Title:
CHEWABLE CAPSULES
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention provides an orally administrable chewable capsule comprising a capsule shell enclosing an oil-in-water emulsion in which the aqueous phase is gelled, or an oil droplet-containing dried residue of such an emulsion.



Inventors:
Haug, Ingvild (Trondheim, NO)
Draget, Kurt Ingar (Trondheim, NO)
Application Number:
12/162344
Publication Date:
09/24/2009
Filing Date:
01/25/2007
Assignee:
Probio Nutraceuticals AS (Forskningsparken, NO)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/560
International Classes:
A61K9/66; A23L29/281; A23L33/00; A61K31/20; A61P3/02
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
BROWE, DAVID
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KNOBBE MARTENS OLSON & BEAR LLP (IRVINE, CA, US)
Claims:
1. An orally administrable chewable capsule comprising a capsule shell enclosing an oil-in-water emulsion in which the aqueous phase is gelled, or an oil droplet-containing dried residue of such an emulsion.

2. The capsule as claimed in claim 1 wherein the oil phase of said emulsion comprises a physiologically tolerable triglyceride.

3. The capsule as claimed in claim 1 wherein the oil phase of said emulsion comprises a fish oil.

4. The capsule as claimed in claim 1 wherein said aqueous phase comprises a gelling agent selected from the group consisting of gelatin, polysaccharides, and mixtures thereof.

5. The capsule as claimed in claim 1 wherein said aqueous phase comprises gelatin and carageenan.

6. The capsule as claimed in claim 1 further comprising at least 1% wt. xylitol.

7. The capsule as claimed in claim 1 further comprising a citrus flavor.

8. The capsule as claimed in claim 1 wherein said aqueous phase comprises a water soluble vitamin.

9. (canceled)

10. A method of treatment of a human by oral administration of an effective amount of an active agent comprising administering said active agent in a chewable capsule or composition according to claim 1, wherein said active agent is in oil form or dissolved in an oil.

11. The method as claimed in claim 10 wherein the active agent is an analgesic.

12. The method as claimed in claim 10 wherein the active agent is a triglyceride.

Description:

This invention relates to compositions for oral administration in the form of chewable capsules containing physiologically tolerable fatty acid ester oils.

The term fatty acid ester oil is used herein to relate to acyl glycerides and phospholipids, i.e. compounds comprising a fatty acid side chain linked by an ester group to an “alcohol” (e.g. polyol) residue. Such compounds are important dietary sources of fatty acids, in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and more especially the essential fatty acids. They may also serve as sources for dietary replacements of essential fatty acids, e.g. of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which may be used in a weight reduction diet. Particularly important essential fatty acids include the ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Other fatty acids commonly used in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals include arachidonic acid (AA), alpha linolenic acid (ALA), conjugated linolenic acid (CLN), dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA) and gamma linolenic acid (GLA). Such fatty acids typically will contain 12 to 26 carbons, more typically 16 to 22 carbons, and will have a saturated or mono- or poly-ethylenically-unsaturated hydrocarbyl chain.

Typical dietary sources of such fatty acid ester oils include lipids such as animal, fish, plant or microorganism triglycerides and phospholipids, especially the triglycerides. Mono or diglycerides however can equally be used as can other esters, e.g. lower alkyl (e.g. C1-6 alkyl, for example ethyl) esters as well as free fatty acids or physiologically acceptable salts thereof and fatty acid ester waxes. Particularly important sources are fish oils, in particular oily fish oils such as cod-liver oil, halibut-liver oil, etc. as these are rich in ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 fatty acids.

However, as anyone who, in childhood, has been on the receiving end of fish oils will recall, the taste, mouthfeel and smell can be vile. In part this is due to the sensitivity to oxidation of the fish oil. As a result fatty acid ester oils tend to be administered in capsule form, containing liquid oil within a soft gel casing. Such capsule casings are usually made from mammalian gelatin, typically of porcine or bovine origin. In order to deliver a reasonable dose of the oil, the capsules tend to be rather large, sufficiently large indeed to cause problems swallowing them for the young and the elderly. As a result, ingestion often involves the capsule being chewed and bursting in the mouth releasing the unpleasantly tasting oil contents.

