Title:
Proprioception enhancement system
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Disclosed is a band that improves proprioception. The band comprises a soft covering and a tension-creating device. The tension-creating device puts pressure on the skin and improves the awareness of the user of the position of their body. The band is placed over the muscle group that an improvement in proprioception is desired. The preferred placement is over the belly of a muscle in the muscle group. The preferred tension-creating device comprises two to twenty elastic rings. Other versions have the band attached to a shirt or other article of clothing.



Inventors:
Toronto, Brian (Arnold, MD, US)
Dicker, Timothy P. (Tujunga, CA, US)
Application Number:
12/222138
Publication Date:
02/12/2009
Filing Date:
08/04/2008
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
2/1
International Classes:
A63B21/02; A41D31/02
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
MATHEW, FENN C
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
NATH, GOLDBERG & MEYER (Alexandria, VA, US)
Claims:
We claim:

1. An article of clothing in intimate contact with a user's body comprising a first fabric having a first elasticity and a second fabric having a second elasticity; wherein said second fabric is in contact with at least one muscle group of the user and comprises a means for enhancing the user's awareness of a contraction of said at least one muscle group.

2. The system as recited in claim 1 wherein said means for enhancing the user's awareness of said at least one muscle group is comprised of a plurality of ribs.

3. The system as recited in claim 2 where said second fabric is a material selected from the group consisting of nylon and lycra.

4. The system as recited in claim 3 wherein said article of clothing is selected from the group consisting of a vest, a shirt, a sleeve, a band, shorts, pants and a belt.

5. The system as recited in claim 1 wherein said article of clothing is selected from the group consisting of a vest, a shirt, a sleeve, a band, shorts, pants and a belt.

6. The system as recited in claim 1 further comprising a third fabric placed in layered communication with said second fabric, said third fabric having a third elasticity.

7. The system as recited in claim 6, wherein said third elasticity is equal in value to said second elasticity.

8. An article of clothing for strengthening a muscle group comprising a positive fabric having a first elasticity and a negative fabric having a second elasticity, wherein said positive fabric and said negative fabric are configured in said article of clothing such that said positive fabric creates a positive force on at least one muscle group and said negative fabric creates a negative force on said at least one muscle group and wherein said positive fabric and said negative fabric are configured on said article of clothing such that said positive force is applied to said at least one muscle group in a direction opposite a direction of said negative force.

9. The system as recited in claim 8 where said positive fabric is a material selected from the group consisting of nylon and lycra.

10. The system as recited in claim 9 wherein the article of clothing further comprises a form selected from the group consisting of a vest, a shirt, a sleeve, a band, shorts, pants and a belt.

11. The system as recited in claim 8 wherein said article of clothing is selected from the group consisting of a vest, a shirt, a sleeve, a band, shorts, pants and a belt.

12. The system as recited in claim 8 further comprising an elastic fabric placed in layered communication with only said positive fabric.

13. The system as recited in claim 8, wherein said positive force and said negative force are equal in magnitude.

14. An exercise confirmation system comprising an article of clothing having a first fabric section comprised of a first color and a saccadic optical targeting device comprised of a second color, wherein said saccadic optical targeting device is configured on said article of clothing to be perceptible only upon proper execution of an exercise.

15. An exercise confirmation device as recited in claim 12 wherein said article is selected from the group consisting of a glove, a body suit, a shirt, pants, socks, and a hat.

16. An exercise confirmation device as recited in claim 13 wherein said saccadic optical targeting device is configured on an arm of said article of clothing.

17. An exercise confirmation device as recited in claim 13 wherein said saccadic optical targeting device is configured on a leg of said article of clothing.

18. An exercise confirmation device as recited in claim 14 wherein said exercise is a throwing motion.

19. An exercise confirmation device as recited in claim 15 wherein said exercise is a kicking motion.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of and claims the benefit of Pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/405,137, filed Apr. 17, 2006, which claims the benefit of Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/705,103, filed Aug. 8, 2005.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The disclosed subject matter relates to athletic equipment. More specifically it relates to equipment that improves proprioception, the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself.

BACKGROUND

Many devices have been developed to repair the loss of proprioception in medical patients. These devices are designed for rehabilitation of injuries, rather than prehabilitation and enhancement. These devices generally comprise a strap or straps and place pressure on the injured joint. These devices are meant to be worn as part of a program of physical therapy and not meant to be worn by healthy persons. These devices are also not meant to be worn during an athletic activity or athletic competition.

