Title:
METHOD FOR SECURING AN INSERT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF A DAMPED PART
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
One embodiment of the invention includes a method including providing an insert, wherein at least a portion of the insert is attracted to a magnet; providing a mold including a first mold portion, a second mold portion, and a magnet having at least a portion thereof in or adjacent to at least one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion; positioning the insert in one of the mold portions such that the at least one magnet at least assists in holding the insert in place; and closing the mold and casting a molten material into the mold and around or adjacent to at least a portion of the insert and solidifying the material.



Inventors:
Hanna, Michael D. (West Bloomfield, MI, US)
Sundar, Mohan (Troy, MI, US)
Application Number:
12/165729
Publication Date:
02/05/2009
Filing Date:
07/01/2008
Assignee:
GM GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS, INC. (Detroit, MI, US)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
164/146, 164/148.1
International Classes:
B22D19/00; B22D23/00; B22D45/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
YUEN, JACKY
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BrooksGroup (Shelby Township, MI, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A method for manufacturing a part comprising: providing an insert, wherein at least a portion of the insert is attracted to a magnet; providing a mold comprising a first mold portion, a second mold portion, and a magnet having at least a portion thereof in or adjacent to at least one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion; positioning the insert in one of the mold portions such that the at least one magnet at least assists in holding the insert in place; and closing the mold and casting a molten material into the mold and around or adjacent to at least a portion of the insert and solidifying the material.

2. A method as set forth in claim 1 further comprising a coating overlying at least a portion of the insert.

3. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the insert comprises at least one of cast iron, gray cast iron, steel, stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, alloys thereof, or metal matrix composite.

4. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the material comprises at least one of cast iron, gray cast iron, aluminum, titanium, steel, stainless steel, alloys thereof, or metal matrix composite.

5. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the magnet is an electromagnet.

6. A method for manufacturing a part as set forth in claim 5 further comprising activating the electromagnet after the insert is positioned in one of the mold portions.

7. A method as set forth in claim 1 further comprising removing the magnet from the mold before casting the material into the mold.

8. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the magnet is instrumented.

9. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the magnet is in the shape of one of a circle, oval, triangle, square, rectangle, or Y-shape.

10. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the magnet is partially enclosed by one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion and the magnet comprises an end portion extending beyond one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion.

11. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the magnet is completely enclosed in one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion.

12. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the mold is oriented vertically.

13. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the mold is oriented horizontally.

14. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the insert comprises at least one tab.

15. A method as set forth in claim 1 further comprising machining off the tab after solidifying the material.

16. A method as set forth in claim 1 wherein the mold is a sand mold.

17. A method as set forth in claim 1 further comprising providing a layer comprising particles or fibers over at least a portion of the insert.

18. A method as set forth in claim 1 further comprising treating at least a portion of the insert so that the molten material does not wet the portion of the insert and bond thereto upon solidification.

19. A product comprising: a mold; and at least one magnet positioned to at least assist in holding a magnetically attachable insert in the mold.

20. A product as set forth in claim 19 wherein the mold comprises a first mold portion and a second mold portion, and wherein the magnet is received in at least one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion.

21. A product as set forth in claim 19 wherein the magnet is an electromagnet.

22. A product as set forth in claim 19 wherein the magnet is instrumented.

23. A product as set forth in claim 19 wherein the magnet is in the shape of one of a circle, oval, triangle, square, rectangle, or Y-shape.

24. A product as set forth in claim 20 wherein the magnet is partially enclosed by one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion and the magnet comprises an end portion extending beyond one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion.

25. A product as set forth in claim 19 wherein the insert comprises a coating over at least a portion of the insert.

26. A product as set forth in claim 19 further comprising a layer comprising particles or fibers over at least a portion of the insert.

27. A product as set forth in claim 19 wherein the insert comprises at least one of cast iron, gray cast iron, steel, stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, alloys thereof, or metal matrix composite.

