Title:
Tubes for heat exchange
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Apparatus for heat-transfer between the flowing heat agents inside and outside of a closed wall, which apparatus is a tube for heat exchange, which tube is shaped and arrenged in such a way that increases the heat-transfer up to the highest possible value to attain.



Inventors:
Zagalsky, Harry Y. (Philadelphia, PA, US)
Application Number:
12/283594
Publication Date:
02/12/2009
Filing Date:
08/06/2007
Primary Class:
International Classes:
F28F1/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
FLANIGAN, ALLEN J
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Harry Zagalsky (Philadelphia, PA, US)
Claims:
1. TUBES FOR HEAT EXCHANGE—an apparatus to carry out the heat-transfer between the heat agents inside and outside of tube's wall through this wall, which any one of tubes, having been gotten thin-walled, are deformingly shaped and arrenged to become able to get each smallest spot of the surface areas of the wall contactable to each smallest portion of heat agents, as well as able to get heat agents completely turbulized by the means of getting surface areas of the tube's wall bigger than it might be gotten in any smoothwalled tube of the same axis-length and hydraulic radius and by the means of the given in the tube presence of combination of two kinds of zones: zones of predetermined local hydraulic resistance and zones of predetermined relaxation for the heat agent, which kinds of zones either take turns, or accompany each other, or take turns and accompany each other at the same time.

2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein tubes may be made from a metal of high heat-conduction.

3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the tube may be EXTREMELY thinwalled.

4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein the wall may be shaped with EXTRA deformations which strengthen the wall against deformations may be caused by the heat agents and allow to keep the wall EXTREMELY thin, increasing additionally its surface areas.

5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein some mechanical support(s) which is(are) transparent for the heat agent(s) to flow may be put at the inside & outside surface(s) of the tube to keep its wall EXTREMELY thin.

6. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein tubes may be the SCREW-PLANE-HOLLOW-COMB TUBES where the screw comb prevents the absolute most of the inside heat agent from some easy straight axial flow.

7. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein tubes may be the ZIGZAG-BENT-PLANE TUBES.

8. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein tubes may be the RADIAL-STRAIGHT-HOLLOW-COMBS TUBES where the central inside room, except entrance, hollow combs and exit, is prevented from the flow of the most of the inside heat agent while the room of the hollow combs is prevented from avoiding of this flow.

9. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein tubes may be the PARALLEL-PLANE-FLAT-HOLLOW-COMBS TUBES where the indide edges of combs border holes of such a small diameter which forces the flowing inside heat agent to wash the inside surface of the hollow combs completely and to be completely turbulized therein because of pulses of pressure of this heat agent, which pressure is high enough before these holes and much lower just after them.

10. The apparatus of claim 8 wherein the RADIAL-STRAIGHT-PLANE-HOLLOW-COMBS TUBES may be modified with an asymmetric form of each of combs, which form has the surface of one of its halves, from its top to its base, some bigger than the surface of another one, that makes the tube rotate under influence of the pressure of the inside heat agent in combs, from the entrance of the tube to its exit, which both are made able to rotate, and wherein this tube is equiped with a rotatively switchable spring turns rotations of the tube into its short and sharp auto-oscillations.

11. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein the PARALLEL-PLANE-FLAT-HOLLOW-COMBS TUBES may be modified, in each of combs, with a springy leant (hung) device which directs the quite bigger, but variable, part of the flowing inside heat agent into the comb and lets the rest of this agent go through the very small center hole of this device, which predetermined hole is, indeed, an ejector, making the found mass of this device, together with its hardness as a spring, and together with the variable pressure of the influencing upon it flowing heat agent, be a resonant system has auto-oscillations, which oscillations increase as the turbulization as the touchability of the heat agent up to the extreme value to attain.

12. The apparatus of claims 8, 9 and 11 wherein the wall of each of halves of each of combs, from their top at the bigger diameter of the tube to their base at the smaller diameter of the tube, is as found springy as swingable in both its real or symbolic connections, that makes combs, taking energy from the heat agent inside the tube, get auto-oscillated, with the frequency that may be predetermined, and, therefore, increases the convective heat-exchange between the wall and the outside gaseous heat agent up to the extremely high value.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention pertains to the field of the heat exchange between two heat agents flowing inside and outside of a tube or a set of tubes. The heat exchange between one liquid and one gaseous heat agents is the especially near part of this field.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Known Facts and Motivating Factors

If to compare the prior art of the development of the heat exchange tubes to the knowledge of the heat exchange and heat transfer, an affirmation that this development was not successful and even was not going in the correct direction won't be wrong. The following reasons make it just undisputed.

