Title:
Truss Elements and Space Truss Diagonal Member Manufacturing Method
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
There is provided a truss element in which space truss diagonal members can be easily integrally formed by being drawn in a predetermined direction. This truss element is formed in a corrugated shape with mountain portions 1a and valley portions 2 in left and right directions alternately and cut portions 4a, each which is perpendicular to a ridge line 3 of the mountain portion 1 and leaves a bottom of the valley portion uncut, and cut portions 4b, each which is perpendicular to a bottom line 5 of the valley and leaves a peak of the mountain portion uncut, are formed alternately with spaces in a front and back directions.



Inventors:
Oki, Yoshinari (Toyama, JP)
Kinoshita, Shigeru (Toyama, JP)
Hashizumi, Hiroyuki (Toyama, JP)
Kitahashi, Yukio (Toyama, JP)
Application Number:
11/992286
Publication Date:
06/25/2009
Filing Date:
05/30/2007
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/645, 52/646, 52/651.11, 52/655.1, 52/745.2
International Classes:
E04C3/02; E04B1/00; E04H12/06; E04H12/18
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
MAESTRI, PATRICK J
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WENDEROTH, LIND & PONACK, L.L.P. (Washington, DC, US)
Claims:
1. A truss element being formed in a corrugated shape with mountain portions and valley portions in left and right directions alternately, wherein cut portions, each which is perpendicular to a ridge line of the mountain portion and leaves a bottom of the valley portion uncut, and cut portions, each which is perpendicular to a bottom line of the valley and leaves a peak of the mountain portion uncut, are formed alternately with spaces in front and back directions.

2. A truss element being formed in a cylindrical shape with mountain portions and valley portions alternately in a circumferential direction, wherein cut portions, each which is perpendicular to a ridge line of the mountain portion and leaves a bottom of the valley portion uncut, and cut portions, each which is perpendicular to a bottom line of the valley and leaves a peak of the mountain portion uncut, are formed alternately with spaces in front and back directions.

3. A truss element being cylindrically formed with a polygonal cross section, wherein cut portions are formed on a peripheral wall and a ridge line along front and back directions, respectively, and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that the cut portions formed on the peripheral wall and the cut portions formed on the ridge line are shifted one another

4. A truss element having upper and lower walls and a plurality of vertical walls arranged at regular intervals in left and right directions, wherein cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper and lower walls along front and back directions every between the vertical walls, the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions, and the cut portions are intermittently formed along the front and back directions on the vertical walls to be made to match with either ones of the cut portions formed on the upper and lower walls to be shifted one another in the length and the position in the front and back directions.

5. A truss element having upper and lower walls and a plurality of vertical walls arranged at regular intervals in left and right directions, wherein cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper and lower walls along front and back directions every between the vertical walls, the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions, a portion where the cut portions are intermittently formed along the front and back directions on the vertical walls to be made to match with either ones of the cut portions formed on the upper and lower walls to be shifted one another in the length and the position in the front and back directions, and a portion where either only one of the upper and lower walls is formed, the cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper wall or lower wall along the front and back directions to have spaces in the left and right directions, and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions, are integrally formed to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions.

6. A truss element having upper and lower walls and a connecting portion in left and right directions alternately, wherein the connecting portion connects four walls including the upper and lower walls positioned left and the upper and lower walls positioned right, cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper and lower walls and the connecting portion along front and back directions respectively, and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those formed on the upper and lower walls and those formed on the connecting portion are shifted one another in the front and back directions.

7. A truss element having upper and lower walls and a connecting portion in left and right directions alternately, wherein the connecting portion connects four walls including the upper and lower walls positioned left and the upper and lower walls positioned right, cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper and lower walls and the connecting portion along front and back directions respectively, a portion where the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those formed on the upper and lower walls and those formed on the connecting portion are shifted one another in the front and back directions, and a portion where either only one of the upper and lower walls is formed, the cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper wall or lower wall along the front and back directions to have spaces in the left and right directions, and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions, are integrally formed to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions.

8. A truss element having a plurality of upper elements on an upper surface side to be adjacent to each other in left and right directions and a plurality of lower elements on a lower surface side to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, wherein the upper element has an upper wall and a side wall extending downward to any one of left and right sides of the upper wall, adjacent upper elements are arranged to be symmetric, the lower element has a lower wall and a side wall extending upward to any one of left and right sides of the lower wall, adjacent lower elements are arranged to be symmetric, the upper walls of the upper elements and the lower walls of the lower elements are jointed to each other by joint portions having a space in front and back directions, respectively, the side walls of the upper elements and the side walls of the lower elements are jointed to each other by joint portions having a space in the front and back directions, respectively, and the joint portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that the joint portions of the upper and lower walls and the joint portions of the side walls are shifted on another in the front and back directions.

9. The truss element according to claim 8, wherein a portion having the upper elements and the lower elements to be opposed to one another, and a portion having only either ones of the upper elements and the lower elements to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are integrally formed to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions.

10. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 4 in a vertical direction; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in front and back directions to be fixed thereto and then spread in the vertical direction.

11. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method, comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 5 in a vertical direction; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in front and back directions to be fixed thereto and then spread in the vertical direction.

12. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method, comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 6 in a vertical direction; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in front and back directions to be fixed thereto and then spread in the vertical direction.

13. The space truss diagonal member manufacturing method, comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 7 in a vertical direction; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in front and back directions to be fixed thereto and then spread in the vertical direction.

14. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 8 in a vertical direction; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in front and back directions to be fixed thereto and then spread in the vertical direction.

15. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method, comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 9 in a vertical direction; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in front and back directions to be fixed thereto and then spread in the vertical direction.

16. A truss element being formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape, wherein cut portions, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in left and right directions, cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in front and back directions.

17. A truss element being formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape, wherein cut portions, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in a vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in left and right directions, and cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions 4d, which are parallel to front and back surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in a vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in front and back directions.

18. A truss element having a portion being formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape where cut portions, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in left and right directions, cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in the front and back directions, and a portion being formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape where cut portions, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in a vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in the left and right directions, and cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions 4d, which are parallel to front and back surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in a vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in the front and back directions, wherein both portions are integrally provided to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions or the front and back directions.

19. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method, comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 16 in any one of front and back directions and left and right directions; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in one direction to be fixed thereto and then spread in the other direction.

20. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method, comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 17 in any one of the front and back directions and left and right directions; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in one direction to be fixed thereto and then spread in the other direction.

21. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method, comprising the steps of: spreading the truss element according to claim 18 in any one of the front and back directions and the left and right directions; and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in one direction to be fixed thereto and then spread in the other direction.

22. A truss element having a plurality of straight bars and a plurality of connecting elements, wherein the straight bars are arranged in left and right directions, the connecting elements have at least two left and right straight bar insertion portions, and are spaced in front and back directions, and arranged in a staggered manner such that the connecting elements adjacent to one another in the front and back directions are shifted one another by a space between the left and right straight bar insertion portions, and the straight bars are alternately inserted into the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the plurality of connecting elements arranged to have spaces in the front and back directions, and the plurality of straight bars are connected to one another in the left and right directions by the connecting elements arranged in the staggered manner.

23. The truss element according to claim 22, the straight bars are stacked up and down, and the upper and lower straight bars are connected to one another by four connecting elements each having two upper and lower stages of left and right straight bar insertion portions arranged every other one in the front and back directions.

24. A truss element having a plurality of straight bars and a plurality of connecting elements, wherein the straight bars are arranged in left and right directions and stacked in two upper and lower stages, the connecting elements, the connecting elements include four-bar connecting elements each having two upper and lower stages of left and right straight bar insertion portions and a two-bar connecting elements each having left and right straight bar insertion portions, the four-bar connecting elements and the two-bar connecting elements are arranged in a staggered manner to be spaced in front and back directions alternately and shifted one another by a space between the left and right straight bar insertion portions in the left and right directions, the two-bar connecting elements are stacked in two upper and lower stages, the straight bars are alternately inserted into the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the plurality of connecting elements arranged to be spaced in the front and back directions, the plurality of straight bars are connects to one another in the left and right directions by the connecting elements arranged in the staggered manner, and the upper and lower straight bars are connects to each other by the four-bar connecting element.

25. A truss element having a plurality of straight bars and a plurality of connecting elements, wherein the straight bars are arranged in left and right directions, the connecting elements are arranged in a staggered manner such that first connecting elements, each having four straight bar insertion portions in one column in the left and right directions, and second connecting elements are spaced in front and back directions alternately and shifted one another by two spaces between the left and right straight bar insertion portions in the left and right directions, the second connecting elements can be separated into a first element and a second element, each having two straight bar insertion portions, vertically, and the straight bars are alternately inserted into the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the plurality of connecting elements arranged to be spaced in the front and back directions,

26. A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method comprising the steps of: inserting a plurality of straight bars into left and right straight bar insertion portions of a plurality of connecting elements having at least two left and right straight bar insertion sections alternately to be connected to one another in left and right directions; and drawing the connecting elements in a vertical direction and the left and right directions to spread spaces among the connecting elements in the vertical direction and the left and right directions, so that the respective elements is bent in a zigzag manner.

Description:

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to truss elements that can integrally form space truss diagonal members and a space truss diagonal member manufacturing method.

BACKGROUND ART

The space trusses have been used in the structural frameworks of many types in the various fields including the building and civil engineering. In the space truss, numerous diagonal members are generally arranged one by one, both end portions of each diagonal member must be jointed to a chord member by bolt and nut, welding, etc., and so much time and effort are required for assembly work (for example, see patent document 1).

In contrast to this, patent document 2 describes truss reinforcement for use in a precast concrete plate in which numerous cuts are formed on belt-like plate in its front and back directions and the plate is drawn in a width direction to make an expanded metal shape and then the drawn plate is bent in a mountain shape at a central portion in the width direction. This method eliminates the work for connecting multiple members with welding and the like, so that mountain shape truss reinforcement can be formed from a single plate.

Moreover, patent document 3 describes space truss diagonal members (lattice members) formed by subjecting one pipe-like rod to crushing and bending to form a zigzag shape and a spiral shape.

Patent Document 1: Unexamined Japanese Patent Publication 2003-268872

Patent Document 2: Unexamined Japanese Patent Publication S63-70748

Patent Document 2: Unexamined Japanese Patent Publication H09-302841

DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION

However, regarding the foregoing patent document 2, the plate is drawn and then the resultant plate must be subjected to bending, otherwise the truss body cannot be formed, and therefore the manufacturing becomes complicated. Furthermore, members corresponding to the diagonal members are crossed each other in a lattice fashion, so that a load cannot be sufficiently supported, and a cross section of the diagonal member is plate-shaped, resulting in poor strength.

Regarding the diagonal members of the patent document 3, numerous portions to be bent must be sequentially formed by being subjected to crushing and bending one by one, so that the manufacturing becomes extremely complicated and its cost is increased.

In view of the aforementioned circumstances, it is an object of the present invention is to provide truss elements capable of easily manufacturing space truss diagonal members and imparting sufficient strength to each diagonal member, and relates to a space truss diagonal member manufacturing method.

In order to achieve the forgoing object, a truss element according to a first invention is formed in a corrugated shape with mountain portions and valley portions in left and right directions alternately, wherein cut portions, each which is perpendicular to a ridge line of the mountain portion and leaves a bottom of the valley portion uncut, and cut portions, each which is perpendicular to a bottom line of the valley and leaves a peak of the mountain portion uncut, are formed alternately with spaces in front and back directions.

A truss element according to a second invention is formed in a cylindrical shape with mountain portions and valley portions alternately in a circumferential direction, wherein cut portions, each which is perpendicular to a ridge line of the mountain portion and leaves a bottom of the valley portion uncut, and cut portions, each which is perpendicular to a bottom line of the valley and leaves a peak of the mountain portion uncut, are formed alternately with spaces in front and back directions.

A truss element according to a third invention is cylindrically formed with a polygonal cross section, wherein cut portions are formed on a peripheral wall and a ridge line along front and back directions, respectively, and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that the cut portions formed on the peripheral wall and the cut portions formed on the ridge line are shifted one another

A first preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the configuration of the first invention, the lengths of the multiple cut portions formed intermittently are gradually increased or decreased toward the direction where the cut portions intermit.

A second preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in any one of the first to third inventions, reinforcement portion is formed at both sides or one side of the cut portion.