28. A product as set forth in claim 19 wherein the insert comprises at least one tab.

Description:

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/953,793, filed Aug. 3, 2007.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The field to which the disclosure generally relates includes a method of manufacturing a damped part including an insert.

BACKGROUND

Parts subjected to vibration may produce unwanted or undesirable vibrations. Similarly, a part or component may be set into motion at an undesirable frequency for a prolonged period. For example, parts such as brake rotors, brackets, pulleys, brake drums, transmission housings, gears, and other parts may contribute to noise that gets transmitted to the passenger compartment of a vehicle. In an effort to reduce the generation of this noise and thereby its transmission into the passenger compartment, a variety of techniques have been employed, including the use of polymer coatings on engine parts, sound absorbing barriers, and laminated panels having visco elastic layers. The undesirable vibrations in parts or components may occur in a variety of other products including, but not limited to, sporting equipment, household appliances, manufacturing equipment such as lathes, milling/grinding/drilling machines, earth moving equipment, other non-automotive applications, and components that are subject to dynamic loads and vibration. These components can be manufactured through a variety of means including casting, machining, forging, welding, die-casting, etc.

SUMMARY OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

One embodiment of the invention includes a method including providing an insert, wherein at least a portion of the insert is attracted to a magnet; providing a mold including a first mold portion, a second mold portion, and a magnet having at least a portion thereof in or adjacent to at least one of the first mold portion or the second mold portion; positioning the insert in one of the mold portions such that the at least one magnet at least assists in holding the insert in place; and closing the mold and casting a molten material into the mold and around or adjacent to at least a portion of the insert and solidifying the material.

Other exemplary embodiments of the invention will become apparent from the detailed description provided hereinafter. It should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, while disclosing exemplary embodiments of the invention, are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Exemplary embodiments of the present invention will become more fully understood from the detailed description and the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 illustrates a product according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 2 illustrates a product according to another embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 3 illustrates a product and a method, according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 4 illustrates a product and a method, according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 5 illustrates a product and a method according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 6 illustrates a product and a method according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 7 illustrates a product and a method according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 8 illustrates a product and a method according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 9 is a sectional view with portions broken away of one embodiment of the invention including an insert;

FIG. 10 is a sectional view with portions broken away of one embodiment of the invention including an insert having a layer thereon to provide a frictional surface or damping;

FIG. 11 is an enlarged view of one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 12 is a sectional view with portions broken away of one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 13 is an enlarged sectional view with portions broken away of one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 14 is an enlarged sectional view with portions broken away of one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 15 is an enlarged sectional view with portions broken away of one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 16 illustrates one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 17 is a sectional view with portions broken away of one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 18 is a sectional view with portions broken away of one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 19 is a plan view with portions broken away illustrating one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 20 is a sectional view taken along line 20-20 of FIG. 19 illustrating one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 21 is a sectional view with portions broken away illustrating one embodiment of the invention; and

FIG. 22 is a sectional view with portions broken away illustrating another embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS

The following description of the embodiment(s) is merely exemplary in nature and is in no way intended to limit the invention, its application, or uses.

In one embodiment of the invention, a method of manufacturing a product is provided. Referring to FIG. 1, an exemplary product produced by an embodiment of the invention may include a product or part 500. In one embodiment, the part 500 may be a rotor assembly 12. In various other embodiments (not shown), the product or part 500 may be, for example, but is not limited to a bracket, pulley, brake drum, transmission housing, gear, motor housing, shaft, bearing, engine, baseball bat, lathe machine, milling machine, drilling machine, or grinding machine. The rotor assembly 12 may include a hub portion 14, a first rotor cheek 16, and an insert 18. The insert 18 may or may not be coextensive with the first rotor cheek 16. In one embodiment (not shown), the insert may be completely encapsulated by the first rotor cheek 16. The insert 18 may be annular or it may take other suitable shapes.