There is thus a continuing need for improved oral administration forms for fatty acid ester oils, in particular chewable capsules which do not release oil in significant amounts on chewing.

We have found that such chewable capsules may be produced by providing the contents in the form of an oil-in-water emulsion in which the aqueous phase is gelled—in this way even if the shell bursts in the mouth the contents may be swallowed before significant release of oil from the emulsion occurs.

Thus viewed from one aspect the invention provides an orally administrable chewable capsule comprising a capsule shell enclosing an oil-in-water emulsion in which the aqueous phase is gelled, or an oil droplet-containing dried residue of such an emulsion.

The term “chewable” is used herein in its conventional meaning within the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industry. That is the capsule is in a form which can be broken, burst or fragmented by chewing.

The term “capsule” is used herein to refer to a unitary dosage form having a casing or coating (herein referred to as the capsule shell) which encloses a solid (e.g. a particle or a powder), semi-solid (e.g. gel) or liquid (e.g. emulsion) mass.

The chewable capsules of the invention may be pharmaceuticals, but preferably are nutraceuticals.

In the capsules of the invention, the shell may be of any physiologically tolerable material but will typically be a sugar, a biopolymer or a synthetic or semisynthetic polymer which is soluble or disintegrable in saliva or fluid within the gastrointestinal tract. The shell may be soft, but is preferably substantially rigid. Particularly desirably, the capsules will have the consistency of a “jelly bean”. The shell will preferably be of a material and a thickness to prevent the contents from becoming rancid. Especially preferably the shell will be of a sugar, gelatin or cellulose, particularly a sugar or gelatin, more particularly sorbitol or gelatin, especially gelatin from non-mammalian sources. The use of sugars, gelatin and cellulose as capsule shell materials is well-known in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical fields.

The capsule shell material may thus typically be a sugar, e.g. sucrose, fructose, maltose, xylitol, maltitol or sorbitol, but may additionally contain hydrocolloid materials such as for example gelatin, carageenan, alginate, pectin, cellulose, modified cellulose, starch, modified starch, gum arabic, etc. The capsule shell moreover may contain further ingredients such as for example artificial sweeteners, colours, fillers, flavours, antioxidants, etc.

The capsule shells may be preformed with the emulsion or emulsion residues being filled into such shells, or a shell precursor (e.g. a solution) may be coated onto the emulsion or emulsion residue, e.g. using standard coating techniques. If desired the capsules may be further coated, e.g. with wax.

While the oil phase of the emulsion contained in the capsules of the invention may be any oil which is to be administered orally, e.g. a drug in an oil form, the oil phase preferably contains a physiologically tolerable fatty acid ester or free fatty acid (or salt) oil as described above, especially an acyl glyceride or a fatty acid ethyl ester, and in particular a fish or plant triglyceride. More preferably, it contains a fish oil. Besides such oils, or mixtures thereof, the oil phase may also if desired contain physiologically tolerable lipid soluble materials, e.g. vitamins, antioxidants, flavourings, colours and other physiologically active materials. If desired, the oil phase may be constituted in whole or part by a phospholipid, in particular a marine (e.g. pelagic fish, such as cod or halibut, or shellfish, such as krill) phospholipid. The oil phase preferably contains 25 to 100% of the recommended daily dosage for one or more essential fatty acids, especially EPA and/or DHA. Typically the oil phase will constitute 0.05 to 5 g, preferably 0.1 to 3 g, especially 0.2 to 2 g, particularly 0.3 to 1.25 g, more particularly 0.4 to 0.75 g, per capsule. Alternatively put, the oil phase preferably constitutes 5 to 75% wt., especially 30 to 40% wt., e.g. 40 to 50% wt. of the capsule.

