Title:
MOISTURE BARRIER COMPOSITION FOR BISCUITS
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
An at least partial, typically non-continuous, moisture barrier coating composition applied to the external surface of biscuits, such as scones or muffins. Use of the composition achieves significantly improved flavor, moisture retention in the interior of the biscuit, and a significantly improved biscuit exterior.



Inventors:
Stevens, Cheree L. B. (Idaho Falls, ID, US)
Application Number:
12/257249
Publication Date:
04/16/2009
Filing Date:
10/23/2008
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
426/305
International Classes:
A21D13/08; A21D13/00; A23G3/00; A23G3/34; A23G3/48; A23G3/54
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
LEBLANC, KATHERINE DEGUIRE
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PRICE HENEVELD LLP (GRAND RAPIDS, MI, US)
Claims:
The invention claimed is:

1. A food composition comprising: a biscuit substrate comprising wheat starch and a biscuit surface; and a substantially non-continuous coating composition comprising a starch component, wherein the substantially non-continuous coating composition is dried and not visible on the biscuit substrate after thermal processing of the coating and at least partially covers the surface of the biscuit substrate thereby forming a substantially non-continuous coating on at least a portion of the biscuit surface and defining a coated portion of the biscuit surface and wherein the substantially non-continuous coating forms at least a partial moisture barrier on the coated portion of the biscuit surface that allows a portion of the water in the biscuit substrate to escape through the coating.

2. The food composition of claim 1, wherein the biscuit substrate comprises a scone and wherein a single coating composition is applied to the biscuit substrate and wherein the single coating composition at least partially preserves water within the biscuit and allows at least partial evaporation of water in the biscuit through the single coating composition and wherein the coating composition contains no more than about 30 percent by weight sucrose.

3. The food composition of claim 1, wherein the biscuit substrate comprises a muffin and wherein a single coating composition is applied to the biscuit substrate and wherein the single coating composition at least partially preserves water within the biscuit and allows at least partial evaporation of water in the biscuit through the single coating composition and wherein the coating composition contains no more than about 30 percent by weight sucrose.

4. The food composition of claim 1, wherein the biscuit substrate comprises dough.

5. The food composition of claim 1, wherein the coating composition comprises a wet slurry when applied to the biscuit and comprises less than 30 weight percent sucrose.

6. The food composition of claim 5, wherein the starch component comprises a modified wheat starch and the coating composition comprises less than about 20 percent by weight sucrose.

7. The food composition of claim 6, wherein the modified wheat starch comprises an oxidized and substituted wheat starch comprising a substitution level of from about 0.01% to about 1%.

8. The food composition of claim 6, wherein the wet slurry consists of water, an oxidized and substituted wheat starch comprising a substitution level of from about 0.01% to about 1%, and optionally one or more fillers, and wherein the solids content of the coating composition comprises from about 35% to about 45% and wherein the percentage of pick up of the wet slurry on the biscuit is from about 5% to about 10%.

9. The food composition of claim 6, wherein the modified wheat starch has been modified by acetylation, hydroxypropylation, oxidation, substitution, crosslinking or a mixture of these modifications.

10. The food composition of claim 5, wherein the starch component comprises at least one modified starch chosen from the group consisting of a potato starch, a rice starch, a corn starch, a tapioca starch or a wheat starch.

11. The food composition of claim 5, wherein the wet slurry comprises: from about 10 to about 90% modified tapioca starch; and from about 10 to about 90% modified wheat starch.

12. The food composition of claim 11, wherein the wet slurry further comprises corn syrup solids, and wherein the modified wheat starch comprises an oxidized and substituted wheat starch comprising a substitution level of from about 0.01% to about 1%.

13. The food composition of claim 5, wherein the wet slurry comprises: a starch component comprising a modified potato starch and a modified wheat starch; a leavening system; a stabilizer; an emulsifier; a sweetener; and a dextrin.

14. The food composition of claim 13 comprising: from about 0.5% to about 3% stabilizer; from about 0.5% to about 5% emulsifier; from about 5% to about 30% sweetener; and from about 5% to about 60% dextrin.

15. The food composition of claim 14, wherein the emulsifier comprises lecithin and the starch component consists of a starch component chosen from the group consisting of a modified potato starch and a modified wheat starch.

16. The food composition of claim 15, wherein the leavening system comprises: from about 0.5% to about 5% sodium acid pyrophosphate; and from about 0.5% to about 5% sodium bicarbonate.

17. The food composition of claim 16, wherein the stabilizer comprises xanthan gum, and wherein the dextrin comprises a low-solubility dextrin.

18. The food composition of claim 5, wherein the starch component comprises a pregelatinized, acetylated, and cross-linked waxy maize starch.