The first rotor cheek 16 may include a first cheek face 20 and a second cheek face 22. In one embodiment, the hub portion 14 may include a central aperture 24. The hub portion 14 may also include a plurality of bolt holes 26. The hub portion 14 and the first rotor cheek 16 may comprise one of cast iron, gray cast iron, titanium, aluminum, steel, stainless steel, any of a variety of other alloys, or metal matrix composite. At least a portion of the insert 18 may comprise a material attracted to a magnet. In various embodiments, at least a portion of the insert 18 may comprise at least one of a ferrous based material including, but not limited to, cast iron, gray cast iron, steel, or stainless steel, or a nonferrous based material including, but not limited to, aluminum, magnesium, or titanium, or any of a variety of other alloys, or metal matrix composite. In one embodiment, the insert 18 may be about 0.1 mm to about 20 mm thick. The insert 18 may include a coating. In one embodiment, the coating may prevent cast metal from bonding to the insert during the manufacturing process, in order to ensure that the insert dampens the vibration of the product using frictional or Coulomb damping.

In another embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the rotor assembly 12 may be vented and may include a first rotor cheek 16 with a first cheek face 20 and a second rotor cheek 17 with a second cheek face 22. The first cheek face 20 and the second cheek face 22 may be separated by a plurality of vanes 28 therebetween. The insert 18 may be located in the first rotor cheek 16. In another embodiment (not shown), the insert 18 may be located in the second rotor cheek 17. In yet another embodiment (not shown), an insert 18 may be located in each of the first rotor cheek 16 and the second rotor cheek 17.

Referring to FIGS. 3-4, products and methods for casting the part 500 including the insert 18 are provided. The method may secure and position the insert 18 in a mold 30 in order to prevent any undesirable movement during assembly of the mold 30 and subsequent introduction of a material 60 into the mold 30. Referring to FIG. 3, the mold 30 may include a first mold portion or shell 32 and a second mold portion or shell 34. In some embodiments, the orientation of the mold 30 may be vertical. In other embodiments, the orientation of the mold 30 may be horizontal. In various embodiments, the orientation of the mold 30 may be at any suitable angle.

The first mold portion 32 and the second mold portion 34 are configured to manufacture the part 500. The two portions of the mold 32 and 34 form a cavity 36 for casting the part 500. In one embodiment, the first mold portion 32 and the second mold portion 34 may be sand molds. The first mold portion 32 may also include a generally cylindrical protrusion 38 configured to produce the central aperture 24 on the part 500 (shown in FIGS. 1-2). But in other embodiments, the central aperture 24 may be produced by a subsequent machining process. In one embodiment, the plurality of bolt holes 26 (shown in FIGS. 1-2) may be produced by a plurality of smaller protrusions (not shown) in the first mold portion 32 or by a subsequent machining process.

FIG. 3 also shows the insert 18 positioned within the second mold portion 34. The insert 18 may have a variety of geometries and is not limited to the embodiment shown in the drawings. In one embodiment, the insert 18 may have a plurality of tabs 40 which rest on cutout portions 42 of the second mold portion 34. The insert 18 may have any suitable number of tabs 40 which may extend from a main body portion, for example, the tabs 40 may extend radially inward or outward from an annular body portion. In one embodiment, the insert 18 but not the tabs 40 may have a coating over a portion thereof. In another embodiment, the insert 18 and the tabs 40 may have a coating over at least a portion thereof. The tabs 40 may have any suitable shape. For example, the tabs 40 may be the shape of a square, rectangle, triangle, semi-circle, or oval. However, in other embodiments, the insert 18 may not have tabs 40 or it may have a small number of tabs 40.

Still referring to FIG. 3, the first mold portion 32 may include at least one magnet 44. The magnet 44 may be used to position the insert 18 in the second mold portion 34 and secure the insert 18 in the second mold portion 34 during the molding and casting process. In one embodiment, the magnet 44 may at least assist in holding the insert 18 in place. The loading of the insert 18 into the mold 30 may be manual or automatic. The loading of the magnet 44 into the mold 30 may be manual or automatic.

