1055099 (SEQ ID NO: 46)—ME 24967

In the same manner as Example 5, transgenics made with a construct of 35S-Clone 1055099 were screened for cold tolerance. Clone 1055099 (SEQ ID NO: 46) is a wheat functional homolog of clone 674166 (SEQ ID NO: 42), and showed the following results in the seedling cold tolerance assay.

TABLE 6-1
Cold Germination Assay results for ME24967.
p-valuesAvg. Seedling AreaSample No.
EventInternalaPooledbTransgenicInternalPooledTransgenicInternalPooled
ME03186-0.002244380.002244380.00320.00170.0017304040
04-99c
ME24967-0.126604550.455111030.00530.00710.005429583
02
ME24967-0.014883220.046101120.00690.00310.005431383
03d
ME24967-0.087834973.0406E−080.01150.00920.0054231283
05d
ME24967-0.406860410.252067360.00490.00530.005428683
10
ME24967-0.192901950.401234210.00510.00380.005452583
11
ME24967-0.30215650.003293350.00320.00500.005427283
12
ME24967-0.246728120.313476490.00600.00770.005423783
13
ME24967-0.175488240.293698950.00500.00320.005426583
14
ME24967-0.292783260.385861960.00570.00480.0054221183
15
ME24967-0.054517940.00410.00180.005434183
16
ME24967-0.274847170.136605850.00440.00580.005426683
17
aInternal controls are segregating non-transgenic seedlings within an Event.
bPooled controls are all of the segregating non-transgenic seedlings from all of the Events within a line.
cME03186 is a positive control to verify that the experimental conditions were appropriate.
dThese events show significantly improved seedling area for at least internal or pooled controls.

Example 7

Determination of Functional Homologs by Reciprocal BLAST

A candidate sequence was considered a functional homolog of a reference sequence if the candidate and reference sequences encoded proteins having a similar function and/or activity. A process known as Reciprocal BLAST (Rivera et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95:6239-6244 (1998)) was used to identify potential functional homolog sequences from databases consisting of all available public and proprietary peptide sequences, including NR from NCBI and peptide translations from Ceres clones.

Before starting a Reciprocal BLAST process, a specific reference polypeptide was searched against all peptides from its source species using BLAST in order to identify polypeptides having BLAST sequence identity of 80% or greater to the reference polypeptide and an alignment length of 85% or greater along the shorter sequence in the alignment. The reference polypeptide and any of the aforementioned identified polypeptides were designated as a cluster.

The BLASTP version 2.0 program from Washington University at Saint Louis, Mo., USA was used to determine BLAST sequence identity and E-value. The BLASTP version 2.0 program includes the following parameters: 1) an E-value cutoff of 1.0e-5; 2) a word size of 5; and 3) the −postsw option. The BLAST sequence identity was calculated based on the alignment of the first BLAST HSP (High-scoring Segment Pairs) of the identified potential functional homolog sequence with a specific reference polypeptide. The number of identically matched residues in the BLAST HSP alignment was divided by the HSP length, and then multiplied by 100 to get the BLAST sequence identity. The HSP length typically included gaps in the alignment, but in some cases gaps were excluded.

The main Reciprocal BLAST process consists of two rounds of BLAST searches; forward search and reverse search. In the forward search step, a reference polypeptide sequence, “polypeptide A,” from source species SA was BLASTed against all protein sequences from a species of interest. Top hits were determined using an E-value cutoff of 10−5 and a sequence identity cutoff of 35%. Among the top hits, the sequence having the lowest E-value was designated as the best hit, and considered a potential functional homolog or ortholog. Any other top hit that had a sequence identity of 80% or greater to the best hit or to the original reference polypeptide was considered a potential functional homolog or ortholog as well. This process was repeated for all species of interest.

In the reverse search round, the top hits identified in the forward search from all species were BLASTed against all protein sequences from the source species SA. A top hit from the forward search that returned a polypeptide from the aforementioned cluster as its best hit was also considered as a potential functional homolog.

Functional homologs were identified by manual inspection of potential functional homolog sequences. Representative functional homologs for SEQ ID NOs: 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42 are shown in FIGS. 1-7, respectively. The BLAST percent identities and E-values of functional homologs to SEQ ID NOs: 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42 are shown in the Sequence Listing. The BLAST sequence identities and E-values given in the Sequence Listing were taken from the forward search round of the Reciprocal BLAST process.