A third preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in any one of the first to third inventions, each reinforcement portion is formed at a position between cut portions adjacent along the direction orthogonal to the direction where the cut portions intermit to be parallel and continuous to the cut portion.

A truss element according to a fourth invention has upper and lower walls and a plurality of vertical walls arranged at regular intervals in left and right directions, wherein cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper and lower walls along front and back directions every between the vertical walls, the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions, and the cut portions are intermittently formed along the front and back directions on the vertical walls to be made to match with either ones of the cut portions formed on the upper and lower walls to be shifted one another in the length and the position in the front and back directions.

A truss element according to a fifth invention has upper and lower walls and a plurality of vertical walls arranged at regular intervals in left and right directions, wherein cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper and lower walls along front and back directions every between the vertical walls, the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions, a portion where the cut portions are intermittently formed along the front and back directions on the vertical walls to be made to match with either ones of the cut portions formed on the upper and lower walls to be shifted one another in the length and the position in the front and back directions, and a portion where either only one of the upper and lower walls is formed, the cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper wall or lower wall along front and back directions to have spaces in left and right directions, and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions, are integrally formed to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions.

A truss element according to a sixth invention has upper and lower walls and a connecting portion in left and right directions alternately, wherein the connecting portion connects four walls which are the upper and lower walls positioned left and the upper and lower walls positioned right, cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper and lower walls and the connecting portion along front and back directions respectively, and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those formed on the upper and lower walls and those formed on the connecting portion are shifted one another in the front and back directions.

A truss element according to a seventh has upper and lower walls and a connecting portion in left and right directions alternately, wherein the connecting portion connects four walls including the upper and lower walls positioned left and the upper and lower walls positioned right, cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper and lower walls and the connecting portion along front and back directions respectively, a portion where the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those formed on the upper and lower walls and those formed on the connecting portion are shifted one another in the front and back directions, and a portion where either only one of the upper and lower walls is formed, the cut portions are intermittently formed on the upper wall or lower wall along the front and back directions to have spaces in left and right directions, and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions, are integrally formed to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions.

A fourth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the sixth or seventh invention, each connecting element is formed to have a substantial X-shape cross-section.

A fifth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the sixth or seventh invention, upper and lower elements, each having multiple grooves in left and right directions, are jointed to each other at their top end portions of the grooves to thereby form a connecting portion for upper and lower walls.

A sixth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in any one of the fourth to seventh inventions, the lengths of the multiple cut portions formed intermittently are gradually increased or decreased toward the direction where the cut portions intermit.

A seventh preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in any one of the fourth to seventh inventions, a reinforcement portion is formed on both or one side of the cut portion.

An eighth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in any one of the fourth to seventh invention, each reinforcement portion is formed at a position between cut portions adjacent along the direction orthogonal to the direction where the cut portions intermit to be parallel and continuous to the cut portion.

A truss element according to an eighth invention has a plurality of upper elements on an upper surface side to be adjacent to each other in left and right directions and a plurality of lower elements on a lower surface side to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, wherein the upper element has an upper wall and a side wall extending downward to any one of left and right sides of the upper wall, adjacent upper elements are arranged to be symmetric, the lower element has a lower wall and a side wall extending upward to any one of left and right sides of the lower wall, adjacent lower elements are arranged to be symmetric, the upper walls of the upper elements and the lower walls of the lower elements are jointed to each other by joint portions having a space in front and back directions, respectively, the side walls of the upper elements and the side walls of the lower elements are jointed to each other by joint portions having a space in the front and back directions, respectively, and the joint portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that the joint portions of the upper and lower walls and the joint portions of the side walls are shifted on another in the front and back directions.

A ninth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the eighth invention, a portion having the upper elements and the lower elements to be opposed to one another, and a portion having only either ones of the upper elements and the lower elements to be adjacent to each other in left and right directions, are integrally formed to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions.

A tenth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the eighth invention, in each element, the reinforcement portion is formed between the upper and lower walls and the side wall continuously in the front and back directions.

An eleventh preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the eighth invention, the space between the joint portions are gradually increased or decreased toward the rear side from the front side in this embodiment.

A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method according to a ninth invention includes the steps of: spreading the truss element of any one of the fourth to eighth inventions or the truss element according to the ninth preferred embodiment in a vertical direction and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in front and back directions to be fixed thereto and then spread in the vertical direction.

A truss element according to a tenth invention is formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape, wherein cut portions, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in left and right directions, cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in the front and back directions.

A truss element according to an eleventh invention is formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape, wherein cut portions, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in a vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in left and right directions, and cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions 4d, which are parallel to front and back surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in a vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in front and back directions.

A truss element according to a twelfth invention has a portion being formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape where cut portions, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in left and right directions, cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in front and back directions, and a portion being formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape where cut portions, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in a vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in left and right directions, and cut portions, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions 4d, which are parallel to front and back surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in a vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed to have spaces in the front and back directions, wherein both portions are integrally provided to be adjacent to each other in left and right directions or front and back directions.

A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method according to a thirteenth invention includes the steps of spreading the truss element of any one of the tenth to twelfth inventions in any one of a vertical direction and left and right directions and laying chord members on diagonal lattice points formed on upper and lower end portions in front and back directions to be fixed thereto and then spread in the other direction.

A truss element according to a fourteenth invention has a plurality of straight bars and a plurality of connecting elements, wherein the straight bars are arranged in left and right directions, the connecting elements have at least two left and right straight bar insertion portions, and are spaced in front and back directions, and arranged in a staggered manner such that the connecting elements adjacent to one another in the front and back directions are shifted one another by a space between the left and right straight bar insertion portions, and the straight bars are alternately inserted into the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the plurality of connecting elements arranged to have spaces in the front and back directions, and the plurality of straight bars are connected to one another in left and right directions by the connecting elements arranged in the staggered manner.

A twelfth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the configuration of the fourteenth invention, the straight bars are stacked up and down, and the upper and lower straight bars are connected to one another by four connecting elements each having two upper and lower stages of left and right straight bar insertion portions arranged every other one in the front and back directions.

A truss element according to a fifteenth invention has a plurality of straight bars and a plurality of connecting elements, wherein the straight bars are arranged in left and right directions and stacked in two upper and lower stages, the connecting elements, the connecting elements include four-bar connecting elements each having two upper and lower stages of left and right straight bar insertion portions and a two-bar connecting elements each having left and right straight bar insertion portions, the four-bar connecting elements and the two-bar connecting elements are arranged in a staggered manner to be spaced in front and back directions alternately and shifted one another by a space between the left and right straight bar insertion portions in left and right directions, the two-bar connecting elements are stacked in two upper and lower stages, the straight bars are alternately inserted into the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the plurality of connecting elements arranged to be spaced in the front and back directions, and the plurality of straight bars are connects to one another in left and right directions by the connecting elements arranged in the staggered manner, and the upper and lower straight bars are connects to each other by the four-bar connecting element.

A truss element according to a thirteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the fourteenth or fifteenth invention, the space between the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the connecting element is set to ½ of the size of the connecting element in the left and right directions.

A truss element according to a sixteenth invention has a plurality of straight bars and a plurality of connecting elements, wherein the straight bars are arranged in left and right directions, the connecting elements are arranged in a staggered manner such that first connecting elements, each having four straight bar insertion portions in one column in the left and right directions, and second connecting elements are spaced in front and back directions alternately and shifted one another by two spaces between the left and right straight bar insertion portions in the left and right directions, the second connecting elements can be separated into a first element and a second element, each having two straight bar insertion portions, vertically, and the straight bars are alternately inserted into the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the plurality of connecting elements arranged to be spaced in the front and back directions.

A truss element according to a fourteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the fourteenth to sixteenth inventions, the connecting element has a chord member attachment portion.

A truss element according to a fifteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the fourteenth to sixteenth inventions, the connecting element has a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape.

A truss element according to a sixteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the fourteenth to sixteenth inventions, the space between the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the connecting elements in front and back directions is gradually increased or decreased toward the back side from the front side

A truss element according to a seventeenth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the fourteenth to sixteenth inventions, at least the insertion portion cross-sectional shape of the straight bar to be inserted into the straight bar insertion portion of the connecting element is non-circular, and the shape of the straight bar insertion portion of the connecting element is set to be the same shape as that of the cross-sectional shape of the straight bar insertion portion or an engaging portion, which engages the straight bar and the straight bar insertion portion of the connecting element with each other, is formed.

A truss element according to an eighteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that, in the fourteenth to sixteenth inventions, the straight bar insertion portion of the connecting element is shaped to have a hole-like cross section smaller than the cross section of the straight bar between the connecting elements or a projection-like cross section smaller than the cross section of the straight bar.

A space truss diagonal member manufacturing method according to a seventeenth invention includes the steps of inserting a plurality of straight bars into left and right straight bar insertion portions of a plurality of connecting elements having at least two left and right straight bar insertion sections alternately to be connected to one another in left and right directions; and drawing the connecting elements in a vertical direction and the left and right directions to spread spaces among the connecting elements in the vertical direction and the left and right directions, so that the respective elements is bent in a zigzag manner.

In the truss element according to the first invention, when drawing is performed in a front and back directions, the respective cut portions are extended and spread to make it possible to easily integrally form space truss diagonal members in which diagonal members are connected in front and back directions and left and right directions with arrangement of a quadrangular pyramid shape. In the space truss diagonal members thus formed, each diagonal member supports tensile and compression loads to offer sufficient advantages of the truss structure.

In the truss element according to the second invention, it is possible to easily integrally form space truss diagonal members in which when drawing is performed in front and back directions, the respective cut portions are extended and spread and diagonal members are connected in the front and back directions and left and right directions with arrangement of a quadrangular pyramid shape. In the space truss diagonal members thus formed, each diagonal member supports tensile and compression loads to offer sufficient advantages of the truss structure.

In the truss element according to the third invention, when the peripheral wall is drawn in the width direction such that the ridge line is extended to the outer peripheral side, the respective cut portions are extended and spread to make it possible to easily integrally form space truss diagonal members in which diagonal members are connected in front and back directions and a peripheral direction with arrangement of an X shape. In the space truss diagonal members thus formed, each diagonal member supports tensile and compression loads to offer sufficient advantages of the truss structure.

According to the first preferred embodiment of the present invention, the lengths of the multiple cut portions formed intermittently are gradually increased or decreased toward the direction where the cut portions intermit, whereby the length of each diagonal member is gradually increased or decreased toward the front and back directions and the diagonal members are spread in a fan shape when drawing is performed, and therefore it is possible to integrally form the diagonal members of, for example, a canopy type space truss where its height is gradually increased and those of a tower type space truss where its surrounding thickness is gradually increased.

According to the second preferred embodiment of the present invention, when the truss elements are drawn in a predetermined direction to obtain the space truss diagonal members, the respective diagonal members are reinforced by the reinforcing portions to improve strength of the diagonal members against buckling and bending and therefore it is possible to further improve strength of the space truss.

According to the third preferred embodiment of the present invention, when the truss elements are drawn in a predetermined direction to obtain the space truss diagonal members, the respective diagonal members are reinforced by the reinforcing portions to improve strength of the diagonal members against buckling and bending and therefore it is possible to further improve strength of the space truss. Moreover, since the reinforcing portions can be continuously formed regardless of the intermittent cut portions, the reinforcing portion can be easily formed by extrusion and the like.

In the truss element according to the fourth present invention, it is possible to easily integrally form space truss diagonal members in which when drawing is performed in a vertical direction and left and right directions, the respective cut portions are extended and spread and diagonal members are connected in front and back directions and the left and right directions with arrangement such that quadrangular pyramids are connected up and down. In the space truss diagonal members thus formed, each diagonal member supports tensile and compression loads to offer sufficient advantages of the truss structure.

In the truss element according to the fifth invention, when drawing is performed in a vertical direction and left and right directions to spread the respective cut portions, a portion having opposing upper and lower walls is placed such that quadrangular pyramids are connected up and down, and a portion having only one of the upper and lower walls is placed such that the diagonal members are arranged in a quadrangular pyramid shape, and therefore it is possible to obtain integral space truss diagonal members with their thicknesses changed in the left and right directions.

In the truss element according to the sixth invention, when drawing is performed in front and back directions and left and right directions, the respective cut portions are extended and spread to make it possible to easily integrally the space truss elements having the same form as that of the fourth invention, and cut portions are formed on the connecting portion from the upper and lower directions, so that the connecting portion is divided in the left and right directions and a vertical direction, thereby eliminating the need for processing the cut portions from the left and right directions.

In the truss element according to the seventh invention, drawing is performed in a vertical direction and the left and right directions to spread the respective cut portions, a portion having opposing upper and lower walls is placed such that quadrangular pyramids are connected up and down, and a portion having only one of the upper and lower walls is placed such that the diagonal members are arranged in a quadrangular pyramid shape, and therefore it is possible to obtain integral space truss diagonal members with their thicknesses changed in the left and right directions. Moreover, similar to the sixth invention, there is no need to process the cut portions from the left and right directions.

In the truss element according to the fourth preferred embodiment of the present invention, cut portions are formed on the connecting portion from the upper and lower directions, so that the connecting portion having a substantial X-shape cross-section is divided in left and right directions and a vertical direction, thereby eliminating the need for processing the cut portions from the left and right directions.

In the truss element according to the fifth preferred embodiment of the present invention, there are advantages in that when drawing is performed in front and back directions and left and right directions, the respective cut portions are extended and spread to make it possible to easily integrally the space truss elements having the same form as that of the fourth invention, and there is no need to process the cut portions from the left and right directions similar to the sixth and seventh inventions and one according to the fourth preferred embodiment of the present invention, and the division into the upper element and the lower element improves a degree of freedom of the shape, thereby making it possible to flexibly deal with the change in shape. Moreover, it is possible to easily manufacture those having a larger width in the left and right directions.

In the truss element according to the sixth preferred embodiment of the present invention, the lengths of the multiple cut portions formed intermittently are gradually increased or decreased toward the direction where the cut portions intermit, whereby the length of each diagonal member is gradually increased or decreased toward the front and back directions and the diagonal members are spread in a fan shape when drawing is performed, and therefore it is possible to integrally form the diagonal members of, for example, a canopy type space truss where its height is gradually increased and those of a tower type space truss where its surrounding thickness is increased.

According to the seventh preferred embodiment of the present invention, when the truss elements are drawn in a predetermined direction to obtain the space truss diagonal members, the respective diagonal members are reinforced by the reinforcing portions to improve strength of the diagonal members against buckling and bending and therefore it is possible to further improve strength of the space truss.

According to the eighth preferred embodiment of the present invention, when the truss elements are drawn in a predetermined direction to obtain the space truss diagonal members, the respective diagonal members are reinforced by the reinforcing portions to improve strength of the diagonal members against buckling and bending and therefore it is possible to further improve strength of the space truss. Moreover, since the reinforcing portions can be continuously formed regardless of the intermittent cut portions, the reinforcing portion can be easily formed by extrusion and the like.

The truss element according to the eighth invention results in one in which the cut portions are formed between the junction portions of the upper and lower walls and between the junction portions of the side walls, when drawing is performed in front and back directions and left and right directions, the respective elements are spread between the junction portions, thereby making it possible to easily integrally the space truss elements having the same form as that of the fourth invention. There is no need to process the cut portions. Regarding the respective elements, the plate is bent with the same shape and this can be used with the direction changed.

In the truss element according to the ninth preferred embodiment of the present invention, spreading is performed in front and back directions and left and right directions, a portion, having the upper elements and the lower elements to be opposed to one another, where the diagonal members are arranged such that quadrangular pyramids are connected up and down, and a portion, having only either ones of the upper elements and the lower elements to be adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, where diagonal members are arranged in a quadrangular pyramid shape, and therefore it is possible to obtain integral space truss diagonal members with their thicknesses changed in the left and right directions. Furthermore, similar to the eighth invention, there is no need to process the cut portions.

According to the tenth preferred embodiment of the present invention, when drawing is performed, the respective diagonal members are reinforced by the reinforcing portions to improve strength of the diagonal members against buckling and bending, and therefore it is possible to further improve strength of the space truss.

In the truss element according to the eleventh preferred embodiment of the present invention, the space between the joint portions in front and back directions is gradually increased or decreased toward the back side from the front side, whereby the length of each diagonal member is gradually increased or decreased toward the back side from the front side, and the diagonal members are spread in a fan shape when drawing is performed, and therefore it is possible to integrally form the diagonal members of, for example, a canopy type space truss where its height is gradually increased and those of a tower type space truss where its surrounding thickness is gradually increased.

In the space truss diagonal member manufacturing method according to the ninth invention, the truss elements of the fourth invention to the eighth invention (including the fourth to eleventh preferred embodiments) are only spread in a vertical direction and the left and right directions, thereby making it possible to easily integrally form the space truss diagonal members, and chord members are attached at the time when the truss elements are spread in a vertical direction, thereby enabling attachment of the chord members in a small space speedily. Moreover, when spreading is performed in the left and right directions, drawing is performed with the chord members held, thereby allowing spreading work to be easily carried out.

In the truss element according to the tenth invention, when drawing is performed in a vertical direction and left and right directions, the respective cut portions are extended and spread, the same space truss diagonal members as those of the first invention can be easily integrally formed. This can be formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape, and therefore it is easy to carry out transportation and preservation.

In the truss element according to the eleventh invention, when drawing is performed in a vertical direction and left and right directions, the respective cut portions are extended and spread, the same space truss diagonal members as those of the fourth invention can be easily integrally formed. This can be formed in a rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block shape, and therefore it is easy to carry out transportation and preservation.

In the truss element according to the twelfth invention, when drawing is performed in front and back directions and left and right directions to spread the respective cut portions, a portion where the diagonal members are arranged in a quadrangular pyramid shape and a portion where the diagonal members are arranged such that quadrangular pyramids are connected up and down can be continuously performed in the left and right directions or the front and back directions, and therefore it is possible to obtain integral space truss diagonal members with their thicknesses changed in the left and right directions.

In the space truss diagonal member manufacturing method according to the thirteenth invention, the truss elements of the fourth invention to the tenth to twelfth inventions are only spread in a vertical direction and left and right directions, thereby making it possible to easily integrally form the space truss diagonal members, and chord members are attached at the time when the truss elements are spread in any one of front and back directions and the left and right directions, thereby enabling attachment of the chord members in a small space speedily. Moreover, when spreading is performed in the other direction, drawing is performed with the chord members held, thereby allowing spreading work to be easily carried out.

In the truss element according to the fourteenth invention, the connecting elements are simply drawn in a vertically direction and left and right directions, whereby the multiple straight bars are bent in a zigzag manner to allow diagonal members to be formed and the diagonal members are connected by the connecting elements, and therefore space truss diagonal members can be easily integrally manufactured.

In the truss element according to the twelfth preferred embodiment of the present invention, the straight bars are stacked up and down, and the upper and lower straight bars are connected to one another by four connecting elements each having two upper and lower stages of left and right straight bar insertion portions arranged every other one in the front and back directions, and therefore it is possible to extend the truss elements more widely in a vertical direction.

In the truss element according to the fifteenth invention, the two-bar connecting elements are simply drawn in a vertically direction and left and right directions, whereby the multiple straight bars are bent in a zigzag manner to allow diagonal members to be formed and the diagonal members are connected by the connecting elements, and therefore it is possible to easily integrally manufacture space truss diagonal members in a form that the diagonal members are stacked in two upper and lower layers. In the truss element according to the thirteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention, the space between the left and right straight bar insertion portions of the connecting element is set to ½ of the size of the connecting element in the left and right directions, and therefore the connecting elements are arranged to be close to one another in the left and right directions to allow a reduction in the entire size in the left and right directions.

In the truss element according to the sixteenth invention, the first elements and the second elements of the two-bar connecting elements are simply drawn in a vertically direction and left and right directions, whereby the multiple straight bars are bent in a zigzag manner to allow diagonal members to be formed and the diagonal members are connected by the connecting elements, and therefore it is possible to easily integrally manufacture space truss diagonal members in a form that the diagonal members are stacked in two upper and lower layers. Since there is no need to stack the straight bars in two upper and lower stages when assembling the truss elements, assembly work is easy to perform.

Furthermore, the truss element according to the fourteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention is that the connecting element has a chord member attachment portion, and therefore the chord member can be easily attached to the connecting element and assembly of the space truss is easily performed.

In the truss element according to the fifteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention, the shape of the connecting element is rectangular parallelepiped or cubic block, whereby the chord member and the like can be easily attached to the surrounding surface of the connecting element, assembly of the space truss is easily performed, and manufacture of the connecting element is easily performed.

In the truss element according to the sixteenth preferred embodiment of the present invention, the space between the connecting elements in front and back directions is gradually increased or decreased toward the back side from the front side, whereby the length of each diagonal member is gradually increased or decreased toward the back side from the front side when spreading is performed in a vertical direction and left and right directions, so that the connecting members are spread in a fan shape, and therefore it is possible to integrally form the diagonal members of, for example, a canopy type space truss where its height is gradually increased and those of a tower type space truss where its surrounding thickness is increased.

In the truss element according to the seventeenth preferred embodiment of the present invention, the straight bar insertion portions are inserted into the straight bar insertion portions of the connecting element, thereby preventing the straight bars from being rotated, and therefore it is possible to omit or simplify the work for fixing the straight bars and the connecting element 3A to one another.

In the truss element according to the eighteenth preferred embodiment, the straight member insertion portion of the connecting member is shaped to have a hole-like cross section smaller than the cross section of the straight bar between the connecting members or a projection-like cross section smaller than the cross section of the straight bar, thereby making it possible to prevent the straight bars and the connecting element from being relatively moved in the front and back directions without fixing the straight bars and the connecting element to each other.

In the space truss diagonal member manufacturing method according to the eighteenth invention, multiple straight bars are connected in left and right directions by the multiple connecting elements, and then the connecting elements are simply drawn in the vertically direction and the left and right directions, whereby the straight bars are bent in a zigzag manner to allow diagonal members to be formed and the diagonal members are connected by the connecting elements, and therefore space truss diagonal members can be easily integrally manufactured. Furthermore, the whole length of straight bars 1, the number thereof, and the space among the connecting members in the front and back directions and the left and right directions, and the like are appropriately adjusted, thereby making it possible to deal with the space truss 10A having any size and shape.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a perspective, view showing a first embodiment of truss elements according to the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing a state that truss elements of the first embodiment are drawn in front and back directions;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing manufacturing procedures for the truss elements of the first embodiment, sequentially;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing another example of manufacturing procedures for the truss element of the first embodiment;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing an example of how to draw the truss elements of the first embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view showing an application example of the truss elements of the first embodiment;

FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing an application example of the truss elements of the first embodiment;

FIG. 8(a) is a perspective view showing an example of a reinforcing portion of the truss elements of the first embodiment, and 8(b) is a cross-sectional view taken along a line A-A of FIG. 8(a);

FIG. 9 is a perspective view showing an example of how to form a reinforcing portion of the truss elements of the first embodiment;

FIG. 10 is a perspective view showing another example of a reinforcing portion of the truss elements of the first embodiment;

FIG. 11 is a perspective view showing truss elements of a second embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 11(a) is a state before cut portions are formed, and FIG. 11(b) is a state after cut portions are formed;

FIG. 12 is a perspective view showing an application example of the truss elements of the second embodiment;

FIG. 13 is a perspective view showing truss elements of a third embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 14 is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss element of the third embodiment is drawn;

FIG. 15 is a perspective view showing an example of a using state of the truss elements of the third embodiment;

FIG. 16(a) is a plane view showing a fourth embodiment of truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 16(b) is a side view thereof, and FIG. 16(c) is a front view thereof;

FIG. 17 is a perspective view showing manufacturing procedures for the truss elements of the fourth embodiment, sequentially;

FIG. 18(a) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements of the fourth embodiment are drawn in a vertical direction, and FIG. 18(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements are further drawn in left and right directions;

FIG. 19(a) is a plane view showing a state in which the truss elements of the fourth embodiment are drawn in vertical and left and right directions, and FIG. 19(b) is a front view thereof;

FIG. 20(a) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements of the fourth embodiment are spread in a vertical direction, and FIG. 20(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which chord members are attached thereto;

FIG. 21 is a perspective view showing one example of how to fix the chord member to a diagonal member lattice point;