19. The food composition of claim 18, wherein the starch component consists of a pregelatinized, acetylated, cross-linked waxy maize starch.

20. A method of making a product comprising: providing a biscuit substrate at least partially derived from dough comprising wheat flour and a food coating composition comprising a starch component; at least partially coating the surface of the biscuit substrate with the food coating composition thereby defining a surface of the biscuit substrate coated with the food coating composition wherein the coating composition, upon thermal processing, forms a substantially non-continuous moisture barrier on the surface of the biscuit substrate coated with the food coating composition, wherein the coating composition comprises less than 20 weight percent sweetener; optionally moistening the biscuit substrate prior to or after application of the coating composition to aid adherence of the moisture barrier to the biscuit substrate; and thermally processing the biscuit to form a finished biscuit having a dried substantially non-continuous moisture barrier that allows a portion of the water in the biscuit substrate to escape through the surface of the biscuit substrate coated with the food coating composition and wherein the finished biscuit has improved moisture retention compared to an uncoated thermally processed biscuit substrate and wherein the food coating composition is invisible to a consumer on the finished biscuit substrate.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/682,673, filed Oct. 9, 2003, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/417,295, filed Oct. 9, 2002; and is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/933,091, filed Oct. 31, 2007, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/170,964, filed Jun. 13, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,294,355, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/305,005, filed Jul. 12, 2001, and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/334,646, filed Nov. 30, 2001, the entire disclosures of all of the above applications are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention generally relates to an at least partial moisture barrier forming composition applied to the external surface of biscuits, typically scones or muffins.

Different types of edible food coatings are known. These include relatively heavy and thick coatings of various materials (e.g., bread crumbs, potato batter, tempura, etc.) as well as various flour or starch-based coatings that are usually applied as a relatively thin batter thereby forming a much thinner coating, which can be substantially transparent after application to the food substrate. The thinner coatings are then cooked, further cooked if parfried, or otherwise thermally processed. This latter type of coating is extensively used on commercially prepared french fry potatoes, where they are often referred to as “clear coats” due to their unobtrusive and, in some cases, virtually unnoticeable visual characteristic. Clear coats formulated for french fry products would not typically adhere to wheat based substrates, such as pastries batter or dough.

It is also known to use clear, sugar-based glazes on baked goods either before or after baking. While generally sugar-based glazes are applied to impart shine and eye appeal, they tend to become wet and sticky over time. Still other glazes have been used to impart softness to the surface of a baked good.

Applicants presently believe that biscuits have been known since at least about the mid-19th century. Since that time, several problems have been associated with biscuits, including scones and muffins. Traditional scones or other biscuits become dry and stale tasting soon after production due to moisture loss out of the biscuit. Conventional, uncoated scones or other biscuits also become drier and more stale tasting upon thawing and subsequent reheating or merely upon reheating if at room temperature. Upon placing a traditional scone in an oven, toaster oven, or the like, the little amount of moisture on the interior of the scone is lost. As a result, the scone becomes significantly drier and more crumbly than a fresh-baked scone.

Accordingly, there is a significant need for compositions that (1) can be applied to the surface of biscuits, including scones and muffins, either before or after thermally processing the biscuit and (2) form at least a partial barrier to moisture transfer that otherwise occurs between the biscuit and the air surrounding the biscuit. Additionally, there is a need for an inexpensive, easily produced, easily distributed biscuit having an enhanced mouth feel and a fresh-baked biscuit taste.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to an at least partial, typically non-continuous, moisture barrier food coating composition applied to the external surface of biscuits, typically scones or muffins.

These and other features, advantages, and objects of the present invention will be further understood and appreciated by those skilled in the art by reference to the following specification, claims, and appended drawings.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

A biscuit is typically any variety of hard or crisp dry baked product that a consumer may purchase for immediate consumption; reheat then consume; thaw and then consume; or thaw, reheat and then consume. Typically, biscuit kinds vary and include, but are not limited to crackers, cookies, muffins, and scones. Traditional scones were triangular-shaped bread products made with oats and griddle-baked. Currently, scones are flour-based and typically are baked in an oven. Biscuits, including scones, may be any shape.

The composition of the present invention is typically applied to the surface of a biscuit in the form of a wet slurry or a dry composition. The composition typically forms at least a partial non-continuous moisture barrier, but may also form a substantially complete or complete moisture barrier. The composition is typically clear and is therefore invisible to the consumer and thus will not detract from the appearance of the biscuit or scone to which the composition is applied.