Example 8

Determination of Functional Homologs by Hidden Markov Models

Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) were generated by the program HMMER 2.3.2. To generate each HMM, the default HMMER 2.3.2 program parameters, configured for glocal alignments, were used.

An HMM was generated using the sequences shown in each of FIGS. 1-7 as input. Additional sequences were input into the model, and the HMM bit scores for the additional sequences are shown in the Sequence Listing. The results indicate that these additional sequences are functional homologs of SEQ ID NOs: 2, 7, 9, 20, 34, 40 and 42, respectively. The bit score results are provided in Table 7.

TABLE 7
Se-Seq
quenceIdPfamHMM Bit
Query IdentifierFunctional HomologTypeSpeciesNoLengthPfamDescriptionStartEndProfileScoreFL_ProfileFL_Score
Ceres CLONE ID no. 30087DNAArabidopsis1828
thaliana
Ceres CLONE ID no. 30087Ceres CLONE ID no. 30087PRTArabidopsis2164Y
thaliana
Ceres Clone ID no. 30087Ceres CLONE ID no. 947579PRTBrassica napus3155Y
Ceres Clone ID no. 30087Public GI no. 62526422PRTBrassica napus4152
Ceres Clone ID no. 30087Ceres CLONE ID no. 1606506PRTParthenium5150Y
argentatum
Ceres CLONE ID no. 30469DNAArtificial Sequence6586
Ceres CLONE ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 30469PRTArtificial Sequence778GlobinGlobin1374Y184.266
Ceres CLONE ID no. 30469_FLDNAArabidopsis8483
thaliana
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 30469_FLPRTArabidopsis9160GlobinGlobin13152184.6Y404.9
thaliana
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Public GI no. 30909306PRTRaphanus sativus10160GlobinGlobin13152185.7Y410.4
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Public GI no. 37903656PRTArabidopsis11158GlobinGlobin10149172.6387.2
thaliana
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Public GI no. 15824736PRTArabidopsis12163GlobinGlobin13152184.2405.4
thaliana
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 546001PRTGlycine max13161GlobinGlobin13152182.8Y402.3
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Public GI no. 11095158PRTGlycine max14160GlobinGlobin13152167.8387.2
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Public GI no. 12963875PRTGlycine max15152GlobinGlobin8147145.8337.1
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 1554560PRTZea mays16165GlobinGlobin17157185.7Y404.5
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 839727PRTTriticum aestivum17162GlobinGlobin14154187.8Y415.2
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Public GI no. 14701800PRTTriticum aestivum18169GlobinGlobin21161170.1386.9
Ceres CLONE ID no. 271922DNAArabidopsis19416
thaliana
Ceres CLONE ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 271922PRTArabidopsis2092Ribosomal_L37ae;Ribosomal291Y266.3
thalianaL37ae protein
family
Cores Clone ID no. 271922Public GI no. 4090257PRTArabidopsis2192Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291265.8
thalianaL37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Public GI no. 4741896PRTArabidopsis2292Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291264
thalianaL37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 39046PRTArabidopsis2392Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291257.8
thalianaL37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Public GI no. 6016699PRTArabidopsis2492Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291257.4
thalianaL37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 664936PRTGlycine max2592Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291Y268.8
L37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 658438PRTGlycine max2692Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291269
L37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 1049292PRTGlycine max2792Ribosomel_L37aeRibosomal291268.9
L37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 632913PRTTriticum aestivum2892Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291Y269
L37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 1390976PRTZea mays2992Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291Y269
L37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 1457185PRTZea mays3092Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291269
L37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Public GI no. 56202147PRTZea mays3192Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomol291269
L37ae protein
family
Ceres Clone ID no. 271922Public GI no. 58578274PRTZea mays3292Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291267.2
L37ae protein
family
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403_FLDNAArabidopsis33632
thaliana
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403_FLPRTArabidopsic34154ubiquitin;Ubiquitin family174118.7416.2
thaliana
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403_FLPRTArabidopsis34154ubiquitin;Ubiquitin family77150118.7Y416.2
thaliana
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1482731PRTZea mays35169ubiquitinUbiquitin family174118.3Y417
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1482731PRTZea mays35169ubiquitinUbiquitin family77150118.3Y417
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 522921PRTGlycine max36154ubiquitinUbiquitin family174118.7Y418.4
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 522921PRTGlycine max36154ubiquitinUbiquitin family77150118.7Y418.4
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1036726PRTBrassica napus37160ubiquitinUbiquitin family174118.7Y384.4
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1036726PRTBrassica napus37160ubiquitinUbiquitin family77142118.7Y384.4
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 513071PRTGlycine max38188ubiquitinUbiquitin family174114.3408.6
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 513071PRTGlycine max38188ubiquitinUbiquitin family77150114.3408.6
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403DNAArtificial Sequence39620
