Title:
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BUILDING HOMES IN A FACTORY LACKING A ROOF OR EXTERIOR WALL
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
In one embodiment, a building manufacturing system is provided. The system includes a manufacturing facility. The manufacturing facility includes one or more walls arranged to form a substantially complete perimeter. The manufacturing facility further includes a substantially open top. The system also includes one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility. One or more components for a large building are assembled in the component assembly areas. The system also includes one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility. The large building is assembled substantially completely from a plurality of components in the stations.



Inventors:
Rhodes, James (Las Vegas, NV, US)
Priddy, Matthew (Las Vegas, NV, US)
Application Number:
11/828758
Publication Date:
01/29/2009
Filing Date:
07/26/2007
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/741.1
International Classes:
E04B1/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
IHEZIE, JOSHUA K
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
K&L Gates LLP-NA (CHICAGO, IL, US)
Claims:
The invention is claimed as follows:

1. A building manufacturing system comprising: a manufacturing facility, the manufacturing facility including one or more walls arranged to form a substantially complete perimeter, the manufacturing facility further including a substantially open top; one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility, wherein one or more components for a large building are assembled in the component assembly areas; and one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility, wherein the large building is assembled substantially completely from a plurality of components in the stations.

2. The building manufacturing system of claim 1, further comprising: a component transporting device configured to transport at least one component from at least one component assembly area to at least one assembly station.

3. The building manufacturing system of claim 1, wherein the components include walls, floors, roofs, foundations or stem walls.

4. The building manufacturing system of claim 1, wherein the component assembly areas are all located within the substantially complete perimeter.

5. The building manufacturing system of claim 1, wherein the assembly stations are all located within the substantially complete perimeter.

6. A building manufacturing system comprising: a manufacturing facility, the manufacturing facility including one or more walls arranged to form a substantially incomplete perimeter, the manufacturing facility further including a roof; one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility, wherein one or more components for a large building are assembled in the component assembly areas; and one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility, wherein the large building is assembled substantially completely from a plurality of components in the stations.

7. The building manufacturing system of claim 6, further comprising: a component transporting device configured to transport at least one component from at least one component assembly area to at least one assembly station.

8. The building manufacturing system of claim 6, wherein the components include walls, floors, roofs, foundations or stem walls.

9. The building manufacturing system of claim 6, wherein the component assembly areas are all located within the substantially incomplete perimeter.

10. The building manufacturing system of claim 6, wherein the assembly stations are all located within the substantially incomplete perimeter.

11. A method of building a large building comprising: providing a manufacturing facility, the manufacturing facility including one or more walls arranged to form a substantially complete perimeter, the manufacturing facility further including a substantially open top; assembling one or more components for the large building in one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility; and assembling the large building substantially completely from a plurality of components in one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility.

12. The method of claim 11, further comprising: transporting at least one component from at least one component assembly area to at least one assembly station.

13. The method of claim 11, wherein the components include walls, floors, roofs, foundations or stem walls.

14. The method of claim 11, wherein the component assembly areas are all located within the substantially complete perimeter.

15. The method of claim 11, wherein the assembly stations are all located within the substantially complete perimeter.

16. A method of building a large building comprising: providing a manufacturing facility, the manufacturing facility including one or more walls arranged to form a substantially incomplete perimeter, the manufacturing facility further including a roof; assembling one or more components for the large building in one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility; and assembling the large building substantially completely from a plurality of components in one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility.

17. The method of claim 16, further comprising: transporting at least one component from at least one component assembly area to at least one assembly station.

18. The method of claim 16, wherein the components include walls, floors, roofs, foundations or stem walls.

19. The method of claim 16, wherein the component assembly areas are all located within the substantially incomplete perimeter.

20. The method of claim 16, wherein the assembly stations are all located within the substantially incomplete perimeter.

21. A building manufacturing system comprising: a manufacturing facility, the manufacturing facility including a roof, the manufacturing facility also including a substantially open perimeter; one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility, wherein one or more components for a large building are assembled in the component assembly areas; and one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility, wherein the large building is assembled substantially completely from a plurality of components in the stations.