FIG. 22(a) is a perspective view showing an application example of the truss elements of the fourth embodiment, and FIG. 22(b) is a perspective view showing

FIG. 23 is a perspective view showing a fifth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 23(a) shows a state in which cut portions are formed on upper and lower walls, and FIG. 23(b) shows a state in which cut portions are formed on a vertical wall;

FIG. 24(a) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements of the fifth embodiment are drawn in a vertical direction, and 24(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements are drawn in left and right directions;

FIG. 25 shows a state in which the truss elements of the fifth embodiment are drawn in vertical, left and right directions, and is a perspective view seen from a diagonal top portion;

FIG. 26(a) is a plane view showing a sixth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 26(b) is a side view of the same, and FIG. 26(c) is a front view thereof;

FIG. 27 is a perspective view showing manufacturing procedures for the truss elements of the sixth embodiment, sequentially;

FIG. 28(a) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements of the sixth embodiment are drawn in a vertical direction, and FIG. 28(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss is drawn in left and right directions;

FIG. 29 is a front view showing an application example of the truss element

FIG. 30(a) is a plane view showing a seventh embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 30(b) is a side view of the same, and FIG. 30(c) is a front view of the same;

FIG. 31 is a perspective view showing manufacturing procedures for the truss elements of the seventh embodiment, sequentially;

FIG. 32(a) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements of the seventh embodiment are drawn in a vertical direction, and FIG. 32(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements are further drawn in left and right directions;

FIG. 33 is a front view showing a state in which the truss elements of the seventh embodiment are spread in a vertical left and right directions;

FIG. 34(a) is a plane view showing an eighth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 34(b) is a side view of the same, and FIG. 34(c) is a front view of the same;

FIG. 35 is a perspective view showing manufacturing procedures for the truss element of the eighth embodiment, sequentially;

FIG. 36 is a front view showing a state in which the truss elements of the eighth embodiment are spread in a vertical, left and right directions;

FIG. 37 is a perspective view showing a ninth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, and shows a state before cut portions are formed;

FIG. 38(a) is a plane view showing arrangement of cut portions of the truss elements of the ninth embodiment, and FIG. 38(b) is a cross-sectional view taken along line A-A;

FIG. 39(a) is a plane view showing a tenth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 39(b) is a side view of the same, and FIG. 39(c) is a front view of the same;

FIG. 40 is a perspective view showing the truss elements of a tenth embodiment;

FIG. 41 is a perspective view showing an eleventh embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 41(a) shows a state in which upper elements and lower elements are separated from each other, and FIG. 41(b) shows a state in which the upper elements and the lower elements are bonded to each other, respectively;

FIG. 43 is a perspective view showing a modification of the eleventh embodiment, FIG. 42(a) shows a state in which upper elements and lower elements are separated from each other, respectively, and FIG. 42(b) shows a state in which the upper elements and lower elements are bonded to each other, respectively;

FIG. 43(a) is a plane view showing a twelfth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, and FIG. 43(b) is a front view of the same;

FIG. 44 is a perspective view of the truss elements of the twelfth embodiment showing a state in which an upper element and a lower element are separated from each other;

FIG. 45(a) is a plane view showing a modification of the twelfth embodiment, and FIG. 45(b) is a front view of the truss elements;

FIG. 46 is a perspective view of an application example of the truss elements of the twelfth embodiment and shows a state in which upper elements and lower elements are separated from each other, respectively;

FIG. 47 is a plane view showing a state in which upper element and lower elements of the truss elements of FIG. 46 are bonded to each other, respectively:

FIG. 48 is a perspective view of truss elements of a thirteenth embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 49 is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements of FIG. 48 are drawn in left and right directions;

FIG. 50 is a perspective view showing truss elements of a fourteenth embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 51 is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements of FIG. 50 are drawn in left and right directions;

FIG. 52(a) is a perspective view showing a fifteenth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, and FIG. 52(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the same truss elements are drawn in left and right directions;

FIG. 53 is a perspective view showing an example of a using state of the truss elements of the present invention;

FIG. 54(a) is a perspective view showing a sixteenth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, and FIG. 54(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the same truss elements are spread in a vertical direction, and FIG. 54(c) is a perspective view showing a state in which the same truss elements are further spread in left and right directions;

FIG. 55(a) is a plane view showing the truss elements of the sixteenth embodiment and 55(b) is a side view of the same, and 55(c) is a front view thereof;

FIG. 56(a) is a plane view showing a connecting element used in the truss elements of the sixteenth embodiment and 56(b) is a side view of the same, and 56(c) is a front view thereof;

FIG. 57 is a perspective view showing a state in which the truss elements shown in FIG. 54(a) are spread in left and right directions;

FIG. 58 is a perspective view showing a state in which straight elements and the connecting element are fixed to each other;

FIG. 59 is a perspective view of the truss elements used in the sixteenth embodiment;

FIG. 60(a) is a perspective view showing a seventeenth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention; 60(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the same truss elements are spread in a vertical direction, and 60(c) is a perspective view showing a state in which the same truss elements are further spread in left and right directions;

FIG. 61 is a perspective view showing a space truss using the truss elements of the seventeenth embodiment;

FIG. 62 is a perspective view showing an eighteenth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention;

FIG. 63(a) is a perspective view showing a nineteenth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 63(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the same truss elements are spread in a vertical direction, and FIG. 63(c) is a perspective view showing a state that the same truss elements are further spread in left and right directions;

FIG. 64(a) is a front view of the truss elements in the state shown in FIG. 63(a), and FIG. 64(b) is a front view in the state shown in FIG. 63(b), and FIG. 64(c) is a front view in the state shown in FIG. 63(c);

FIG. 65(a) is a perspective view showing a first connecting element used in the truss elements of the nineteenth embodiment, FIG. 65(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which a second connecting element used in the truss elements of the nineteenth embodiment is separated into a first element and a second element up and down, and FIG. 65(c) is a perspective view of the second connecting element in which the first element and the second element are combined with each other;

FIG. 66(a) is a perspective view showing truss elements of a twentieth embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 66(b) is a perspective view showing a state in which the same truss elements are spread in a vertical direction, and FIG. 66(c) is a perspective view showing a state in which the same truss elements are further spread in left and right directions;

FIG. 67 is a perspective view showing an expansion truss formed using the truss elements of the sixteenth embodiment;

FIG. 68 is a perspective view showing an example of a using state of the expansion truss of FIG. 67;

FIG. 69 is a perspective view showing another embodiment of a connecting tool;

FIG. 70 is a perspective view showing a state when the connecting element in FIG. 69, a chord member, and horizontal elements;

FIG. 71 is a perspective view showing a space truss formed using the connecting elements in FIG. 69 as the truss elements of the sixteenth embodiment;

FIG. 72 is a perspective view showing a space truss formed using the connecting elements in FIG. 69 as the truss elements of the seventeenth embodiment;

FIG. 73 is a perspective view showing an embodiment of a straight bar and straight-bar insertion portions; and

FIG. 74 is a perspective view showing an embodiment of a straight bar and straight-bar insertion portions.

EXPLANATION OF NUMERALS

    • 1: MOUNTAIN PORTION
    • 2: VALLEY PORTION
    • 3: RIDGE LINE
    • 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d: CUT PORTION
    • 5: BOTTOM LINE
    • 6: DIAGONAL MEMBER
    • 11: REINFORCING PORTION
    • 14: PERIPHERAL WALL
    • 15: RIDGE LINE
    • 18: UPPER WALL
    • 19: LOWER WALL
    • 20: VERTICAL WALL
    • 24: ROD PORTION (REINFORCING PORTION)
    • 26: CONNECTING ELEMENT
    • 28: GROOVE PORTION
    • 29: UPPER ELEMENT
    • 30: LOWER ELEMENT
    • 31a; FIRST UPPER ELEMENT (UPPER ELEMENT)
    • 31b: SECOND UPPER ELEMENT (UPPER ELEMENT)
    • 32a: FIRST LOWER ELEMENT (LOWER ELEMENT)
    • 32b: SECOND LOWER ELEMENT (LOWER ELEMENT)
    • 33 a, 33b: SIDE WALL
    • 35a, 35b: JOINT PORTION
    • 37a, 37b: CHORD LATTICE POINT
    • 1A: STRAIGHT BAR
    • 2L, 2L1, 2L2: LEFT STRAIGHT BAR INSERTION PORTION
    • 2R. 2R1, 2R2: RIGHT STRAIGHT BAR INSERTION PORTION
    • 3A: CONNECTING ELEMENT
    • 5a: UPPER SURFACE OF CONNECTING ELEMENT (CHORD ATTACHING PORTION)
    • 5b: LOWER SURFACE OF CONNECTING ELEMENT (CHORD ATTACHING PORTION)
    • 6A CHORD MEMBER
    • 7A HORIZONTAL MEMBER
    • 9A: DIAGONAL MEMBER
    • 10A SPACE TRUSS
    • 11A: FOUR-BAR CONNECTING ELEMENT (CONNECTING ELEMENT)
    • 12A: FIRST CONNECTING ELEMENT (CONNECTING ELEMENT)
    • 13A: SECOND CONNECTING ELEMENT (CONNECTING ELEMENT)
    • 13a: FIRST ELEMENT
    • 13b SECOND ELEMENT
    • 15A: CHORD INSERTION PORTION (CORD ATTACHING PORTION)
    • 16A: HORIZONTAL MEMBER INSERTION PORTION
    • 18A: INSERTION PORTION
    • 21A: GROOVE (ENGAGING PORTION)
    • 22A: PROJECTION (ENGAGING PORTION)

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

The following will explain embodiments of the present invention based on the drawings. FIG. 1 is a first embodiment of truss elements according to the present invention (an embodiment of a first invention). The truss element is formed in a corrugated shape with mountain portions 1 and valley portions 2 in left and right directions alternately using a metallic plate of such as aluminum, and cut portions 4a, each which is perpendicular to a ridge line 3 of the mountain portion 1 and leaves a bottom of the valley portion 2 uncut, and cut portions 4b, each which is perpendicular to a bottom line 5 of the valley 2 and leaves a peak of the mountain portion 1 uncut, are formed alternately with spaces in front and back directions.

When the truss element is drawn in the front and back directions, the respective cut portions 4a and 4b are extended and spread and four diagonal members 6 arranged in a quadrangular pyramid shape are used in one unit to thereby make it possible to integrally form diagonal members of a space truss in a shape that these units are connected in left and right directions and front and back directions as shown in FIG. 2. These space truss diagonal members can be used in a planner space truss that supports, for example, a roof and a floor.

Regarding the truss elements manufacturing method in FIG. 1, a rectangular metal plate 7 as shown in FIG. 3(a) is bent in a corrugated shape as shown in FIG. 3(b), and then cut portions 4a and 4b are formed thereon from upper and lower surface sides by a circular saw type cutter 8 as shown in FIG. 3(c). Moreover, instead of bending the plate 7, the truss elements can be manufactured by forming cut portions on an extruded element having a corrugated cross-sectional shape.

Regarding the other manufacturing method, cut portions 4a and 4b are formed on the plate 7 in a staggered manner as shown in FIG. 4(a) and then mountain and valley folds are made alternately at a central position of each of the cut portions 4a and 4b as shown in FIG. 4(b) to thereby manufacture truss elements. According to this method, cut portions can be formed by the cutter 8 having a small diameter and even an element having a large height H can be easily manufactured.

As a method for drawing the truss elements in the front and back directions, a tool 9 in which abacus breads are connected to one another in the left and right directions is made to run in the front and back directions between upper and lower portions of the truss elements, thereby allowing the method to be implemented as shown in FIG. 5. At this time, the tool 9 may be moved in the front and back directions and the truss elements may be moved with the tool 9 fixed. Incidentally, the truss elements are simply drawn from the front and back directions to make it possible to be drawn regardless of the foregoing method.

In the present truss elements, different heights can be generated in one truss elements as shown in FIG. 6(a). FIG. 6(a) to 6(c) show embodiments each using an extruded element 10, and FIG. 6(b) shows a case in which when strength of a load applied to the truss differs depending on the location, a plate thickness T of a portion where a large load F1 is applied is made thick and a plate thickness t of a portion where a small load F2 is applied is made thin. FIG. 6(c) shows a case in which a dropping wall 11 that drops downward from the peak portion of the mountain portion 1 is provided to improve strength. FIG. 6(d) shows a case in which the hollow extruded element 10 having a hollow portion 11 is used to improve strength and reduce weight.

