Title:
Beams, columns, walls, and floors of armed wood
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
In an assembly of structural elements such as beams, columns, walls and floors, one selects materials such as wood which is resistant to compression. Beams placed side by side, or one on top of the other are retained by a network of steel bands installed between and through the beams. Bands with an array of teeth on both sides or winches applying tension to the steel bands, counterbalance the tensile and shear forces created in the assembly through loading and they behave in the same way as steel rods in reinforced concrete. The strategic positioning of the network of bands in the apparatus serves in grouping and reinforcing the structural elements.



Inventors:
Caroussos, Apostolos (Quebec, CA)
Application Number:
12/218524
Publication Date:
01/15/2009
Filing Date:
07/14/2008
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04C3/02; E04C5/16
View Patent Images:



Foreign References:
RU2022109C11994-10-30
Primary Examiner:
AHMAD, CHARISSA L
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
APOSTOLOS CAROUSSOS (JACKMAN, ME, US)
Claims:
I claim:

1. An assembly of rectangular structural lengthwise superimposed elements, said elements subjected to stresses resulting in a deflection, the introduction of bands (142) between two of said structural elements causing a compression of said elements thus reducing deflection, said superimposed elements comprising lower rectangular beams (124′, 124″, 124′″) disposed under upper rectangular beams (126, 126′, 126″), said lower beams (124) being submitted to stresses causing a tension and resulting in said deflection, the introduction of said bands between said lower beams, said bands (142) comprising means for tension resulting in a compression of said lower beams thus reducing said deflection.

2. The assembly of claim 1 further comprising means for maintaining vertical said superimposed elements.

3. The assembly of claim 2 wherein said means for maintaining comprise a first part, comprising a winch (226) which applies a force, an intermediate part comprising means for the transmission of said force over a distance, and a third part comprising means for maintaining said force; said first part comprising a flat surface intended to position a support for the application of said force, said winch (226) comprising means for rolling a flexible band (222) intended to transmit said force from said winch.

4. The assembly of claim 1 wherein said superimposed elements are rectangular wooden beams, said means of tension comprising at least one winch (150) applying a tension in band (142).

5. The assembly of claim 1 wherein said structural elements are part of a group of materials consisting of wood, plastic, concrete or any other material resistant to compression.

6. The assembly of claim 3 wherein said means of flexible band is a flexible band tightened to its limit, by means of said winch with a ratchet, said band crossing from a top beam (225), through all intermediate beams, through a passage (222) down through a lower beam in which said flexible band is wrapped around a steel pin welded on a steel disc which, under the influence of tension of said flexible band, compresses a spring against said steel disc and against said lower beam.

7. The assembly of claim 6 wherein said steel pin is welded on said steel disc and located in the margin of a last lower part (124′) and continues inside a compression spring located in a channel of spring larger than said channel of passage (222) of said flexible band.

8. The assembly of claim 7 wherein said spring compressed on a steel disc which is pressed on a corner at the junction between said narrow channel of flexible band and said wider channel of spring, said steel pin which is welded on the steel disc which under the influence of the tension of said flexible band compresses said compression spring against said steel disc and against said corner.

9. The assembly of claim 4 installed inside said beams.

10. The assembly of claim 4 comprising means of adhesion and sealing of said beams together.

11. The assembly of claim 10 wherein said means of sealing comprise a compressible joint of sealing applied on a support surface of said beams and a dry sealed joint applied at a junction of said beams, a top beam laid out on said joint and pressed against a lower beam thus sealing said joint.

12. The assembly of claim 11 wherein said surface of support is a sheet of compressible foam type, dipped on its ends into an elastomer resistant to humidity, and UV rays.

13. The assembly of claim 3 wherein a flexible band is installed on a wall, a floor, a group of beams and is intended to allow said wall, floor and group of beams to stay tightened during the period of drying, by the tension of said flexible band, a slot in a bolt engaging said flexible band in a rolled position, the bolt turning counterclockwise applying tension on said flexible band, a nut turning clockwise locking the bolt at its current position, the tension in the band applying a clockwise moment on the bolt.

14. The assembly of claim 1 wherein said superimposed elements are elements of a column.

15. The assembly of claim 14 being an assembly of columns of a rectangular section of a long section (256) and a short section (254), said short section is predisposed to buckling, said long section comprising at least a near end, a far end and a middle part wherein the introduction of column bands (266) in a pair of slots (265) positioned between said near end and said middle part, and between said far end and said middle part, resisting bending forces in said short section.

16. The assembly of claim 15 wherein said bands (266) are oriented vertically.

17. The assembly of claim 1 wherein said superimposed elements are aligned.

18. The assembly of claim 17 defining a slab (270) composed of aligned beams (272) having a breadth (274), a length (276), a height (278), a bottom of slab (280), a top of slab (282), a joint of assembly (286) and series of slots (284) located near the bottom (280) and used to place flexible bands (288) which are put in tension and which are comprising means of tension resulting in a compression of the fibres located in said bottom slab (280) and thus reducing said deflection.