This development was providing two ways to increase the heat transfer from one heat agent to another through the wall of the heat exchange tube: to increase the washed surface area by ribbing of the wall and to increase the turbulization of the heat agent.

RIBBING IS NOT ABLE TO INCREASE ONLY THE WASHED SURFACE AREA AND NOT TO INCREASE THE WEIGHT OF THE RIBBED TUBE, AS WELL AS NOT TO DECREASE THE DENSITY OF THE HEAT STREAM BETWEEN THE SURFACE AND THE HEAT AGENT. The ribbing, even of the very best heat-exchange-perfection, is able to increase the heat transfer only as much as twice, having increased the weight of the tube also as much as twice, when the height of ribs is limited by the value which is only as three-fold as bigger than the thickness of the wall. To keep on increasing the height of ribs will be in vain cause the heat transfer, any way, will never be more than as threefold as bigger than it is available for the unribbed tube. To increase the turbulization of the heat agent is beyond limitations if any increase of the energy losses is tolerable. But, if to increase the turbulization of the heat agent only by increasing of its speed, the energy losses may get intolerant much faster than the convective heat exchange reaches its top. If to increase the turbulization of the heat agent by the means of ribs without increasing of the speed which may, in this case, stay as low as it could be when the convention is not artificially forced, the ribbing, if it is certainly the ribbing of the good heat-exchange-perfection, grows some more acceptable. And when the ribbing, supporting the mechanical resistance of the wall against deformations, allows to get the walls of the tubes very much thiner than it may be attainable for the unribbed tubes, the prior art of the heat-exchange tubes reaches its appogee just at the station of my made in the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/415,192 from Oct. 7, 1999. But even such a great improvement doesn't change the affirmation was done above inasmuch as, if even doing its best and increasing the heat transfer as much as fourfold (thanks to ribs-turbulizators) and even as much as eightfold (thanks to decreased thickness of walls), the absolutely best known ribbing described in my patent application Ser. No. 09/415,192 from Oct. 7, 1999 is not able to compensate the very stubborn circumstance that the heat exchange between the wall and the gaseous heat agent is as twentyfold as lower than between the same wall and the liquid heat agent. This circumstance can be and, in some cases, is compensated by increasing of the temperature head between the wall and the gaseous heat agent. But such a step, being absolutely not universal, can not at all be considered as a solution of the problem. In such a case, ribbing, being not able to solve completely and finally the problem of the considerable difference in the convective heat exchange between gaseous or liquid heat agents and the wall, deserves only the negative evaluation while the heat transfer deserves to find another way of the development of the heat-exchange tubes—the way which denies any ribbing as the means of the truly big improvement of the heat transfer. Yes, such is the reality despite the very rooted habit to believe in the improvement of ribbing as the only way to improve the heat transfer through the wall of a tube.

THE WAY OF THE TRULY BIG IMPROVEMENT OF THE HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH THE WALL OF A TUBE REQUIRES TO BREAK SOME STEREOTYPES OF THINKING AND OF SUPPOSITIONS.

To understand, that to increase areas of both surfaces washed as by gaseous as by liquid heat agents, while desiring to increase only the first of them, is not at all a big trouble, and even, vice versa, a big gain for the heat transfer through the wall of a tube, is a good first step to break those stereotypes. To understand, that, instead of to solve, ribbing actually removes the problem from the surface gets washed by the gaseous heat agent into the wall of the tube, is a good second step to break those stereotypes. To understand, that the wall of a tube is quite able to turbulize as gaseous as liquid heat agent, staying without ribs or having some ribs only as mechanical supporters—turbulizers, even without their heat contact with the wall of a tube, is the good third step to break those stereotypes. To understand, that to give the equal possibilities to contact the surface of the wall of the tube for all layers and portions of the heat agents is not less important than to turbulize these agents, is the fourth good step to break those stereotypes. To understand, that the surface areas get washed by heat agents inside and outside of a tube do not have any limitations of increasing, is to be sure, at the fifth step, that the heat transfer through the wall of a tube, may be increased unlimitedly too. And, finally, if to understand, that not to have limitations of increasing does not at all mean to be necessarily unlimitedly increased, is just to believe that the heat transfer through the wall of a tube is able to be increased not as much as eightfold as it is attainable for the best of the best ribbed tubes proposed by the author, but as much as twentyfold, without any problem, and as much as fiftyfold or hundredfold if it is so necessary. The significance of such a possibility is truly beyond to be overrated as well as the global fulness of the scope of this invention is beyond to be refuted.

The known twisted tubes manufactured by “Delta Limited” (The U.S. Pat. No. 4,437,329 from Mar. 20, 1984, “Method of manufacturing twisted tubes”) and the known spirally corrugated tubes manufactured by “Turbotec Products” (The U.S. Pat. No. 3,015,355 from Jan. 2, 1962, “Method for forming spirally ribbed tubing”) are not at all something else but only the extra samples of those stereotypes of thinking which are to be broken. These tubes do not have their wall-surface areas gotten increased in comparison with the original smooth tube, do not have something to force the heat agent inside them to run seriously in their twists or corrugations, and do not have the heat agent inside them as stupid as it is necessary to be overcoming the hydraulic resistance instead of to run straight and to say, “so long” to any resistance. These tubes, maybe, are a little bit cheaper, but they are not some better than simply ribbed tubes and they, are not something else but only the specially ribbed tubes which do not deserve at all to be advertised as pompously as they are done by their, manufacturers. These and any other inventions and patents indeed can not compromise my heat-exchanger by the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/415,192 from Oct. 7, 1999 as the best of the best, as the giving the most opportunities for many other necessary inventions to get born, so, as the real invention was stopped to be defended by real my patent-attorney's mistake has now to be fixed. I'd like to hope that the real professionalism, patience, kindness, and good sense of humour, those, I'm sure, will be shown by examiners of this application, will help me to fix that mistake, by the means of doing that application in my way, without new date of my priority.

This invention, which is a result of turning of our new understanding into the extraordinarily found solutions, accords with my strong will to go, extraordinarily, ahead such as to make dreams and hopes come true and mistakes stay in the past.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention is a device, an apparatus to carry out the heat transfer between heat agents inside and outside of a closed wall through the wall which apparatus is a tube (tubes) for heat exchange.

In order to increase the heat transfer extremely (as much as it's only necessary), the tube(s), was(were) made from a metal of high enough heat conduction, is(are) shaped and arrenged such as to get each smallest spot of the inside and outside surface areas of its wall uniformly contactable to each smallest layer and portion of both of heat agents, as well as to get both of heat agents turbulized completely, by the means of getting both surface areas of the wall bigger than these areas might be gotten in any known or imagined tube of the same axis-length and hydraulic radius, as well as of getting the wall as thin as it is only acceptable before a leakage if even some unwanted deformations caused by heat agents have to be prevented by some mechanical supports may be combined with these tubes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic reflection of the general idea of the invention by the longitudinal section of the parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tube.

FIG. 2 is the longitudinal section of the screw-plane-hollow-comb tube.

FIG. 3 is the longitudinal section of the zigzag-bent-plane tube.

FIG. 4 is the cross-section of the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube.

FIG. 5 is the longitudinal-sections of the modified parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tubes.

Mechanical supports are not shown in any of drawings.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The following details will be necessary and sufficient as to get the invention completely understandable as to justify correctness and fullness of the author's claims.

To understand the general idea of the invention correctly and completely will be quite easy if to recall the cylindrical bellows with the open ends and to imagine that its hollow combs keep their outer size while its inner diameter grows smaller and smaller and stops doing so only when the diameter of the inner holes, which are bordered by the hollow combs, has grown as very small as it is necessary to make a very significant hydraulic resistance and make also the surface area of each of the hollow combs much much bigger than the surface area of each cylindrical clearance between these combs. Then, if to make, in our imagination, one of heat agents, for example the liquid heat agent, run inside from one end of the belows to another, we'll have to watch how the power of a flow-inducer turns the small holes and volumes of the hollow combs into injection-oscillation pairs and makes the heat agent as pulsate in these combs, as be turbulized therein, as contact every piece of their surfaces. Then, if to suppose, in our imagination, the tube of the same axis-length and hydraulic radius, but with the smoothly straightened wall, we'll have, to be sure that the inside and outside surface areas of the specially shaped tube is incomparably bigger than these areas might be gotten by the tube with the smoothly straightened wall. Although the bellows, mentally turn into the specially shaped tube, is not the best representative of the specially shaped tubes for the highest, heat transfer (the big enough probability of the good turbulization of the heat agent in the hollow combs has to be confirmed better), the bellows was, however, selected not only because it is really good for the explanation of the general idea of the invention, but also in order to prevent from the mistaken oppose of the bellows to the specially shaped tubes for heat exchange as the invention. After have been used in the above explanation the bellows may be opposed to the invention with the same success as a grandfather, after his prostate cutting (it's about me), may be opposed to a grandmother.

The following detailed descriptions of the drawings will, in their turn, prove that the bellows is a very good thing, but it is only the bellows while this invention is the very other thing.

The parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tube (FIG. 1) is a solution that may be opposed to the very known parallel-plane-ribs tube. Really, if to connect, mentally, the free edges of each pair of ribs, and to decrease the diameter of the tube, and to cut out the short sections of the tube within each pair of the ribs with the mentally connected edges: such as to prevent the heat agent from flowing without contacting the inside surface of tube's wall, the ribbed tube for the bad heat exchange will be, mentally, turned into the specially shaped tube for the quite good heat exchange, and will be done so even without to recall some . . . bellows. It was said, “mentally” in order to underline especially that: how to connect edges, how to decrease the diameter of the tube, how to cut out the short sections of the tube, and even how to make be sure of the real necessity of these actions is not important at all as well as how, indeed, the nice tube shown by the FIG. 1 has to be made is not important too. However, the very last “how” will be responded above.

The screw-plane-hollow-comb tube (FIG. 2) is a solution that may be opposed to the very well known screw-plane-rib tube. If to connect, mentally, the free edges of the screw-plane rib such as to make a spiral stich, and to cut out the spiral ribbon from the tube within the stitched spiral hollow comb, and to decrease, up to zero, the diameter of the tube: such as to prevent the heat agent from flowing without contacting the inside surface of tube's wall, the ribbed tube for the bad heat exchange will be turned, mentally, into the specially shaped tube for the very good heat exchange, and with a good smile, and a good-byeing to the . . . bellows. It was again said, “mentally” in order to underline especially that: how to connect, to cut out, and to decrease, as well as what is the shape of the surface of the screw rib is not important at all, and to do these actions or not to do them, doing others, is not important as well. However, what are actions to realize this tube will be told above.

The zigzag-bent-plane tube (FIG. 3) is a solution that may be opposed to the very well known straight-plane tubes ribbed, between each two of them, by the zigzag-bent-plane ribbon (recall, please, the radiator of your car). If to bend, mentally, each of the straight tubes in the same zigzag way as ribbons of the ribbing are bent, the ribbed straight tubes for not too bad, but not at all so good heat exchange will be, mentally, turned into the specially shaped tubes for the very very good heat exchange. It was again said, “mentally” in order to underline especially that: how to bend the straight plane tubes into zigzag shape and what is the shape of their surface is not important at all. However, the first “how” will be responded above.

The radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube (FIG. 4) is a solution that may be opposed to the well known radial-straight-plane-ribs tube. If to make, mentally, the radial-straight-plane ribs hollow, to get their fresh born volumes connected to the entrance and to the exit of the tube, and to get the rest volume of the tube blocked such as to make the agent flow through the volumes of the hollowed ribs which have become actually hollow combs, the radial-straight-plane-ribs tube for the very bad heat-exchange will be, mentally, turned into the specially shaped radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube for the very good heat exchange. It was again said, “mentally” in order to underline especially that: how to have the radial-straight-plane-hollow combs instead of the radial-straight-plane ribs, how to connect these combs with the entrance and with the exit of the tube, and how to block the rest volume of the tube, except volums of the entrance, exit and combs, is not important at all. However, it will be responded above.

