Title:
FASTENING SYSTEM FOR SLAB-LIKE PANELS
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A fastening system for rectangular slab-like panels having two long edges and two short edges and including retaining profiles arranged on the edges, of which oppositely arranged retaining profiles match one another in such a way that identical panels can be connected to one another. The retaining profiles in a connected state produce a form fit in a direction which extends perpendicularly to a laying plane in which the panels are to be laid, and/or produce a form fit in a direction which lies in the laying plane and extends perpendicularly to the connected edges. The retaining profiles have on the long edges and/or on the short edges at least one surface which interacts with a complementary surface when the retaining profiles are connected to one another. At least the surface or the complementary surface or the complementary surface includes a friction-increasing layer with an elevated first coefficient of friction, thereby strengthening the connection of the retaining profiles, wherein in a direction of insertion, in which the surfaces are moved relative to one another when connecting the retaining profiles, the friction-increasing layer has a second coefficient of friction which is less than the first coefficient of friction.



Inventors:
Eisermann, Ralf (Cochem, DE)
Application Number:
12/310096
Publication Date:
08/13/2009
Filing Date:
07/26/2007
Assignee:
LaminatePark GmbH & Co. KG (Heusweiler, DE)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04B1/61
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:
20030033773Foundation constructionFebruary, 2003Houpapa et al.
20070017180Network floor structureJanuary, 2007Ting
20090025306Tornado resistant dome houseJanuary, 2009Reed
20090151286INSULATION SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PRE-ENGINEERED BUILDINGSJune, 2009Stensrud
20080110583Arrangement of Elements for Producing a PanelMay, 2008Lallemand
20060042181Brace assembly for truss legs of offshore structuresMarch, 2006Foo et al.
20040226248Type of splash-resistant modular keyboard for computersNovember, 2004Wu
20090044854Framed Solar Module and Method of InstallingFebruary, 2009Placer et al.
20050081481Separable fibrous insulationApril, 2005Toas et al.
20050246981Device for, and method of, supporting a glass panel for forming a frameless glass panel fenceNovember, 2005Austin
20070107358Concrete tile system and method of manufactureMay, 2007Stone



Primary Examiner:
NGUYEN, CHI Q
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PAULEY ERICKSON & SWANSON (HOFFMAN ESTATES, IL, US)
Claims:
1. A fastening system for rectangular slab-like panels having two long edges (5, 5′) and two short edges (6, 6′) and having retaining profiles arranged on the edges, of which opposing retaining profiles match each other so that similar panels (1, 2) can be connected to one another, in a connected state, the retaining profiles produce a form-locking engagement in a direction (D1) that extends perpendicular to a laying plane (E) in which the panels (1, 2) are to be laid and/or produce a form-locking engagement in a direction (D2) that lies in the laying plane (E) and extends perpendicular to the connected edges (5, 5′, 6, 6′), the retaining profiles on the long edges (5, 5′) and/or on the short edges (6, 6′) have at least one surface that cooperates with a counterpart surface when the retaining profiles are connected to each other, and at least a surface or the counterpart surface has a friction-increasing layer (16) with an increased coefficient of friction (RH), thus strengthening a connection of the retaining profiles, the fastening system comprising: in an insertion direction (DE) in which the surfaces are moved in relation to each other as the retaining profiles are being connected, the friction-increasing layer (16) having a coefficient of friction (RN) that is less than the increased coefficient of friction (RH).

2. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) has the increased coefficient of friction (RH) in the direction opposite from the insertion direction (DE).

3. The fastening system as recited in claim 2, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) has the increased coefficient of friction (RH) in a direction perpendicular to the insertion direction (DE).

4. The fastening system as recited in claim 3, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) is embodied in the form of a flocking layer (17).

5. The fastening system as recited in claim 4, wherein the flocking layer includes a base layer (18) and flocking fibers (19) that are fastened to the base layer (18) at a fixed end and that point away from the base layer (18) at a free end, and the flocking fibers (19) have an inclination angle (α) in relation to the insertion direction (DE).

6. The fastening system as recited in claim 5, wherein a length of the flocking fibers (19) is greater than a gap distance between the surface with the flocking layer (17) and the counterpart surface, and a gap forms when the retaining profiles are connected to each other.

7. The fastening system as recited in claim 6, wherein the retaining profiles on the long edges (5, 5′) correspond to the retaining profiles on the short edges (6, 6′).