In one embodiment, the magnet 44 may be an electromagnet. The magnet 44 may be instrumented and activated after loading the insert 18 and while closing the second mold portion 34. The magnet 44 may be any suitable shape, for example, the shape of a circle, oval, triangle, square, rectangle, or Y-shape. In one embodiment, the magnet 44 may be the same general shape as the insert 18. The magnet 44 may be positioned inside the first mold portion 32 with an end magnet portion 45 extending beyond the first mold portion 32. The magnet 44 may be removed from the first mold portion 32 using the end magnet portion 45, for example by pulling the magnet 44 out of the first mold portion by pulling the end magnet portion 45. The magnet 44 may be positioned inside the second mold portion 34 at a distance 46 from the edge of the second mold portion 34 that will allow the magnet 44 to at least assist in securing the insert 18. In other embodiments, the magnet 44 may be positioned at any suitable location that will allow the magnet 44 to at least assist in securing the insert 18 in the mold 30.

In an embodiment where the magnet 44 is an electromagnet, the electromagnet may be activated after the insert is loaded onto the second mold portion 34. The electromagnet may then at least assist in holding the insert in place until the first mold portion 32 engages the second mold portion 34, as shown in FIGS. 5-6. The magnet 44 may be removed from the mold 30 before the material 60 is introduced into the mold 30. The removal of the magnet 44 from the mold 30 may be manual or automatic. In an embodiment where the magnet 44 is an electromagnet, the magnet 44 may be removed from the first mold portion 32 using the end magnet portion 45, for example by pulling the magnet 44 out of the first mold portion by pulling the end magnet portion 45. In the embodiments shown in FIGS. 5-6, the magnet 44 has already been removed. In another embodiment (not shown) the magnet 44 may be positioned adjacent the first mold portion 32 or second mold portion 34 to hold the insert 18 in place.

A compressive force may be applied to the first mold portion 32 and the second mold portion 34, for example to push the mold portions 32 and 34 together. The tabs 40 of the insert 18 may be supported between the cutout portions 42 of the second mold portion 34 and lands 48 of the first mold portion 32. According to one embodiment, the material 60 is then introduced, for example injected, into the cavity 36 to form the part 500. In one embodiment, the material 60 may be cast (charging) into the mold and around or immediately adjacent to at least a portion of the insert or a coating thereon. For exemplary embodiments, the material 60 may be one of cast iron, gray cast iron, aluminum, steel, titanium, stainless steel, any of a variety of other alloys, or metal matrix composite. The material 60 may be molten. In another embodiment, the material 60 is a semi-solid material and may be introduced into the cavity 36 in accordance with the well known semi-solid forging process. In other embodiments, the material 60 may be introduced into the mold 30 by any suitable method. In other embodiments, the mold portions 32 and 34 may be attached to a molding device with ingates for the material 60, and the material 60 may enter the mold through the ingates (not shown).

In the embodiments shown in FIGS. 3 and 5, the material 60 may be introduced through a first inlet 64 into a first channel 62. The magnet 44 may be removed from the mold 30 before the material 60 is introduced through the first inlet 64 into the first channel 62. In one embodiment (not shown), the first channel 62 may extend through a portion of both the first mold portion 32 and the second mold portion 34.

Referring to FIGS. 4 and 6, in various embodiments the material 60 may be introduced through a second inlet 66 into a second channel 68 in the second mold portion 34. The magnet 44 may be removed from the mold 30 before the material 60 is introduced through the second inlet 66 into the second channel 68. In other embodiments, the material 60 may be introduced through any inlet located in a suitable place on the mold 30. In one embodiment, the second channel 68 may extend through a portion of both the first mold portion 32 and the second mold portion 34.

Referring now to FIGS. 7-8, after the material 60 has cooled, the first mold portion 32 and the second mold portion 34 are separated and the finished part 500 is removed from the open mold 30. In one embodiment, the part 500 is a rotor assembly 12 and includes the hub portion 14, the first rotor cheek 16, and the insert 18. The part 500 may then be further machined. For example, the tabs 40 may be machined off. When the mold portions 32 and 34 are returned to the open position, the next insert 18 may be positioned in the open mold 30 and the manufacturing process of the part 500 may repeat.