Each of the specially shaped modified parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tubes (FIGS. 5 a and b) are a solution to be opposed to the specially shaped parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tube (FIG. 1) such as to prove, in the best way, that the 100% probability of the highest turbulization of the heat agent in the combs will be achieved for a certainty. Each of the hollow combs 1 is equiped inside with a springly leant (hung: look, please, at b/) device 2 which directs the very bigger part of the flowing heat agent into the hollow comb 1 and lets the rest of this agent go through the central small hole 3 of itself, which hole 3 is an ejector. The found mass of this device 2, the found hardness of it as a spring, and the partial turnings of pressure of the flowing heat agent from the potential into the speedy state and back make the system of the device 2 and of the flowing heat agent have auto-oscillations with such a predetermined frequency which is the best as to break into pieces the thin layer of the flowing heat agent just at the surface of the wall, such as to prevent this layer from blocking this surface, as to increase the turbulization of the whole flowing heat agent up to 100$. And it doesn't, undisputedly, matter how devices 2 are proved to be in each of the hollow combs 1: the invention is an apparatus—not a method of making this apparatus. It doesn't, undisputedly, matter either the device 2 is able to go selfishly and to find its place in each of the hollow combs 1, or the tube was assembled from the hollow combs 1 in the way which allows to put devices 2 into each of these combs 1, or in the way which allows devices 2 to be parts of these combs 1 (FIG. 5-b/). However, all possibilities were already, actually, responded right here.

The variety of the specially shaped tubes are shown by FIGS. 1÷5 allows to declare the most important thing: it doesn't matter what is exactly the shape of the tube for the best heat exchange if this shape lets the inside and outside surface areas of the wall of the tube get uniformly turbulently washed and contactable to both of the heat agents and be unlimitedly bigger than these areas might be in any imagined tube of the same axis-length and hydraulic radius.

Of course, it would be likingly to be sure that every one understands that the turbulence and contact ability of the heat agent at the outside surface of the tube may concern to one tube only as a participant of a group of tubes and depends upon a design of such a group (a tubular heat-exchanger) too.

The thickness of the wall of any specially shaped tube of this invention does, certainly, a big influence on the heat-transfer through this wall. Any extra deformations, which strengthen the wall against deformations which may be caused by the heat agents, do allow to keep the wall as thin as possible and increase, at the same time, its inside and outside surface areas, are useful and, certainly, included in the general idea of the invention. But, if one or both of the heat agents are so mechanically aggressive that any extra deformations of the wall are not able to be effective enough, some special mechanical support which is transparent enough for the heat agent to flow (just like it's provided by my U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/415,192 from Oct. 7, 1999) may be put inside or outside at the surface of the tube such as to keep, the thickness of the wall, in spite of all, as thin as possible and, at the same time, to increase additionally the turbulization of the heat agent.

The specially shaped tubes by this invention, having redeemed from ribbing, have returned again the possibility to be indifferent to the kind of the heat agents (liquid & gaseous) at both of sides of their wall. This circumstance is very important for designing of heat-exchangers from these tubes.

It is necessary to make every one sure that each kind of the specially shaped tubes shown in FIGS. 1÷5 is: 1/as good to keep the flowing heat agent inside the tube on the top of the turbulence as the modified parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tubes are; 2/good to keep the whole inside surface in contact with the flowing heat agent; 3/easy and not too expensive to manufacture; 4/at its big field of gainful use.

As the top-like turbulence of the inside heat agent as fullness of its contact with the whole inside surface of the parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tube (FIG. 1) are achieved with the bordered by edges of each two adjacent hollow combs small holes—ejectors. They transform the full energy of the heat agent's flow before them into its kinetic energy just after them. This kinetic energy gets again transformed into full energy in the process of involving of the whole inside heat agent in the hollow combs into the turbulent whirls those interact with the whole inside surface of combs. To manufacture this (FIG. 1) tube by the means of thermo-mechanical deforming and thining of the blank—tube, or by the means of the electro-resistance welding of the thin-walled washer-like blanks, just like it's known for bellows, may be quite easy and not too expensive. The field of gainful use of this (FIG. 1) tube may be as big, and even much bigger, as the field of the today/bad/parallel-plane-ribs tube.