The wet slurry composition is typically applied to the surface of a biscuit after the biscuit has been thermally processed, however, the wet slurry composition may be applied to surface of the biscuit prior to thermally processing. Preferably, the wet slurry is applied after thermal processing, most typically immediately after thermal processing. When the wet slurry is applied after thermal processing of the biscuit substrate, the wet slurry is preferably applied while the biscuit substrate is at least about 100° F. The warm biscuit substrate facilitates formation of the moisture barrier for at least two reasons. First, it helps gelatinize the starch component of the coating composition. Second, the moisture released from the biscuit substrate facilitates enhanced moisture barrier forming characteristics.

The dry composition of the present invention is typically applied to the surface of a biscuit substrate prior to thermal processing, but the dry coating conceivably could be applied after, preferably immediately after, thermal processing as well as discussed regarding wet slurries. Additionally, in the case of a dry dust coating composition a water mist is typically applied to the biscuit substrate (dough or thermally processed biscuit) to facilitate adherence to the dough and to generate steam upon thermal processing thereby causing the starch component of the dry dust composition to at least partially gelatinize on the surface of the biscuit substrate. Thermal processing methods presently contemplated are generally those known to one of ordinary skill including, but not limited to, a griddle, oven, microwave, frying apparatus, etc.

Optionally, a colorant can be added to both the wet slurry moisture barrier composition and the dry moisture barrier composition, but is not usually desired and, therefore, a colorant is not typically included in the formula. If a colorant is used, any water dispersible food colorant or combination of food colorants may be used, including caramel. By incorporating the coating of the present application as applied to the external surface of a biscuit such as a muffin or scone either upon thermal processing of the biscuit or upon thawing a frozen biscuit, a small portion of the water in the biscuit or scone dough of a finished biscuit or scone is allowed to escape while the majority of the water is maintained within the biscuit or scone by the typically non-continuous moisture barrier formed by the coating composition. It is this at least partial evaporation of moisture and at least partial preservation of moisture in the biscuit, such as a scone or muffin, which provides a moist fresh tasting biscuit interior and a crisp, flaky biscuit exterior.

The shelf-life of biscuits is typically determined by the staling (hardening of the starch) within the biscuit and not the evaporation of moisture from the biscuit. Because of the at least partial moisture barrier, which is typically applied to the surface of biscuits, the shelf-life of the biscuits is typically increased and it is presently believed that this moisture barrier creates and preserves the moist fresh tasting interior and the crispy flaky exterior of the coated biscuits. Due to the coating's ability to preserve freshness of (1) thermally processed and sold; and (2) thermally processed, frozen, and thawed (and optionally thereafter further thermally processed) biscuits, a supplier no longer requires multiple and costly production facilities strategically placed throughout a given marketplace. Rather, the coated biscuits may be produced in one or more locations and shipped significant distances to their final destinations while assuring the biscuit retains a moist, fresh tasting interior and a crispy, flaky exterior consumers typically demand.

Wet Slurry Coating Composition

Example 1

When applied as a wet slurry on a thermally processed biscuit, such as a scone or muffin, the coating composition typically includes a modified wheat starch. The modified wheat starch is typically applied to the external surface of a biscuit in an amount of from about 10% by weight to about 100% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 50% to about 100% by weight of the coating composition, and most typically at about 100%. When less than 100% modified wheat starch is used, the balance of the composition is typically any commercially known filler(s) for such compositions. The modified wheat starch is primarily used to provide film formation. Generally, lowering the amount of a modified wheat starch utilized results in a less continuous moisture barrier.

Typically, the wheat starch has been modified, either physically or chemically, by any industrially acceptable modification means, including, but not limited to, crosslinking, oxidizing, and/or substitution. The substitution level of the modified starch typically ranges from about 0.01% to about 1%; however, the more typical substitution level is about 0.1%. One oxidized and substituted wheat starch that may be used in the wet slurry moisture barrier coating composition of the present invention is MIDSOL 35™, which may be purchased from Midwest Grain Products of Atchison, Kans.

When modified wheat starch is used as all or a portion of the coating composition, the typical solids content of the modified wheat starch may be from about 10% to about 55% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 35% to about 45%, and most typically at about 40%. The percentage of pickup of the wet slurry moisture barrier coating composition on the biscuit of the present invention may vary from about 2% to about 15%, more typically from about 5% to about 10%, and most typically at about 7%. The percentage pickup measures the amount of moisture barrier that does not fall off the biscuit after application. The percentage pickup is typically determined via the following calculation: the coated weight of the coated biscuit minus the uncoated weight of the uncoated biscuit divided by the uncoated weight times 100.

Wet Slurry Coating Composition

Example 2

In another embodiment, the wet slurry moisture barrier coating composition typically includes the following ingredients: a modified potato starch; a modified wheat starch; a leavening agent (sodium acid pyrophosphate); a leavening agent (sodium bicarbonate); a stabilizer (xanthan gum); an emulsifier (lecithin); a sweetening agent (sucrose); and a dextrin.