22. A method of building a large building comprising: providing a manufacturing facility, the manufacturing facility including a roof, the manufacturing facility also including a substantially open perimeter; assembling one or more components for the large building in one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility; and assembling the large building substantially completely from a plurality of components in one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility.

Description:

RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is related to co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/431,196 entitled “Building Transport Device” and filed on May 9, 2006; Ser. No. 11/620,103 entitled “Device and Method for Transporting a Load” and filed on Jan. 5, 2007; Ser. No. 11/559,229 entitled “Transport Device Capable of Adjustment to Maintain Load Planarity” and filed on Nov. 13, 2006; Ser. No. 11/620,560 entitled “Method and Apparatus for Mobile Stem Wall” and filed on Jan. 5, 2007; Ser. No. 11/681,052 entitled “Method and Apparatus for Stationary Home Building Within a Factory” and filed on Mar. 1, 2007; and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/887,696, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Integrated Inventory and Planning” and filed on Feb. 1, 2007 the entire contents of each of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

BACKGROUND

Typically, large buildings (e.g., single-family homes, townhouses, apartment complexes, commercial structures, multi-story buildings, buildings legally or physically too large to be transported substantially intact via public roads, etc.) are built upon their permanent locations. A foundation is prepared, and raw materials and perhaps small components (e.g., preformed roof or floor trusses, door frames, window frames, etc.) are brought to the site and assembled piece by piece onto the foundation to form the building. However, such a stick-building arrangement is inefficient for many purposes. For example, if many large buildings are to be built as part of a development, workers and materials would need to be moved to many different locations which may be far from each other. Further, temperature, wind, precipitation, insect infestations and other weather or environmental issues can cause delays in production or damage to partly completed buildings.

SUMMARY

In one embodiment, a building manufacturing system is provided. The system includes a manufacturing facility. The manufacturing facility includes one or more walls arranged to form a substantially complete perimeter. The manufacturing facility further includes a substantially open top. The system also includes one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility. One or more components for a large building are assembled in the component assembly areas. The system also includes one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility. The large building is assembled substantially completely from a plurality of components in the stations.

In one embodiment, the building manufacturing system also includes a component transporting device configured to transport at least one component from at least one component assembly area to at least one assembly station. In another embodiment, the components include walls, floors, roofs, foundations or stem walls. In still another embodiment, the component assembly areas are all located within the substantially complete perimeter. In yet another embodiment, the assembly stations are all located within the substantially complete perimeter.

In another embodiment, a building manufacturing system includes a manufacturing facility, which includes zero or more walls arranged to form a substantially incomplete perimeter. The manufacturing facility further includes a roof. The system also includes one or more component assembly areas associated with the manufacturing facility. One or more components for a large building are assembled in the component assembly areas. The system also includes one or more assembly stations associated with the manufacturing facility. The large building is assembled substantially completely from a plurality of components in the stations.

In one embodiment, the system includes a component transporting device configured to transport at least one component from at least one component assembly area to at least one assembly station. In another embodiment, the components include walls, floors, roofs, foundations or stem walls. In still another embodiment, the component assembly areas are all located within the substantially incomplete perimeter. In yet another embodiment, the assembly stations are all located within the substantially incomplete perimeter.

Additional features and advantages are described herein, and will be apparent from, the following Detailed Description and the figures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a building manufacturing system in accordance with one embodiment.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view diagram of a building manufacturing system in accordance with one embodiment.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a building manufacturing system in accordance with one embodiment.

FIG. 4 is a perspective view diagram of a building manufacturing system in accordance with one embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIGS. 1-2 illustrate a building manufacturing system in accordance with one embodiment. The system preferably includes a manufacturing facility 100 capable of manufacturing each component (e.g., floors, walls, roofs, foundations, or any other suitable components) to be used in building a large building; however, the manufacturing facility 100 can be capable of building only a subset of the components to be used in building a large building with the remaining components being manufactured elsewhere and transported to the manufacturing facility 100 for integration into the large building or can have any other suitable capabilities.

The manufacturing facility 100 includes one or more walls 102 which form a substantially complete perimeter within which the large buildings are manufactured In various embodiments, the substantially complete perimeter can include one or more doorways, windows or other openings, and such openings can be large enough for a large building to pass through and can be permanently open (e.g., not have a closable door), if desired. It should be understood that in various other embodiments, such as the embodiment shown in FIGS. 3-4, the walls form a substantially incomplete perimeter. In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 1-2, the manufacturing facility 100 does not include a roof. The top of the manufacturing facility 100 is substantially open. It should be understood that in various embodiments, a substantially open top can include a top having various structures (e.g., rail systems, safety netting, etc.) positioned at the top of the facility. A manufacturing facility 100 lacking a roof may be particularly efficient in regions having mild weather patterns, making a roof an unnecessary expense. It should be understood that in various other embodiments, such as the embodiment shown in FIGS. 3-4, the manufacturing facility includes a roof.

The manufacturing facility 100 preferably has one or more component assembly areas 104 in which components are manufactured from raw materials and/or sub-components (e.g., window and door frames, standard trusses, etc.); however, the manufacturing facility 100 is not required to have component assembly areas 104 and in various other embodiments, components are manufactured elsewhere and transported to the manufacturing facility 100 or large buildings are stick-built within the manufacturing facility 100 substantially without manufacturing components, if desired.

Preferably, the component assembly areas 104 are capable of manufacturing more than one type of component (e.g., walls, floors and roofs or roof segments) and/or various configurations or styles of one type of component without significant retooling or reconfiguration; however, the component assembly areas 104 can be specialized and/or require significant retooling or reconfiguration if desired. Components can be manufactured in component assembly areas 104 using an assembly line, an assembly point or any other suitable manufacturing process. Preferably, raw materials and/or sub-components are delivered to the component assembly areas 104 from a separate raw materials storage area 106 through access alley 108 using any suitable transportation mechanism (e.g., a crane, a fork lift, manual labor, a dolly, a conveyor system, etc.); however, neither a separate raw materials storage area 106 nor an access alley 108 are required, and the component manufacturing facility 100 can have any suitable configuration.

Once manufactured, components can be stored in component storage area 110; however, the component storage area 110 is not required and components can incorporated into a large building being manufactured upon completion or at any other suitable time if desired.

Preferably, the manufacturing facility 100 is located near one or more substantially permanent building sites upon which one or more buildings assembled in the manufacturing facility 100 are to be located; however, the manufacturing facility 100 can be located in any suitable location. Further, the manufacturing facility 100 is preferably configured to enable a large building to be assembled substantially entirely within the manufacturing facility 100; however, a manufacturing facility 100 can be configured in any suitable manner, including but not limited to configurations which enable a large building's exterior to be assembled such that the large building can be finished (e.g., carpeted, painted, tiled, equipped with appliances, cabinets or other finishings, etc.) at a temporary or substantially permanent building site outside the manufacturing facility 100.

The manufacturing facility 100 preferably also includes access alley 112, through which components and/or raw materials are moved, using any suitable moving mechanism, to be assembled into a building; however, the manufacturing facility 100 is not required to include access alley 112. Preferably, the components are delivered as desired to an assembly line 114 having a plurality of assembly stations 116; however, neither the assembly line 114 nor the assembly stations 116 are required, and the manufacturing facility 100 can include assembly points, assembly paths in which a large building being assembled may repeat a portion of the path during assembly, or any other assembly mechanism, if desired.

Preferably, the assembly line 114 includes a foundation station 128, a first floor flooring station 118, a first floor walls station 120, a second floor flooring station 122, a second floor walls station 124 and a roofing station 126; however, the assembly line 114 can have any suitable number and type of stations, changeable stations, or no stations if desired.

It should be understood that a building can be assembled in any suitable manner in assembly line 114; however, preferably, at foundation station 128, a foundation, stem wall or other building support structure component is positioned on a system for transporting the large building through the manufacturing facility 100 is the building is built. One or more components are preferably moved to and positioned in the assembly line 114 using a crane system; however any suitable moving system can be used. The crane system can be any suitable type of crane system, and can be attached to the walls 102 of the manufacturing facility 100, the ground, floor, foundation or any other suitable base inside the manufacturing facility 100, and/or the ground, floor, foundation and/or any other suitable base outside the manufacturing facility 100. The foundation, stem wall or other building support structure component can be of any suitable type, including but not limited to those described in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/620,560 entitled “Method and Apparatus for Mobile Stem Wall” and filed on Jan. 5, 2007. The system can include rails, a dolly, a crane, a vehicle, rollers, a conveyor system, or any other suitable moving devices.

The partly built building moves from foundation station 128 to first floor flooring station 118. The partially built buildings are preferably moved through the manufacturing facility using a moving means. The moving means can have any desired configuration. In one embodiment the moving means are steel tracks and a platform. The building can be positioned on a pallet or platform or have such integrally built therein. The wheels of the platform are adapted to mount on the rail road tracks or other similar tracks. The house or the pallet is pushed or dragged along the rail road tracks using any conventional mechanism.

In another embodiment, the moving means can be a roller system. Rollers can simply be laid along the floor of the plant. The house can sit on top of a pallet or sit directly on top of the rollers. The rollers will reduce the friction and allow the house to be pushed or pulled using any conventional mechanism. The rollers can be fixed into a fixed track system or have any other suitable configuration. When fixed in a track system (or other configurations), the rollers generally have low friction bearings that keep them moving in place easily. Additionally, the roller can be formed from steel, wood, or any composite that is suitable for the anticipated load.

In another embodiment, the moving means can be a steel caster wheel system. Steel caster wheels are rolled in a recessed or raised track that is built into the floor. The tracks are grooved to accept the steel caster wheels. The steel caster wheels can be directed connected to the building floor frame or to a pallet. If a pallet is used, the building would sit on top of the pallet. The building is pushed or pulled using any convention mechanism.

In another embodiment, the moving means includes having construction lane floor greased or soaped. The construction lane floor is greased with any suitable substance (including soap). The frame or pallet that is in contact with the greased floor can be more easily pushed or pulled by any conventional means.

In another embodiment, the moving means is high pressure air that forms a cushion in the construction lane. This system is includes a platform which is cushioned by an air bearing means. The system is not fixed to a particular location like the rail, roller, and track systems.

In another embodiment, the moving means is moving the building through the construction lane using magnetic levitation. In this system, a track system uses magnetic repulsion to maintain distance between a track and track guide means. The system requires a large amount of power, generally about 200 W per ton.

In another embodiment, the moving means is a chain roller. A chain roller can include one or more continuous chains connected to one or more motors. The chains can be connected directly to a platform or conveyer belt or a pallet. Alternatively, the pallet sits on top of the platform or belt driven by the chain rolling system.

In another embodiment, the moving means is a heavy duty steel (or other composite or suitable material) belt, substantially similar to the continuous chain driven system.

In another embodiment, the moving means is a fluid or liquid channel that allows the building to float or substantially float or reduce the frictional weight thereof as it moves through the facility. In the embodiment, the fluid can be propelled through the channel using a pump or other suitable device or the fluid can be relatively stationary relative to the channel. Furthermore, the fluid can be moved in any suitable direction, raised and/or lowered relative to the facility or channel or be manipulated as desired. The channel can have no, one or more “locks” such that individual areas or portions of the channel can be manipulated.

It is noted that any and all of the embodiments described herein can be used alone or any suitable combination.

At first floor flooring station 118 one or more floor components are attached to the partly build building. The floor components can be attached in any suitable manner. The partly build building then moves to the first floor walls station 120 at which interior and exterior first floor wall components are attached to the partly build building in any suitable manner. If the building is a single story, the partly built building can progress to the roofing station 126. However, if a second story is to be added, the partly built building progresses to the second floor flooring station 122 at which one or more floor components are added to the partly built building. Then, at the second floor walls station 124, wall components are added to the partly build building. Alternatively, the partly built building could be moved back to the first floor flooring station 118 and the first floor walls station 120 to add second, third or more stories. At the roofing station 126, one or more roof components are added to the partly built building, at which point the building can be relocated to a building site for finishing; however, it should be noted that finishing can occur at any suitable location, including in any suitable station of assembly line 114 or in a separate finishing station within or outside of the manufacturing facility 100.