Referring to FIGS. 9-22, one embodiment of the invention includes a product or part 500 having a frictional damping means. The frictional damping means may be used in a variety of applications including, but not limited to, applications where it is desirable to reduce noise associated with a vibrating part or reduce the vibration amplitude and/or duration of a part that is struck, dynamically loaded, excited, or set in motion. In one embodiment the frictional damping means may include an interface boundary conducive to frictionally damping a vibrating part. In one embodiment the damping means may include frictional surfaces 502 constructed and arranged to move relative to each other and in frictional contact, so that vibration of the part is dissipated by frictional damping due to the frictional movement of the surfaces 502 against each other.

According to various illustrative embodiments of the invention, frictional damping may be achieved by the movement of the frictional surfaces 502 against each other. The movement of frictional surfaces 502 against each other may include the movement of: surfaces of the body 506 of the part against each other; a surface of the body 506 of the part against a surface of the insert 18; a surface of the body 506 of the part against the layer 520; a surface of the insert 18 against the layer 520; a surface of the body 506 of the part against the particles 514 or fibers; a surface of the insert 18 against the particles 514 or fibers; or by frictional movement of the particles 514 or fibers against each other or against remaining binder material.

In embodiments wherein the frictional surface 502 is provided as a surface of the body 506 or the insert 18 or a layer 520 over one of the same, the frictional surface 502 may have a minimal area over which frictional contact may occur that may extend in a first direction a minimum distance of 0.1 mm and/or may extend in a second (generally traverse) direction a minimum distance of 0.1 mm. In one embodiment the insert 18 may be an annular body and the area of frictional contact on a frictional surface 502 may extend in an annular direction a distance ranging from about 20 mm to about 1000 mm and in a transverse direction ranging from about 10 mm to about 75 mm. The frictional surface 502 may be provided in a variety of embodiments, for example, as illustrated in FIGS. 9-22.

Referring again to FIG. 9, in another embodiment of the invention one or more of the outer surfaces 522, 524 of the insert 18 or surfaces 526, 528 of the body 506 of the part 500 may include a relatively rough surface including a plurality of peaks 510 and valleys 512 to enhance the frictional damping of the part. In one embodiment, the surface of the insert 18 or the body 506 may be abraded by sandblasting, glass bead blasting, water jet blasting, chemical etching, machining or the like.

Each frictional surface 502 may have a plurality of peaks 510 and a plurality of valleys 512. The depth as indicated by line V of the valleys 512 may vary with embodiments. In various embodiments, the average of the depth V of the valleys 512 may range from about 1 μm-300 μm, 50 μm-260 μm, 100 μm-160 μm or variations of these ranges. However, for all cases there is local contact between the opposing frictional surfaces 502 during component operation for frictional damping to occur.

In another embodiment of the invention the damping means or frictional surface 502 may be provided by particles 514 or fibers provided on at least one face of the insert 18 or a surface of the body 506 of the part 500. The particles 514 may have an irregular shape (e.g., not smooth) to enhance frictional damping, as illustrated in FIG. 16. One embodiment of the invention may include a layer 520 including the particles 514 or fibers which may be bonded to each other or to a surface of the body 506 of the part or a surface of the insert 18 due to the inherent bonding properties of the particles 514 or fibers. For example, the bonding properties of the particles 514 or fibers may be such that the particles 514 or fibers may bind to each other or to the surfaces of the body 506 or the insert 18 under compression. In another embodiment of the invention, the particles 514 or the fibers may be treated to provide a coating thereon or to provide functional groups attached thereto to bind the particles together or attach the particles to at least one of a surface of the body 506 or a surface of the insert 18. In another embodiment of the invention, the particles 514 or fibers may be embedded in at least one of the body 506 of the part or the insert 18 to provide the frictional surface 502 (FIGS. 11-12).