When this alternative wet slurry composition is employed, the modified potato starch is typically present in the moisture barrier slurry composition applied to the surface of a processed biscuit in an amount of from about 0% to about 50% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 10% to about 30%, and most typically at about 21.21%. The modified potato starch is primarily used to provide non-continuous film formation. Typically, the potato starch has been modified (chemically or physically) by any industrial acceptable modification means, including, but not limited to, crosslinking and/or substitution. The preferred modified potato starch is an ungelatinized and cross-linked potato starch; however, any suitable potato starch may be used whether modified or unmodified. In fact, it is presently believed that any starch may be utilized in the slurry composition of the present invention including corn starch, potato starch, tapioca starch, wheat starch or mixtures thereof.

When this alternative composition is employed, the modified (chemically or physically) wheat starch may be present in the coating composition at from about 5% to about 60% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 20% to about 40%, and most typically at about 31%. As previously mentioned, it is presently believed that other modified and/or unmodified starches such as corn starch, potato starch, and tapioca starch may be substituted for the potato or wheat starch components of this composition and the composition will still form an at least partial moisture barrier; however, use of a modified wheat starch and potato starch are preferred in this embodiment. Modified wheat starch is typically used to provide viscosity, crispness and film formation. When a modified wheat starch is used, an oxidized and/or substituted wheat starch having a substitution level typically ranging from about 0.01% to about 1.0%; however, more typically the substitution level is about 0.1% is generally most preferred. One oxidized and substituted wheat starch that may be used in the wet slurry moisture barrier coating composition of the present invention is MIDSOL 35′, which may be purchased from Midwest Grain Products of Atchison, Kans.

This wet slurry coating composition according to this embodiment of the present invention may also contain a leavening system, typically a two-component, acid/base system. When utilized in the moisture barrier coating composition, a chemical leavening system typically utilizes an acid in combination with a bicarbonate salt. When a chemical leavening system is used, the sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) or other acid is typically present in the range of from about 0% to about 5% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 0.5% to about 2.5%, and most typically at about 1.80%. The base, typically a bicarbonate salt such as sodium bicarbonate, is generally utilized within a range of from about 0% to about 5% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 0.5% to about 2.5%, and most typically at about 1.24%. Any sodium bicarbonate or SAPP may be used in the present invention. The sodium acid pyrophosphate, in combination with the sodium bicarbonate, provides chemical leavening resulting in a lighter tender texture of the exterior of the biscuit. While a leavening system is typically employed in a slurry application of the coating of the present invention, use of a leavening system is optional.

Additionally, the moisture barrier slurry coating composition according to this embodiment of the present invention may optionally include a natural or synthetic gum or other similar stabilizer, including, but not limited to, xanthan gum, guar gum, or CMC (carboxymethylcellulose). Mixtures of stabilizers may also be used. Generally, the coating composition of the present invention includes a xanthan gum. The stabilizer typically is present in the amount of from about 0% to about 3% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 0.05% to about 1.0%, and most typically at about 0.15%.

The wet slurry moisture barrier coating composition according to this embodiment of the present invention may also optionally include an emulsifier, typically lecithin. The lecithin or other emulsifier is typically present in the amount of about 0% to about 5% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 0.5% to about 2.5%, and most typically at about 1.50%.

The coating composition according to this embodiment of the present invention may also optionally include sucrose or other natural or synthetic sweetening agents. Sucrose is typically added as a solute to control starch hydration in film formation. In appropriate amounts, sucrose imparts a sweet flavor, if desired. The sucrose is typically granular sugar. When incorporated into the coating compositions of the present invention, the sucrose is typically present in amounts of from about 0% to about 30% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 5% to about 20%, and most typically at about 13.10%.

The wet slurry moisture barrier coating composition according to this embodiment of the present invention also typically includes a dextrin. The dextrin utilized may be corn dextrin, tapioca dextrin, potato dextrin, or any other commercially acceptable dextrin; however, low-solubility corn dextrin is most typically used. The corn dextrin is believed to provide superior film forming functionality to the coating compositions when used to coat biscuit products. All dextrins are soluble to some degree; however, a low-solubility dextrin is most typically used in the present invention. The term “low-solubility dextrin” typically means less than 32% of the dextrin is soluble when placed in cold water (approximately 77° F.). Further, to one of ordinary skill in this art, the term “low-solubility dextrin” also generally refers to the solubility of a dextrin when compared to other dextrins. For example, a medium solubility dextrin may exhibit from 32% to 90% solubility when placed in cold water (approximately 77° F.) and a high solubility dextrin may exhibit 90% or more solubility when placed in cold water (approximately 77° F.). Dextrin is typically present in the coating composition in the amount of from about 5% to about 60% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 20% to about 40%, and most typically at about 30% corn dextrin.