The screw-plane-hollow-comb tube (FIG. 2) is able to keep, the flowing heat, agent 100% turbulent thanks to the huge non-uniformity of agent's speed depends upon the radius and causes whirlwinds, and curls in the flow if even the speed is low enough. Such a flow can not let any spot of the inside surface be out of contact with the flow. To manufacture the thin-walled, screw-plane-hollow-comb tubes may be quite easy, not expensive, reliable and high-productive by at least two ways, although any other way to do this may be acceptable as well. The first way is to use simple tubes and the technology of the thermo-mechanical deformations to bring them to the wanted screw-plane-hollow-comb (indeed-hollow comb!!!) shape. The second way is to use the simple metal ribbon, to bend it U-formedly, to coil the bent ribbon and just to weld its outside edges, and then to twist the welded-spiral-hollow-comb composition such as to place the inside no welded spiral line of the U-bent ribbon a little bit inside, the welded spiral hollow comb. Equipment to carry out both of these ways is available and will work automatically that ensures the highest reiterationability, quality, and productivity. If to keep in mind the duration and materials to prepare ribs, it will be easy to believe that to manufacture the screw-plane-hollow-comb tubes will be much faster and cheaper than to get the simple tubes ribbed with the screw-plane ribbing. If to use for heat-exchangers the fresh invented screw-plane-hollow-comb tubes (FIG. 2) instead of tubes with the screw-plane ribbing or any other, ribbing, for example with the zigzag-bent-plane ribbing of radiators, in buildings, vehicles and energy objects, this thin-walled tubes will bring savings of billions and billions of bucks if even other specially shaped tubes of this invention make the competition very severe.

The zigzag-bent-plane tube (FIG. 3) keeps the flowing inside heat agent quite turbulent, even if the flow is slow enough, because of the very frequent change of the direction of the flow which has to go from one U-turn just into another. Accordingly, no spot of the inside surface can be omited by the flow of the heat agent. Unfortunately, the hydraulic resistance of a zigzag-bent-plane tube can not be forgotten too, inasmuch as it may rise as much as 20÷25 fold against the straight plane tube. But, fortunately, it will not be allowed to rise at all by the means of the possible decreasing (not less than 5 fold) of the outgo of the flowing liquid heat agent in each of tubes of a heat-exchanger. And it will be so without some loss of the convective heat-exchange intensity. Such a possibility allows to forget about the rise of the hydraulic resistance that depends upon the square of the outgo. In addition to that, there is a possibility to increase the number of tubes of a heat-exchanger about 1.5÷2 fold and, accordingly, to cut their length and, as a result of it, to have the reversion-rise of the outgo without any rise of the hydraulic resistance of a heat-exchanger, for example, a radiator for a motor-vehicle. The zigzag-bent-plane tubes, in order to substitute them for the known straight-plane tubes with the zigzag-bent ribbing, may be manufactured, using the same straight plane tubes as blanks and known technologies of bending of tubes which are well known as very productive, reliable and not expensive. Having been redeemed from expenditures to pre-pare ribbing and to connect ribbing with tubes, the zigzag-bent-plane tubes (FIG. 3) will prove to be almost beyond competition in the field of the motor-vehicle radiators as because these tubes themselves do not at all demage or change the habits and traditions of building of motor-vehicles, as because such a redemption will let the world motor-vehicle industry attain billions of bucks as profits. Only the screw-plane-hollow-comb tubes and the modified parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tubes can take part in competition, after the quite understandable conservatism of the motor-vehicle industry is overcome.

The radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube (FIG. 4), unfortunately, is not able to keep selfishly the turbulence of the flowing heat agent in its hollow combs as good as the parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tubes (FIGS. 1 & 5) are able to do so. But, fortunately, nothing can prevent the straight flowing heat agent from the cross (not axil) oscillations if such oscillations are induced by something. For example, if something from any things makes the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube have, reciprocational short and sharp rotations, the straight flowing heat agent will be oscillated, and turbulized, and made touchable to any spot of the surface of this tube not worse than it takes place inside the modified parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tube (FIG. 5). The simple enough first way to induce oscillations is, for example, to let the hollow combs be uniformly a little bit asymmetric, it means to have the surface area of one half of a hollow comb a little bit larger than the surface area of the second one, and to combine the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube with a spring, as it takes place in each of hollow combs of the modified (FIG. 5) parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tube, but with a spring induces rotation. It will make the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube have the reciprocational short and sharp rotations under the energy-influence from the inside heat agent. The spring is not shown, same, as ends of the tube (its entrance and exit) those have, of course, to allow the short reciprocational rotations, being somehow easy rotably twistable. And the quite simple second way to induce oscillations of the heat agent in the hollow combs of this (FIG. 4) tube is to get oscillated, just these combs. Conditions which are necessary and sufficient to get these combs oscillated are the same for this tube and for parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tubs (FIGS. 1 & 5). These conditions are to be explaned a little bit later. Nothing may be easier than to make the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube from the thin metal sheet. There is no problem to begin its automated manufacture. Being able to guarantee the highest density of the heat stream and the highest heat-transfer through the wall same as other shown above tubes are able to do, the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube, which is, of course, the vertical-straight one, is the best for the free convection of the gaseous heat agent at its outside surface. This circumstance, making the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tubes beyond compare as a participant of the noiseless air-heaters and air-coolers for any kind of rooms and buildings, as well as being a participant of the noiseless heat (cold)-returners to the atmospheric air, may as allow them to drive out any other tubes in cases where to be noiseless is important for a heat-exchanger as bring billions of bucks-profits for those who did help them to go so.

Before to go ahead, here, I have to help examiners make them sure that words “plane”, “flat” and “straight”, I've put into titles of tubes, in FIGS. 1, 2, 4 and 5 (the title, in the FIG. 3 is understandable, I hope, without extra comments), are full of real significance.

Meanings of words “plane” and “flat” as attributes are very close to each other despite the first of them is closer to express that something is bordered between two parallel straight surfaces while the second of them is closer to express that this thing is in horizontal position. Together these two words in the titles of FIGS. 1,2 and 5 have to express that each of the hollow combs of the tube is a combination of two practically parallel straight surfaces, connected at the top of the hollow comb and kept in the horizontal position, with a small enough clearance between them. TO HAVE A SMALL ENOUGH CLEARANCE BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL STRAIGHT SURFACES OF THE HOLLOW COMB IS VERY IMPORTANT FOR LIMITING THE INTERNAL HEAT RESISTANCE OF THE HEAT AGENT IN THE TUBE IN ORDER TO INCREASE ITS HEAT-TRANSFERABILITY, ADDITIONALLY AND WITHOUT INCREASING OF THE HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE, IN THE WAY WHICH IS NOT ATTAINABLE IN ANY OTHER CASE. To keep surfaces of each of the hollow combs in the practically or almost (FIG. 2) horizontal position is also VERY IMPORTANT in order to let the flow of the heat agent in the tube touch these surfaces wholly and equally in spite of gravity which is an influentive obstacle when the speed of the flow is low.

Combination of words: “straight-plane” (FIG. 4) has to express that the radial-hollow-combs tube includes straight hollow combs which are in the same way plane, so, bordered by the practically parallel surfaces with very small clearance of them, as the hollow combs of the tubes by FIGS. 1,2 and 5 are. The word “straight” in combination with word “radial” has to express that tubes with these hollow combs are, certainly, vertical: gravity doesn't let them be no vertical. So, combination of words “radial-straight-plane expresses that the vertical tubes with radial-straight-plane-hollow combs (FIG. 4) do have same high heat-exchange quality as tubes with parallel or screw hollow combs have.