The aqueous phase of the emulsion contained in the capsules of the invention comprises water and a physiologically tolerable gelling agent, preferably a saccharide (e.g. an oligosaccharide or polysaccharide), a protein or a glycoprotein. Suitable gelling agents are well known in the food, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries and several are described for example in Phillips et al. (Ed.) “Handbook of hydrocolloids”, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2000. The gelling agents are preferably materials capable of undergoing a sol-gel transformation, e.g. under the influence of a change in physiochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, presence of metal ions (e.g. group 1 or 2 metal ions), etc.

Preferred for use as the gelling agent is gelatin or a mixture of gelatin and a polysaccharide, or gellan or an alginate (e.g. sodium alginate), or a mixture of an alginate and glucono-delta-lactone (GDL), or a pectin.

The gelatins used as gelling agents in the composition of the invention may be produced from the collagen of any mammal or the collagen of any aquatic species, however the use of gelatin from salt-water fish and in particular cold water fish is preferred. Gelatins having an imino acid content of 5 to 25% wt. are preferred, more especially those having an imino acid content of 10 to 25% wt. The gelatins will typically have a weight average molecular weight in the range 10 to 250 kDa, preferably 75 to 220 kDa, especially 80 to 200 kDa. Gelatins having Bloom values of 60-300, especially 90-200 are preferred. The gelatin will typically be present in the aqueous phase at a concentration of 1 to 50% wt., preferably 2 to 35% wt., particularly 5 to 25% wt. In the case of mixtures of gelatin and polysaccharides, the weight ratio of gelatin to polysaccharide in the aqueous phase will typically be 50:1 to 5:1, preferably 40:1 to 9:1, especially 20:1 to 10:1.

Where polysaccharides, or mixtures of polysaccharides and gelatin are used as the gelling agent, it is preferred to use natural polysaccharides, synthetic polysaccharides or semisynthetic polysaccharides, e.g. polysaccharides from plants, fish, terrestrial mammals, algae, bacteria and derivatives and fragmentation products thereof. Typical marine polysaccharides include carageenans, alginates, agars and chitosans. Typical plant polysaccharides include pectins. Typical microorganism polysaccharides include gellans and scleroglucans. The use of charged, e.g. electrostatically charged and/or sulphated polysaccharides is preferred, as is the use of marine polysaccharides, in particular carageenans, and alginates, especially carageenans. Carageenans are used below as representative polysaccharide gelling agents.

The carageenan family, which includes iota- and kappa-carageenans, is a family of linear sulphated polysaccharides produced from red algae. The repeating disaccharide unit in kappa-carrageenan is β-D-galactose-4-sulphate and 3,6-anhydro-α-D-galactose, while that in iota-carrageenan is β-D-galactose-4-sulphate and 3,6-anhydro-α-D-galactose-2-sulphate. Both kappa- and iota-carrageenans are used in food preparations. The carrageenans are used as stabilisers, emulsifiers, gelling agents and fat replacers.

Both iota and kappa carrageenans form salt- or cold-setting reversible gels in an aqueous environment. Coil-helix transition and aggregation of helices form the gel network. Kappa-carrageenan has binding sites for specific monovalent cations, resulting in gel formation with decreasing shear and elastic moduli in the order Cs+>K+>>Na+>Li+. As a rule, an increasing salt concentration enhances the elastic modulus and the setting and melting temperatures of a kappa-carrageenan gel. The use of water-soluble potassium, rubidium, or cesium compounds, particularly potassium compounds, and particularly naturally occurring compounds (e.g. salts) is preferred when kappa-carrageenan is used according to the invention, e.g. at concentrations of up to 100 mM, more especially up to 50 mM. A salt-dependent conformational transition is also found for iota-carrageenan. The molecules are also known to undergo coil-helix transition with strong helix-stabilisation in the presence of multivalent cations, like Ca2+. The use of water-soluble calcium, strontium, barium, iron or aluminium compounds, especially calcium compounds, and particularly naturally occurring compounds (e.g. salts) is preferred when iota-carrageenan is used according to the invention, e.g. at concentrations of up to 100 mM.