The wet slurry coating composition of the present embodiment typically contains from less than about 60% by weight wet batter solids, more typically from about 35% to about 55% wet batter solids, and most typically about 45% wet batter solids. The wet slurry coating composition of the present embodiment contains from about 2% to about 17% by weight of the coated composition wet batter pick-up, more typically from about 5% to about 10% of wet batter pick-up, and most typically about 7% wet batter pick-up. Wet batter pickup is calculated using the same pickup calculation discussed previously.

Wet Slurry Coating Composition

Example 3

Yet another embodiment of the wet slurry coating composition includes primarily a maize starch. The maize starch is used to provide a moist interior and a crisp exterior of a biscuit such as a scone or muffin. It is presently believed that the maize starch may be modified either chemically and/or physically by any known methods, including, but not limited to, acetylation, crosslinking, and/or pre-gelatinization. The maize starch is typically present in the amount of from about 10% by weight to about 100% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 50% to about 100% by weight of the coating composition, and most typically at about 100%. When less than 100% modified maize starch is used, the balance of the composition is typically any commercially known filler for such compositions.

When a modified maize starch is used as all or a portion of the coating composition, the typical solids content of the modified maize starch ranges from about 2% to about 20% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 5% to about 15%, and most typically at about 10%. The percentage of pickup of the wet slurry moisture barrier coating composition on the biscuit of the present invention, such as a scone or muffin, may vary from about 2% to about 15%, more typically from about 5% to about 10%, and most typically at about 7%. The percentage is determined via the pickup calculation as previously discussed.

The preferred modified maize starch useful in the wet slurry coating composition of the present invention is C*TEX INSTANT 12604 as purchased from Cargill of Minneapolis, Minn. C*TEX INSTANT 12604 is a pre-gelatinized (acetylated distarch adipate), stabilized and cross-linked waxy maize starch.

Wet Slurry Coating Composition

Example 4

Yet another embodiment of the wet slurry coating composition includes: a modified tapioca starch; a modified wheat starch; and corn syrup solids. Tapioca starch is used to provide a moist interior and a crisp exterior of a biscuit such as a scone or muffin. It is presently believed that the modified tapioca starch may be chemically and/or physically modified by any known methods; however, typically the modified tapioca starch is modified by hydroxypropylation. The tapioca starch is typically present in the amount of from about 10% to about 90% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 55% to about 65% and most typically at about 60%.

Modified wheat starch is typically used to provide viscosity, crispness and film formation. The modified wheat starch also generally increases the adhesion of the clear coat to the biscuit. It is presently believed that the modified wheat starch may be any physically and/or chemically modified wheat starch, but typically the modified wheat starch is an oxidized and substituted wheat starch. The substitution level of the oxidized and substituted (typically acetylation) wheat starch typically ranges from about 0.01% to about 1%; however, the more typical substitution level is about 0.1%. One such prepared oxidized and substituted wheat starch that may be used is MIDSOL 35™, which may be purchased from Midwest Grain Products of Atchison, Kans. Oxidation of the starch enhances adhesion and clarity of the starch coating and lowers viscosity, making it possible to use thinner coatings. Acetylation of the wheat starch gives the coating employing the substituted wheat starch good clarity. This is helpful because essentially invisible coatings are desirable so the end consumer does not see the coating on the biscuit or other food substrate. The moisture barrier wet slurry composition typically contains modified wheat starch in an amount of from about 10% to about 90% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 25% to about 35%, and most typically at about 30%.

The moisture barrier wet slurry composition according to this embodiment typically also contains corn syrup solids in an amount of from about 0% to about 20% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 5% to about 15%, and most typically at about 10%.

The solids content of the moisture barrier wet slurry coating composition is typically present in an amount of from about 30% to about 60% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 40% to about 55%, and most typically about 50%. The wet batter slurry pick-up is typically present in the moisture barrier wet slurry coating composition in an amount of from about 2% to about 15% by weight of the composition, from about 5% to about 10%, and most typically at about 7%.

Application Process for Wet Slurry Coatings

The application process for applying a moisture barrier wet slurry coating composition of the present invention may be achieved by any known method for applying wet slurry compositions to a food product like a biscuit. The wet slurry moisture barrier may be applied to the surface of biscuits, including scones and muffins, by any method, including, but not limited to, spray coating, dunk/drip bath, or by a waterfall application process. The wet slurry may be applied to a biscuit; the biscuit (1) may then later be served; or (2) be frozen, thawed at a later date and served or optionally reheated and thereafter served. Biscuits are at least partially coated with the wet slurry moisture barrier of the present invention.