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403PRTArtificial Sequence4033ubiquitin;Ubiquitin family133Y87.6−83.1
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166DNAGlycine max411106
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166PRTGlycine max42210AP2;AP2 domain2689Y491.8
Ceres Clone ID no. 674166Public GI no. 12322345PRTGlycine max43225AP2AP2 domain2689522.4
Ceres Clone ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 975672PRTBrassica napus44215AP2AP2 domain2184Y481.7
Ceres Clone ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 273307PRTZea mays45211AP2AP2 domain1780Y419.7
Ceres Clone ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 1055099PRTTriticum aestivum46194AP2AP2 domain2083Y358.4
Ceres ANNOT ID no. 1441430DNAPopulus balsamifera47660
subsp. trichocarpa
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Ceres ANNOT ID no. 1441430PRTPopulus balsamifera48219AP2AP2 domein2992Y504.4
subsp. trichocarpa
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1240330DNAGlycine max49985
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 1240330PRTGlycina max50222AP2AP2 domain2487483.3
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1382611DNAZea mays51726
Ceres CLONE ID no. 30087Ceres CLONE ID no. 1382611PRTZea mays52156Y
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1627907DNAPapavar53580
somniferum
Ceres CLONE ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 1627907PRTPapaver somniferum5492Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291Y268.1
L37ae protein
family
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1761125DNAPanicum virgatum55983
Cores CLONE ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 1761125PRTPanicum virgatum56192AP2AP2 domain1376Y363
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1783890DNAPanicum virgatum57594
Ceres CLONE ID no. 271922Ceres CLONE ID no. 1783890PRTPanicum virgatum5892Ribosomal_L37aeRibosomal291Y269
L37ae protein
family
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1802327DNAPanicum virgatum59880
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 1802327PRTPanicum virgatum60162GlobinGlobin14154191.4Y417.9
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1838364DNAGossypium hirsutum611017
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 1838364PRTGossypium hirsutum62246AP2AP2 domain2891Y484.1
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1876458DNAPanicum virgatum63708
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 1876458PRTPanicum virgatum64162GlobinGlobin14154191.9415.3
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1879148DNAPanicum virgatum65712
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 1879148PRTPanicum virgatum66164GlobinGlobin16156185.7411.2
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1884696DNAGossypium hirsutum671129
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1884696PRTGossypium hirsutum68153ubiquitinUbiquitin family174175.2Y408
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1884696PRTGossypium hirsutum68153ubiquitinUbiquitin family77150175.2Y408
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1916866DNAGossypium hirsutum69679
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 1916866PRTGossypium hirsutum70163GlobinGlobin13152188.3Y409.8
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1950105DNAPanicum virgatum711003
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1950105PRTPanicum virgatum72229ubiquitinUbiquitin family174262.8504.1
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1950105PRTPanicum virgatum72229ubiquitinUbiquitin family77150262.8504.1
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 1950105PRTPanicum virgatum72229ubiquitinUbiquitin family153226262.8504.1
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1990746DNAPanicum virgatum73724
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 1990746PRTPanicum virgatum74164GlobinGlobin16156184.9405.6
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2007485DNAPanicum virgatum75696369.2
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 2007485PRTPanicum virgatum76201AP2AP2 domain1780271.2
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2033803DNAPanicum virgatum77698
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres CLONE ID no. 2033803PRTPanicum virgatum78156GlobinGlobin16148184.9369.2
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2034916DNAPanicum virgatum79724
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 2034916PRTPanicum virgatum80213ubiquitinUbiquitin family174259.2Y460.4
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 2034916PRTPanicum virgatum80213ubiquitinUbiquitin family77150259.2Y460.4
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 2034916PRTPanicum virgatum80213ubiquitinUbiquitin family153213259.2Y460.4
Ceres CLONE ID no. 651581DNAGlycine max811194
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Ceres CLONE ID no. 651581PRTGlycine max82224AP2AP2 domain2487469.5
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Public GI ID no. 125550159PRTOryza sativa subsp.83184AP2AP2 domain770Y344
indica
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Public GI ID no. 15223609PRTArabidopsis84225AP2AP2 domain2689Y522.4
thaliana
Ceres CLONE ID no. 30087Public GI ID no. 30683885PRTArabidopsis85164
thaliana
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Public GI ID no. 56384582PRTPisum sativum86218AP2AP2 domain2184Y484.2
Ceres CLONE ID no. 674166Public GI ID no. 57012880PRTNicotiana tabacum87225AP2AP2 domain2689Y521.4
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Public GI ID no. 62548111PRTGossypium hirsutum88163GlobinGlobin13152188.3409.8
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 100021733PRTGossypium hirsutum89153ubiquitinUbiquitin family174175.2410.3
Ceres CLONE ID no. 2403Ceres CLONE ID no. 100021733PRTGossypium hirsutum89153ubiquitinUbiquitin family77150175.2410.3