8. The fastening system as recited in claim 6, wherein the retaining profiles on the long edges (5, 5′) formed as first retaining profiles and the retaining profiles on the short edges (6, 6′) are formed as second retaining profiles, the first retaining profiles on the long edges (5, 5′) produce a form-locking engagement in a first direction (D1) and a form-locking engagement in a second direction (D2), while the second retaining profiles of the short edges (6, 6′) produce a form-locking engagement in the first direction (D1) or a form-locking engagement in the second direction (D2).

9. The fastening system as recited in claim 8, wherein the retaining profiles have a groove (8) with a first groove side wall (14) and a second groove side wall (15) and have a tongue (11) with a lower side (12) and an upper side (13), the tongue (11) engages in the groove (8) when the retaining profiles are connected, to produce the form-locking engagement in the first direction (D1) perpendicular to the laying plane (E).

10. The fastening system as recited in claim 9, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) is on the upper side (13) and/or the lower side (12) of the tongue (11).

11. The fastening system as recited in claim 10, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) is on the first groove side wall (14) and/or the second groove side wall (15).

12. The fastening system as recited in claim 11, wherein the retaining profiles have a locking element and a locking groove (22) that receives the locking element (21) when the retaining profiles are in the connected state to produce a form-locking engagement in the second direction (D2) perpendicular to the connected edges.

13. The fastening system as recited in claim 12, wherein the locking element (21) and locking groove (22) are under stress in the connected state.

14. The fastening system as recited in claim 12, wherein there is a play between the locking element (21) and the locking groove (22) in the connected state.

15. The fastening system as recited in claim 14, wherein the locking element (21) and the locking groove (22) are formed so that it is possible to insert the retaining profiles into each other when they are in an inclined position in relation to each other, with at least one of the panels being at an inclination angle in relation to the laying plane (E).

16. The fastening system as recited in claim 15, wherein the retaining profiles slide in relation to each other along the retaining profiles when they are in an inclined position in relation to each other.

17. The fastening system as recited in claim 16, wherein the locking element (21) and the locking groove (22) are formed so that the retaining profiles are able to slide against each other in an essentially planar fashion, with both of the retaining profiles preferably situated in the laying plane (E).

18. The fastening system as recited in claim 17, wherein the friction-increasing layer is on a first side wall and/or on a second side wall of the locking groove (22).

19. The fastening system as recited in claim 18, wherein the friction-increasing layer is on at least one wall of the locking element.

20. The fastening system as recited in claim 19, wherein the lower side (12) of the tongue (11) is convexly curved in cross section and the first groove side wall (14) is concavely curved for producing an articulated connection around a rotation axis parallel to the connected retaining profiles.

21. The fastening system as recited in claim 20, wherein the retaining profiles have a first hook element (25) and a second hook element (26) that each have a hook stem (27) and a hook end (28), the hook stem (27) connects the hook end (28) to the panel (1, 2) and in the connected state of the retaining profiles the hook ends (28) engage each other in the second direction (D2).

22. The fastening system as recited in claim 21, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) is on an inside of the hook end (28), on an outside (29) of the hook end (28), on an end surface of the hook end (28), on a side wall of the hook stem (27), and/or on a hook end wall (30).

23. The fastening system as recited in claim 22, wherein a dust groove or a dust chamber is situated behind a surface with the friction-increasing layer, when viewed in the insertion direction (DE).

24. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) has the increased coefficient of friction (RH) in a direction perpendicular to the insertion direction (DE).

25. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) is embodied in the form of a flocking layer (17).

26. The fastening system as recited in claim 25, wherein the flocking layer includes a base layer (18) and flocking fibers (19) that are fastened to the base layer (18) at a fixed end and that point away from the base layer (18) at a free end, and the flocking fibers (19) have an inclination angle (α) in relation to the insertion direction (DE).

27. The fastening system as recited in claim 4, wherein a length of the flocking fibers (19) is greater than a gap distance between the surface with the flocking layer (17) and the counterpart surface, and a gap forms when the retaining profiles are connected to each other.

28. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein the retaining profiles on the long edges (5, 5′) correspond to the retaining profiles on the short edges (6, 6′).

29. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein the retaining profiles on the long edges (5, 5′) are formed as first retaining profiles and the retaining profiles on the short edges (6, 6′) are formed as second retaining profiles, the first retaining profiles on the long edges (5, 5′) produce a form-locking engagement in a first direction (D1) and a form-locking engagement in a second direction (D2), while the second retaining profiles of the short edges (6, 6′) produce a form-locking engagement in the first direction (D1) or a form-locking engagement in the second direction (D2).

30. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein the retaining profiles have a groove (8) with a first groove side wall (14) and a second groove side wall (15) and have a tongue (11) with a lower side (12) and an upper side (13), the tongue (11) engages in the groove (8) when the retaining profiles are connected to produce the form-locking engagement in the first direction (D1) perpendicular to the laying plane (E).

31. The fastening system as recited in claim 30, herein the friction-increasing layer (16) is on the upper side (13) and/or the lower side (12) of the tongue (11).

32. The fastening system as recited in claim 9, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) is on the first groove side wall (14) and/or the second groove side wall (15).

33. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein the retaining profiles have a locking element and a locking groove (22) that receives the locking element (21) when the retaining profiles are in the connected state to produce a form-locking engagement in the second direction (D2) perpendicular to the connected edges.

34. The fastening system as recited in claim 33, wherein the locking element (21) and locking groove (22) are under stress in the connected state.

35. The fastening system as recited in claim 33, wherein there is a play between the locking element (21) and the locking groove (22) in the connected state.

36. The fastening system as recited in claim 33, wherein the locking element (21) and the locking groove (22) are formed so that it is possible to insert the retaining profiles into each other when they are in an inclined position in relation to each other with at least one of the panels being at an inclination angle in relation to the laying plane (E).

37. The fastening system as recited in claim 33, wherein the retaining profiles slide in relation to each other along the retaining profiles when they are in an inclined position in relation to each other.

38. The fastening system as recited in claim 33, wherein the locking element (21) and the locking groove (22) are formed so that the retaining profiles are able to slide against each other in an essentially planar fashion, with both of the retaining profiles preferably situated in the laying plane (E).

39. The fastening system as recited in claim 33, wherein the friction-increasing layer is on a first side wall and/or on a second side wall of the locking groove (22).

40. The fastening system as recited in claim 33, wherein the friction-increasing layer is on at least one wall of the locking element.

41. The fastening system as recited in claim 9, wherein the lower side (12) of the tongue (11) is convexly curved in cross section and the first groove side wall (14) is concavely curved for producing an articulated connection around a rotation axis parallel to the connected retaining profiles.

42. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein the retaining profiles have a first hook element (25) and a second hook element (26) that each have a hook stem (27) and a hook end (28), the hook stem (27) connects the hook end (28) to the panel (1, 2) and in the connected state of the retaining profiles the hook ends (28) engage each other in the second direction (D2).

43. The fastening system as recited in claim 42, wherein the friction-increasing layer (16) is on an inside of the hook end (28), on an outside (29) of the hook end (28), on an end surface of the hook end (28), on a side wall of the hook stem (27), and/or on a hook end wall (30).

44. The fastening system as recited in claim 1, wherein a dust groove or a dust chamber is situated behind a surface with the friction-increasing layer, when viewed in the insertion direction (DE).

Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates to a fastening system for rectangular slab-like panels having two long edges and two short edges and having retaining profiles arranged on the edges, of which opposing retaining profiles match each other so that similar panels can be connected to one another.

2. Discussion of Related Art

For example PCT International Publication WO 94/26999 discloses a fastening system for floor panels in which when they are in a connected state, the retaining profiles produce a form-locking engagement in a direction that extends perpendicular to a laying plane in which the panels are to be laid and produce a form-locking engagement in a direction that lies in the laying plane and extends perpendicular to the connected edges. The retaining profiles of PCT International Publication WO 94/26999 have a groove and have a tongue that is slid into the groove when the retaining profiles are connected to each other. When the tongue and groove are connected, the surface of the tongue comes into contact with a counterpart surface in the groove so that the tongue can be supported in the groove.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,808,777 discloses a fastening system for panels, in which the retaining profiles have a projection with an upper side that is inclined in relation to the laying plane and a recess with a lower side that is likewise inclined in relation to the laying plane. In the connected state of the retaining profiles, the lower side of the recess rests against the upper side of the projection, with the inclination of the lower side and upper side producing a form-locking engagement of the retaining profiles in a direction that lies in the laying plane and extends perpendicular to the retaining profiles.