In embodiments wherein at least a potion of the part 500 is manufactured such that the insert 18 and/or the particles 514 or fibers are exposed to the temperature of a molten material such as in casting, the insert 18 and/or particles 514 or fibers may be made from materials capable of resisting flow or resisting significant erosion during the manufacturing. For example, the insert 18 and/or the particles 514 or fibers may include refractory materials capable of resisting flow or that do not significantly erode at temperatures above 1100° F., above 2400° F., or above 2700° F. When molten material, such as metal, is cast around the insert 18 and/or the particles 514, the insert 18 or the particles 514 should not be wet by the molten material so that the molten material does not bond to the insert 18 or layer 520 at locations wherein a frictional surface 502 for providing frictional damping is desired.

Illustrative examples of suitable particles 514 or fibers include, but are not limited to, particles or fibers including silica, alumina, graphite with clay, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite (magnesium-iron-aluminum silicate), mullite (aluminum silicate), zirconia (zirconium oxide), phyllosilicates, or other high-temperature-resistant particles. In one embodiment of the invention the particles 514 may have a length along the longest dimension thereof ranging from about 1 μm-350 μm, or 10 μm-250 μm.

In another embodiment of the invention, the layer 520 may be a coating over the body 506 of the part or the insert 18. The coating may include a plurality of particles 514 which may be bonded to each other and/or to the surface of the body 506 of the part or the insert 18 by an inorganic or organic binder 516 (FIGS. 10, 15) or other bonding materials. Illustrative examples of suitable binders include, but are not limited to, epoxy resins, phosphoric acid binding agents, calcium aluminates, sodium silicates, wood flour, or clays. In another embodiment of the invention the particles 514 may be held together and/or adhered to the body 506 or the insert 18 by an inorganic binder. In one embodiment, the coating may be deposited on the insert 18 or body 506 as a liquid dispersed mixture of alumina-silicate-based, organically bonded refractory mix.

In another embodiment, the coating may include at least one of alumina or silica particles, mixed with a lignosulfonate binder, cristobalite (SiO2), quartz, or calcium lignosulfonate. The calcium lignosulfonate may serve as a binder. In one embodiment, the coating may include IronKote. In one embodiment, a liquid coating may be deposited on a portion of the insert and may include any high temperature ceramic coating, such as but not limited to, Ladle Kote 310B. In another embodiment, the coating may include at least one of clay, Al2O3, SiO2, a graphite and clay mixture, silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite (magnesium-iron-aluminum silicate), mullite (aluminum silicate), zirconia (zirconium oxide), or phyllosilicates. In one embodiment, the coating may comprise a fiber such as ceramic or mineral fibers.

When the layer 520 including particles 514 or fibers is provided over the insert 18 or the body 506 of the part the thickness L (FIG. 10) of the layer 520, particles 514 and/or fibers may vary. In various embodiments, the thickness L of the layer 520, particles 514 and/or fibers may range from about 1 μm-400 μm, 10 μm-400 μm, 30 μm-300 μm, 30 μm-40 μm, 40 μm-100 μm, 100 μm-120 μm, 120 μm-200 μm, 200 μm-300 μm, 200 μm-250 μm, or variations of these ranges.

In yet another embodiment of the invention the particles 514 or fibers may be temporarily held together and/or to the surface of the insert 18 by a fully or partially sacrificial coating. The sacrificial coating may be consumed by molten metal or burnt off when metal is cast around or over the insert 18. The particles 514 or fibers are left behind trapped between the body 506 of the cast part and the insert 18 to provide a layer 520 consisting of the particles 514 or fibers or consisting essentially of the particles 514 or fibers.

The layer 520 may be provided over the entire insert 18 or only over a portion thereof. In one embodiment of the invention the insert 18 may include a tab 534 (FIG. 10). For example, the insert 18 may include an annular body portion and a tab 534 extending radially inward or outward therefrom. In one embodiment of the invention at least one wettable surface 536 of the tab 534 does not include a layer 520 including particles 514 or fibers, or a wettable material such as graphite is provided over the tab 534, so that the cast metal is bonded to the wettable surface 536 to attach the insert 18 to the body 506 of the part 500 but still allow for frictional damping over the remaining insert surface which is not bonded to the casting.

In one embodiment of the invention at least a portion of the insert 18 is treated or the properties of the insert 18 are such that molten metal will not wet or bond to that portion of the insert 18 upon solidification of the molten metal. According to one embodiment of the invention at least one of the body 506 of the part or the insert 18 includes a metal, for example, but not limited to, a ferrous based material including, but not limited to, cast iron, gray cast iron, steel, or stainless steel, or a non-ferrous based material including, but not limited to, aluminum, magnesium, or titanium, or any of a variety of other alloys, or metal matrix composite including abrasive particles. In one embodiment of the invention the insert 18 may include a material such as a metal having a higher melting point than the melting point of the molten material being cast around a portion thereof.

In one embodiment the insert 18 may have a minimum average thickness of 0.2 mm and/or a minimum width of 0.1 mm and/or a minimum length of 0.1 mm. In another embodiment the insert 18 may have a minimum average thickness of 0.2 mm and/or a minimum width of 2 mm and/or a minimum length of 5 mm. In other embodiments the insert 18 may have a thickness ranging from about 0.1-20 mm, 0.1-6.0 mm, or 1.0-2.5 mm, or ranges therebetween.

Referring now to FIGS. 13-14, again the frictional surface 502 may have a plurality of peaks 510 and a plurality of valleys 512. The depth as indicated by line V of the valleys 512 may vary with embodiments. In various embodiments, the average of the depth V of the valleys 512 may range from about 1 μm-300 μm, 50 μm-260 μm, 100 μm-160 μm or variations of these ranges. However, for all cases there is local contact between the body 506 and the insert 18 during component operation for frictional damping to occur.

In other embodiments of the invention improvements in the frictional damping may be achieved by adjusting the thickness (L, as shown in FIG. 10) of the layer 520, or by adjusting the relative position of opposed frictional surfaces 502 or the average depth of the valleys 512.

In one embodiment the insert 18 is not pre-loaded or under pre-tension or held in place by tension. In one embodiment the insert 18 is not a spring. Another embodiment of the invention includes a process of casting a material comprising a metal around an insert 18 with the proviso that the frictional surface 502 portion of the insert used to provide frictional damping is not captured and enclosed by a sand core that is placed in the casting mold. In various embodiments the insert 18 or the layer 520 includes at least one frictional surface 502 or two opposite friction surfaces 502 that are completely enclosed by the body 506 of the part. In another embodiment the layer 520 including the particles 514 or fibers that may be completely enclosed by the body 506 of the part or completely enclosed by the body 506 and the insert 18, and wherein at least one of the body 506 or the insert 18 comprises a metal or consists essentially of a metal. In one embodiment of the invention the layer 520 and/or insert 18 does not include or is not carbon paper or cloth.

Referring again to FIGS. 9-10, in various embodiments of the invention the insert 18 may include a first face 522 and an opposite second face 524 and the body 506 of the part may include a first inner face 526 adjacent the first face 522 of the insert 18 constructed to be complementary thereto, for example nominally parallel thereto. The body 506 of the part includes a second inner face 528 adjacent to the second face 524 of the insert 18 constructed to be complementary thereto, for example parallel thereto. The body 506 may include a first outer face 530 overlying the first face 522 of the insert 18 constructed to be complementary thereto, for example parallel thereto. The body 506 may include a first outer face 532 overlying the second face 524 of the insert 18 constructed to be complementary thereto, for example parallel thereto. However, in other embodiments of the invention the outer faces 530, 532 of the body 506 are not complementary to associated faces 522, 524 of the insert 18. When the damping means is provided by a narrow slot-like feature 508 formed in the body 506 of the part 500, the slot-like feature 508 may be defined in part by a first inner face 526 and a second inner face 528 which may be constructed to be complementary to each other, for example parallel to each other. In other embodiments the surfaces 526 and 528; 526 and 522; or 528 and 524 are mating surfaces but not parallel to each other.