Ceres CLONE ID no. 947579DNABrassica napus90775
Ceres CLONE ID no. 36046DNAArabidopsis911032
thaliana
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1606506DNAParthenium92492
argentatum
Ceres CLONE ID no. 546001DNAGlycine max93970
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1554560DNAZea mays94604
Ceres CLONE ID no. 839727DNATriticum aestivum95846
Ceres CLONE ID no. 664936DNAGlycine max96440
Ceres CLONE ID no. 658438DNAGlycine max97463
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1049262DNAGlycine max98458
Ceres CLONE ID no. 632613DNATriticum aestivum99600
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1390976DNAZea mays100546
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1457185DNAZea mays101550
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1482731DNAZea mays102668
Ceres CLONE ID no. 522921DNAGlycine max103752
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1036726DNABrassica napus104484
Ceres CLONE ID no. 513071DNAGlycine max105580
Ceres CLONE ID no. 975672DNABrassica napus106987
Ceres CLONE ID no. 273307DNAZea mays1071034
Ceres CLONE ID no. 1055099DNATriticum aestivum108911
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Ceres GI ID no. GI_15226675PRTArabidopsis109160GlobinGlobin13152184.6404.9
thaliana
Ceres Promoter 21876DNAArabidopsis1101823
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0668DNAArabidopsis1111000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0535DNAArabidopsis1121000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0585DNAArabidopsis113999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0613DNAArabidopsis1141000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0625DNAArabidopsis115351
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0633DNAArabidopsis1161022
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0650DNAArabidopsis1171000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0660DNAArabidopsis118998
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0665DNAArabidopsis1191000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0672DNAArabidopsis120999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0676DNAArabidopsis1211000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0678DNAArabidopsis122998
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0683DNAArabidopsis1231000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0688DNAArabidopsis1241000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0695DNAArabidopsis1251000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0708DNAArabidopsis1261000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0710DNAArabidopsis1271000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0723DNAArabidopsis1281002
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0740DNAArabidopsis1291001
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0743DNAArabidopsis1301024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0758DNAArabidopsis1311000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0829DNAArabidopsis132921
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0837DNAArabidopsis133763
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0838DNAArabidopsis134751
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0848DNAArabidopsis135669
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0863DNAArabidopsis136702
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0879DNAArabidopsis137435
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0886DNAArabidopsis138397
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0007DNAArabidopsis1391024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0008DNAArabidopsis1401000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0019DNAArabidopsis141999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0028DNAArabidopsis1421024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0039DNAArabidopsis1431024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0050DNAArabidopsis1441024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0086DNAArabidopsis145999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0088DNAArabidopsis1461024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0092DNAArabidopsis1471024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0096DNAArabidopsis1481020
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0097DNAArabidopsis1491000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0101DNAArabidopsis1501004
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0102DNAArabidopsis1511000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0103DNAArabidopsis1521004
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0107DNAArabidopsis1531003
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0110DNAArabidopsis1541024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0111DNAArabidopsis1551024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0115DNAArabidopsis156996
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0117DNAArabidopsis1571024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0119DNAArabidopsis1581000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0120DNAArabidopsis159999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0121DNAArabidopsis160999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0128DNAArabidopsis1611004
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0137DNAArabidopsis1621001
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0143DNAArabidopsis1631001
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0144DNAArabidopsis1641003
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0156DNAArabidopsis1651004
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0158DNAArabidopsis1661000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0188DNAArabidopsis1671005
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0190DNAArabidopsis1681002