Here is the suitable place to take a break such as to call attention to the very extraordinary effect of this invention. THE HOLLOW COMBS of the parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tubes (FIGS. 1&5), under the gauge pressure of the flow of the heat agent, as well as hollow combs of the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tubes (FIG. 4), AS WELL AS EACH OF U-BENDS of the zigzag-bent-plane tube (FIG. 3) MAY BE GOTTEN MECHANICALLY OSCILLATED. And some asymmetry of halves of combs of the tubes in the FIG. 4 may be unnecessary. The only condition, for tubes in FIGS. 1,4 and 5, is to have their wall of each of halves of their hollow combs, from the top at the bigger diameter of the tube to the base at the smaller diameter of the tube, predeterminedly springy and swingable in both circular or straight, real or symbolic connections. The mechanical oscillations of the hollow combs and U-bends will be caused and predetermined, including facts of their high enough frequency, by the gauge pressure inside them, as well as by their found mass, and spring-hardness, and instability of their neutral positions. And it will be kept on and on, in the way of the travelling wave, through taking energy from the heat agent inside the tube. Hollow combs of the FIGS. 1 & 5 will work together, reminding the work of the bellows-manometer. Each of the hollow combs of the tube of the FIG. 4 will work like the swinging fan works. Each of U-bends will get swinging in the same travelling wave way. In the spiral hollow comb of the screw-plane-hollow-comb tube (FIG. 2), where the zone of the high speed of the flow and of the higher hydraulic resistance, at the top of the hollow comb, follows the zone of the lower speed of the flow and of the moderate hydraulic resistance, at the base of the hollow comb, its springy-deformable walls will transfer, from the entrance to the exit of the tube, the travelling wave of their own swellings and cavities. All of these will proceed for, generally, the meat is any local hydraulic resistance—not only a small holl. IT WILL BE SOMETHING ABSOLUTELY PRE-EMINENT THAT GETS LAYERS OF THE GASEOUS HEAT AGENT JUST AT THE OUTSIDE SURFACE OF THE WALL OF ALL OF THESE TUBES COMPLETELY BROKEN INTO THE SMALLEST PIECES, SO, TURBULIZED AND, THEREFORE, INCREASES THE CONVECTIVE (EVEN. THE FREE/!!!/CONVECTIVE) HEAT-EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE WALL AND THE GASEOUS HEAT AGENT UP TO THE LEVEL WHICH WAS NOT ATTAINABLE, EXPECTABLE, AND EVEN IMAGINABLE EVER BEFORE.

To manufacture the modified parallel-plane-flat-hollow-combs tube (FIG. 5), which was already commented as about its turbulizing ability and contactability as about possibilities of its making, will not be more expensive than to manufacture any other kind of tubes were commented just above. That makes this tube, same as the radial-straight-plane-hollow-combs tube, be able to drive back and even to drive out the screw-plane-hollow-comb tube and the zigzag-bent-plane tube in any possible fields of their scope and to bring the highest gain for those who will be captivated and held captive by these really beautiful branches of this invention.

And, just before to declare claims, it is important to underline again and again that to show in. FIGS. 1÷5 and to comment some tubes of this invention does not at all mean any impossibility to shape tubes some different, following this invention, and to stay, anyway, keeping the density of the heat stream and the heat-transfer as equally highest for each single spot of the wall of the tube as it takes place for those configurations of tubes which were shown and commented. The scope of claims includes any kinds of shapes which are able to increase unlimitedly the surface areas of the wall of the tube, to keep constantly the thinest possible and ecceptable thickness of the wall and, finally, the highest possible density of the heat stream and the highest heat-transfer, being distinguished, despite all their deversity, with presence of unique commonstructurally-design singularity, which provides the predetermined impulsivity of the turbulent flow of the heat agent in the tube, the predetermined oscillations of the heat-exchange wall and, as a result, the complete destruction of the thin heat agent's layer just at the outside surface of the heat-exchange wall independently from the flow-speed of this heat agent. SUCH A STRUCTURALLY-DESIGN SINGULARITY IS A COMBINATION OF ZONES OF THE PREDETERMINED LOCAL HYDRAULIC RESISTANCES AND THE PREDETERMINED RELAXATIONS FOR THE HEAT AGENT, WHICH ZONES EITHER TAKE TURNS (AS IT'S SHOWN EVIDENTLY BY FIGS. 1,3 and 5), OR ACCOMPANY BACH OTHER (AS IT'S SHOWN EVIDENTLY BY FIG. 2), OR AS TAKE TURNS AS ACCOMPANY EACH OTHER (AS IT'S SHOWN, NOT QUITE EVIDENTLY, BUT CLEAR ENOUGH, BY FIG. 4).

I am sure, examiners remember that inventors are creators (same are examiners who had The Great A. Einstein among themselves). And to be a creator is to be big with consequences of the PYGMALION'S syndrome. This invention, like HIS GALATEA, makes me say to the CHIEF CREATOR, “Hey, if even you were not my Lord, you is (!) the best possible, and we are good Friends! Are we not?”.