The upper side of the projection and the lower side of the recess are each provided with a friction-increasing layer that makes it more difficult for the projection and the recess to slide in relation to each other. The friction-increasing layers with an increased coefficient of friction RH make it possible to strengthen the connection of the retaining profiles. Because of the inclination of the upper side of the projection and the lower side of the recess in relation to the laying plane, the panels to be connected cannot be slid in relation to each other in a planar fashion in order to connect the involved retaining profiles. Instead, it is necessary to tilt the panels in order insert the retaining profiles into each other. With panels that have corresponding retaining profiles on both the long edges and the short edges, a laying can present challenges because in order to connect the panels to other panels that have already been laid, the panel must be pivoted in relation to both its long edges and its short edges.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

One object of this invention is to provide a fastening system for panels that securely connects the panels to one another and permits the panels to be easily laid.

The object underlying this invention is attained with the combination of defining characteristics discussed in this specification and in the claims.

A fastening system according to this invention is in an insertion direction DE, in which the surface and counterpart surface are moved in relation to each other as the retaining profiles are connected, and the friction-increasing layer has a coefficient of friction RN that is lower than the coefficient of friction RH. In an exemplary embodiment, the friction-increasing layer has the increased coefficient of friction RH in the opposite direction from the insertion direction. In addition or alternatively, the increased coefficient of friction RH can be produced in a direction perpendicular to the insertion direction DE.

If the retaining profiles are inserted into each other to connect panels, with the at least one surface being slid along the counterpart surface, then because of the friction-increasing layer according to this invention, a greater force is exerted to separate the retaining profiles, such as when moving in the opposite direction from or perpendicular to the insertion direction DE, than is required when connecting the retaining profiles, a movement in the insertion direction DE constituting an inherent part of connecting the retaining profiles. The insertion direction DE can be a linear movement, a rotating movement, or a combination of the two.

In the borderline case, short and long edges can be of the same length. The corresponding panel would then be square.

In a preferred exemplary embodiment, the layer is a flocking layer. The flocking layer can include a base layer and flocking fibers that are fastened to the base layer at a fixed end and that point away from the base layer with a free end. In this case, the flocking fibers can be inclined in relation to the insertion direction DE. If a surface with a flocking layer of this kind is slid in the insertion direction DE on a counterpart surface, then the flocking fibers, due to their inclination, have a lower resistance to the relative sliding of the surface and counterpart surface in comparison to a movement of the counterpart surface in the opposite direction of the insertion direction because in this case, the flocking fibers would be oriented in opposition to this movement.

The flocking fibers can have a constant inclination over their entire length. As a result, the flocking fibers can already be inclined in relation to the base layer in the region of their fixed ends. The inclining of the flocking fibers in relation to the base layer occurs during the manufacture of the flocking layer, for example the flocking fibers are already inclined before the connection of the retaining profiles.

In addition, a length of the flocking fibers can be selected so that it is greater than a gap distance between the surface with the flocking layer and the counterpart surface, which gap forms when the retaining profiles are connected to each other. When the surface and counterpart surface are assembled, the flocking fibers are folded or bent obliquely backward in the insertion direction DE in addition to their original inclination and subsequently engage with the counterpart surface at an increased inclination.

The fastening system can be embodied so that the retaining profiles on the long edges correspond to the retaining profiles on the short edges. Thus, it would be essentially possible to connect a retaining profile on a short edge to a retaining profile on a long edge, thus making it possible for the panels to be laid in a herringbone pattern.

Alternatively, the retaining profiles on the long edges can be formed as first retaining profiles and the retaining profiles on the short edges can be formed as second retaining profiles. In this case, the first retaining profiles differ from the second retaining profiles. Preferably, the first retaining profiles of the long edges produce a form-locking engagement in direction D1 and a form-locking engagement in direction D2, while the second retaining profiles of the short edges produce a form-locking engagement in only one direction, such as either in direction D1 or in direction D2. This can facilitate the laying of panels significantly because in order to connect the panels along their short edges, it is only necessary to place them one on top of the other.

The retaining profiles, such as the first and second retaining profiles of the above-described exemplary embodiment, can have a groove with a first groove side wall and a second groove side wall as well as a tongue with a lower side and an upper side. The tongue engages in the groove when the retaining profiles are connected, thus producing the form-locking engagement in direction D1 perpendicular to the laying plane. In this case, the friction-increasing layer can be provided on the upper surface, the lower surface, or the upper and lower surface of the tongue. Alternatively or in addition, the friction-increasing layer can be provided on the first groove side wall and/or the second groove side wall. It is also possible for the entire tongue, such as the lower side, the upper side, and the end surface of the tongue, to have the friction-increasing layer. This naturally also applies to the groove, in which case in addition to the first groove side wall and second groove side wall, the groove base also has the friction-increasing layer.