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0212DNAArabidopsis169995
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0214DNAArabidopsis1701024
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0263DNAArabidopsis171911
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0275DNAArabidopsis172999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0285DNAArabidopsis173981
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0286DNAArabidopsis174996
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0337DNAArabidopsis1751000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0356DNAArabidopsis1761000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0374DNAArabidopsis1771000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0377DNAArabidopsis178998
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0380DNAArabidopsis179999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0381DNAArabidopsis1801000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0384DNAArabidopsis181999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0385DNAArabidopsis182998
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0396DNAArabidopsis1831000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter p13879DNAArabidopsis1841514
thaliana
Ceres Promoter p326DNAArabidopsis1851954
thaliana
Ceres Promoter p32449DNAArabidopsis1862016
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PD1367DNAArabidopsis187667
thaliana
Ceres Promoter p530c10DNAOryza sativa1881836
Ceres Promoter pOsFIE2-2DNAOryza sativa1893000
Ceres Promoter pOsMEADNAOryza sativa1902023
Ceres Promoter pOsYp102DNAOryza sativa1912034
Ceres Promoter pOsYp285DNAOryza sativa1921877
Ceres Promoter PT0565DNAArabidopsis1931000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0015DNAArabidopsis194999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0087DNAArabidopsis195999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0093DNAArabidopsis1961000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0108DNAArabidopsis197999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0022DNAArabidopsis198999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0080DNAArabidopsis199999
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PR0924DNAArabidopsis2003000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter YP0388DNAArabidopsis2011000
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PD0901DNAArabidopsis202283
thaliana
Ceres Promoter PT0623DNAArabidopsis2031000
thaliana
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence20433ubiquitinUbiquitin family13387.6−83.1
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
100021733
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence20533ubiquitinUbiquitin family133Y87.6−83.1
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1036726
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence20633ubiquitinUbiquitin family133Y87.1−85
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1482731
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence20780GlobinGlobin1778Y185.761.3
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1554560
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence20877GlobinGlobin1475Y191.467.2
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1802327
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence20977GlobinGlobin1475191.967.7
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1876458
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21079GlobinGlobin1677185.761.3
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1879148
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21133ubiquitinUbiquitin family133Y87.665
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1884696
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21276GlobinGlobin1374Y188.365
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1916866
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21333ubiquitinUbiquitin family133Y87.660.7
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1950105
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21479GlobinGlobin1677184.960.7
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
1990746
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21579GlobinGlobin1677184.960.7
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
2033803
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21633ubiquitinUbiquitin family13387.663.3
of Ceres CLONE ID no.
2034916
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21733ubiquitinUbiquitin family13385.944.7
of Ceres CLONE ID no. 513071
Ceres Clone ID no. 2403Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21833ubiquitinUbiquitin family133Y87.622.4
of Ceres CLONE ID no. 522921
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence21976GlobinGlobin1374Y182.859.6
of Ceres CLONE ID no. 546001
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22076GlobinGlobin1374185.763.9
of Ceres CLONE ID no. 651581
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22177GlobinGlobin1475Y187.863.3
of Ceres CLONE ID no. 839727
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22276GlobinGlobin1376167.844.7
of Public GI ID no. 11095158
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22371GlobinGlobin869145.822.4
of Public GI ID no. 12963875
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22484GlobinGlobin2182170.145.8
of Public GI ID no. 14701800
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22576GlobinGlobin1374184.663
of Public GI ID no. 15226675
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22676GlobinGlobin1374184.260.9
of Public GI ID no. 15824736
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22776GlobinGlobin1374Y185.763.9
of Public GI ID no. 30909306
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22873GlobinGlobin1071172.649.6
of Public GI ID no. 37903656
Ceres Clone ID no. 30469Truncated versionPRTArtificial Sequence22976GlobinGlobin1374188.365
of Public GI ID no. 62548111