Moreover, the present truss elements are first formed in a narrow width shape as shown in FIG. 7(a) and then drawn in the left and right directions to increase the width of any size as shown in FIG. 7(b).

In the present truss elements, as shown in FIGS. 8(a) and 8(b), the plate 7 before being subjected to corrugation bending is pressed along the cut portions 4a and 4b to form fin shape reinforcement portions 11, 11 to thereby improve strength of each diagonal member 6 against buckling and bending. The reinforcement portion 11 can be formed on only either the cut portion 4a or the cut portion 4b.

FIG. 9(a) shows an embodiment in which the reinforcement portions 11 are formed on both sides of all cut portions 4a and 4b and in this case, the cross section of each diagonal member 6 is channel shaped. FIG. 9(b) shows an embodiment in which the reinforcement portions 11 are formed on one side of all cut portions 4a and 4b and in this case, the cross section of each diagonal member 6 is L-angle shaped. FIG. 9(c) shows an embodiment in which the reinforcement portions 11 are formed on both sides of the cut portions 4b, each which leaves the peak of the mountain portion 1 uncut, and in this case, the cross section of each diagonal member 6 is also L-angle shaped.

FIG. 10 shows another example of how the reinforcement portions 11 are formed. On the plate 7 before being subjected to corrugation bending, multiple reinforcement portions 11 are continuously formed by extrusion, and the cut portions 4a and 4b are formed between the reinforcement portions 11 in a staggered manner to be parallel with the reinforcement portions 11. The plate is bent in a corrugated shape as in FIG. 4(b), so that the truss elements are formed. Even when the reinforcement portions 11 are thus formed, each diagonal member 6 is reinforced by each reinforcement portion 11. The reinforcement portions 11 can be fin shaped.

FIG. 11 is a second embodiment of a truss element according to the present invention (an embodiment of a second invention). In this truss element, as shown in FIG. 11(a), on a cylindrical extruded element 12 with mountain portions 1 and valley portions 2 alternately in a circumferential direction, cut portions 4a, each which is perpendicular to a ridge line 3 of the mountain portion 1 and leaves a bottom of the valley portion 2 uncut, and cut portions 4b, each which is perpendicular to a bottom line 5 of the valley 2 and leaves a peak of the mountain portion 1 uncut, are formed alternately with spaces in front and back directions as shown in FIG. 11(b). The cut portions 4a and 4b can be formed by cutting by means of a circular saw, a jigsaw, an end mill, etc, or push-cutting by means of pressing. Incidentally, a cross-sectional shape in FIG. 11(a) can be manufactured by extending the extruded element 12, which has a star shape cross section as shown in FIG. 12(a), to the outer peripheral side as shown in FIG. 12(b). Moreover, this can be formed by welding both ends of the plate bent in a corrugated shape.

When the truss elements are drawn in front and back directions, the respective cut portions 4a and 4b are extended and spread and four diagonal members 6 arranged in a quadrangular pyramid shape are used in one unit to thereby make it possible to integrally form diagonal members of a cylindrical space truss in a shape that these units are connected in circumferential and front and back directions (shape in which one shown in FIG. 2 is curved in the left and right directions to make it cylindrical).

Also, in these truss elements of the second embodiment, the reinforcement portions 11 are formed on both sides or one side of the cut portions 4a and 4b as shown in FIG. 8 or the reinforcement portions 11 are continuously formed between the cut portions 4a and 4b to be parallel with the cut portions 4a and 4b as shown in FIG. 10, thereby making it possible to improve strength of each diagonal member 6.

FIG. 13 is a third embodiment of a truss element according to the present invention (an embodiment of a third invention). In this truss element, a square cross-sectional hollow extruded element 13 is used and cut portions 4a and 4b are intermittently formed on a central portion of four peripheral walls 14 and four ridge lines 15 along front and back directions. The cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner such that the cut portions 4a formed on the peripheral walls 14 and the cut portions 4b formed on the ridge lines 15 are shifted one another in front and back directions.

In these truss elements, as shown in FIG. 14, each peripheral wall is drawn in an axial direction such that each ridge line 15 extends to the outer peripheral side, whereby each of the cut portions 4a and each of the cut portions 4b are extended and spread and the diagonal members 6 are arranged in an x shape and columnar space truss diagonal members can be integrally formed.

FIG. 15 shows a tower 17 using the space truss diagonal members, and the above-formed space truss diagonal members are raised perpendicularly and set up, and chord members are attached to the surrounding ridge portions. Further, in the case of forming the cut portions 4a and 4b on the truss elements, the lengths of the cut portions 4a and 4b gradually increase toward the lower portion side of the tower, with the result that the lengths of the diagonal members 6 increase toward the lower portion side and thickness of the tower 17 increases toward its lower portion.

The truss elements of the third embodiment can be formed with the cylindrical shape having not only the square cross section but also a triangular or hexagonal cross section. Moreover, rod or fin shape reinforcement portions are continuously formed between the cut portions 4a formed on the peripheral wall 14 and the cut portions 4b formed on the ridge lines 15 by extrusion, thereby making it possible to improve strength of the diagonal members 6. Moreover, as shown in FIG. 8, pressing is performed along the cut portions 4a and 4b, whereby the reinforcement portions 11 can be formed on both sides or one side of each of the cut portions 4a and 4b.

FIGS. 16(a) to 16(c) are a fourth embodiment of a truss element according to the present invention (an embodiment of a fourth invention), and FIGS. 17(a) to 17(c) show manufacturing procedures for these truss elements. As shown in FIG. 17(a), in these truss elements, an upper wall 18 and a lower wall 19 and multiple vertical walls 20 arranged at regular intervals in the left and right directions are provided and cut portions are formed on a porous extruded member 22 having square cross-sectional hollow portions 21 arranged crosswise. Processing is performed from the vertical direction by an end mill 23 as shown in FIG. 17(b), whereby on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19, cut portions 4a and 4b are intermittently formed along the front and back directions every between the vertical walls 20. As shown FIG. 16(a), the cut portions 4a and 4b on the upper and lower walls are arranged in a staggered manner such that those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted one another in the front and back directions. Processing is performed from the left and right directions by the end mill 23 as shown in FIG. 17(c), whereby on the vertical wall 20, cut portions 4c are intermittently formed along the front and back directions. Each cutting portion 4c on the vertical wall is made to match with any one of the cut portions 4a and 4b, which are formed on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 to be shifted one another in the front and back directions (cut portions on the left and right edge columns), in the length and the position in the front and back directions. The lengths of the cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c are fixed. On the upper and lower walls 18 and 19, circular cross-sectional rod portions 24 are continuously formed as reinforcing portions in the front and back directions with the same arrangement as the vertical wall 20, and the cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c are provided between the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the vertical wall 20 in such a way to leave the rod portions 24.

In these truss elements, tensile bending is vertically performed to extend and spread the cut portions 4c on the vertical wall 20 as shown in FIG. 18(a), and tensile bending is horizontally performed to extend and spread the cut portions 4a and 4b on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 as shown in FIG. 18(b), whereby space truss diagonal members having a shape as shown in FIGS. 19(a) and 19(b) can be integrally formed. The diagonal members 6 are arranged in the form such that quadrangular pyramids are connected up and down and diagonal lattice shapes are formed viewing from the plane as shown in FIG. 19(a) and double Warren shape where the diagonal members 6 are crossed in an X shape is formed, seen from the front and side as shown in FIG. 19(b). Chord members are laid in the front and back directions and the left and right directions and fixed to diagonal member lattice points 37a and 37b of space truss diagonal members, resulting in a space truss

The chord members may be attached after the truss elements are spread vertically and horizontally, however, the truss elements are spread vertically as shown in FIG. 20(a) and the chord members 16 are laid in the front and back directions and fixed to diagonal member lattice points 37a and 37b formed at upper and lower end portions of the truss elements as shown in FIG. 20(b) and then the truss elements may be spread the left and right directions. This enables attachment of the chord members 16 in a small space speedily, and when the truss elements are spread horizontally, the truss elements are drawn with the chord members 16 held, thereby allowing spreading work to be easily carried out.

FIG. 21 shows one example of a method in which the chord member 16 is fixed to the diagonal member lattice point 37a. As shown in FIG. 21(a), on the diagonal member lattice point 37a, claws 38 are formed by lancing the upper wall 18, the chord member 16 is a long sized member having a groove shape and groove holes 39 are formed on its bottom wall to insert the claws 38 there into. After that, the claws 38 are inserted into the groove holes 39 and the chord member 16 is placed on the diagonal member lattice point 37a as shown in FIG. 21(b) and the claws 38 are bent inwardly and caulked from the top by the tool as shown in FIG. 21(c). By this means, it is possible to fix the chord member 16 easily and surely as compared with welding and screwing.

As shown in FIGS. 22(a) and 22(b), the cut portions 4a, 4b, and 4c can be formed in a slit shape with a narrow width using a circular saw, etc. On the central portion of the cut portions 4a, 4b, 4c in the front and back directions and both end portions thereof, circular through holes 25 are formed. When the present truss elements are subjected to tensile bending vertically and horizontally, the through holes 25 formed on both end portions of the cut portions 4a, 4b, and 4c have an effect that prevents development of the cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c, and the through holes 25 formed on the central portions of the cut portions 4a, 4b, and 4c have an effect that makes the cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c easy to spread.

Furthermore, on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19, fin reinforcing portions are continuously formed in the front and back directions with the same arrangement as the vertical wall 20. The reinforcing portions 11 can be formed on both sides of the cut portions 4a and 4b on the upper and lower walls as shown in FIG. 8.

FIG. 23 is a fifth embodiment of a truss element according to the present invention (a fourth preferred embodiment). Although the lengths of the cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c are fixed regardless of the position in the front and back directions in the fifth embodiment, lengths L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 of the cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c are gradually increased toward the rear side from the front side in this embodiment.

FIG. 24(a) shows a state in which the truss elements are subjected to tensile bending vertically to extend and spread the cut portions 4c on the vertical wall 20, and FIG. 20(b) shows a state in which the resultant truss elements are further subjected to tensile bending horizontally to extend and spread the cut portions 4a and 4b on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19. Lengths L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 of the cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c are changed as mentioned above, so that the lengths of the diagonal members 6 increase as they are positioned deeper, and as shown in FIG. 25, they are spread in a fan shape seen from the top. This space truss elements are suitably available for use in, for example, a canopy building where its height is gradually increased and a tower structure where its thickness increases towards the lower portion.

The lengths of the cut portions 4a, 4b, and 4c may be made different depending on the location in the front and back directions in any way. This is not limited to one as in spreading in a fan shape as mentioned above, for example, only some cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c on the front side or back side in the vertical direction may be gradually longer or shorter, or only some cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c on the intermediate portion in the front and back directions may be longer or shorter than others.

FIGS. 26(a) to 26(c) show a sixth embodiment of truss elements of the present invention (an embodiment of a fourth invention), and FIGS. 27(a) and 27(b) show manufacturing procedures for these truss elements. In these truss elements, as shown in FIG. 27(a), the upper lower walls 18, 19 and X-shape cross-sectional connecting portions 26 are alternately provided in the left and right directions and cut portions are formed on a porous extruded member 22 having hexagonal cross-sectional hollow portions 21 arranged crosswise. Processing is performed from the vertical direction by the end mill 23 as shown in FIG. 27(b), whereby on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19, cut portions 4a or 4b are intermittently formed along the front and back directions and the cut portions are arranged in a staggered manner where the cut portions 4b formed on the upper and lower walls and the cut portions 4a formed on the connection portions are shifted in the front and back directions. On the upper and lower walls 18 and 19, circular cross-sectional rod portions 24 are continuously formed as reinforcing portions at joint portions with the connecting portions 26 in the front and back directions, and the cut portions 4a, 4b and 4c are provided in such a way to leave the rod portions 24.

In these truss elements of this embodiment, the cut portions are formed on the X-shape cross-sectional connecting portions 26 from the vertical direction to thereby separate the connecting portions 26 into the left and right directions and the vertical direction as shown in FIG. 26(c), so that there is an advantage in that processing for the cut portions from the left and right directions can be omitted. In these truss elements, as shown in FIGS. 28(a) and 28(b), tensile bending is performed in the vertical direction and left and right directions to extend and spread the cut portions 4a and 4b, whereby the same space truss diagonal members as those of the fourth embodiment can be integrally formed.