19. The assembly of claim 11 wherein said sealed joint and said vertical joint are dry joints comprising a closed cells foam covered with elastomer intended to resist humidity and UV rays.

Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a system of building which groups elements of an assembly and reinforces them by means of a network of steel bands.

PRIOR ART

The present invention refers to a previous invention by the same author <<STRENGTHENING ASSEMBLY ENCLOSED IN CONSTRUCTION>> for a mechanical apparatus which maintains the structural integrity of an assembly even when undergoing changes in volumetry.

In that first invention flexible bands act perpendicularly, on an assembly of wooden beams, in order to keep the wooden elements tightly together, as the wood dries and diminishes in volume.

In the present invention, the inventor introduces the notion of a flexible band placed between and parallel to the wooden elements in order to reinforce the assembly.

In wood, for example, beams of rectangular section are subjected to an effort which creates a compression in the top fibers and tension in the bottom fibers. It is therefore desirable to introduce a flexible band and located it near the bottom fibers, in order to resist the tensile forces created by the bending of the beams through loading.

OBJECTIVES AND ADVANTAGES

There is always a need in the market and more precisely in the field of architecture and engineering for a system which provides an improved resistance to an assembly of elements.

A general objective of this invention is to create large construction assemblies from smaller elements by using, first, a network of flexible bands which maintain the elements together and second, a network of flexible bands which reinforce the group of elements at strategic points.

A more specific objective of this invention is the construction of structural elements by overlapping, regrouping or aligning elements such as wood or other materials resistant to compression, using a device including a pair of components which apply a force, in opposite directions. Between these two components, a steel band is put in tension by the action of two opposite forces applied by the pair of components.

The present invention will be further understood from the following description with reference to the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING FIGURES

FIG. 1 is a front view of an armed wooden beam.

FIG. 2 is a front view of an armed concrete beam.

FIG. 3 is a perspective of a device placed within a wall.

FIG. 4 is a perspective of a rectangular armed column.

FIG. 5 is a perspective of an armed slab.

FIG. 6A is a perspective of an armed I-beam.

FIG. 6B is a section according to line 3-3 of FIG. 6A.

FIG. 7 is a perspective of an armed I-beam.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In the following description and in the accompanying drawings, the numeral numbers refer to identical parts in the various Figures.

FIG. 1 shows a face view of a wooden armed beam 120 comprising seven slats among which bottom slats 124 and top slats 126. The whole of superimposed slats form a beam 120. The beam 120 has a top face 132. The beam has a center 134. A first end 128 of the beam is supported by a first post 130, a second end 138 is also supported by a second post 140. The application of a load in the center 134 would create bending and would create tensile forces in the bottom 136. In order to prevent failure of the apparatus, a first steel band 142 is installed between a first bottom slat 124′ and a second bottom slat 124″. A second steel band 144 is positioned between the second bottom slat and a third bottom slat 124′″. The two steel bands are tensioned, one by a first winch 150 mounted on a first plate 156 located at the first end 128 pulling the band against the second plate 152 and by a second winch 154 mounted on the second plate 152 at the second end 138 and pulling the second steel band against the first plate 156. Furthermore, vertical bands 164 are placed at different locations in order to press tightly together the superposed slats, making them act as a whole. A concentrated or uniformly distributed load applied at the center 134 creates bending and tensile forces at the bottom slats. By tightening winches 150 and 154 tension is applied on the two bands, 142 and 144, along the bottom slats 124′, 124″, 124′″ putting the beams in compression.

FIG. 2 shows a concrete beam 158 of prior art, armed and supported at one end by a third post 160 and at the other end by a fourth post 170. The steel rod 162, incorporated in the concrete, reinforces the concrete where the tensile forces are the greatest when the structure is loaded.

FIG. 3 shows a group of superimposed beams 20 which include a vertical band 222 positioned within the beam and which includes a blocking at a bottom 224 to which can be added a compression spring; the vertical link includes a ratchet 226 on a higher beam 225. The assembly includes a pair of flexible bands 228 passing on either side of the vertical band 222. The pair of flexible bands 228 can be made out of metal, stainless steel, Kevlar or any material having the same characteristics. Seals 244 may be inserted between the beams.

FIG. 4 illustrates in perspective a column of rectangular section. Flexible bands are placed at strategic places to prevent buckling. A rectangular column 250 of section 252 with a short section 254, and a long section 256, formed by three vertical beams, a near beam 258, a far beam 260 and a middle beam 262. Between each beam there is a slot 264 where a column band 266 is inserted.

When a load is applied on a column, buckling can occur at its short section 254. The installation, of a pair of slots 265 and 265′, and a pair of column bands 266 and 266′ will prevent the deflection of the column, on either side.