Preferably, the system also includes an inventory control system configured to schedule the manufacture of components and large buildings in the manufacturing facility 100 based on a projected demand for the components and buildings such that the components are available for assembling into a building substantially when the components are scheduled for assembling into the building based on a predetermined assembly schedule wherein the predetermined assembly schedule is related to the projected demand for the large buildings. For example, a house is scheduled to be built at the manufacturing facility 100 with a completion date and/or time. For the house to be completed by that date, a wall component would need to be present some period (e.g., two days) before that completion date. The inventory control system schedules for the manufacturing facility 100 to manufacture the wall component at a time that will enable the wall component to be ready for integration into the partly built building in time for the building to be completed by the completion date. The inventory control system can be any suitable inventory system, including those described in co-pending U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/887,696, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Integrated Inventory and Planning” and filed on Feb. 1, 2007.

In another embodiment, the system includes at least one building moving system. The building moving system can be any suitable building moving system, including but not limited to those described in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/431,196 entitled “Building Transport Device” and filed on May 9, 2006; Ser. No. 11/620,103 entitled “Device and Method for Transporting a Load” and filed on Jan. 5, 2007; Ser. No. 11/559,229 entitled “Transport Device Capable of Adjustment to Maintain Load Planarity” and filed on Nov. 13, 2006. In one embodiment, the building moving system includes a first self-moving vehicle and a second self-moving vehicle. The first self-moving vehicle and the second self-moving vehicle both attach to a building to be moved and coordinate to move the building to be moved. The self-moving vehicles can attach in any suitable manner, including grasping a protrusion or inserting a peg or beam through or under a portion of the building.

The components can be any suitable components; however, in one embodiment, the components include a wall, a floor, a roof (e.g., a traditional roof, a planted roof or any other suitable type of roof), a mobile foundation or a mobile stem wall. As discussed above, in one embodiment, the manufacturing facility 100 includes an assembly line in which one or more buildings are assembled. In another embodiment, a manufacturing facility 100 includes an assembly point in which one or more buildings are assembled. In various other embodiments, the manufacturing facility 100 assembles buildings in any other suitable manner.

In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 3-4, the manufacturing facility 200 includes one or more walls 202 which form a substantially incomplete perimeter within which the large buildings are manufactured. The manufacturing facility 200 also includes a roof 228. Such a manufacturing facility 200 may be particularly efficient in regions having frequent precipitation or intense sunlight, making a roof a desireable feature. It should be noted that while this embodiment has one substantial discontinuity (or opening) in the perimeter, in various other embodiments, the perimeter has two or more substantial discontinuities located in any suitable locations along the incomplete perimeter. For example, one embodiment has two substantial discontinuities substantially opposite each other, such that vehicles, delivery trucks, building moving apparatuses or any other suitable mobile devices can enter and exit the manufacturing facility without turning around.

The manufacturing facility 200 preferably has one or more component assembly areas 204 in which components are manufactured from raw materials and/or sub-components (e.g., window and door frames, standard trusses, etc.); however, the manufacturing facility 200 is not required to have component assembly areas 204 and in various other embodiments, components are manufactured elsewhere and transported to the manufacturing facility 200 or large buildings are stick-built within the manufacturing facility 200 substantially without manufacturing components, if desired.

Preferably, the component assembly areas 204 are capable of manufacturing more than one type of component (e.g., walls, floors and roofs or roof segments) and/or various configurations or styles of one type of component without significant retooling or reconfiguration; however, the component assembly areas 204 can be specialized and/or require significant retooling or reconfiguration if desired. Components can be manufactured in component assembly areas 204 using an assembly line, an assembly point or any other suitable manufacturing process. Preferably, raw materials and/or sub-components are delivered to the component assembly areas 204 from a separate raw materials storage area 206 through access alley 208 using any suitable transportation mechanism (e.g., a crane, a fork lift, manual labor, a dolly, a conveyor system, etc.); however, neither a separate raw materials storage area 206 nor an access alley 208 are required, and the component manufacturing facility 200 can have any suitable configuration.