In the porous extruded member 22 as a source element, the cross-sectional shape of hollow portions 21 is not limited to the hexagonal shape, and the cross-sectional shape of hollow portions 21 may be elliptic as shown in FIG. 29(a) and square and diamond shapes may be used as shown in FIG. 29(b).

FIGS. 30(a) to 30(c) are a seventh embodiment of a truss element according to the present invention (an embodiment of a seventh invention), and FIGS. 31(a) and 31(b) show manufacturing procedures for these truss elements. In this truss element, similar to the truss elements of the sixth embodiment, opposing upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and connecting portions 26 are alternately provided in the left and right directions. On both sides of a portion 40 where the continuous cut portions 4a, 4b in the front and back directions are formed on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the connecting portion 26 in a staggered manner, there are formed portions 41 where only the upper walls 18 expand sideways and the intermittent cut portions 4a, 4b in the front and back directions are formed on the upper walls 18 of this portion in the same staggered manner as that of the portion 40 having the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 opposite to each other. In these truss elements, upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and X-shape cross-sectional connecting portions 26 are alternately provided in the left and right directions and hollow portions 21 are arranged crosswise as shown in FIG. 31(a), and the porous extruded member 22, which is connected to the connecting portion 26 on both sides of each hollow portion 21 to expand only the upper walls 18, is processed by the end mill 23 from the vertical direction as shown in FIG. 31(b), whereby the cut portions 4a and 4b in the front and back directions are formed on the upper walls 18 and the lower walls 19 in a staggered manner.

In these truss elements, when tensile bending is performed in vertical direction and left and right directions to extend and spread the cut portions 4a and 4b as shown in FIGS. 32(a) and 32(b), the portion 40 having opposing upper and lower walls 18 and 19 is formed in such way that the diagonal members 6 are arranged such that quadrangular pyramids are connected up and down. Seen from the front surface, double Warren shape where the diagonal members 6 are crossed in an X shape is formed as shown in FIG. 33, and a portion 41 having only the upper walls 18 is formed in such a way that single Warren shape where the diagonal members 6 are arranged in a quadrangular pyramid shape and they are arranged in a zigzag manner seen from the front. In other words, according to the present truss elements, it is possible to integrally form the space truss diagonal members including double Warren shape and single Warren shape each having a different thickness. Such space truss diagonal members can be used in floor material of, for example, a bed of a truck.

Incidentally, in this embodiment, the portion 41 (single Warren shape portion) having only the upper walls 18 is formed on both sides of the portion 40 (double Warren shape portion) having upper and lower walls 18 and 19 opposing to each other. However, it is possible to provide the portion 41 having only the upper walls 18 in the portions having the opposing upper and lower walls 18 and 19. It is possible to provide the portion having only the lower walls 19 instead of the upper walls 18. Even in this embodiment, lengths L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5 of the cut portions 4a and 4b can be gradually increased toward the rear side from the front side as in the fifth embodiment.

The truss elements in which the truss diagonal members including double Warren shape and single Warren shape can be integrally formed can be configured by the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the vertical wall 20 as in the fourth embodiment. FIGS. 34(a) to 34(c) are a seventh embodiment of truss elements according to the present invention (an embodiment of a fifth invention), and FIGS. 35(a) to 35(c) show manufacturing procedures for these truss elements. In these truss elements, as shown in FIG. 35(a), the square cross-sectional hollow portions 21, each having upper and lower walls 18, 19 and the vertical wall 20, are formed and the cut portions are formed on the porous extruded member 22, which is provided on both sides of the hollow portions 21 by expanding only the upper walls 18 sideways. Processing is performed from the vertical direction by the end mill 23 as shown in FIG. 35(b), whereby on the upper walls 18 and the lower walls 19, cut portions 4a and 4b are formed in the staggered manner where they are intermittently formed along the front and back directions and those, which are adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, are shifted in the front and back directions. Processing is performed from the left and right directions by the end mill 23 as shown in FIG. 35(c), whereby on the vertical wall 20, cut portions 4c are intermittently formed along the front and back directions. The cut portions 4c on the vertical wall are made to match with the cut portions 4a on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 in the length and the position in the front and back directions.

When the truss elements are spread in the vertical direction and the left and right directions as shown in FIG. 32, the portion 40 having the opposing upper and lower walls 18 and 19 is provided in such a form that the diagonal members 6 are arranged in double Warren shape, and the portion 41 having only the lower walls 18 is provided in such a form that the diagonal members 6 are arranged in single Warren shape.

The connecting portion 26 does not have to be X-shaped. FIG. 37 is a perspective view of the porous extruded member 22 before being subjected to processing of cut portions in connection with the truss elements a ninth embodiment (an embodiment of a sixth invention) of the present invention, and FIGS. 38(a) and 38(b) are a plane view showing a state of cut portions of the same truss elements and a sectional view taken along line A-A thereof, respectively. Incidentally, in FIG. 38(a), the cut portions 4a and 4b are indicated by hatching, and in FIG. 38(b), the cut portions 4a and 4b are indicated by dotted lines.

In the present truss elements, as shown in FIG. 37, the H-cross-sectional connecting portion 26 is formed, and the X-cross sectional reinforcing portions 11 are formed at joint portions with the connecting portions 26 on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19. Then, as shown in FIG. 38(a), cut portions 4a and 4b in the front and back directions are arranged on the connecting portions 26 and the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 in a staggered manner. As shown in FIG. 38(b), the cut portions 4a and 4b are processed from the vertical direction by the end mills 23.

FIGS. 39 and 40 are a tenth embodiment of truss elements according to the present invention (an embodiment of the sixth invention).

In the present truss elements, cut portions are formed on the porous extruded member 22, and the porous extruded member 22 has the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the connecting portions 26, each having an inverted S shape cross section, alternately in the left and right directions, and circular cross-sectional rod portions 24 are continuously formed at joint portions with the connecting portions 26 on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 in the front and back directions as shown in FIG. 39(b). The widths of the upper and lower walls 18, 19 and the connecting portions 26 are extremely narrower than those of FIG. 16. Then, as shown in FIG. 39(a) and FIG. 40, the cut portions 4a and 4b along the front and back directions are arranged on the upper and lower walls 18, 19 and the connecting portions 26. Processing of the cut portions 4a, 4b is performed by passing a plate blade 27 therethrough from the vertical direction to thereafter perform push-cutting. As compared with the fourth embodiment in FIG. 16, in this embodiment, an area of a portion where the cut portions 4a and 4b are formed to pull out the element is small, and therefore it is possible to avoid waste of the element and perform processing of the cut portions 4a and 4b speedily.

Also, in these truss elements of the ninth embodiment and that of the tenth embodiment, tensile bending is performed in the vertical and left and right directions to extend and spread the cut portions, whereby the same space truss diagonal members as those of the fourth embodiment can be integrally formed.

In these truss elements of the present invention, instead of using the porous extruded member 22 as shown in FIG. 22(a), upper elements 29 and lower elements 30, each which has multiple groove portions 28 in the left and right directions, are connected to one another at top ends of their groove portions to thereby form the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the connecting portions 26, and cut portions 4a and 4b are formed on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the connecting portions 26 in a staggered manner, whereby the truss elements of the present invention can be manufactured.

FIG. 41 shows an eleventh embodiment of the present invention (fifth preferred embodiment), and the upper element 29 has multiple V-shape cross-sectional grooves 28, which are formed by bending a metallic plate by a roll shaping machine, in the left and right directions and each U-shape cross-sectional reinforcing members 11 is formed at each continuous portion with the groove 28 of the upper wall 18 as shown in FIG. 41(a). The lower element 30 is used with the upper element 29 inverted The upper element 29 and the lower element 30 are vertically put on each other and top ends of their grooves 28, 28 are welded over the front length in the front and back directions to thereby form an X-shape cross-sectional connecting portion 26. After that, on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the connecting portion 26, cut portions 4a and 4b are formed in the staggered manner where they are intermittently formed along the front and back directions as shown in FIG. 27(b). In these truss elements thus formed, as shown in FIGS. 28(a) and 28(b), tensile bending is performed in the vertical left and right directions to extend and spread the cut portions 4a and 4b, whereby the same space truss diagonal members as those of the fourth embodiment can be integrally formed.

FIG. 42 is a modification of the truss elements of the eleventh embodiment and shows a case in which space truss diagonal members of double Warren shape and single Warren shape are integrally formed. In this embodiment, the entire width of each upper element 29 and that of each lower element are made different from each other and a portion 42 having the opposing upper and lower elements 29 and 30 and a portion 43 with only the upper element 29 extended sideway are provided. Regarding the portion 42 having the opposing upper and lower elements 29 and 30, cut portions 4a and 4b in the front and back directions are formed on the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the connecting member 26 in a staggered manner as shown in FIG. 27(b), and regarding the portion 43 with only the upper element 29 extended sideway, the cut portions 4a and 4b in the front and back directions are also formed on the upper walls 18 and the grooves 28 in a staggered manner. When the truss elements are spread in the vertical, left and right directions as shown in FIG. 32, the portion 42 having the opposing upper and lower elements 29 and 30 is provided in such a form that the diagonal members 6 are arranged in double Warren shape, and the portion 43 with only the upper element 29 extended sideway is provided in such a form that the diagonal members 6 are arranged in single Warren shape.

FIG. 43(a) is a plane view showing a twelfth embodiment of truss elements of the present invention (an embodiment of an eighth invention) and FIG. 43(b) is a front view of the same truss elements. These truss elements has substantially the same cross-sectional shape as that of the eleventh embodiment, but first upper elements 31a and second upper elements 31b are alternately arranged in the left and right directions on the upper surface side, and first lower elements 32a and second lower elements 32b are alternately arranged in the left and right directions on the lower surface side.

Each first upper element 31a has the upper wall 18, the U-shape cross-sectional reinforcing members 11 continuously formed on the left side of the upper wall 18 and a side wall 33a formed on the left side of the reinforcing member 11 to extend diagonally downward as shown in FIG. 43(b) and FIG. 44. The side wall 33a has a bonding piece 34 formed by bending its tip end portion in the left and right directions. Each second upper element 31b is symmetric with respect to the first upper element 31a, and has the upper wall 18 formed on the left side, the side wall 33a formed on the right side to extend diagonally downward, and the reinforcing member 11 formed between the upper wall 18 and the side wall 33. Each first lower element 32a is vertically symmetric with respect to the first upper element 31a, and has the lower wall 19 formed on the right side, the side wall 33b formed on the left side to extend diagonally upward, and the reinforcing member 11 formed between the lower wall 19 and the side wall 33. Each second lower element 32b is vertically symmetric with respect to the second upper element 31g, and has the lower wall 19 formed on the left side, the side wall 33b formed on the right side to extend diagonally upward, and the reinforcing member 11 formed between the lower wall 19 and the side wall 33. Each of members 31a, 31b, 32a, and 32b is vertically formed by bending a belt-like metal plate, which is long in the longitudinal, in the same shape and their members arranged in the different directions, respectively.

In the present truss elements, as shown in FIGS. 43(a) and 43(b), the top end portion of the upper wall 18 of the first upper element 31a and that of the upper wall 18 of the second upper element 31b are put on each other and are welded to each other at a joint portion 35a formed with a space in the front and back directions. Similarly, the top end portion of the lower wall 19 of the first lower element 32a and that of the lower wall 19 of the second lower element 32b are put on each other and are welded to each other at the joint portion 35a formed with a space in the front and back directions. Moreover, a joint piece 34 of the first upper element 31a and that of the second upper element 31b and that of the side wall 33b of the first lower element 32a, and that of the side wall 33b of the second lower element 32b are welded one another each other at a joint portion 35b formed with a space in the front and back directions. The joint portions 35a and 35b are arranged in a staggered manner where the joint portions 35a of the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and the joint portions 35b of the side walls 33a and 33b are shifted in the front and back directions. The first upper element 31a, the second upper element 31b, the first lower element 32a, and the second lower element 32b form substantially the same hexagonal cross-sectional hollow portion 21 as that of the eleventh embodiment.

In the present truss elements, the aforementioned hollow portion 21 is configured to be divided into four members 31a, 31b, 32a, 32b and the joint portions 35a and 35b for the respective members are arranged in a staggered manner and spreading is performed in the same ways as the case in which the cut portions are formed between the joint portions 35a of the upper and lower walls and between the joint portions 35b of the side walls, and therefore tensile bending is performed in the vertical direction and the left and right directions, whereby the same space truss diagonal members as those of the fourth embodiment can be integrally formed.

FIG. 45 is a modification of the truss elements of the twelfth embodiment and shows a case in which space truss diagonal members of double Warren shape and single Warren shape are integrally formed. In these truss elements, there is integrally formed a portion 45, which has only the first and second upper elements 31a and 31b adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, is provided to be adjacent to the sideway of a portion 44 having the first and second upper element 31a and 31b and the first and second lower elements 32a and 32b, those which are oppose to each other in the vertical direction. Even in the portion 45, which has only the first and second upper elements 31a and 31b adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, the joint portions 35a of the upper walls 18 and the joint portions 35b of the side walls are arranged in a staggered manner. When the truss elements are spread in the vertical direction and the left and right directions as shown in FIG. 32, the portion 44, which has the first and second upper element 31a and 31b and the first and second lower elements 32a and 32b, those which are oppose to each other in the vertical direction, is provided in such a form that the diagonal members 6 are arranged in a staggered manner. The portion 45, which has only the first and second upper elements 31a and 31b adjacent to each other in the left and right directions, is provided in such a form that the diagonal members 6 are arranged in single Warren shape.

FIG. 46 and FIG. 47 show application examples of the twelfth embodiment. In these truss elements, as shown in FIG. 46, a notch portion 36 is formed on the tip end portion of the upper wall 18 or lower wall 19 of each of the members 31a, 31b, 32a, and 32 to leave only the joint portions 35a and 35b. Thus, cut portions 4a and 4b are formed between the joint portions 35 of the upper and lower walls 18 and 19 and between the joint portions 35b of the side walls, and therefore spreading is performed by inserting a jig (omitted in the figure) for spreading into the cut portions 4a and 4b, thereby making it easy to perform spreading.

Also, in these truss elements of the twelfth embodiment, the length between the joint portions 35a and 35b in the front and back directions can be made different depending on the location in the front and back directions. For example, as in the fifth embodiment, the length between the joint portions 35 and 35b in the front and back directions is gradually increased toward the back side from the front side, spreading is carried out in a fan shape as shown in FIG. 25.

FIG. 48 is a thirteenth embodiment of a truss element according to the present invention (an embodiment of a tenth invention). In the present truss elements, its outline has a rectangular parallelepiped block shape, cut portions 4a, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions 4b, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed at intervals in the left and right directions. Cut portions 4c, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions 4d, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed at intervals in the front and back directions. A through hole 25 is formed on a tip end portion of each of the cut portions 4a, 4b, 4c, and 4d.

As shown in FIG. 49, when the truss elements are drawn in the left and right directions, the cut portions 4a and 4b, which are formed to be parallel to the left and right side surfaces, are extended and spread and result in a waveform, and when this is further drawn in the front and back directions, the cut portions 4c, which are formed to be parallel to the front and back surfaces, are spread and result in a single Warren space truss diagonal members as in FIG. 2.

FIG. 50 is a fourteenth embodiment of a truss element according to the present invention (an embodiment of an eleventh invention). In the present truss elements, its outline has a rectangular parallelepiped block shape, cut portions 4a, which are parallel to left and right side surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions 4b, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in the vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed at intervals in the left and right directions. Cut portions 4c, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions 4d, which are parallel to front and back surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in the vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed at intervals in the front and back directions. A through hole 25 is formed on a tip end portion of each of the cut portions 4a, 4b, 4c, and 4d.

When the truss elements are drawn in the left and right directions as shown in FIG. 51, the cut portions 4a and 4b, which are formed to be parallel to the left and right side surfaces, are extended and spread to form multiple hollow portions 21 in the left and right directions, and when this is further drawn in the front and back directions, the cut portions 4c and 4c, which are formed to be parallel to the front and back surfaces, are extended and spread and result in the double Warren space truss diagonal members as in FIG. 19.

FIG. 52 is a fifteenth embodiment of a truss element according to the present invention (an embodiment of a twelfth invention). In the present truss element, as shown in FIG. 52(a), a portion 46 corresponding to the truss elements of the thirteenth embodiment and a portion 47 corresponding to the truss elements of the fourteenth embodiment are integrally provided to be adjacent to each other with their lower surfaces conformed to each other. Namely, the portion 46 is a portion in which its outline has a rectangular parallelepiped block shape, cut portions 4a, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions 4b, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed at intervals in the left and right directions; and the cut portions 4c, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each upper surface portion uncut, and cut portions 4d, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each lower surface portion uncut, are alternately formed at intervals in the front and back directions. The portion 47 is a portion in which its outline has a rectangular parallelepiped block shape, cut portions 4a, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions 4b, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in the vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed at intervals in the left and right directions and the cut portions 4c, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave upper and lower surface portions uncut, and cut portions 4d, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces and leave each intermediate portion in the vertical direction uncut, are alternately formed at intervals in the front and back directions.

When the present truss elements are drawn in the left and right directions, the cut portions 4a, 4b, 4e and 4f, which are parallel to the left and right side surfaces, are spread as shown in FIG. 52(b), and when this is further drawn in the front and back directions, the cut portions 4c, 4d, 4g and 4h, which are parallel to the front and back surfaces, are spread. As a result, the portion 46 corresponding to the truss elements of the thirteenth embodiment is provided in such a form that the diagonal members 46 are arranged in the single Warren shape and the portion 47 corresponding to the truss elements of the fourteenth embodiment is provided in such a form that the diagonal members 46 are arranged in the double Warren shape.

The portion 46 corresponding to the truss elements of the thirteenth embodiment and a portion 47 corresponding to the truss elements of the fourteenth embodiment are integrally provided in the form to be adjacent to each other in the front and back directions. Moreover, it is possible to provide both portions to be adjacent to each other with the upper surface sides conformed to each other. According to the truss elements of this embodiment, it is possible to integrally form the space truss diagonal members having concave and convex portions at any position in the left and right directions and the front and back directions.

Even in the case of spreading the truss elements in the thirteenth to fifteenth embodiments, at the time when it is spread in either the front and back directions or the left and right directions, the chord members are laid in one direction and fixed to the diagonal member lattice points 37a and 37b formed at upper and lower end portions and then spread in the other direction, thereby enabling attachment of the chord members 16 in a small space speedily, and when the truss elements are spread in the other direction, the truss elements are drawn with the chord members held, thereby allowing spreading work to be easily carried out.

As mentioned above, in the first to fifteenth embodiments, different variations on the truss elements can be used, but they have a commonality in that numerous cut portions are formed on the members made of plastic deformable material and these cut portions are drawn in a predetermined direction, whereby the space truss diagonal members can be easily formed integrally. Using the truss elements of the present invention eliminates the need for arranging numerous diagonal members one by one unlike the conventional case, and therefore it is possible to manufacture the space truss for a short time and greatly reduce the manufacturing cost.

The truss elements in the first to fifteenth embodiments can be used in the space truss that forms the framework of various structures such as a floor system and a roof of the building, a tower, etc. Moreover, this can be used as truss reinforcement buried in concrete and the like. The form of the space truss can be applied to an arch space truss as shown in FIG. 53(a) and a dome space truss as shown in FIG. 53(b) by bending without being limited to the plate and column forms. The material can be iron, stainless, a magnesium alloy, a titanium alloy, etc. in addition to an aluminum alloy.

The following will explain sixteenth to twentieth embodiments based on the drawings. FIG. 55 shows a sixteenth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention and FIG. 54 shows procedures for which the truss elements are spread in the vertical, left and right directions to manufacture space truss diagonal members. In the present truss elements, as shown in FIG. 55 and FIG. 54(a), eight straight bars 1A are arranged in the left and right directions, the straight bars 1A are connected to one another by multiple connecting elements 3A each having left and right straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R arranged in a staggered manner seen from the plane.

In the connecting element 3A, as shown in FIG. 56, its outline has a rectangular parallelepiped block shape, two round-hole shape straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R are provided to have spaces in the left and right directions and to be passed through in front and back directions. As shown in FIG. 56(b), the left and right straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R is provided to have a length X1, which corresponds to ½ of the size of the connecting element 3A in the left and right directions, and to be placed at a position having the same distance from the left and right side surfaces, and a diameter of each of the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R are slightly larger than that of the straight bar 1A. Five columns of connecting elements 3A in total are arrayed at positions obtained by dividing the entire length of each straight bar 1A into four in a state that they are arranged to be close to one another in the left and right directions. The length between the connecting elements 3A is constant regardless of the location in the front and back directions. The connecting elements 3A are arranged in a staggered manner such that the connecting elements 3A of the first, third and fifth columns and those of the second and fourth columns are shifted one another in the left and right directions by the length X1 between the left and right straight bar insertion portions. The connecting elements 3A of the first, third and fifth columns provide connecting between the first and second straight bars 1A from the left, those between the third and fourth straight bars 1A, those between the fifth and sixth straight bars 1A, and those between the seventh and eighth straight bars 1A, respectively. The connecting elements 3A of the second and fourth columns provide connecting between the second and third straight bars 1A, those between the fourth and fifth straight bars 1A, and those between the sixth and seventh straight bars 1A, respectively. The respective straight bars 1A are alternately inserted into the left and right straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R of the connecting elements 3A of the first to fifth columns.

The truss elements assembly can be made in such a way that the connecting elements 3A are inserted into the straight bars 1A, sequentially as shown in FIG. 54(a) or the assembly can be made in such a way that the straight bars 1A are inserted into the connecting elements 3A, sequentially. The connecting elements 3A and the straight bars 1A can be, for example, an aluminum alloy. The straight bars 1A may be solid round bars or pipes. An explanation will be given of the procedures for manufacturing the space truss using the truss elements as follows. First, as shown in FIG. 54(b), in a state that the connecting elements 3A of the first, third and fifth columns are fixed, the connecting elements 3A of the second and fourth columns are drawn upward to bend the respective straight bars 1A in a zigzag manner. After that, as shown in FIG. 54(c), the connecting elements 3A of the second and fourth columns are drawn in the left and right directions to be spread in the left and right directions. Incidentally, as shown in FIG. 57, spreading can be carried out in the left and right directions before it is spread in the vertical direction. Next, as shown in FIG. 58, the connecting element 3A is caulked by a tool 4A from the top and bottom in a sandwich manner. The fixing between the straight bars 1A and each connecting element 3A can be carried out by screwing, riveting, welding, etc. Next, as shown in FIG. 59, belt-like chord members 6A are laid on upper surfaces 5a of the connecting elements 3A of the second and fourth columns in the left and right directions, belt-like horizontal members 7A are further laid in the front and back directions, and the chord members 6A and the horizontal members 7A are fixed to the connecting elements 8A with screws 8A, respectively. Similarly, the belt-like chord members 6A and the belt-like horizontal members 7A are laid on lower surfaces 5b of the connecting elements 3A of the first, third and fifth columns in the left and right directions, and fixed to the connecting elements 8A with screws 8A, respectively. Incidentally, the fixing between each chord member 6A and each horizontal member 7A can be carried out by screwing, riveting, welding, etc. The above procedures make it possible to easily manufacture a plate-like space truss 10A in which diagonal members 9A are arranged in a quadrangular pyramid shape. The space truss 10A thus formed can be used in support of, for example, a room and a floor of the building.

FIG. 60 shows a seventeenth embodiment of the truss element of the present invention. The truss element is provided such that straight bars 1 are arranged in the left and right directions and stacked in two upper and lower stages as shown in FIG. 60(a). Five columns of the connecting elements in total, having spaces in the front and back directions, are arrayed in a staggered manner as in the sixteenth embodiment, connecting elements 11A arranged at the first, third and fifth columns are four-bar connecting elements 11, each having two sets of left and right straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R arranged in two upper and lower stages respectively, and two-bar connecting elements 3A (the same ones as those of the sixteenth embodiment), each having left and right straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R, are stacked in two upper and lower stages.