The polysaccharide gelling agents used according to the invention will typically have weight average molecular weights of 5 kDa to 2 MDa, preferably 10 kDa to 1 MDa, most preferably 100 kDa to 900 kDa, particularly 400 to 800 kDa. They will typically be used at concentrations of 0.01 to 5% wt, preferably 0.1 to 1.5% wt., particularly 0.2 to 1% wt in the aqueous phase. Where mono or multivalent cations, typically group 1 or group 2 metal ions, are included in the aqueous phase, this will typically be at concentrations in the range 2.5 to 100 mM, particularly 5 to 50 mM.

Besides the gelling agent and water and any required gelling initiator, other physiologically tolerable materials may be present in the aqueous phase of the capsule contents, e.g. emulsifiers, emulsion stabilizers, pH modifiers, viscosity modifiers, sweeteners, fillers, vitamins (e.g. vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folacin, panthotenic acid), minerals, aromas, flavours, colours, physiologically active agents, etc. It is especially preferred that a lipophilic antioxidant be included in the oil phase of the capsule contents, e.g. Vitamin E. Other vitamins which may be present in the oil phase are vitamin A, vitamin D and vitamin K. Such further components are used widely in the food, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. The use of cellulose derivatives (e.g. hydroxy methyl propyl cellulose) as emulsion stabilizers is especially preferred.

The pH of the aqueous phase of the emulsion is preferably in the range 2 to 9, particularly 3 to 7.5.

The aqueous phase preferably has a gelling temperature in the range 10 to 30° C., more preferably 15 to 28° C., and a melting temperature in the range 20 to 80° C., more preferably 24 to 60° C., especially 28 to 50° C.

Where a sweetener is included in the aqueous phase, this will typically be selected from natural sweeteners such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, reduced glucose, maltose, xylitol, maltitol, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol, isomalt, erythritol, polyglycitol, polyglucitol and glycerol and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, neotame, saccharine, sucralose. The use of non-cariogenic sweeteners is preferred.

The emulsion preferably has an oil content of 1 to 90% wt, especially 5 to 80% wt, more especially 20 to 75% wt. However after emulsification and gelation the emulsion may be dried to reduce the water content, e.g. to 0.01 to 50% wt, preferably 0.1 to 40% wt, especially 0.5 to 30% wt. Particularly preferably however the aqueous phase, even after any drying step, will constitute at least 10% wt., more preferably at least 20% wt., especially at least 30% wt., particularly at least 40% wt. of the emulsion “residue”. Where the emulsion is dried, e.g. by lyophilization, the discontinuous nature of the oil phase is maintained even though the water content of the emulsion residue may be extremely low. In general, however, where a dried gelled emulsion is used, it is preferred that it still contains a continuous gel network phase, e.g. as detectable by electron microscopy.

Examples of physiologically active agents that may be included in the capsules of the invention include for example analgenics (such as paracetamol and acetyl salicylic acid), and antihistamines.

Preferably the overall capsule weight will be 0.25 to 3 g, especially 0.5 to 2.5 g, more especially 0.75 to 2 g.

Viewed from a further aspect the invention provides the use of an oil-in-water emulsion, the aqueous phase whereof is gelled, for the manufacture of an orally administrable chewable pharmaceutical or nutraceutical capsule in which said emulsion or a dried residue thereof is encapsulated, said capsule being for use in administration of a physiologically beneficial agent in oil form, e.g. a fatty acid ester, a free fatty acid or a lipid soluble agent dissolved in an oil.

Viewed from a further aspect the invention provides a method of treatment of a human by oral administration of an effective amount of an active agent in oil form or dissolved in an oil, the improvement comprising administering said active agent in a chewable capsule according to the invention. The method may thus typically be a method of treatment of a disease or ailment (e.g. pain), a method of nutritional supplementation (e.g. with a triglyceride) or a method of reducing weight.