Once manufactured, components can be stored in component storage area 210; however, the component storage area 210 is not required and components can incorporated into a large building being manufactured upon completion or at any other suitable time if desired.

The manufacturing facility 200 preferably also includes access alley 212, through which components and/or raw materials are moved, using any suitable moving mechanism, to be assembled into a building; however, the manufacturing facility 200 is not required to include access alley 212. Preferably, the components are delivered as desired to an assembly path 214 having a plurality of assembly stations 216; however, neither the assembly path 214 nor the assembly stations 216 are required, and the manufacturing facility 200 can include assembly points, assembly lines in which a large building being assembled may repeat a portion of the line during assembly, or any other assembly mechanism, if desired. Further, the assembly path 214 is substantially U-shaped; however, the assembly path 214 can have any suitable shape or configuration.

Preferably, the assembly path 214 includes a foundation station 230, a first floor flooring station 218, a first floor walls station 220, a second floor flooring station 222, a second floor walls station 224 and a roofing station 226; however, the assembly path 214 can have any suitable number and type of stations, changeable stations, or no stations if desired.

It should be understood that a building can be assembled in any suitable manner in assembly path 214; however, preferably, at foundation station 230, a foundation, stem wall or other building support structure component is positioned on a system for transporting the large building through the manufacturing facility 200 is the building is built. One or more components are preferably moved to and positioned in the assembly line 214 using a crane system; however any suitable moving system can be used. The crane system can be any suitable type of crane system, and can be attached to the walls 202 of the manufacturing facility 200, the ground, floor, foundation or any other suitable base inside the manufacturing facility 200, and/or the roof 228. The foundation, stem wall or other building support structure component can be of any suitable type, including but not limited to those described in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/620,560 entitled “Method and Apparatus for Mobile Stem Wall” and filed on Jan. 5, 2007. The system can include rails, a dolly, a crane, a vehicle, rollers, a conveyor system, or any other suitable moving devices, including but not limited to those described above.

The partly built building moves from foundation station 230 to first floor flooring station 218. At first floor flooring station 218 one or more floor components are attached to the partly build building. The floor components can be attached in any suitable manner. The partly build building then moves to the first floor walls station 220 at which interior and exterior first floor wall components are attached to the partly build building in any suitable manner. If the building is a single story, the partly built building can progress to the roofing station 226. However, if a second story is to be added, the partly built building progresses to the second floor flooring station 222 at which one or more floor components are added to the partly built building. Then, at the second floor walls station 224, wall components are added to the partly build building. Alternatively, the partly built building could be moved back to the first floor flooring station 218 and the first floor walls station 220 to add second, third or more stories. At the roofing station 226, one or more roof components are added to the partly built building, at which point the building can be relocated to a building site for finishing; however, it should be noted that finishing can occur at any suitable location, including in any suitable station of assembly line 214 or in a separate finishing station within or outside of the manufacturing facility 200.

It should be understood that in various other embodiments, the manufacturing facility includes a roof supported by one or more support columns or any other suitable mechanism for supporting a roof and includes a substantially open perimeter (e.g., a perimeter that substantially lacks exterior walls). Such embodiments can improve airflow through the manufacturing facility and can make delivery of materials more efficient in some instances. In yet another embodiment, the manufacturing facility lacks both a roof and exterior walls, potentially reducing the cost associated with assembling the manufacturing facility. In this embodiment, the manufacturing facility's perimeter is substantially defined by the areas its components (e.g., storage areas, component assembly areas, assembly stations, etc.) occupy.

It should be understood that various changes and modifications to the presently preferred embodiments described herein will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Such changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present subject matter and without diminishing its intended advantages. It is therefore intended that such changes and modifications be covered by the appended claims.