The wet slurry composition is typically applied to the surface of a biscuit after the biscuit has been thermally processed, however, the wet slurry composition may be applied to surface of the biscuit prior to thermally processing. Preferably, the wet slurry is applied after thermal processing, most typically immediately after thermal processing. When the wet slurry is applied after thermal processing of the biscuit substrate, the wet slurry is preferably applied while the biscuit substrate is at least about 100° F. The warm biscuit substrate facilitates formation of the moisture barrier for at least two reasons. First, it helps gelatinize the starch component of the coating composition. Second, the moisture released from the biscuit substrate facilitates enhanced moisture barrier forming characteristics.

Dry Dust Composition

Instead of being applied as a wet slurry, moisture barrier compositions may also be dry dusted onto biscuits. The dry dust barrier composition may be applied to the biscuit substrate as a dry dust, or may be applied as a dry dust either before or after a moistening composition, typically a water mist, is applied to the biscuit substrate. Typically, when a moistening composition is utilized, the biscuit substrate, whether thermally processed or not, is thermally processed after application of the dust and moistening composition. The thermal processing causes steam formation from the moistening composition, which gelatinizes the starch component(s) of the dry dust composition thereby enhancing the moisture barrier formed. In addition to enhancing film formation, the water mist also helps adhere to the dry dust composition onto the biscuit substrate.

Dry Dust Composition for Application without a Water Mist

Example 5

The dry dust moisture barrier coating composition typically includes a starch component and an emulsifier (lecithin). The starch component utilized may include corn starch, tapioca starch, potato starch or mixture thereof however, a modified corn starch is most typically used. Such a modified corn starch may be any physically and/or chemically modified corn starch, but typically is a modified, thinned corn starch. Such a corn starch may be modified by any known methods, including, but not limited to, substitution, acetylation, and/or crosslinking. The modified corn starch is typically present in the moisture barrier dry dusting composition in amounts ranging from about 60% to about 99% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 70% to about 95%, and most typically at about 87.5%. It is presently believed that any modified corn starch may be used; however, a preferred modified corn starch is stabilized and thinned, instant waxy maize starch. One such preferred modified corn starch may be EMCAP INSTANT™ 12633 available from Cargill of Minneapolis, Minn.

The moisture barrier dry dusting composition also typically includes an emulsifier. Any emulsifier may be utilized; however, the most typical emulsifier is lecithin. Typically, the moisture barrier coating composition includes lecithin or other emulsifier in an amount of from about 1% to about 40% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 5% to about 20%, and most typically at about 12.5%.

The pick-up amount of the dry dusting composition is typically from about 0.2% to about 2.2% by weight of the composition, and more typically from about 0.5% to about 1.2% and most typically about 0.9%. As in the case of the wet batter slurry, dry dusted biscuits are typically significantly more moist than untreated biscuits (scones or muffins). The moisture transfer during freezing and thawing is greatly reduced as compared to untreated biscuits.

Application Process for Dry Dust Moisture Barrier Coating Composition with No Water Mist

The application process for applying a moisture barrier coating composition to raw biscuit dough with no water mist includes optionally thawing the biscuit, dusting at least a portion of the surface of the biscuit with the dry moisture barrier coating composition of the present invention and thermally processing the coated biscuit. Conceivably, the dry dust coating composition could be applied to the biscuit after thermal processing, but application before thermal processing is presently preferred. Such an application process includes using a dry dusting mixture that may be applied to the biscuit dough as the biscuit dough passes on a horizontal conveyor under a hopper-like machine. Within the hopper are two horizontal rotating bars that extend from one end of the hopper to the other. These bars are scored along the length of the bars so that one or more valleys exist. As the bars rotate, the valleys facing upwards, or away from the dough, fill with a dry dusting composition of the present invention. The bars rotate along a horizontal axis. As the bars containing dry dusting composition filled valleys turn approximately one quarter turn, the valleys engage a bristled brush. The bristled brush is positioned close enough to the rotating bars so that when the bars engage the brush, the bristles bend while the bristle tips remain in the valley. As the bars rotate further, the brush tilts downward and the bristles essentially project the coating into the biscuit dough below. Such a coating machine may be purchased from CHRISTY® Machine Company of Fremont, Ohio.

Dry Dust Moisture Barrier Coating Compositions for Application with a Water Mist

Instead of being applied as a wet slurry or as a dry dust on raw dough with no water mist, the moisture barrier composition may also be applied as a dry dust on a raw biscuit dough, such as a scone dough or muffin dough, either before or after application of a moistening composition, typically a water mist, to the surface of the biscuit substrate. Currently, applying the dry dust moisture barrier coating composition to the biscuit substrate, either before or after application of a with water mist, is generally the preferred application over application of a dry dust composition without the water mist application primarily because 1) the dust composition adheres better to the biscuit substrate when a water mist is utilized; and 2) the water facilitates gelatinization of the starch component(s) of the dry dust composition(s) when thermally processed, thereby enhancing moisture barrier formation. This application process ultimately results in biscuits that are significantly more moist and fresh tasting than other coated biscuits over extended periods of time.