Emulsion formation may be effected by conventional techniques, however emulsification under a non-oxidizing gas, e.g. nitrogen, is preferred. Likewise the components for the emulsion are preferably degassed before use and coating or capsule filling is also preferably effected under a non-oxidizing gas, e.g. nitrogen.

The capsules according to the invention may be prepared for example by filling the emulsion (before, during or after gelling) into a preformed capsule shell, or by coating preformed emulsion masses, e.g. by forming a gelled emulsion sheet, cutting capsule cores from it and coating them, or by fragmenting a gelled emulsion and filling the fragments into preformed shells or by compacting them into “cores” and coating such cores.

Particularly where the oil phase is not liable to turning rancid on exposure to air in the gelled emulsion form, but also, surprisingly where the ester is an ester of an unsaturated fatty acid as discussed above, the emulsion need not be encapsulated. Such unencapsulated gelled emulsions form a further aspect of the invention. Viewed from this aspect the invention provides an orally administrable composition comprising an oil-in-water emulsion in which the aqueous phase is gelled, or an oil droplet-containing dried residue of such an emulsion.

It is particularly preferred that the capsules and compositions according to the invention contain a citrus flavour (e.g. orange or lemon oil) in order to mask any remaining oil taste on chewing. It is also particularly preferred that the capsules or compositions according to the invention contain xylitol, e.g. as 0.5 to 50% wt., preferably 1 to 40% wt., e.g. 15 to 40% wt., in order to mask both taste and mouth feel. In both cases these may be in the shell, the aqueous phase or the oil phase (e.g. as a water-in-oil-in water emulsion), or two or more thereof; however inclusion in the shell and/or the aqueous phase will generally be sufficient.

Dose units of the compositions of the invention are preferably individually packaged in air-tight containers, e.g. a sealed wrapper or more preferably a blister of a blister pack. Viewed from a further aspect the invention provides a package comprising an air-tight compartment containing one dose unit of a composition according to the invention.

The packages according to the invention are preferably in the form of blister packs containing at least two dose units, e.g. 2 to 100, preferably 6 to 30. A blister pack, as is well known, usually comprises a plastic sheet base having moulded indentations or trays in which the item to be packed is placed. The pack is normally sealed with a foil, generally metal or a metal/plastic laminate, generally by heating the areas between the indentations or trays.

The packages according to the invention are preferably filled under a non-oxidising gas atmosphere (e.g. nitrogen) or are flushed with such a gas before sealing.

The dose units of the emulsion may be formed for example by moulding, extrusion or cutting or the like. For adult use, the dose units are preferably in tablet or lozenge form; however for child use they may conveniently be presented in child-friendly form, e.g. geometric shapes such as rods, strips and tubes, or animal, doll, or vehicle shapes, for example the shape of a popular cartoon character.

The invention will now be described further with reference to the following non-limiting Examples.

EXAMPLE 1

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Gelatin: 10% wt.

Sorbitol: 50% wt.

Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow color: 0.1% wt.

Water: 100% wt.

The gelatin is added to the water and allowed to swell for 30 min. The gelatin solution is then heated to 60° C. under continuous stirring for 45 min. The sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min. The flavour and color are then added while stirring. The solution is mixed for 30 min before stirring is stopped and the solution is left for 30 min. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles. 0.02% wt. lecithin is added to this solution.

Marine oil (e.g. commercially available fish liver oil) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The marine oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at 45-50° C. using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth, soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 30 min at 22° C. The cores are dried to reduce the content of water to approximately 15% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow color (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

The coating solution is preferably cured at 90-95° C. for 4 to 5 hours before application.

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle, and protective against rancidity of the core.

EXAMPLE 2

Chewable Capsules with a Soft Coating

The emulsion is prepared as in Example 1 and filled into soft gel capsule shells (e.g. commercially available gelatin capsule shells) using a syringe. Typically such capsule shells comprise gelatin (40% wt.), glycerol (30% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.), and water (ad 100% wt.).

EXAMPLE 3

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Gelatin: 10% wt.