FIG. 5 shows a wooden armed slab 270 including aligned beams 272 defining a width 274, a length 276, a height 278, a bottom of the slab 280, a top of the slab 282, a joint of assembly 286 and a series of slots 284 being used to place longitudinal flexible bands 288 inside the beams to which one adds a means of tension resulting in a compression of the bottom of the wooden slab 270. The position of the slot 284 is close to the bottom of the wooden slab 270 because it is in this area that the beams are put in tension when loading occurs.

Transversal holes 290 permit the passage of flexible bands in order to keep the beams tightly together. Sealing joints of assembly 286 are found between the aligned beams.

FIG. 6A shows another method to arm an I-beam 271 including a top part 273, a web 275 and a bottom part 277 called flange of the I-beam. At the bottom of the flange 277 an armed longitudinal band 289 with an array teeth or points pointing towards the top 287 and towards the bottom 287′ are intended to reinforce the bottom part of the I-beam. The band 289 is inserted between the upper surface of an additional flange 279 and the lower surface of the bottom of the flange 277 of the I-beam.

FIG. 6B shows the drawing of the section 3-3 of the FIG. 6A in which two flanges 277 and 279 are held together by the teeth 287 and 287′ which are encrusted in the two flanges. Means of screwing 291 or glue make it possible to fix together the flanges 277 and 279.

FIG. 7 shows another method to reinforce an I-beam 271 including a top flange 273, a web 275 and a bottom flange 277. At the bottom of the flange 277 a longitudinal band 288 intended to reinforce the bottom of the I-beam is placed on the upper surface of an additional flange 279 intended to be affixed against the lower surface of the bottom of the flange 277. One integrates to the band 288 a means of tension which will result in the compression of the bottom of the I-beam.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The armed structural components can be beams, columns, walls, slabs, made out of composite materials, plastic, wood, concrete and in general any material resistant to compression. The use of flexible bands is intended to reinforce structural elements at their weaker points. The present invention provides a simple and esthetic solution to a technical problem. It is safety oriented, because it is inserted inside the beams, columns and slabs or inside the whole of the assembly in order to be protected from fire, and the natural elements, such as in the case of an apparatus made of solid wood. For example, the device can contain a winch, at the top of a column applying tension to a flexible band and completed by a blocking plate at the bottom of the column. The winch provides a constant force on the band. Using the winch, one manually rolls up the flexible band until one obtains the needed tension.

A further objective is to provide a flexible structural solution to adapt to the requests of engineers in accordance to the efforts applied in an element of structure. Applications are infinite and inexpensive compared to current structural reinforcing solutions. The present invention maintains the integrity of the structural assembly by maintaining tightly together the beams, and more precisely by reinforcing the assembly in strategic points thus conferring a greater resistance to bending stresses.

In Brief:

An assembly of structural elements placed one next to the other, which are intended to be subject to efforts resulting in a deflection of the whole assembly. The introduction of bands resistant to traction between and through the structural elements, counterbalance stresses created by the deflection of the assembly.

The structural elements can be bottom slats 124 laid out under top slats 126, the bottom slats being subjected to tension efforts, the introduction of a flexible band 142 among the bottom slats, the band including means of tension resulting in a compression of bottom slats thereby reducing the deflection.

The assembly comprising moreover means of maintaining together the structural elements.

It is to be clearly understood that the instant description with reference to the annexed drawing is made in an indicative manner and that the preferred embodiments described herein are meant in no way to limit further embodiments realizable within the scope of the invention.

The matter which is claimed as being inventive and new is limited only by the following claims.

PARTS

  • 120 Armed wooden beam
  • 124 Bottom slat
  • 126 Top slat
  • 128 First end
  • 130 First post
  • 132 Top face
  • 134 Center
  • 136 Bottom
  • 138 Second end
  • 140 Second post
  • 142 First band
  • 144 Second band
  • 150 First winch
  • 152 First plate
  • 154 Second winch
  • 156 Second plate
  • 158 Concrete beam
  • 160 Third post
  • 162 Steel rod
  • 164 Vertical band
  • 170 Fourth post
  • 220 Superimposed beams
  • 222 Flexible band
  • 224 Blocking at the bottom
  • 225 Top beam
  • 226 Top ratchet
  • 228 A pair of flexible bands
  • 244 Sealing joint
  • 250 Armed wooden column
  • 252 Rectangular section
  • 254 Small section
  • 256 Long section
  • 258 Near beam
  • 260 Far beam
  • 262 Middle beam
  • 264 Junction
  • 265 Column slot
  • 266 Column band
  • 270 Armed wooden slab
  • 271 I-beam
  • 272 Aligned beams
  • 273 Top flange
  • 274 Width
  • 275 Web
  • 276 Length
  • 277 Bottom flange
  • 278 Height
  • 279 Additional flange
  • 280 Bottom of slab
  • 282 Top of slab
  • 284 Slot in slab
  • 286 Joint of assembly
  • 287 Teeth or points
  • 288 Longitudinal band
  • 289 Armed band
  • 290 Hole
  • 291 Means of screwing
  • 292 Transversal band