Dry Dust Coating Composition

Example 6

The presently most preferred dry dust moisture barrier coating composition typically includes: a modified starch, typically an oxidized corn starch; a dextrin component; and a sweetener. The oxidized corn starch is typically present in the dry dust moisture barrier composition at about 0.50% based on the weight of the composition. The oxidized corn starch is typically included in the moisture barrier dry dusting composition as an adhesive component.

It is presently believed that the dextrin component may be any dextrin including corn dextrin, tapioca dextrin, or any other commercially acceptable dextrin; however, tapioca dextrin is most typically used. The dextrin component, typically a tapioca dextrin, is usually present at greater than 50% based on the weight of the composition, more typically from about 80% to about 100%, and most typically at about 100%.

The dry dust moisture barrier composition according to this embodiment may also include an artificial or natural sweetener. The preferred sweetener is a sucrose sweetener such as powdered sugar. The sugar is present in the moisture barrier composition for dry dusting a biscuit substrate at about 0.30% based on the weight of the composition.

The dry dust moisture barrier coating composition according to this embodiment may also include dextrose and monocalcium phosphate. The dextrose is present in the coating composition at about 0.18% based on the weight of the composition. The dextrose aids in the color development of the coating composition and may be purchased from any dextrose supplier. Monocalcium phosphate is a flow agent to facilitate the handling of the moisture barrier dry dusting composition. When used, the monocalcium phosphate or other flow agent is usually present in the dry dusting composition at about 0.02% based on the weight of the composition.

The dry dust moisture barrier coating composition has a typical pickup of from about 0.7% to about 0.9% based on the weight of the composition. The amount of water mist applied to the dry dust moisture barrier coating composition on the biscuit substrate is typically from about 0.5% to about 0.8% by weight of the coating composition.

The following three examples, Examples 6-8, of dry compositions according to the present invention provide moisture barrier coatings, but generally not to the extent as the composition of Example 6, when a dry dust composition is applied after or before the biscuit substrate has been moistened, typically by a water mist.

Dry Dust Coating Composition

Example 7

Another embodiment of the present invention includes a dry dust moisture barrier coating composition having the following ingredients: a modified wheat starch; a sodium acid pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate leavening system; a stabilizer (xanthan gum); an emulsifier (lecithin); a sweetening agent (sucrose); and dextrin (corn dextrin).

The modified wheat starch is typically present in the dry dust moisture barrier coating composition in an amount of from about 5% to about 60% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 20% to about 40%, and most typically at about 49.31%. It is presently believed that other modified and/or unmodified starches such as corn starch, potato starch, and tapioca starch also work to form an at least partial moisture barrier. The modified wheat starch is usually used to provide viscosity, crispness and film formation. Such a modified wheat starch may be oxidized and/or substituted wheat starch. Typically, oxidized and substituted wheat starch has a substitution level that typically ranges from about 0.01% to about 1%; however, the more typical substitution level is about 0.1%. One such oxidized and substituted wheat starch that may be used in the dry dust moisture barrier coating composition of the present invention is MIDSOL 35™, which may be purchased from Midwest Grain Products of Atchison, Kans.

The dry dust moisture barrier coating composition of the present invention also may contain a physical or chemical leavening system, usually a two-component chemical leavening system such as an acid/base system as previously discussed. When an acid/base leavening system is used, the sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) or other acid is typically present in the range of from about 0% to about 5% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 0.5% to about 2.5%, and most typically at about 1.80%. Any sodium bicarbonate or SAPP may be utilized in the present invention. The bicarbonate salt typically includes sodium bicarbonate within a range of from about 0% to about 5% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 0% to about 2.5%, and most typically at about 1.24%.

The dry dust coating composition may optionally also contain a natural or synthetic gum other stabilizer or mixture thereof. The present invention includes a xanthan gum in the amount of from about 0% to about 3%, more typically from about 0.05% to about 1.0%, and most typically at about 0.15%. The dry dust coating composition of the present invention may also include an emulsifier, typically lecithin. Lecithin, another emulsifier, or mixture of emulsifiers, are typically present in the amount of from about 0% to about 5% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 0.5% to about 2.5%, and most typically at about 1.50%. The dry dust coating composition of the present invention may also optionally include a sugar or other sweetening agent. Typically, the sugar is granular in form. The sugar is typically present from about 0% to about 30% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 5% to about 20%, most typically at about 14%. The dry dust coating composition of the present invention may also include a dextrin or a mixture of dextrins. The dextrin are usually present in the amount of from about 5% to about 60% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 20% to about 40%, and most typically at about 32%. The dextrin physical characteristics are incorporated herein as previously discussed above.

The dry dust pickup percentage of the dry dust coating composition typically ranges from about 0.2% to about 2% by weight of the coating composition, more typically from about 0.5% to about 1.0%, and most typically at about 0.7%. The dry dust pickup percentage is calculated as previously discussed above.

Dry Dust Coating Composition

Example 8

Another embodiment of the present invention includes a starch component dry dusted onto the surface of a biscuit. When a starch is utilized, it may be a modified starch modified by acetylation, hydroxypropylation, oxidation, substitution, crosslinking, etc., or a mixture of any of these modifications or any other physical or chemical modification. Additionally, such a starch may be a potato starch, a rice starch, a corn starch, a tapioca starch or a wheat starch. In this particular embodiment, the dry dust coating composition may also include a starch derivative, such as dextrin as the starch component. A particular preferred starch for use in the dry dust coating composition is a modified tapioca starch. The use of a modified tapioca starch results in a very moist and invisible moisture barrier. The starch component may be included in the present invention in the amount of from about 10% to about 100%, more typically from about 50% to about 100%, and most typically at about 100%. Another starch suitable for use in the dry dust coating composition of the present invention is a modified wheat starch. The modified wheat starch may be included in the present invention in the same amounts discussed directly above regarding tapioca starch. A modified wheat starch results in a more moist biscuit than an uncoated biscuit. A modified corn starch typically may also be utilized in the present invention. Such a corn starch may be a hydropropylated waxy maize starch. When used, the corn starch is typically present in the dry dust coating composition in the percentage ranges as discussed directly above regarding tapioca starch. A starch derivative suitable for use as the starch component in the dry dust coating composition of the present invention includes a dextrin, typically tapioca dextrin. The dextrin may be present in the present invention in the percentage ranges discussed directly above. The use of a dextrin, such as tapioca dextrin, provides a more moist biscuit than an uncoated biscuit.

Dry Dust Coating Composition

Example 9

Another embodiment of the present invention includes applying a dry dust coating composition, only containing a dextrin component, to the surface of a biscuit, such as a scone or muffin. Typically, the dextrin component is applied to the surface of a biscuit substrate either before or after application of a moistening composition, typically a water mist. Such a dextrin component may include a tapioca dextrin, a corn dextrin, a wheat dextrin, a rice dextrin, or mixtures thereof.

One such particularly suitable dextrin for use in the dry dust coating composition is a tapioca dextrin. Such a tapioca dextrin is typically included in the present invention in the range of from about 10% to about 100%, more typically from about 50% to about 100%, and most typically at about 100%. When less than 100% of tapioca dextrin is used, the balance of the composition is typically any commercially known filler for such compositions. Typically, highly soluble dextrins are preferred; however, dextrins ranging in all solubility will work. The percentage of pickup of the dry dust coating composition of the present invention when applied to the external surface of a biscuit is typically from about 0.2% to about 2.0%, more typically from about 0.5% to about 1.0%, and most typically at about 0.7%. The use of such a tapioca dextrin provides a more moist biscuit than an uncoated biscuit. Additionally, the dry dust coating composition imparts an invisible and crisp exterior surface to the biscuit.

Another particularly suitable dextrin for use in the dry dust coating composition is a corn dextrin. Corn dextrin is typically included in the present in the percentage ranges as directly discussed above. Also, corn dextrin is generally the same pickup percentage as disclosed directly above regarding tapioca. The use of corn dextrin provides a more moist biscuit than an uncoated biscuit. Additionally, corn dextrin imparts a substantially invisible moisture barrier coating that provides a tender yet crisp surface texture to the biscuit.

Application Process for Dry Dust Moisture Barrier Coating Composition with Water Mist

The application process for applying a dry dust moisture barrier coating composition to the surface of a biscuit substrate includes the step of: 1) optionally thawing or forming the biscuit substrate (either a previously thermally processed biscuit or biscuit dough), dusting at least a portion of the surface of the biscuit dough with the dry dust moisture barrier coating composition, applying a moistening composition, typically a fine water mist, onto the dusted surface of the biscuit dough and thermally processing the coated biscuit. The moistening composition may also be applied to the thawed or formed biscuit substrate prior to application of the dry dusting composition.

In the foregoing description, it will be readily appreciated by those skilled in the art that modifications may be made to the invention without departing from the concepts disclosed herein. Such modifications are to be considered as included in the following claims, unless these claims by their language expressly state otherwise.