Referring to FIGS. 17-18, in one embodiment of the invention the insert 18 may be an inlay wherein a first face 522 thereof is not enclosed by the body 506 of the part. The insert 18 may include a tang or tab 534 which may be bent downward as shown in FIG. 17. In one embodiment of the invention a wettable surface 536 may be provided that does not include a layer 520 including particles 514 or fibers, or a wettable material such as graphite is provided over the tab 534, so that the cast metal is bonded to the wettable surface 536 to attach the insert 18 to the body of the part but still allow for frictional damping on the non-bonded surfaces. A layer 520 including particles 514 or fibers may underlie the portion of the second face 524 of the insert 18 not used to make the bent tab 534.

In another embodiment the insert 18 includes a tab 534 which may be formed by machining a portion of the first face 522 of the insert 18 (FIG. 18). The tab 534 may include a wettable surface 536 having cast metal bonded thereto to attach the insert 18 to the body of the part but still allow for friction damping by way of the non-bonded surfaces. A layer 520 including particles 514 or fibers may underlie the entire second face 524 or a portion thereof. In other embodiments of the invention all surfaces including the tabs 534 may be non-wettable, for example by way of a coating 520 thereon, and features of the body portion 506 such as, but not limited to, a shoulder 537 may be used to hold the insert 18 in place.

Referring now to FIG. 19, one embodiment of the invention may include a part 500 having a body portion 506 and an insert 18 enclosed by the body part 506. The insert 18 may include through holes formed therein so that a stake or post 540 extends into or through the insert 18.

Referring to FIG. 20, which is a sectional view of FIG. 19 taken along line 20-20, in one embodiment of the invention a layer 520 including a plurality of particles 514 or fibers (not shown) may be provided over at least a portion of the insert 18 to provide a frictional surface 502 and to prevent bonding thereto by cast metal. The insert 18 including the layer 520 may be placed in a casting mold and molten metal may be poured into the casting mold and solidified to form the post 540 extending through the insert 18. An inner surface 542 defining the through hole of the insert 18 may be free of the layer 520 or may include a wettable material thereon so that the post 540 is bonded to the insert 18. Alternatively, in another embodiment the post 18 may not be bonded the insert 18 at the inner surface 542. The insert 18 may include a feature such as, but not limited to, a shoulder 505 and/or the post 540 may include a feature such as, but not limited to, a shoulder 537 to hold the insert in place.

Referring now to FIG. 21, in another embodiment, the insert may be provided as an inlay in a casting including a body portion 506 and may include a post 540 extending into or through the insert 18. The insert 18 may be bonded to the post 540 to hold the insert in place and still allow for frictional damping. In one embodiment of the invention the insert 18 may include a recess defined by an inner surface 542 of the insert 18 and a post 540 may extend into the insert 18 but not extend through the insert 18. In one embodiment the post 18 may not be bonded to the insert 18 at the inner surface 542. The insert 18 may include a feature such as, but not limited to, a shoulder 505 and/or the post 540 may include a feature such as, but not limited to, a shoulder 537 to hold the insert in place.

Referring now to FIG. 22, in another embodiment of the invention, an insert 18 or substrate may be provided over an outer surface 530 of the body portion 506. A layer 520 may or may not be provided between the insert 18 and the outer surface 530. The insert 18 may be constructed and arranged with through holes formed therethrough or through a recess therein so that cast metal may extend into or through the insert 18 to form a post 540 to hold the insert in position and still allow for frictional damping. The post 540 may or may not be bonded to the insert 18 as desired. The post 540 may extend through the insert 18 and join another portion of the body 506 if desired.

When the term “over,” “overlying,” overlies,” “under,” “underlying,” or “underlies” is used herein to describe the relative position of a first layer or component with respect to a second layer or component such shall mean the first layer or component is directly on and in direct contact with the second layer or component or that additional layers or components may be interposed between the first layer or component and the second layer or component.

The above description of embodiments of the invention is merely exemplary in nature and, thus, variations thereof are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention.