Title:
NITROGEN BASED FUEL SYSTEMS
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Embodiments of the invention relate to a fuel comprising one or more nitrogenous compounds and one or more stabilizer compounds. The stabilizer compounds are compatible with the one or more nitrogenous compounds.



Inventors:
Adelman, Barnet R. (Atherton, CA, US)
Application Number:
11/818968
Publication Date:
01/29/2009
Filing Date:
07/27/2007
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
44/412, 44/417, 44/458
International Classes:
C10L1/24; C10L1/12; C10L1/22
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
HINES, LATOSHA D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
NORTH SHORE ASSOCIATES (RENO, NV, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A fuel, comprising: one or more nitrogenous compounds; and one or more stabilizer compounds, compatible with the one or more nitrogenous compounds.

2. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprises one or more of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine azide, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH), urea, ammonia and hydrazine.

3. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise hydrazine.

4. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more stabilizer compounds comprise ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, ammonium cyanide, urea, hydrazine hydrate, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and alcohols.

5. The fuel of claim 4, wherein alcohols comprise ethanol, isopropanol or combinations thereof.

6. The fuel of claim 1, further comprising one or more energy enhancing compounds.

7. The fuel of claim 6, wherein the one or more energy enhancing compounds comprises petroleum products, metal hydrides, hydrazine azide or combinations thereof.

8. The fuel of claim 7, wherein the petroleum products comprise gasoline, diesel, kerosene or combinations thereof.

9. The fuel of claim 7, wherein the gasoline comprises octane, heptane, hexane and combinations thereof.

10. The fuel of claim 7, wherein the metal hydrides comprise boron hydrides.

11. The fuel of claim 10, wherein the boron hydrides comprise pentaborane, hexaborane, decaborane and combinations thereof.

12. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise about 10% of the volume of the fuel.

13. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise about 20% of the volume of the fuel.

14. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise about 30% of the volume of the fuel.

15. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise about 40% of the volume of the fuel.

16. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise about 50% of the volume of the fuel.

17. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise about 60% of the volume of the fuel.

18. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise about 70% of the volume of the fuel.

19. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the one or more nitrogenous compounds comprise about 80% of the volume of the fuel.

20. The fuel of claim 1, wherein the fuel is compatible with and use to power land-based vehicles, water-based vehicles, air-based vehicles and stationary power plants.

21. The fuel of claim 20, wherein land-based vehicles comprise motor vehicles, automobiles, trucks, buses, trains, motorcycles and construction equipment.

22. The fuel of claim 20, wherein water-based vehicles comprise ships, boats and hovercraft.

23. The fuel of claim 20, wherein air-based vehicles include turbojet aircraft, turboprop aircraft, scram jet vehicles and reciprocating engine aircraft.

24. A fuel, comprising: hydrazine and urea.

25. The fuel of claim 24, wherein the hydrazine comprises about 10% to about 80% of the fuel volume.

26. The fuel of claim 24, further comprising monomethyl hydrazine (MMH).

27. The fuel of claim 24, further comprising hydrazine hydrate.

28. The fuel of claim 24, further comprising one or more alcohols.

29. The fuel of claim 24, further comprising one or more metal hydrides.

30. The fuel of claim 24, further comprising fuel additives.

31. The fuel of claim 30, wherein the fuel additives comprises an odor modifier.

32. A method of using a fuel, comprising: introducing a fuel to an engine, the fuel comprising: one or more nitrogenous compounds; one or more stabilizer compounds, compatible with the one or more nitrogenous compounds; and operating the engine.

Description:

BACKGROUND

Carbon based fuels contribute to many forms of environmental pollution and possibly global warming effects. The dependence of nations on such fuels can have negative economic and political consequences as the regions most notable for supplying the fuel are often rife with conflict. Carbon based fuels are also expensive and non-renewable.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

In the drawings, which are not necessarily drawn to scale, like numerals describe substantially similar components throughout the several views. Like numerals having different letter suffixes represent different instances of substantially similar components. The drawings illustrate generally, by way of example, but not by way of limitation, various embodiments discussed in the present document.

FIG. 1 illustrates a block flow diagram of a method of operating an engine utilizing a nitrogen based fuel system, according to some embodiments.

SUMMARY

Embodiments of the invention relate to a fuel comprising one or more nitrogenous compounds and one or more stabilizer compounds. The stabilizer compounds are compatible with the one or more nitrogenous compounds.

Embodiments also relate to a method of using a fuel. The method comprises introducing a fuel to an engine and operating the engine. The fuel comprises one or more nitrogenous compounds and one or more stabilizer compounds which are compatible with the one or more nitrogenous compounds.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The following detailed description includes references to the accompanying drawings, which form a part of the detailed description. The drawings show, by way of illustration, specific embodiments in which the invention may be practiced. These embodiments, which are also referred to herein as “examples,” are described in enough detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the invention. The embodiments may be combined, other embodiments may be utilized, or structural, and logical changes may be made without departing from the scope of the present invention. The following detailed description is, therefore, not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims and their equivalents.

In this document, the terms “a” or “an” are used to include one or more than one and the term “or” is used to refer to a nonexclusive “or” unless otherwise indicated. In addition, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein, and not otherwise defined, is for the purpose of description only and not of limitation. Furthermore, all publications, patents, and patent documents referred to in this document are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, as though individually incorporated by reference. In the event of inconsistent usages between this document and those documents so incorporated by reference, the usage in the incorporated reference should be considered supplementary to that of this document; for irreconcilable inconsistencies, the usage in this document controls.

Embodiments of the invention relate to a nitrogen based fuel system. The nitrogen based fuel system of the present invention reduces or replaces the need for carbon based fuels. This may lessen the need for importing of foreign fuel, especially from politically unstable areas. The nitrogen based fuel system contributes less carbon dioxide emissions, as well as less output of nitrogen oxides, sulfur compounds and chlorinated compounds. Such a reduction in pollutants may increase the air quality in highly populated areas and lessen the impact of global warming effects.

The nitrogen based fuel systems of the present invention are based on renewable resources, unlike the limited supply of fossil fuels. By utilizing such renewable resources, local economies are benefited and national security is enhanced. The nitrogen based fuels are based on ammonia (NH3), which can be manufactured from air and water. One common method of such production is the Haber-Bosch process, which mainly requires electrical energy to proceed.

The nitrogen based fuel systems also are more volumetrically favorable than carbon based fuels. The nitrogen fuels have a greater specific gravity and therefore a higher energy density, which creates advantages with shipping and overall cost of fuel. Vehicles that employ such a fuel may have advantages of increased range. Stationary power plants that utilize such a fuel may have increased operating times and more efficient storage vessels.

The nitrogen based fuel of the embodiments of the present invention may be based on one or more nitrogenous compounds and one or more stabilizer compounds that are compatible with the nitrogenous compounds.

Nitrogenous Compounds

The one or more nitrogenous compounds of the present invention may include hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine azide, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH), hydrazine, ammonia, urea or combinations thereof.

Hydrazine (N2H4) is a dimer of ammonia. Hydrazine derivatives include hydrazine hydrate, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH), for example. Hydrazine has many physical properties similar to water, such as specific gravity, melting point and boiling point. Hydrazine is water soluble and dissipates rapidly when exposed to the atmosphere, rather than contaminating the soil when spilled.

Nitrogenous compounds combust to form mostly nitrogen and water. Existing hydrocarbon engines (e.g., gasoline engines, diesel engines) may be modified to burn the nitrogen based fuel of the present invention. In addition, most of the equipment currently being utilized to handle fuel can be adapted to handle the nitrogen based fuel.

The nitrogenous compounds are water soluble and fires involving such compounds are generally easier to handle than hydrocarbon fires. Nitrogenous compounds evaporate rapidly when exposed to air and break down within a short time. Shipping and handling requirements may be similar to that of hydrocarbons.

Stabilizer Compounds

The nitrogenous compounds can be mixed with one or more stabilizer compounds. The stabilizer compounds may assist with dissolving the mixture, with reducing the explosive qualities of one or more components or lessening the toxicity of the mixture, for example. Stabilizer compounds may include ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, ammonium cyanide, urea, hydrazine hydrate, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and alcohols. Alcohols may be ethanol, isopropanol or combinations thereof, for example.

Urea, for example, is a solid that can be dissolved in one or more nitrogenous compounds. Urea may make the nitrogenous compounds more stable and overall, a cheaper fuel. The alcohols may be utilized to facilitate the dissolving of other components, including energy enhancing compounds, such as hydrocarbons.

Compounds such as UDMH and MMH, for example, may act as both nitrogenous compounds and also as stabilizer compounds. UDMH and MMH can both be used to stabilize nitrogenous compounds, for example.

Energy Enhancing Compounds

One or more energy enhancing compounds may be utilized with the fuel. Examples of energy enhancing compounds may include petroleum products, metal hydrides, hydrazine azide or combinations thereof. Petroleum products may include gasoline, diesel, kerosene or combinations thereof. Gasoline may include octane, heptane, hexane and combinations thereof. Metal hydrides may include boron hydrides. Examples of boron hydrides include pentaborane, hexaborane, decaborane and combinations thereof.

The energy enhancing compounds may be mixed with the one or more nitrogenous compounds and the one or more stabilizer compounds, so as to increase the overall energy density of the mixture. The energy enhancing compounds may also assist in reducing the overall cost of the fuel.

The one or more nitrogenous compounds may make up about 10% to about 80% of the total volume of the fuel. For example, the one or more nitrogenous compounds may make up about 10%, about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 80%, or about 90% the total volume of the fuel.

Fuel additives, such as an odor modifier, may also be part of the fuel. Examples of components found in the fuel may be hydrazine, ammonia, and urea. Further examples of a fuel mixture may be:

1) hydrazine,
MMH and/or UDMH,
hydrazine hydrate,
urea and/or ammonia,
one or more metal hydrides;
2) hydrazine,

UDMH,

urea,
ethanol or isopropanol,
one or more hydrocarbons;
3) hydrazine,

UDMH,

ammonia,
hydrazine hydrate,
one or more hydrocarbons;

4) UDMH,

urea,
ammonia,
ethanol or isopropanol;
one or more hydrocarbons.

Referring to FIG. 1, a block flow diagram of a method 100 of operating an engine utilizing a nitrogen based fuel system is shown, according to some embodiments. A fuel may be introduced 102 to an engine. The fuel may include one or more nitrogenous compounds and one or more stabilizer compounds which are compatible with the nitrogenous compounds. The engine may be operated 104.

The fuel may compatible or useable with power land-based vehicles, water-based vehicles, air-based vehicles or stationary power plants, for example. Land-based vehicles may include motor vehicles, automobiles, trucks, buses, trains, motorcycles and construction equipment. Water-based vehicles may include ships, boats and hovercraft, for example. Air-based vehicles may include turbojet aircraft, turboprop aircraft, reciprocating engine aircraft and scram jet vehicles, for example.

The Abstract is provided to comply with 37 C.F.R. § 1.72(b) to allow the reader to quickly ascertain the nature and gist of the technical disclosure. The Abstract is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims.