Title:
ROOFING SHINGLES AND METHODS OF MAKING AND AFFIXING SAME
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A roofing shingle (20) comprises a web (22) having a shingle major dimension (24) and a shingle minor dimension (26). The web (22) in turn comprises a headlap portion (30) and plural tabs (32). The headlap portion (30) extends along a web first edge (34) which is parallel to the shingle major dimension. The plural tabs (32) are formed along a web second edge (36) which is parallel to the web first edge. Adjacent ones of the plural tabs (32) are separated by a cut out (40). The cut out (40) extends in the shingle minor dimension (26). As formed, each of the plural tabs (30) has a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension (26) than along the shingle major dimension (24).



Inventors:
Todd, William E. (Atlanta, GA, US)
Moore, Robert (Marietta, TX, US)
Lytle, John (Ardmore, OK, US)
Wilkie, Kevin (Arlington, TX, US)
Application Number:
11/948062
Publication Date:
06/04/2009
Filing Date:
11/30/2007
Assignee:
Atlas Roofing Corporation (Meridian, MS, US)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/748.1
International Classes:
E04D1/12; E04D1/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
GILBERT, WILLIAM V
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
NIXON & VANDERHYE, PC (ARLINGTON, VA, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A roofing shingle comprising a web having a shingle major dimension and a shingle minor dimension, the web comprising: a headlap portion extending along a web first edge, the web first edge being parallel to the shingle major dimension; plural tabs formed along a web second edge, the web second edge being parallel to the web first edge, adjacent ones of the plural tabs being separated by a cut out, the cut out extending in the shingle minor dimension, each of the plural tabs having a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension than along the shingle major dimension.

2. The roofing shingle of claim 1, wherein for each of the plural tabs, a ratio of a tab extent along the shingle minor dimension to a tab extent along the shingle major dimension is in a ratio of 136:113.

3. The roofing shingle of claim 1, wherein each of the plural tabs measures substantially 8 and ½ inches along the shingle minor dimension and substantially 7 and 1/16 inches along the shingle major dimension.

4. The roofing shingle of claim 3, wherein each tab has a corner defined by the cut out, and wherein the corner is angularly truncated.

5. The roofing shingle of claim 3, wherein the web measures substantially 22 and 11/16 inches in the shingle major dimension and substantially 18 and ½ inches in the shingle minor dimension.

6. The roofing shingle of claim 1, wherein a ratio of a tab extent along the shingle minor axis to measurement of the web along the shingle minor axis is in a ratio of 17:20.

7. The roofing shingle of claim 1, wherein the plural tabs comprise material of contrasting coloration relative to the headlap portion.

8. The roofing shingle of claim 1, wherein the headlap portion comprises a sealant on an upper surface thereof.

9. The roofing shingle of claim 8, wherein the headlap portion comprises two linear stripes of sealant, both a first stripe of sealant and a second stripe of sealant being by formed by discontinuous segments of sealant material, and wherein the segments of the first stripe of sealant and the segments of the second stripe of sealant are staggered relative to one another along the shingle major dimension.

10. The roofing shingle of claim 9, wherein the segments of the first stripe of sealant and the segments of the second stripe of sealant are staggered to form offset channels along the shingle minor direction.

11. A roofing shingle comprising a web having a shingle major dimension and a shingle minor dimension, the web comprising: a headlap portion extending along a web first edge, the web first edge being parallel to the shingle major dimension; plural tabs formed along a web second edge, the web second edge being parallel to the web first edge, adjacent ones of the plural tabs being separated by a cut out; wherein the headlap portion comprises two linear stripes of sealant, both a first stripe of sealant and a second stripe of sealant being by formed by discontinuous segments of sealant material, and wherein the segments of the first stripe of sealant and the segments of the second stripe of sealant are staggered relative to one another along the shingle major dimension.

12. The roofing shingle of claim 11, wherein the segments of the first stripe of sealant and the segments of the second stripe of sealant are staggered to form offset channels along the shingle minor direction.

13. The roofing shingle of claim 11, wherein the cut out extends in the shingle minor dimension, each of the plural tabs having a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension than along the shingle major dimension.

14. A method of applying roofing shingle to a roof, each shingle comprising a web having a shingle major dimension and a shingle minor dimension, the web comprising: a headlap portion extending along a web first edge, the web first edge being parallel to the shingle major dimension; plural tabs formed along a web second edge, the web second edge being parallel to the web first edge, adjacent ones of the plural tabs being separated by a cut out, the cut out extending in the shingle minor dimension, each of the plural tabs having a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension than along the shingle major dimension; wherein the method comprises: affixing a first shingle to the roof, positioning a second shingle over a portion of the first shingle in such a manner that a degree of exposure of the cutout of the first shingle provides a tab of the first shingle with a desired visibly perceived geometrical configuration, the degree of exposure depending on a situation characteristic of the roof.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the situational characteristic of the roof is angle of roof inclination relative to a ground plane.

16. The method of claim 14, wherein the situational characteristic of the roof is roof height relative to a ground plane.

17. The method of claim 14, wherein the desired visibly perceived geometrical configuration of the tab is a square.

Description:

BACKGROUND

I. Technical Field

This invention pertains to roofing shingles and methods of affixing roofing shingles to a sloped roof.

II. Related Art and other Considerations

Roofing shingles are some of the most prevalent forms of roofing materials. Roofing shingles are particularly popular for residential buildings. While shingle appearance and design must be appealing, shingle manufacture and installment should be efficient.

Shingle production typically involves feeding a substrate into a production line. In the production line, hot asphalt is applied to the substrate. Granules are deposited and embedded into the substrate. The granules which are embedded into what will be, upon installation, an exposed portion of the substrate, are often called “finish” granules, and may be of a particular color or combination of colors. Typically less colorful or less esthetically appealing granules are embedded into an un-exposed or “butt” portion of the substrate, also called the headlap portion. The granule laden substrate is then cut to a package length, e.g. into a package unit, along a major dimension of the shingle. For many general purpose shingles the package unit has a number of tabs on its lower or exposed surface, e.g. three tabs; which are separated by slots which extend in a minor dimension (e.g., height) of the shingle.

Certain large format shingles measure 18 inches along their height (in the shingle minor dimension). See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,501,056; U.S. Pat. No. 5,375,491; U.S. Pat. No. 5,421,134; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,287,669. In the shingle minor dimension, the large format shingles of the listed patents have a ratio of exposed area (e.g., tab height) to headlap portion of 8:10. In other words, the tab of the large format shingle extends 8 inches along the shingle height, while the headlap or butt portion of the large format shingle extends 10 inches along the shingle height. Each large format shingle is sufficiently long in the shingle major dimension so that, whether the shingle is a four tab or three tab shingle, each tab has a greater length than height. An advantage in using large format shingles is that fewer nails are required to secure the shingle to a roof.

BRIEF SUMMARY

One aspect of the technology pertains to a roofing shingle. In one example embodiment, the roofing shingle comprises a web having a shingle major dimension and a shingle minor dimension. The web in turn comprises a headlap portion and plural tabs. The headlap portion extends along a web first edge. The web first edge is parallel to the shingle major dimension. The plural tabs are formed along a web second edge. The web second edge is parallel to the web first edge. Adjacent ones of the plural tabs are separated by a cut out. The cut out extends in the shingle minor dimension. As formed, each of the plural tabs has a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension than along the shingle major dimension.

In an example implementation, for each of the plural tabs, a ratio of a tab extent along the shingle minor dimension to a tab extent along the shingle major dimension is in a ratio of 136:113. Each of the plural tabs measures substantially 8 and ½ inches along the shingle minor dimension and substantially 7 and 1/16 inches along the shingle major dimension. Each tab preferably has a corner defined by the cut out, the corner being angularly truncated. The web preferably measures substantially 22 and 11/16 inches in the shingle major dimension and substantially 18 and ½ inches in the shingle minor dimension. A ratio of a tab extent along the shingle minor axis to measurement of the web along the shingle minor axis is preferably in a ratio of 17:20.

In an example implementation, the plural tabs comprise material of contrasting coloration relative to the headlap portion.

In another example implementation, the headlap portion comprises a sealant on an upper surface thereof. The headlap portion preferably comprises two linear stripes of sealant, with both a first stripe of sealant and a second stripe of sealant being by formed by discontinuous segments of sealant material. The segments of the first stripe of sealant and the segments of the second stripe of sealant are staggered relative to one another along the shingle major dimension. Preferably the segments of the first stripe of sealant and the segments of the second stripe of sealant are staggered to form offset channels along the shingle minor direction.

In another example embodiment, the roofing shingle comprises a web having a shingle major dimension and a shingle minor dimension. The web comprises a headlap portion and plural tabs. The headlap portion extends along a web first edge, the web first edge being parallel to the shingle major dimension. The plural tabs are formed along a web second edge, the web second edge being parallel to the web first edge. Adjacent ones of the plural tabs are separated by a cut out. The headlap portion comprises two linear stripes of sealant, with both a first stripe of sealant and a second stripe of sealant being by formed by discontinuous segments of sealant material. Segments of the first stripe of sealant and the segments of the second stripe of sealant are staggered relative to one another along the shingle major dimension to form offset channels along the shingle minor direction.

In an example implementation, the cut out extends in the shingle minor dimension, with each of the plural tabs having a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension than along the shingle major dimension.

Yet another aspect of the technology involves a method of applying roofing shingles to a roof. Shingles for use with the method each comprise a web having a shingle major dimension and a shingle minor dimension. The web in turns comprises a headlap portion and plural tabs. The headlap portion extends along a web first edge, the web first edge being parallel to the shingle major dimension. The plural tabs are formed along a web second edge. The web second edge is parallel to the web first edge. Adjacent ones of the plural tabs are separated by a cut out. The cut out extends in the shingle minor dimension. Each of the plural tabs having a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension than along the shingle major dimension.

The example method comprises acts of (1) affixing a first shingle to the roof; (2) positioning a second shingle over a portion of the first shingle in such a manner that a degree of exposure of the cutout of the first shingle provides a tab of the first shingle with a desired visibly perceived geometrical configuration. The degree of exposure depends on a situation characteristic of the roof.

In one example mode of the method, the situational characteristic of the roof is angle of roof inclination relative to a ground plane. In another example mode of the method, the situational characteristic of the roof is roof height relative to a ground plane. In yet another example mode, the desired visually perceived geometrical configuration of the tab is a square.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The foregoing and other objects, features, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following more particular description of preferred embodiments as illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which reference characters refer to the same parts throughout the various views. The drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.

FIG. 1 is a plan view of a roofing shingle according to a first example embodiment.

FIG. 2 is a plan view of a roofing shingle according to a second example embodiment.

FIG. 3 is a plan view of a roofing shingle according to a third example embodiment.

FIG. 4 is a right side view of the roofing shingle according to embodiment of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a sectioned side view of an example installation of roofing shingles according to am example embodiment.

FIG. 6 is a plan view showing an arrangement of roofing shingles on roof decking according to an example embodiment.

FIG. 7A and FIG. 7B are plan views showing contrasting arrangements of roofing shingles.

FIG. 8A is a side view of an example embodiment of a cutting roller comprising apparatus for making a roofing shingle; FIG. 8B is a plan view of two rows of shingles formed using the cutting roller and thus illustrates arrangements of cutting blades on the cutting roller of FIG. 8A.

FIG. 9 is a plan view of a layout of cutting knives on a cutting cylinder and components of the cutting cylinder which expel shingles from the cylinder after a cutting operation.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In the following description, for purposes of explanation and not limitation, specific details are set forth such as particular architectures, interfaces, techniques, etc. in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced in other embodiments that depart from these specific details. That is, those skilled in the art will be able to devise various arrangements which, although not explicitly described or shown herein, embody the principles of the invention and are included within its spirit and scope. In some instances, detailed descriptions of well-known devices, invention with unnecessary detail. All statements herein reciting principles, aspects, and embodiments of the invention, as well as specific examples thereof, are intended to encompass both structural and functional equivalents thereof. Additionally, it is intended that such equivalents include both currently known equivalents as well as equivalents developed in the future, i.e., any elements developed that perform the same function, regardless of structure.

FIG. 1 illustrates a first example embodiment of roofing shingle 20. The roofing shingle 20 comprises a web 22 having shingle major dimension (represented by arrow 24) and shingle minor dimension (represented by arrow 26). The shingle major dimension is orthogonal to the shingle minor dimension. Upon installation, typically the shingle major dimension is essentially parallel to a roof line of a building. As shown in FIG. 1, roofing shingle 20 measures 18 and ½ inches along its shingle minor dimension 26 and measures 22 and 11/16 inches along its shingle major dimension 24.

The web 22 comprises headlap portion 30 and plural tabs 32, such as the three tabs illustrated as tabs 32A, 32B, and 32C in FIG. 1. The headlap portion 30 extends along web first edge 34. The web first edge 34 is parallel to the shingle major dimension 24. The plural tabs 32 are formed along web second edge 36. The web second edge 36 is parallel to the web first edge 34. The web 22 also has web third edge 37 and web fourth edge 38 which are orthogonal to web first edge 34 and web second edge 36, and thus extend along shingle minor dimension 26 and are parallel to one another. In FIG. 1, web third edge 37 is the left edge of roofing shingle 20; web fourth edge 38 is the right edge of roofing shingle 20.

Adjacent ones of the plural tabs 32 are separated by a slot or cut out 40. For example, tab 32A and 32B are separated by cutout 40AB, and tab 32B and 32C are separated by cutout 40BC. Each cutout 40 has its major dimension in the shingle minor dimension 26, and thus extends in the shingle minor dimension 26. Each cutout 40 extends 8 and ½ inches in the shingle minor dimension 26, and (except at its intersection with web second edge 36) extends ½ inch in the shingle major dimension 24. Along its web third edge 37, tab 32A has a notch 42A which measures 8 and ½ inches along shingle minor dimension 26 and ¼ inch along shingle major dimension 24. Similarly, along its web fourth edge 38, tab 32C has notch 42C which measures 8 and ½ inches along shingle minor dimension 26 and ¼ inch along shingle major dimension 24.

As mentioned above, roofing shingle 20 has a measurement of 18 and ½ inches along shingle minor dimension 26. In other words, roofing shingle 20 has a shingle height of 18 and ½ inches. The headlap portion 30 has a measurement of 10 inches along the shingle minor dimension 26. Each of the plural tabs thus measures substantially 8 and ½ inches along the shingle minor dimension 26 and substantially 7 and 1/16 inches along the shingle major dimension 24. The tabs 32 thus have a length of 7 and 1/16 inch from tab center to tab center.

Thus, in contrast to conventional large format shingles, each of the plural tabs 32 has a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension 26 than along the shingle major dimension 24. For each of the plural tabs 32 of the FIG. 1 example implementation, a ratio of a tab extent along the shingle minor dimension to a tab extent along the shingle major dimension is in a ratio of 136:113. A ratio of a tab extent along the shingle minor axis to measurement of the web along the shingle minor axis is preferably in a ratio of 17:20.

Thus, in its flat or plan view, the roofing shingle 20 has a taller appearance than conventional large format shingles. However, when installed on a sloping roof and thus viewed at a rendered angle (the angle depending on roof slope angle) from ground level, the shingle has a more square appearance. For example, the less steep the roof angle, the more square the roofing shingle 20 appears.

Along web second edge 36, each tab 32 preferably has an angularly truncated corner 46 where web second edge 36 intersects with cutout 40. The angled truncation for each corner 46 extends one inch along shingle major dimension 24 and one inch along shingle minor dimension 26. Thus, in the illustrated example embodiment, the angle of the truncated corner 46 is 45 degrees.

In an example implementation, the plural tabs 32 comprise material of contrasting coloration relative to headlap portion 30, which may be uncolored or dark.

FIG. 2 illustrates a second example embodiment of roofing shingle 20′. Like reference numerals in FIG. 2 depict features of roofing shingle 20′ which are similar to those of roofing shingle 20 of FIG. 1. As a difference relative to roofing shingle 20, for roofing shingle 20′ the headlap portion 30 comprises sealant on an upper surface thereof (e.g., the surface oriented to the viewer in FIG. 2). That is, headlap portion 30 preferably comprises two linear stripes 50A, 50B of sealant. Providing two linear stripes of sealant furnishes more holding power for the shingle, and thus better wind resistance. In the second example embodiment of roofing shingle 20′, both linear stripes 50A, 50B of sealant are essentially continuous along shingle major dimension 24 of roofing shingle 20′.

FIG. 3 illustrates a third example embodiment of roofing shingle 20″. Like reference numerals in FIG. 2 depict features of roofing shingle 20″ which are similar to those of roofing shingle 20 of FIG. 1 and roofing shingle 20′ of FIG. 2. As a difference relative to roofing shingle 20′ of FIG. 2, for roofing shingle 20″ the headlap portion 30 comprises two linear stripes 50A″, 50B″ of sealant, with both first stripe 50A″ of sealant and second stripe 50B″ of sealant being by formed by “stitched” or discontinuous segments of sealant material. The segments of the first stripe 50A″ of sealant and the segments of the second stripe 50B″ of sealant are staggered relative to one another along the shingle major dimension 24. Preferably the segments of the first stripe 50A″ of sealant and the segments of the second stripe 50B″ of sealant are staggered to form offset channels (such as offset channel 60) along the shingle minor direction. The offset channels 60 can facilitate or promote drainage of, e.g., rainwater down the roof. In an example implementation, each staggered segment measures approximately 3 inches along the shingle major dimension 24, and has a width (in the shingle minor direction) of approximately 0.375 inch. In the same example implementation, the staggered segments are separated from adjacent segments by about 0.50 inch along the shingle major dimension 24, so that the offset channels 60 have an offset length of about 1.50 inch along the shingle major dimension 24 at the line of the linear stripes 50A″, 50B″.

FIG. 4 is a right side view of a roofing shingle having linear stripes of sealant, such as the third example embodiment of roofing shingle 20″ of FIG. 3. It will be understood that the right side view of the second example embodiment of roofing shingle 20′ of FIG. 2 has substantially the same as that shown in FIG. 4.

For each of the embodiments of FIG. 1, FIG. 2, and FIG. 3, the coverage per roofing shingle is 193 square inches. Seventy five shingles are thus required to cover one thousand square feet (e.g., 75 shingles per square). The shingles can be packaged in bundles of twenty five shingles each, which means that three bundles are necessary to cover one thousand square feet.

FIG. 5 shows, in sectioned side view, an example installation of roofing shingles according to any of the foregoing or otherwise encompassed embodiments on a roof. In particular, FIG. 5 shows roof decking 70 which typically is in the form of solid wood panel decking. The roof decking 70 thus lies in a plane, and edge of the plane of roof decking 70 being seen in FIG. 5. The roof decking 70 is secured to inclined roof rafters 72 or trusses, which are arranged in parallel and are oriented perpendicularly to the roof line of the building. Thus, only a portion of one roof rafter 72 is shown in FIG. 5, with the longest dimension of the illustrated roof rafter 72 being shown as extending from a fascia 74 upward toward an unillustrated roof peak. The roof decking 70, nailed or otherwise affixed to the roof rafters 72, is typically covered with underlayment 76, which can be roofing felt, for example.

As also shown in FIG. 5, a starter strip 78 is secured by nail 80(0) at the bottom edge of the roof decking 70, just above the fascia 74, and extends along the bottom edge of roof decking 70. The starter strip 78 is preferably of a same material as the roofing shingle, but is not a full height roofing shingle. Rather, starter strip 78 has a dimension in the shingle minor axis (which is essentially parallel to the plane of roof decking 70) which is on the order of the extent of tabs 32. With starter strip 78 thus positioned and secured to roof decking 70, a first roofing shingle 20(1) is nailed by nail(s) 80(1) to roof decking 70, with a bottom or tab portion of roofing shingle 20(1) being positioned over starter strip 78 while a top or headlap portion of roofing shingle 20(1) contacts roof decking 70. By “contacts” or “in contact with” roof decking 70 also means in contact with underlayment 76, as roof decking 70 and underlayment 76 are considered collectively as the roof decking 70 at this and further instances of description. The roofing shingle 20(1) is thus provided with a slightly buckled profile as seen from the side in FIG. 5. In a similar manner, a second roofing shingle 20(2) is nailed by nail(s) 80(2) to roof decking 70, with a bottom or tab portion of roofing shingle 20(2) being positioned over the headlap of roofing shingle 20(1) while a top or headlap portion of roofing shingle 20(2) contacts roof decking 70, thereby similarly providing roofing shingle 20(2) with a slightly buckled side profile. It should be understood that the nailing of roofing shingles in similar partially overlapped manner continues toward the roof peak, although only one other roofing shingle, e.g., roofing shingle 20(3), is illustrated in FIG. 5.

FIG. 6 illustrates, from above the roof, the manner of installation or nailing of roofing shingles to the roof decking, and particularly the staggered arrangement of roofing shingles along shingle major dimension 24. For sake of simplicity, FIG. 6 shows the installation of a first two roofing shingles to the roof decking, e.g., roofing shingle 20(1) and roofing shingle 20(2), and suffices to explain the staggered arrangement of other shingles in general. In the illustration of FIG. 6, each roofing shingle has three tabs: tabs 32A, 32B, and 32C. The particular illustration of FIG. 6 happens to show the third embodiment roofing shingle 20″ of FIG. 3, with its stripes 50A″, 50B″ of sealant. Yet the manner of installation or nailing of roofing shingles of other embodiments is understood with reference to FIG. 5 and FIG. 6.

One aspect of the technology involves a method of applying roofing shingles to a roof to obtain a pattern or arrangement such as that illustrated in FIG. 6. The example method comprises a first act of affixing a first shingle (such as roofing shingle 20(1) to the roof. If the first shingle is indeed at the bottom of roof decking 70, the first roofing shingle 20(1) is laid in buckled fashion over starter strip 78 and roof decking 70 as before explained. Otherwise the first roofing shingle 20(1) is laid in buckled fashion with its lower edge extending over a previously-installed shingle and its upper edge in contact with the roof decking 70. The method further comprises the act of positioning a second shingle (such as roofing shingle 20(2)) over a portion of the first shingle 20(1) in such a manner that a degree of exposure of the cutout(s) 40 (e.g., cutout 40AB and cutout 40BC) of the first shingle 20(1) provides a tab 32 of the first shingle (e.g., any one and likely all of tabs 32A-32C in the illustrated embodiment) with a desired visibly/visually perceived geometrical configuration.

In the particular illustration of FIG. 6, the roofing shingles are overlaid on one another to an extent that the cutouts of each roofing shingle are essentially totally uncovered by a subsequently applied roofing shingle, so that the full slot of each cutout 40 is visible. Essentially the same situation of FIG. 6 is shown in FIG. 7A. However, in FIG. 7B the roofing shingles are overlaid on one another to an extent that the cutouts of each roofing shingle are on partially (approximately 75%) uncovered by a subsequently applied roofing shingle, so that only the corresponding part of the slot of each cutout 40 is visible. The extent of overlaying of successive shingles, and thus the extent of uncovering or visibility of the cutouts, can thus be varied or customized according to the installation. For example, such extent of overlaying of successive shingles and thus the degree of exposure of tabs 32 of the roofing shingles can depend on a situation characteristic of the roof. In one example mode of the method, the situational characteristic of the roof is angle of roof inclination relative to a ground plane. For example, for a roof having a steep incline, an arrangement similar to that of FIG. 7B may be more appropriate. On the other hand, for a roof having a less steep or slight incline, an arrangement similar to that of FIG. 7A may be preferred in order to give the desired visually perceived geometrical configuration of the tab as being a square. In another example mode of the method, the situational characteristic of the roof is roof height relative to a ground plane.

Thus, a formed, each of the plural tabs 32 has a greater extent along the shingle minor dimension 26 than along the shingle major dimension 24. However, the degree of overlap or overlaying of successive shingles can be controlled so that each shingle tab has a desired appearance as viewed from a vantage point such as ground level. In the desired appearance, the shingle tab may have a same extent along the shingle minor dimension 26 as along the shingle major dimension 24 (e.g., an essentially square appearance), or (if desired) even a smaller extent along the shingle minor dimension 26 as along the shingle major dimension 24 (e.g., an essentially rectangular appearance).

FIG. 6 further illustrates the affixing of roofing shingles to the roof using nails 80. In particular, FIG. 6 shows that a the top of a cutout 40 can be used as a guide or template for positioning a nail, and that preferably a nailing location or nailing point can be an intersection of an extension of the cutout and an axis or line of a stripe of sealant, such as lower stripe 50B″ of FIG. 6. For example, FIG. 6 shows that nails 80(2) for affixing roofing shingle 20(2) are driven at locations which are an intersection of an extension of cutouts 40 and an axis or line of sealant stripe 50B″.

In an example implementation in which a three tab shingle is utilized, the following measurements were noted:

    • the overall shingle width is 22 and 1/16 inch
    • the overall shingle height is 18.50 inch
    • the nominal individual tab size is 8.5 inch by 7.0625 inch
    • the headlap area height is 10.0″ inch (from top of cut out)
    • the exposed, continuous, horizontal shadowline is approximately ¾ inch below the tabs, on the face of the shingle
    • ½ inch cutout rain grooves expose the headlap as the contrasting background;
    • each three tab shingle covers 192.8 square inch of exposed roof area when installed at 8.5 inch exposure with a full width shingle (8.5 inch by 22.6875 inch)
    • 4 nails are used per shingle, meaning 300 nails per square
    • the ratio of each tab's height to width is 120.4
    • the ratio of tab height to total shingle height is 45.95
    • ratio of headlap height to total shingle height is 54.1
    • 75 shingles installed per 100.44 square feet of coverage
    • dual, stitched seal down lines of adhesive with stitched gaps offset from line to line
    • lower sealant line is placed such to coincide with the upper corner of the notched lower tab corners
    • upper seal line is placed one inch oc. above the lower sealant line

FIG. 8A shows, from a side view, an example embodiment of a cutting roller 90 used in an assembly line for fabricating roofing shingles according to the embodiments described herein. The cutting roller 90 of FIG. 8A is fed a granule-laden web or sheet 92 such as that shown in FIG. 8B. In actuality, FIG. 8B also prematurely illustrates the slots and cuts which will be made by cutting roller 90 on sheet 92, resulting in separation of adjacent roofing shingles from one another as well as formations of the tabs 32 by cutting out of the slots between tabs. For example, the sheet 92 of FIG. 8B depicts that the sheet as fed to cutting roller 90 has width corresponding to two adjacent or side-by-side rows of roofing shingles, with the major dimension of the shingles-to-be-formed being parallel to the direction of travel of sheet 92 to cutting roller 90. The sheet 92, with its premature cuts and slots, thus also serves to illustrate the configuration of cutting blades on cutting roller 90, since the positions and sizes of the cutting blades of cutting roller 90 must provide the cuts separating the adjacent roofing shingles as well as the slots separating the shingle tabs.

FIG. 9 shows a layout of cutting knives as they are installed on the cutting cylinder and also the components of the cutting cylinder which expel the shingles from the cylinder after the cutting operation has been completed.

Although the description above contains many specificities, these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention but as merely providing illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments of this invention. Thus the scope of this invention should be determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalents. Therefore, it will be appreciated that the scope of the present invention fully encompasses other embodiments which may become obvious to those skilled in the art, and that the scope of the present invention is accordingly to be limited by nothing other than the appended claims, in which reference to an element in the singular is not intended to mean “one and only one” unless explicitly so stated, but rather “one or more.” All structural, chemical, and functional equivalents to the elements of the above-described preferred embodiment that are known to those of ordinary skill in the art are expressly incorporated herein by reference and are intended to be encompassed by the present claims. Moreover, it is not necessary for a device or method to address each and every problem sought to be solved by the present invention, for it to be encompassed by the present claims. Furthermore, no element, component, or method step in the present disclosure is intended to be dedicated to the public regardless of whether the element, component, or method step is explicitly recited in the claims. No claim element herein is to be construed under the provisions of 35 U.S.C. 112, sixth paragraph, unless the element is expressly recited using the phrase “means for.”