In one exemplary embodiment, the retaining profiles have a locking element and a locking groove that accommodates the locking element when the retaining profiles are in the connected state, thus producing a form-locking engagement in direction D2 perpendicular to the connected edges. In this case, the locking element and locking groove can be under stress so that the retaining profiles constitute or form a press fit. In addition, a play can be provided in at least one direction between the locking element and locking groove so that a clearance fit is between the retaining profiles. In addition, the connection of the retaining profiles can also be embodied in the form of a transition fit. A possible pressing between the retaining profiles can be solely due to the presence of the friction-increasing layer or can be increased by the friction-increasing layer.

The locking element and locking groove can be embodied so that the retaining profiles can be inserted into each other in an inclined position in relation to each other, at least one of the retaining profiles having an inclination angle in relation to the laying plane. The locking element and locking groove can be brought into engagement without mechanical strain by pivoting the retaining profiles so that they lie in a plane.

The retaining profiles can be embodied so that despite the presence of the friction-increasing layer, they can be slid along the edges of the panel when the panels are inclined in relation to each other.

The locking element and locking groove can also be embodied so that the retaining profiles can be slid in relation to each other essentially in a planar fashion, with the two retaining profiles preferably situated in the laying plane. An example for such an embodiment of the locking element and locking groove is a snap or detent connection that causes a deformation of an element of the retaining profiles when the retaining profiles are slid in relation to each other, and the deformation slackening or disappearing altogether once the detent engagement is produced.

The friction-increasing layer can be on a first side wall and/or a second side wall of the locking groove. It is also possible for one wall of the locking element to have the friction-increasing layer.

The lower side of the tongue can be convexly curved in cross section, while the first groove side wall that cooperates with the lower side of the tongue when the retaining profiles are connected can be concavely curved. The curvature of the lower side of the tongue and of the first groove side wall permits an articulated connection around a rotation axis parallel to the edges of the connected retaining profiles. Because of the curvature, an undercut is provided so that the retaining profiles produce a form-locking engagement in two directions D1, D2.

In one exemplary embodiment, the retaining profiles preferably of the short edges include a first hook element and a second hook element that each have a hook stem and hook end. The hook stem connects the hook end to the panel and in the connected state of the retaining profiles, the hook ends engage each other in direction D2. One advantage of retaining profiles thus embodied is that the panels can be simply placed against each other in order to connect the retaining profiles. The friction-increasing layer can be provided on an inside of the hook end on an outside of the hook end, on an end surface of the hook end, on a side wall of the hook stem and/or on a hook end wall.

Preferably, a dust groove or dust chamber is provided, which is situated behind the surface with the friction-increasing layer, viewed in the insertion direction DE. Consequently, the dust groove or dust chamber can accommodate flocking fibers that become detached from the base layer of the flocking layer during the connection of the retaining profiles.

All of the exemplary embodiments of this invention can be used if the friction-increasing layer has the same or approximately the same friction resistance in all directions. This can make it more difficult to lay the panels, but still permits the achievement of favorable results.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

This invention is explained in greater detail below in view of exemplary embodiments shown in the drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 shows a perspective view of two panels;

FIG. 2 shows partial views of a first exemplary embodiment of retaining profiles;

FIG. 3 shows a larger-scale view of the retaining profiles shown in FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 shows partial views of a second exemplary embodiment of retaining profiles;

FIG. 5 shows partial views of a third exemplary embodiment of retaining profiles;

FIG. 6 shows schematic views of steps for a method for laying panels;

FIG. 7 shows schematic views of steps for another method for laying panels.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

FIG. 1 shows a perspective view of two laminate panels 1, 2, which are embodied as structurally identical. The laminate panel 1 has an upper surface 3 and a lower surface 4. A surrounding edge includes two long edges 5, 5′ and two short edges 6, 6′. Because of the structurally identical embodiment, panel 2 has the same reference numerals.

At the edges 5, 5′, 6, 6′, the panels 1, 2 are provided with or have retaining profiles that are not shown in FIG. 1 for the sake of simplicity. Preferred exemplary embodiments for holding profiles or retaining profiles can be inferred from FIGS. 2 through 5.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a first exemplary embodiment of retaining profiles 7, 7′. In the upper portion of FIG. 2, the retaining profiles 7, 7′ are connected to each other and in the lower portion of FIG. 2, they are separated from each other. The retaining profile 7 has a groove 8 that includes a lower lip 9 and an upper lip 10. The retaining profile 7′ has a tongue 11 that can be inserted into the groove 8, such as shown in the upper portion of FIG. 2. The tongue 11 has a lower side 12 and an upper side 13 that extend essentially parallel to a laying plane in which the laminate panels 1, 2 are to be laid.

The lower lip 9 forms a first groove side wall 14 that cooperates with a lower side 12 of the tongue 11 when the retaining profiles 7, 7′ are connected to each other. The groove 8 is delimited toward the top by a second groove side wall 15. When the retaining profiles 7, 7′ are in the connected state, the upper side 13 of the tongue 11 rests against the second groove inner wall 15. Consequently, the retaining profiles 7, 7′ are connected in a direction D1 perpendicular to the laying plane E.

For example, the lower side 12 of the tongue 11 forms a surface that cooperates with a counterpart surface in the form of the first groove inner wall 14 when the retaining profiles 7, 7′ are connected to each other. The lower side 12 has a friction-increasing layer 16. This friction-increasing layer 16 increases a friction force between the lower side 12 of the tongue 11 and the first groove inner wall 14 of the groove 8. This increased friction force counteracts a separation of the retaining profiles, starting from the connected state 7, 7′ of the retaining profiles. In this case, the friction force counteracts a separating motion in direction D2 and also counteracts a movement in direction D3, which extends in the longitudinal direction of the retaining profiles 7, 7′ and extends in the plane of the drawing in FIG. 2. The laying plane E is defined by the directions D2, D3.

In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 2, a friction-increasing layer 16 is provided not only on the lower side 12 of the tongue 11, but also on the second groove inner wall 15 of the groove 8. This friction-increasing layer 16 on the second groove inner wall 15 likewise assures that the retaining profiles 7, 7′ are firmly attached to each other. Furthermore, additional friction-increasing layers 16 can be mounted to the upper side 13 of the groove 11 and to the first groove inner wall 14.

FIG. 3 shows a larger-scale view of the retaining profiles 7, 7′. By contrast with FIG. 2, however, in FIG. 3, the friction-increasing layer 16 is only depicted on the lower side 12 of the groove 11. The friction-increasing layer 16 is embodied as a flocking layer 17 that has a base layer 18 and a multitude of flocking fibers 19. The base layer 18 can fasten the individual flocking fibers to the lower side 12 of the tongue 11. The flocking fibers 19 are fastened with a fixed end to the base layer 18. A loose or free end of the flocking fibers 19 points away from the base layer 18. As shown in FIG. 3, the flocking fibers 19 are oriented parallel to one another. The flocking fibers 19 are inclined in relation to an insertion direction DE, along which the tongue 11 can be slid into the groove 8. The inclination angle between the longitudinal span of the flocking fibers 19 and the insertion direction DE is labeled a in FIG. 3. The angle a is less than 90° and is preferably 30° to 80°. The angle a is preferably constant over the entire length of the flocking fibers and is set during the manufacture of the flocking layer.

Due to the inclination of the flocking fibers, the flocking layer 17 has a coefficient of friction RN in the insertion direction DE that is lower than a coefficient of friction RH that underlies the movement of the tongue 11 as it is slid out from the groove 8.

FIG. 4 shows another exemplary embodiment of retaining profiles that are labeled with the reference numerals 20 and 20′. Components or features of the retaining profiles 20, 20′ that are similar or identical to components or features of the retaining profiles 7, 7′ in FIG. 2 have the same reference numerals. Here, too, the retaining profiles 20, 20′ have a tongue 11 and a groove 8 that is delimited by a lower lip 9 and an upper lip 10 in direction D1. The lower lip 9 has a locking element 21 formed onto it, which in the attached state of the retaining profiles 20, 20′, as shown in the upper portion of FIG. 4, engages in a locking groove 22 that is embodied on a lower side 23 of the retaining profile 20′.