U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,086,551 and 5,957,873 are examples of proprioception therapy devices. The '551 patent is a compression suit used for proprioception therapy. The '873 patent is a compression vest used for proprioception therapy. Both use all-over pressure to heal lost proprioception, rather than focused tension on certain parts of certain muscles to improve healthy proprioception.

Patent application publication no. 2005/0193461 discloses a device that uses elastic to improve athletic performance. The '461 application discloses wrapping muscle groups, especially on the legs, in strips of elastic for the purpose of capturing lost energy from the muscles and returning the energy to the limb to increase the power of the next movement of the limb. The device of the '461 application does not improve proprioception and does not place the elastic on a specific part of the muscles in the muscle groups. Rather, the elastic is relatively evenly distributed over the muscles.

SUMMARY

The subject matter of the present application improves proprioception. The use of sets of bands, strategically placed and tensioned, can improve the wearer's proprioceptive abilities. The system disclosed herein allows the body to be more aware of the position of the limbs. It is a prehabilitative and enhancement device. The system improves athletic performance by improving proprioception of the wearer.

The present system makes the wearer aware of the position of the limbs relative to the torso. This is achieved by applying pressure to the skin and/or by applying various visual devices. The pressure on the skin stimulates tactile sensors in the skin that then make the brain aware of the position of that part of the body. The system works by using accented compression, which is the manipulation of fabric at different tensions to enhance human muscle movement and to address muscle oscillation.

The disclosed subject matter includes a proprioception system embodied various ways. For example, the prorprioception system can be embodied in an article of clothing, i.e., a vest, a shirt, a sleeve, a band, shorts, pants or a belt. When worm, the article of clothing is in intimate contact with a user's body and includes a first fabric that has a first elasticity and a second fabric that has a second elasticity. The second fabric is in contact with at least one of the user's muscle groups and includes a means for enhancing the user's awareness of a contraction of that muscle group.

The means for enhancing the user's awareness of the muscle group is generally made of a plurality of ribs. However, the means are not limited to a plurality of ribs and can include any material capable of sustaining pressure against a person's body. The fabrics can be, for example, nylon, lyrcra or any other elastic fabric. A third fabric, having its own elasticity, can be placed over the second fabric to provide greater elasticity or to add firmness to the fabric. Adding the third fabric to provide firmness can be done so that the firmness is applied in a particular direction. Though the third fabric has its own elasticity, the elasticity of the third fabric can be equal in value to the second elasticity.

A further embodiment of the present subject matter is an article of clothing for strengthening a muscle group. The article of clothing includes a positive fabric that has a first elasticity and a negative fabric that has a second elasticity. Each of the positive and negative fabrics can be, for example, nylon, lyrcra or any other elastic fabric and the article of clothing can be a vest, a shirt, a sleeve, a band, shorts, pants, a jumpsuit, a belt, shorts or any other article capable of being worn by a person. This system can have any distribution of elastic material within any article of clothing. The clothing can have more than one length of elastic material sown therein. The lengths of elastic material could be placed in any orientation relative to the length of the article of clothing.

The positive and negative fabrics are configured in the clothing article in a way that the positive fabric creates a positive force on at least one muscle group of the person wearing the clothing article and the negative fabric creates a negative force on that same muscle group. The positive and negative fabrics are further configured on the article of clothing in a way such that the positive force is applied to the muscle group in a direction opposite that of the negative force.

An additional elastic fabric can be placed layered over the positive fabric or the negative fabric. Alternatively, two additional elastic fabrics can be placed over both the positive and negative fabrics. In some embodiments, the positive and negative forces are equal in magnitude; in other embodiments the positive and negative forces are unequal in magnitude.

A yet further embodiment of the present inventive system is an exercise confirmation system. The exercise confirmation system includes an article of clothing that has a first colored fabric section. The first fabric section includes a saccadic optical targeting device. The saccadic optical targeting device is a color other than that of the first colored fabric and is located on the clothing article to be perceptible only upon proper execution of an exercise. For example, if the clothing article is a glove, a body suit, a shirt, pants, socks, and a hat, the saccadic optical targeting device can be located on an arm of a shirt, a pants leg or the brim of a hat. The type of exercise to be confirmed can be a throwing or kicking motion.

The exercise confirmation system includes a band having a tension-creating device therein. The band is placed around a muscle group. Only one band is needed for each muscle group; however, the system will function with more than one band. The tension-creating device optionally includes at least two rings of elastic. The use of up to twenty rings of elastic as the tension-creating device is possible, but other versions could use more. Other versions could use one elastic ring, or more than twenty elastic rings or any other number of rings therebetween. The band could be placed over the belly of the bicep when the band is used with the upper arm. The belly of a muscle is the widest part of the muscle. Other versions could place the tension-creating device in other locations of each arm other than the belly of the muscle. For example, other versions could have the tension-creating device run parallel to the length of the body or arm.

The tension-creating device creates tension that improves the proprioception of the user. The tension creates a light pressure on the skin of the user. This pressure is enough to be noticeable, yet light enough to avoid contraction of blood vessels or causing muscle fatigue. In some embodiments, the band is attached to an article of clothing. In the preferred embodiment, the tension-creating device has a diameter that is one to two inches less than the muscle group it is being fitted around. Thus a 15-inch diameter upper arm would use a band that has a 13- to 14-inch diameter, with a 13- to 14-inch diameter tension-creating device. The preferred embodiment of the tension-creating device has a tension such that a 13-to 14-inch piece of elastic would be stretched to 15-inches.

The width of the band can be any size. The preferred embodiment envisions bands with a width between 0.5 inches and 6 inches. Other versions could be more narrow than 0.5 an inch. Still other versions could be wider than 6 inches.

This tension-creating device is envisioned to be a strip of elastic material. The tension-creating device could also be a ridge of material that projects within the band. Other versions use a rib as the tension-creating device. Still other versions could use a non-elastic piece of material that can be tightened. This piece of material could be tightened by being pulled and secured by a toggle or fastener. Any manner of fastener could be used, including, but not limited to, buttons, ties, snaps, clips, cord locks, statistical fasteners, hook and loop fasteners or adhesives.

Muscle movements are optimized in a throwing motion, for example, so that muscle consciousness, i.e. the thrower's awareness of his muscle movements, increases the farther the arm is from the path of the ideal set of movements. By increasing proprioception, the thrower can insure that his arm travels in the ideal path of movement to optimize the throw. The present system can also improve the athletic performance of other parts of the body or within the context of other sports. In all cases, an ideal position or movement of the body or the part of the body determines performance. The closer the athlete is to this ideal, the greater the optimization of the athlete's performance.

Another embodiment includes the use of an elastic band without an article of clothing. In this embodiment, the band is made of a covering and more than one tension creating device. Another version of the embodiment that uses a band without an article of clothing includes an opening in the band that can be opened and sealed. The opening has a fastener on one end and a corresponding fastener on the other end of the band. The fastener and corresponding fastener could be a statistical fastener, such as VELCRO, a snap, a button, hook and loop fastener, or a tie.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form part of the specification, illustrate the disclosed embodiments and, together with the description, where:

FIG. 1 shows long sleeved shirt embodiment of the disclosed subject matter;

FIG. 2 shows a short-sleeved shirt embodiment of the disclosed subject matter;

FIG. 3 shows a band embodiment of the disclosed subject matter on an upper arm;

FIG. 4 shows the band embodiment of the disclosed subject matter;

FIG. 5 shows a full body use of proprioception bands;

FIGS. 6a-6f show various articles of clothing employing the use of the inventive subject matter;

FIG. 7a shows a proprioception band applied to a shoulder portion of a vest;

FIG. 7b shows a proprioception band applied to a should portion of a vest with a second elastic fabric placed over the prorprioception band;

FIGS. 8a-8c show an article of clothing for strengthening a muscle group;

FIG. 9 shows a first exercise confirmation system; and

FIG. 10 shows a second exercise confirmation system.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

With reference to FIG. 1, in a preferred embodiment, each sleeve 11 on shirt 1 has two tension-creating devices (alternatively referred to as “bands”) 3 and 4. The first tension-creating device 3 encircles the forearm at the belly of the muscle. The second tension-creating device encircles the upper arm at the belly of the bicep 4. The belly of a muscle is the fattest part of the muscle. In this preferred embodiment, a third tension-creating device 2 is around the body of the shirt 1 placed just underneath the pectoral muscles. An optional fourth tension-creating device 5 can be placed around the shoulder. The shirt 1 has bands sown into it. The chest band 2 is shown encircling the torso, just underneath the pectoral muscles. In FIG. 1, the shoulder band 5 is shown so that it is divided into a “Y”-shape that is a single band at the bottom of the shoulder, but is two bands at the top of the shoulder.