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow colour: 0.1% wt.
50% citric acid: 1% wt

Water: to 100% wt.

The gelatin is added to the water and allowed to swell for 30 min. The gelatin solution is then heated to 60° C. under continuous stirring for 45 min. The xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min. The acid, flavour and colour are then added while stirring. The solution is mixed for 30 min before stirring is stopped and the solution is left for 30 min. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles.

Marine oil (e.g. commercially available fish liver oil) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The marine oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at 45-50° C. using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth, soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 60 min at 22° C. The cores are dried to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

The coating solution is preferably cured at 90-95° C. for 4 to 5 hours before application.

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle, and protective against rancidity of the core.

EXAMPLE 4

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Gelatin: 10% wt.

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow colour: 0.1% wt.
50% citric acid: 1% wt

Water: to 100% wt.

The gelatin is added to the water and allowed to swell for 30 min. The gelatin solution is then heated to 60° C. under continuous stirring for 45 min. The xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min. The acid, flavour and colour are then added while stirring. The solution is mixed for 30 min before stirring is stopped and the solution is left for 30 min. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles.

Olive oil (e.g. commercially available Ybarra oil) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at 45-50° C. using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth, soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 60 min at 22° C. The cores are dried to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

The coating solution is preferably cured at 90-95° C. for 4 to 5 hours before application.

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle to protect the core.

EXAMPLE 5

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Gelatin: 10% wt.

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow colour: 0.1% wt.
50% citric acid: 1% wt

Water: to 100% wt.

The gelatin is added to the water and allowed to swell for 30 min. The gelatin solution is then heated to 60° C. under continuous stirring for 45 min. The xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min. The acid, flavour and colour are then added while stirring. The solution is mixed for 30 min before stirring is stopped and the solution is left for 30 min. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles.

Rapeseed oil (Landlord REMA 1000) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at 45-50° C. using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth, soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 60 min at 22° C. The cores are dried to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

The coating solution is preferably cured at 90-95° C. for 4 to 5 hours before application.

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle to protect the core.

EXAMPLE 6

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Fish gelatin: 10% wt.

Kappa-carrageenan: 0.5% wt

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow colour: 0.1% wt.

Water: to 100% wt.

The kappa-carrageenan and fish gelatin is added to the water and allowed to swell for 30 min. The mixture is then heated to 90° C. under continuous stirring for 45 min. The xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min at 70° C. The flavour and colour are then added while stirring. The solution is mixed for 30 min before stirring is stopped and the solution is left for 30 min. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles.

Marine oil (e.g. commercially available fish liver oil) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The marine oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at 45-50° C. using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth, soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 12 hours at 4° C. The cores are dried at room temperature to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

The coating solution is preferably cured at 90-95° C. for 4 to 5 hours before application.

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle to protect the core.

EXAMPLE 7

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Gellan: 0.5% wt

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

Water: to 100% wt.

CaCl2-solution: 15 mM in the water phase

The gellan is added to the water and the mixture is then heated to 95° C. under continuous stirring for 30 min. The xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min at 70° C. The solution is mixed for 30 min before stirring is stopped and the solution is left for 30 min. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles.

Marine oil (e.g. commercially available fish liver oil) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The marine oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at 60° C. using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth CaCl2 is added to a final concentration of 15 mM and soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 180 min at 4° C. The cores are dried at room temperature to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

The coating solution is preferably cured at 90-95° C. for 4 to 5 hours before application.

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle to protect the core.

EXAMPLE 8

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Gelatin: 7.5% wt

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

50% citric acid: 1% wt
Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow colour: 0.1% wt.

Water: to 100% wt.

Paracetamol: 125 mg/1.5 g emulsion

The gelatin is added to the water and allowed to swell for 30 min. The gelatin solution is then heated to 60° C. under continuous stirring for 45 min. The acid, xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min. The flavour and colour are then added while stirring. The solution is mixed for 30 min before stirring is stopped and the solution is left for 30 min. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles.