In order to connect the retaining profiles 20, 20′ to each other, the retaining profile 20′ must be tilted in relation to the retaining profile 20, which is indicated in the lower portion of FIG. 4. In the tilted position according to the lower portion of FIG. 4, the groove 11 of the retaining profile 20′ can be inserted into the tongue 8 without being impeded by the locking element 21. Then the retaining profile 20′ is pivoted into the laying plane E, causing the locking element 21 and locking groove 22 to engage with each other, thus producing a form-locking engagement in direction D2.

In order to strengthen the connection of the retaining profiles 20, 20′ in direction D2, friction-increasing layers 16 are mounted onto a first groove side wall 14 and a lower side 12 and upper side 13 of the groove 11. Thus it is possible to increase the friction forces of the connection between the retaining profiles 20, 20′ in direction D2, thus relieving the strain on the form-locking connection between the locking element 21 and locking groove 22. As in the exemplary embodiment in FIG. 3, the friction-increasing layers 16 can be embodied as flocking layers 17 with inclined flocking fibers 19.

If the retaining profile 20′ is inserted into the retaining profile 20, but not pivoted into the laying plane E, then the friction-increasing layers 16 do not come into engagement with each other or do not come completely into engagement, thus permitting the retaining profile 20′ to be slid in direction D3, such as along the retaining profiles 20, 20′ without requiring a large amount of force to be exerted.

FIG. 5 shows another preferred exemplary embodiment of retaining profiles that are labeled with the reference numerals 24 and 24′. The retaining profiles 24, 24′ have two hook profiles 25, 26 that are embodied essentially the same and each include a hook stem 27 and a hook end 28. When the retaining profiles 24, 24′ are connected, the hook ends 28 of the hook elements engage the retaining profiles 24, 24′ from behind. In order to strengthen the connection in direction D1, the hook ends 28 each have a friction-increasing layer 16 on a respective outer surface 29. These friction-increasing layers 16 increase the friction between the outer surfaces 29 of the hook ends 28 and a hook end wall 30. The friction-increasing layers 16 make it possible not only to achieve a firm connection between the retaining profiles 24, 24′ in direction D1, but also to counteract a dishing of the panels 1, 2. In addition or alternatively, as shown in FIG. 5, friction-increasing layers 16′ can be on at least one of the horizontal sides 31 of the hook elements 25, 26.

FIGS. 6 and 7 are intended to outline two possible methods according to which panels with fastening systems according to FIGS. 1 through 5 can be laid.

FIG. 6 shows three different method steps I, II, and III; the left side of FIG. 6 is a top view of laminate panels A, B, C and the right side of FIG. 6 is a side view of the laminate panels A, B, C.

The starting point of the method can be the already laid panel A, which lies in a first row R1. Panel B, which lies in a second row R2, is already connected with its long edge 5 to panel A. In order to then lay panel C into the second row R2, it is tilted into an inclined position in relation to the laying plane E and its long edge 5′ is inserted into the retaining profile on the long edge 5 of panel A. The retaining profiles of panels A, B, and C on the long edges 5, 5′ should correspond to the retaining profiles according to FIG. 4. As can be inferred from method step I, panel C is situated with its short edge 6′ still spaced apart from the short edge 6 of panel B. In method step II, panel C is slid toward panel B until it comes into contact with panel B. The retaining profiles of panels C and B on the short edges 6, 6′ should correspond to the retaining profiles 24, 24′ in FIG. 5. In method step III, panel C can be folded down into the laying plane E, causing the hook elements 25, 26, such as shown in FIG. 5, to engage with each other.

FIG. 7 shows a method for laying the panels A, B, and C. In this case, the retaining profiles on the short edges 6, 6′ should correspond to the retaining profiles 7, 7′ of FIGS. 2 and 3. The top view and side view of panels A, B, and C as well as the depiction of the individual method steps I, II, III, IV correspond to the depictions in FIG. 6.

As shown in FIG. 5, the already laid panel A in the first row R1 and the already laid panel B in the second row R2 constitute or form the starting point. In method step I, panel C is tilted into an inclined position and its long edge 5′ is inserted into the long edge 5 of panel A. Then, panel B is pivoted up out of the laying plane E until it reaches the inclined position of panel C. Panels C and B are consequently situated in the same plane. In method step III, panel C is slid toward panel B, causing the retaining profiles 7, 7′, such as shown in FIG. 2, to engage with each other. Then panels C and B are pivoted together down into the laying plane E.