FIG. 2 illustrates the short-sleeved shirt embodiment of the disclosed subject matter. The shirt 1 has bands sown into it. The chest band 2 is shown encircling the torso, just underneath the pectoral muscles. The upper arm band 4 is shown encircling the upper arm at the belly of the bicep. The shoulder band 5 is shown encircling the shoulder.

FIG. 3 illustrates the embodiment of the disclosed subject matter where the band is used without a piece of clothing. The upper arm bands 4 are made of a casing 6 and tension-creating device 7. The tension-creating device 7 comprises two elastic rings in this figure. The upper arm strip 4 is fitted around the belly of the bicep 8.

FIG. 4 illustrates the embodiment of the disclosed subject matter where the band is used without a piece of clothing. The upper arm band 4 is made of a casing 6 and tension-creating device 7. The tension-creating device 7 comprises two elastic rings in this figure. The upper arm strip 4 has fastener 9 and corresponding fastener 10.

In the preferred embodiment, the tension-creating device 7 has a diameter that is one to two inches less than the muscle group it is being fitted around. Thus a 15-inch diameter upper arm would use a band that has a 13- to 14-inch diameter, with a 13- to 14-inch diameter tension creating device 7. The preferred embodiment of the tension-creating device 7 has a tension such that a 13- to 14-inch piece of elastic would be stretched to 15 inches.

This tension-creating device 7 is envisioned to be a strip of elastic material. Alternatively, the tension-creating device 7 could be made of rubber, cloth or string. In other versions, the tension-creating device 7 could also be a ridge of material that projects within the band. Other versions could use a non-elastic piece of material that can be tightened. This piece of material could be tightened by being pulled and secured by some kind of toggle or fastener. Any manner of fastener could be used, including, but not limited to, buttons, ties, snaps, clips, cord locks, statistical fasteners, hook and loop fasteners or adhesives.

Another version of the embodiment that uses a band without an article of clothing includes an opening in the band that can be opened and sealed. The opening has a fastener 9 on one end and a corresponding fastener 10 on the other end of the band. The fastener 9 and corresponding fastener 10 could be a statistical fastener, such as VELCRO, a snap, a button, hook and loop fastener, or a tie.

As shown in FIG. 5, the inventive subject matter improves proprioception through the use of bands 52, strategically placed and tensioned around a user's body 54. The present system makes the wearer aware of the position of the limbs 56, 58, 10 and 12 relative to the torso 14 by using the bands 52 to apply pressure to the skin.

As shown in FIGS. 6a-6f the prorprioception system is embodied in an article of clothing, i.e., a vest 16, a shirt 18, a sleeve 20, shorts 22, pants 24 or a belt 26. These articles of clothing can be combined with each other in various forms and sizes depending on the requirements of the user. With particular reference to FIG. 6f, the proprioception system is embodied in a strap having an increased “zone of influence” 42. The increased zone of influence 42 is a section of the proprioception system having a thicker portion of fabric or a section of fabric with increased (or decreased) elasticity depending on the objective of the manufacturer. If two sections of fabric are placed one on top of the other, one of the fabrics is allowed to slide over the other. This sliding ability enhances respiration and promotes sliding tension so the user can differentiate various muscle positions.

When worn, the article of clothing is in intimate contact with a user's body and includes a first fabric that has a first elasticity and a second fabric that has a second elasticity. The second fabric is in contact with at least one of the user's muscle groups and includes a means for enhancing the user's awareness of a contraction of that muscle group.

As shown in FIG. 7a, bands 52 are generally made of a plurality of ribs 26 separated by a fabric 42. The fabric 42 is any material that returns to its original form after stretching. Examples of the type of fabrics that can be used as fabric 42 or rib 26 in any of the disclosed embodiments include, but are not limited to spandex, cotton, silk, nylon, lycra or any compliant fabric. The ribs 26 can be made of the same material as the fabric 42 or a different material. The bands 52 are not necessarily limited to a plurality of elastic ribs 26 and can include any material capable of sustaining pressure against a person's body. FIG. 7b shows a transverse fabric 28 that has its own elasticity and is in place over the earlier mentioned fabric 42 to provide greater elasticity and to add firmness. In this particular embodiment, the transverse fabric 28 provides elasticity in a direction relatively perpendicular to the ribs 26.

Only one band 52 is needed for each muscle group, but the system will function with more than one band. The width of the band 52 depends on the wearer. As long as the band provides the wearer with consciousness of the muscle being exercised, the band can be as wide or as narrow as the wearer desires. For example, bands with a width between 0.5 inches and 6 inches are possible. Other versions could be more narrow that 0.5 an inch. Still other versions could be wider than 6 inches. The use of up to twenty elastic ribs 26 as the tension-creating device is possible, but other versions could use more. Other versions could use one elastic ring, or more than twenty elastic rings or any number of rings therebetween. The band is placed over or near to the belly of the bicep when the band is used with the upper arm. The belly of a muscle is the widest part of the muscle. Other versions of the disclosed subject matter place tension-creating device in other locations of each arm other than the belly of the muscle. For example, other versions could have the tension-creating device run parallel to the length of the body or arm.

The pressure of band 2 is enough to be noticeable, yet light enough to avoid contraction of blood vessels or causing muscle fatigue. In some embodiments, the band is attached to an article of clothing. In the preferred embodiment, the tension-creating device has a diameter that is one to two inch less than the muscle group it is being fitted around. Thus, a 15-inch diameter upper arm would use a band that has a 13- to 14-inch diameter, with a 13- to 14-inch diameter tension-creating device. The, preferred embodiment of the band 2 has a tension such that a 13- to 14-inch piece of elastic would be stretched to 15-inches.

Band 2 is a strip of elastic material. Other versions of band 2 use a non-elastic piece of material that can be tightened. This piece of material could be tightened by being pulled and secured by a toggle or fastener. Any manner of fastener could be used, including, but not limited to, buttons, ties, snaps, clips, cord locks, statistical fasteners, hook and loop fasteners or adhesives.

The elastic band can used without an article of clothing. In such an embodiment, the band is made of a covering and more than one tension creating device. Another version of the embodiment that uses a band without an article of clothing includes a discontinuity in the band that can be opened and sealed. The opening has a fastener on one end and a corresponding fastener on the other end of the band. The fastener and corresponding fastener could be a statistical fastener, such as VELCRO, a snap, a button, hook and loop fastener, or a tie.

As shown in FIG. 8a, a further embodiment of the present subject matter is an article of clothing 28 for strengthening a muscle group. The article of clothing 28 includes a positive fabric 30 that has a first elasticity and a negative fabric 32 that has a second elasticity. Each of the positive and negative fabrics 30 and 32 can be, for example, nylon, lyrcra or any other elastic fabric and the article of clothing can be a vest, a shirt, a sleeve, a band, shorts, pants, a jumpsuit, a belt, shorts or any other article capable of being worn by a person. As an example, positive fabric 30 and negative fabric 32 are shown positioned on article of clothing 28 to affect the wearer's bicep 34. Positive fabric 30 provides resistance against the wearer raising his forearm 36 and negative fabric 32 provides resistance against lowering his forearm 36. In some embodiments, the positive and negative fabrics are made removable from the article of clothing 28 to allow for the replacement thereof with more or less elastic materials. Thus, the resistance can be adjusted. Alternatively, the positive and negative fabrics 30 and 32 can be made with attachable surfaces on both sides thereof (such as a hook and pile type fastener or bottons). With attachable surfaces, additional fabrics can be placed over the positive and negative fabrics 30 and 32 to provide additional resistance or to provide resistance or proprioception in an alternate direction.

Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 8b, a single muscle strengthening band 38 can be worn instead of a muscle strengthening article of clothing. The single muscle strengthening band 38, as shown in FIG. 8b, is generally a sleeve that fits over a person's arm. In this case, tension in the muscle strengthening band 38 biases the arm toward a bent position. To straighten the arm, a person must exercise the triceps muscles. The muscle strengthening band 38 is not limited to use on the arm but can be used on the legs and even the torso (see muscle strengthening vest 40 shown in FIG. 8c.).

The embodiment depicted in FIG. 9 is an exercise confirmation system 100. The exercise confirmation system includes an article of clothing 102 that has a first colored fabric section 104. The first fabric section includes a saccadic optical targeting device 106. The saccadic optical targeting device 106 is a color other than that of the first colored fabric 104 and is located on the clothing article 102 to be perceptible only upon proper execution of an exercise. For example, if the clothing article is a glove, a body suit, a shirt, pants, socks, and a hat, the saccadic optical targeting device can be located on an ann of a shirt, a pants leg or the brim of a hat. After or during execution of an exercise, the saccadic optical targeting device 106 will come into view of a person wearing the article of clothing 102. If the wearer sees the saccadic optical targeting device 106, the wearer knows that he has performed the intended exercise properly. Alternatively, if the wearer does not see the saccadic optical targeting device 106, the wearer will know that he has performed the exercise improperly. The type of exercise to be confirmed can be a throwing or kicking motion.

Muscle movements are optimized in a throwing motion, for example, so that muscle consciousness, i.e. the thrower's awareness of his muscle movements, increases the farther the arm is from the path of the ideal set of movements. By increasing proprioception, the thrower can insure that his arm travels in the ideal path of movement to optimize the throw. The present system also improves the athletic performance of other parts of the body or within the context of other sports. In all cases, an ideal position or movement of the body or the part of the body determines performance. The closer the athlete is to this ideal, the greater the optimization of the athlete's performance.

As shown in FIG. 10, the system 100 is helps a runner visually determine a his speed. A pair of pants 200 are worn by a person wishing to maintain a certain speed. At least one of the pants legs 202 has a passive speed indicator 204. The passive speed indicator 204 includes a plurality of sights 206. A first leg sight 208 represents a 3.0 mile per hour walking gate or jog. That is, the first sight 208 comes into the wearer's visual peripheral view when the wearer is walking or jogging at 3.0 miles per hour. A first arm sight 210 is placed on the user's left arm to provide a back-up passive speed indicator. The first arm sight is at the runner's elbow. A second leg sight 212 and a second arm sight 214 are provided as passive speed indicators to show that wearer is moving at 3.5 miles per hour. The second arm sight 214 is about six inches from the elbow. In accordance with oculomotor behavioral characteristics, the second leg sight 212 and the arm sight 214 are larger than the first leg sight 206 and the first arm sight 210. Oculomotor behavior is disclosed by Stone et al. Journal of Vision: Linking Eye Movements and Perception, Vol. 3, No. 11, the contents of which is incorporated herein in its' entirety. The location and speeds of the passive speed indicator 204 are variable. For example, higher or lower speeds can be associated with a different location of the passive speed indicator 204. For example, a person training to run at a minimum speed can use the passive indictor 204 as an indicator that a minimum speed of 5 miles per hour is being maintained. Alternatively, a person wishing to avoid running too fast can use the passive speed indicator as a check to make sure that a speed of 2.0 miles per hour is not passed. Alternatively, the same speeds, of 3.0 and 3.5 miles per hour can be associated with the passive speed indicator 204 when the passive speed indicator is located on a different location of various articles of clothing such, but not limited to, as a shoe, a vest, a belt, socks, gloves, wrist bands, anklets or any other article of clothing.

EXAMPLE

In a trial, the inventor tested five subjects. The test included three females and two males. Female subject #1 was five feet, three inches tall and weighed one hundred and thirty pounds. Female subject #2 was five feet, eleven inches tall and weighed one hundred and forty-eight pounds. Female subject #3 was five feet, five inches tall and weighed one hundred and twenty-five pounds. Male subject #1 was five feet, eleven inches tall and weighed one hundred and seventy-two pounds and Male subject #2 was six feet, two inches tall and weighed one hundred and eighty-five pounds. All subjects viewed the first marker at 3.0 miles per hour when the marker was placed at the tip of the kneecap. The 3.5 mile per hour marker was seen by the females at three inches above the first maker and males viewed it at three and three quarter inches above the first marker.

It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modification may be made which clearly fall within the scope of the disclosed subject matter. The previous description of the disclosed functions is provided to enable any person skilled in the development process for a similar concept to make or use the present inventive subject matter. Various modifications to these functions will be readily apparent and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to additional functions without departing from the spirit or scope of the inventive subject matter. For example, one or more of the brake system functions can be rearranged and/or combined, or additional functional elements may be added. Thus, the present inventive subject matter is not intended to be limited to the set of functions shown herein but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein.

It will be understood that many additional changes in the details, materials, steps and arrangement of parts, which have been herein described and illustrated to explain the nature of the disclosed subject matter, may be made by those skilled in the art within the principle and scope of the disclosed subject matter as expressed in the appended claims.