Olive oil is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The olive oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at 60° C. using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth paracetamol powder is mixed into the emulsion with a ultra turrax and soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 180 min at 20° C. The cores are dried at room temperature to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle to protect the core.

EXAMPLE 9

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Na-alginate: 0.5% wt

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow colour: 0.1% wt.

Water: to 100% wt.

GDL: 30 mM

CaCO3: 15 mM

The alginate is added to the water and dissolved under continuous stirring at room temperature for 6 hours. The xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min at 70° C. The solution is cooled to room temperature and flavour and colour is added. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles.

Marine oil (e.g. commercially available fish liver oil) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The marine oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at room temperature using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth the CaCO3 and GDL powders are added (one by one) and mixed into the emulsion by the ultra turrax. Soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 24 hours at room temperature. The cores are dried at room temperature to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

The coating solution is preferably cured at 90-95° C. for 4 to 5 hours before application.

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle to protect the core.

EXAMPLE 10

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase:

Na-alginate: 0.5% wt

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow colour: 0.1% wt.

Water: to 100% wt.

Calcium sulphate (CaSO4×2H2O): 0.3%

Tetrasodiumpyrophosphate (Na4P2O7): 0.03%

The alginate is added to the water and dissolved under continuous stirring at room temperature for 6 hours. The xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min at 70° C. The solution is cooled to room temperature and flavour and colour is added. The resultant solution is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles.

Marine oil (e.g. commercially available fish liver oil) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The marine oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at room temperature using an ultra turrax. When the emulsion is smooth the CaSO4 and tetrasodiumpyrophosphate powders are added (one by one) and mixed into the emulsion by the ultra turrax. Soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 24 hours at room temperature. The cores are dried at room temperature to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle to protect the core.

EXAMPLE 11

Chewable Capsules with a Hard and Brittle Coating

Aqueous Phase

Gelatin: 10% wt.

Xylitol: 36% wt

Sorbitol: 14% wt.

Lemon flavour: 0.15% wt.
Yellow colour: 0.1% wt.
50% citric acid: 1% wt

Water: to 100% wt.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): 10 g

The gelatin is added to the water and allowed to swell for 30 min. The gelatin solution is then heated to 70° C. under continuous stirring for 45 min. The xylitol and sorbitol is then added to the solution and allowed to dissolve under stirring for 30-60 min. The acid, flavour and colour are then added while stirring. The temperature is lowered to 50° C. and the vitamin C powder is added to the solution. The solution is mixed for 30 min before stirring is stopped and the solution is left for 30 min.

Marine oil (e.g. commercially available fish liver oil) is mixed with 0.15% wt. lemon flavour.

The marine oil and the aqueous solution are emulsified in a weight ratio of 1:2 at 40-45° C. using an ultra turrax. The resultant emulsion is degassed under vacuum to remove air bubbles. When the emulsion is smooth, soft cores are produced by moulding and left to gel for 60 min at 22° C. The cores are dried to reduce the content of water to approximately 10% wt. and then coated with a sorbitol solution comprising sorbitol (80% wt.), lemon flavour (0.15% wt.), yellow colour (0.5% wt.) and water (ad 100% wt.).

The coating solution is preferably cured at 90-95° C. for 4 to 5 hours before application.

Coating is effected by dipping or panning at 40-45° C. Several layers of coating materials are added with drying between each layer until the composite layer is hard and brittle, and protective against rancidity of the core.

EXAMPLE 12

Chewable Emulsion Shapes

The emulsion is prepared as in Example 1 and filled into an animal shape mould using a syringe. The shapes are then sealed into a blister pack.

EXAMPLE 13

Blister Packs

The uncoated emulsion cores of Examples 1, 2 and 4 to 11 are filled into plastic blister pack trays over which a plastic/metal foil laminate is heat sealed.

EXAMPLE 14

Chewable Strips

Before setting, the emulsions of Examples 1, 2 and 4 to 11 are extruded into strips which are then sealed into individual plastic/metal foil laminate envelopes.