In these truss elements, as shown in FIG. 60(b), two-bar connecting elements 3A, 3A arranged at the second and fourth columns are drawn up and down, whereby each straight element 1A is bent in a zigzag manner, and then, as shown in FIG. 60(c), two-bar connecting elements 3A, 3A are drawn in the left and right directions and spread in the left and right directions, whereby space truss diagonal members can be integrally formed. After that, the straight elements 1A and the connecting elements 3A and 11A are fixed by caulking, riveting and the like, and the chord members 6A and the horizontal members 7A are laid on the two-bar connecting elements 3A, 3A arranged at the second and fourth columns with screws 8A and the like as shown in FIG. 61. In this space truss 1A, the diagonal members 9A are arranged such that quadrangular pyramids are connected up and down, resulting in a double Warren shape where the diagonal members 9A are crossed in an X shape when seeing from the front surface and the side surface.

By using combination of the four-bar connecting elements 11A, each having two sets of left and right straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R arranged in two upper and lower stages respectively, and the two-bar connecting elements 3A, it is possible to arrange straight bars 1A stacked up and down in three or more stages. FIG. 62 shows an eighteenth embodiment of the present invention in which straight bars 1A are arranged to be stacked up and down in three or more stages. Five columns of the connecting elements in total, having spaces in the front and back directions, are arrayed in a staggered manner as in the sixteenth embodiment, the four-bar connecting elements 11A are stacked on the two-bar connecting elements 3A at the first, third and fifth columns and the round-hole horizontal member insertion portion 16A are stacked on the four-bar connecting elements 11A at the second and fourth columns.

When these truss elements are spared in the vertical direction and the left and right directions, it is possible to easily integrally form space truss diagonal elements having a form that the elements in FIG. 60(c) are stacked on the elements in FIG. 54(c) since the upper and lower straight bars 1A are connected by the four-bar connecting elements 11A arranged in the staggered manner.

Each of FIG. 63 and FIG. 64 show a nineteenth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention, FIG. 65(a) shows first connecting elements 12A used in these truss elements, and FIGS. 65(b) and 65(c) show second connecting elements 13A used in these truss elements.

The straight bars 1A are arranged in a row in the left and right directions and five columns of the connecting elements in total, having spaces in the front and back directions, are arrayed in a staggered manner as in the sixteenth embodiment. At the first, third and fifth columns, first connecting elements 12A, each having four-straight bar insertion portions 2L1, 2L2, 2R1 and 2R2 arrayed at equal intervals in the left and right directions, are arranged in the left and right directions as shown in FIG. 65(a). At the second and fourth, second connecting elements 13A, each having four-straight bar insertion portions 2L1, 2L2, 2R1 and 2R2 arrayed at equal intervals in the left and right directions, are arranged in the left and right directions as shown in FIG. 65(c). The first connecting element 12A and the second connecting element 13A are shifted by a length, corresponding to two straight bar insertion portions, in the left and right directions as shown in FIG. 63(a). Each second connecting element 13A includes an inverted U-shape first element 13a, having the first straight bar insertion portion 2L1 from the left and the third straight bar insertion portion 2R1 from the left, and a U-shape second element 13b having the second straight bar insertion portion 2L2 from the left and the fourth straight bar insertion portion 2R2 from the left, and the first element 13a and the second element 13b can be divided up and down. The first element 13a and the second element 13b are used with the same inverted. Incidentally, the second connecting element 13A can be formed in such a way that it is divided into the first element 13a, having the first and fourth straight bar insertion portion 2L1 and 2R2 from the left and the second element 13b, having the second and third straight bar insertion portion 2L2 and 2R1 from the left.

Two straight bars 1A, 1A, which were inserted into the left straight bar insertion portions 2L1, and 2L2, of first connecting element 12A are inserted into the right straight bar insertion portion 2R1 of the first element 13a of the second connecting element 13A and the right straight bar insertion portion 2R2 of the second element 13b, respectively. Two straight bars 1A, 1A, which were inserted into the right straight bar insertion portions 2R1, and 2R2, are inserted into the left straight bar insertion portion 2L1 of the first element 13a of the second connecting element 13A and the left straight bar insertion portion 2L2 of the second element 13b, respectively. In other words, the straight bars 1A are alternately inserted into the left straight bar insertion portions 2L1, 2L2 and the right straight bar insertion portion 2R1 and 2R2 of each of the first connecting element 12A and each of the second connecting element 13A, which are arranged with a space in the front and back directions, with the result that the multiple straight bars 1A are connected to one another in the left and right directions by the first connecting element 12A and the second connecting element 13A.

In the truss elements thus configured, the first elements 13a and the second elements 13b of the second connecting elements 13A arranged at the second and fourth columns are drawn in the vertical direction and spread in the vertical direction as shown in FIG. 63(b) and FIG. 64(b) and the first elements 13a and the second elements 13b are further drawn in the left and right directions and spread in the left and right directions, whereby the same double Warren-shape space truss diagonal members as those of the seventeenth embodiment can be integrally formed. In these truss elements, there is no need to stack the straight bars 1A in upper and lower two stages, and therefore its assembly can be easily carried out.

Although the aforementioned embodiments has shown that the length between the connecting elements 3A, the one between the connecting elements 11A, the one between the connecting elements 12A and the one between the connecting elements 13A in the front and back directions are fixed, the length between the connecting elements 3A, the one between the connecting elements 11A, the one between the connecting elements 12A and the one between the connecting elements 13A in the front and back directions can be different depending on the location in the front and back directions. FIG. 66 shows a twentieth embodiment of the truss elements of the present invention. In these truss elements, as shown in FIG. 66(a), length L1 between the connecting elements 3 of the first columns and third columns in the front and back directions and length L2 between the connecting elements 3 of the third and fifth columns are made different (L2 is longer than L1). The connecting elements 3A of the second column are placed at just an intermediate position between the connecting elements of the first and third columns, and the connecting elements 3A of the fourth column are placed at just an intermediate position between the connecting elements of the third and fifth columns. The other points are the same as those of the sixteenth embodiment.

In these truss elements, the connecting elements 3A of the second and fourth columns are drawn upward as shown in FIG. 66(b) and then the connecting elements 3A of the second and fourth columns are drawn upward as shown in FIG. 66(c), with the result that they are spread in a fan shape seen from the top. The space truss elements thus formed are suitably available for use in, for example, a canopy building where its height is gradually increased and a tower structure where its thickness increases towards the lower portion.

Regarding the way how the length between the connecting elements 3A in the front and back directions is made different depending on the location in the front and back directions, it may be optionally performed. This is not limited to the case of spreading in the fan form, and may be a case in which the length between the connecting elements 3A in the front and back directions is gradually made longer or shorter at only front side or back side sections in the front and back directions, or a case in which the length between the connecting elements 3A in the front and back directions is made longer or shorter at only intermediate some sections.

As mentioned above, in these truss elements of the present invention, multiple straight bars 1A are connected in the left and right directions by the multiple connecting elements 3A, 11A, 12A, and 13A, and the connecting elements arranged every one column in the front and back directions (connecting elements 3A, 11A, 13A arranged at the second and the fourth columns) are simply drawn in the vertically direction and the left and right directions, whereby the respective straight bars 1A are simultaneously bent in a zigzag manner to allow diagonal members 9A to be formed and the diagonal members 9A are connected by the connecting elements 3A, 11A, 12A and 13A, and therefore space truss diagonal members can be easily integrally manufactured. Moreover, according to this method, mechanical automation is easily achieved in manufacturing the space truss diagonal members. Furthermore, in the truss elements of the present invention, the whole length of straight bars 1A, the number thereof, the space among the connecting elements 3A, 11A, 12A and 13A in the front and back directions and the left and right directions are appropriately adjusted, thereby making it possible to deal with the space truss 10A having any size and shape.

Moreover, in the truss elements of the present invention, the straight bars 1A are configured to be rotatable against the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R without fixing the straight bars 1 and the connecting elements 3A, 11A, 12A and 13A to one another, thereby achieving an expansion truss 19A that freely expands in the left and right directions as shown in FIG. 67. FIG. 68 shows one example of a using state of the expansion truss 19A where the expansion truss 19A is placed in the vertical direction and the connecting elements 3A, 3A positioned at both ends of the straight bars 1 are guided onto rails 20A, 20A, which are vertical left and right, to serve as a shutter expandable in up and down directions.

FIG. 69 shows another embodiment of the connecting elements 3A, and FIG. 71 shows a space truss 10A when the present connecting elements 3A are used in the sixteenth embodiment. At upper portions of the left and right straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R, a round-hole chord member insertion portion 15A is formed to be passed through each connecting element 3A in the left and right directions and a round-hole horizontal member insertion portion 16A is formed to be passed there through in the front and back directions in such a form to cross the chord insertion portion 15A. In the space truss 10A, each round bar chord member 6A and each horizontal member 7A are inserted into the chord member insertion portion 15A and the horizontal member insertion portion 16A of each connecting element 3A to cross each other and crushed by a punch 17A from the vertical direction of the connecting member 3A to thereby fix the chord member 6A and the horizontal member 7A to the connecting element 3A as shown in FIG. 70. Using the present connecting elements 3A makes it simple to attach the chord members 6A and the horizontal members 7A and this makes easier to assembly the space truss 10A. The present connecting members 3A can be used as two-bar connecting elements 3A of the seventeenth embodiment directly as shown in FIG. 72. The chord member insertion portion 15A and the horizontal member insertion portion 16A can be formed at different vertical levels.

In the sixteenth to twentieth embodiments, the cross-sectional shapes of straight bars 1A are optionally formed. For example, the cross-sectional shapes of straight bars 1A can be square formed as shown in FIGS. 73(a) and 73(b). The straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R of the connecting element 3A may be round holes even when the cross-sectional shape of straight bar 1A is square as shown in FIG. 73(a). They may be square holes to adjust to the cross-sectional shape of straight bars 1A as shown in FIG. 73(b). When the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R are square holes to adjust to the cross-sectional shapes of straight bars 1A, the straight bars 1A can be prevented from being rotated by just being inserted into the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R and after the straight bars 1A are bent in the zigzag manner as shown in FIG. 54(b), the connecting element 3A cannot be moved, and therefore it is possible to omit or simplify the work for fixing the straight bars 1A and the connecting element 3A to one another. As shown in FIG. 73(c), grooves 21A are formed on outer peripheries of the straight bars 1A, projections 22A are formed on the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R of the connecting element 3A to be engaged with the grooves 21A, and the grooves 21A and the projections 22A are engaged with one another, thereby allowing the straight bars 1A to be prevented from being rotated. Moreover, as shown FIG. 73(d), the straight bars 1A can be prevented from being rotated in such a way that the projections 22A formed on the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R abut against the outer peripheral surfaces and angles of the non-circular cross-sectional straight bars 1A.

Moreover, as shown in FIG. 74(a), insertion portions 18A to be inserted into the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R of the connecting element 3A are formed to have cross sections smaller than a cross section between the connecting elements 3A, the connecting element 3A is formed to be divided into an upper element 3a and a lower element 3b, straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R having the same size as that of the straight element insertion portion 18A are formed on its joint surface, and the straight element insertion portions 18A can be inserted into the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R to be maintained. Moreover, as shown in FIG. 74(b), projection shape insertion portions 18A, each which is divided at the front and back of the connecting element 3A and is formed on the end portion of the straight bar 1A, can be inserted into the hole-like straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R formed on the connecting element 3A. This also makes it possible to prevent the straight bars 1A and the connecting element 3A from being relatively moved in the front and back directions and the straight bars 1A can be formed to have any across section regardless of the shapes of the straight bar insertion portions 2L and 2R. In those shown in FIGS. 74(a) to 74(c), the straight bar insertion portions 18A are formed to have non-circular cross sections and allow the straight bars 1A from being rotated.

The truss elements in the sixteenth to twentieth embodiments can be used in the space truss that forms various structures such as a floor system and a roof of the building, a tower, etc. Moreover, this can be used as truss reinforcement buried in concrete and the like. Furthermore, one as an expandable space truss can be used in a shutter and the like. The form of the space truss can be applied to an arch space truss as shown in FIG. 53(a) and a dome space truss as shown in FIG. 53(b) by bending without being limited to the plate and column forms. The material of the straight bars may be any metallic material which can be subjected to plastic working, and can be iron, stainless, a magnesium alloy, a titanium alloy, etc. without being limited to an aluminum alloy. The materials of connecting elements may be resin in addition to metallic materials.