Title:
Weaving free two level cloverleaf type interchange for a highway crossing under a street
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The weaving free two level cloverleaf type local interchange for a highway crossing under a street accommodates traffic from a plurality of traveled ways which include a first traveled way for traffic traveling in a first direction, a second traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the first direction, a third traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction intersecting the first and second traveled ways, and a fourth traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the traffic traveling on the third traveled way. The first and second traveled ways cross under the third and fourth traveled ways. Each of the first and second traveled ways has a design speed compatible to a highway or freeway design speed, or is designed according to highway or freeway design standards. Each of the third and fourth traveled ways has a design speed compatible to the design speed of a street, road, or a conventional highway, or is designed according to the design standards of a street, road, or a conventional highway. In the preferred embodiment, the first traveled way left turn ramp crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways, then crosses over the first and second traveled ways, and finally joins the fourth traveled way. The second traveled way left turn ramp crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways, then crosses over the first and second traveled ways, and finally joins the third traveled way. In the additional embodiment, the third traveled way left turn ramp crosses over the first and second traveled ways, then crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways, and finally joins the first traveled way. The fourth traveled way left turn ramp crosses over the first and second traveled ways, then crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways, and finally joins the second traveled way. The present invention eliminated the highway and street weaving sections. Each fly over or under ramp has a better horizontal curve and achieves minimum number of slope, sag and crest, which represents a better geometric design than the one in the interchange in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184. The present invention has higher efficiency and safety standard than a conventional cloverleaf type local interchange and the interchange in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184. The two level configuration, compact ramp geometric design, higher safety, and better efficiency make this interchange a better choice for congested urban highway system.



Inventors:
Yin, Rene (San Marion, CA, US)
Application Number:
11/825381
Publication Date:
01/08/2009
Filing Date:
07/05/2007
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E01C1/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
WILL, THOMAS B
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Rene Yin (San Marion, CA, US)
Claims:
I claim:

1. An interchange, comprising: (a) a first traveled way for traffic traveling in a first direction, (b) a second traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to said first direction, (c) a third traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction intersecting said first and second traveled ways, (d) a fourth traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to said traffic traveling on said third traveled way, (e) said first and second traveled ways crossing under said third and fourth traveled ways, (f) each of said third and fourth traveled ways being designed according to street, road, or conventional highway design standards, (g) a first traveled way left turn ramp forming a distinct section, being disposed at a predetermined first point along the right side of said first traveled way, crossing under said third and fourth traveled ways, crossing over said first and second traveled ways, and joining the right side of said fourth traveled way, diverting traffic from said first traveled way to said fourth traveled way, (h) a second traveled way left turn ramp forming a distinct section, being disposed at a predetermined second point along the right side of said second traveled way, crossing under said third and fourth traveled ways, crossing over said first and second traveled ways, and joining the right side of said third traveled way, diverting traffic from said second traveled way to said third traveled way, (i) a third traveled way left turn ramp forming a substantially circular cloverleaf section, being disposed at a predetermined third point along the right side of said third traveled way, joining the right side of said first traveled way, and diverting traffic from said third traveled way to said first traveled way, (j) a fourth traveled way left turn ramp forming a substantially circular cloverleaf section, being disposed at a predetermined fourth point along the right side of said fourth traveled way, joining the right side of said second traveled way, and diverting traffic from said fourth traveled way to said second traveled way, (k) a first traveled way right turn ramp being disposed at a predetermined fifth point along the right side of a first means, joining the right side of a second means, and diverting traffic from said first traveled way to said third traveled way, (l) a second traveled way right turn ramp being disposed at a predetermined sixth point along the right side of a third means, joining the right side of a fourth means, and diverting traffic from said second traveled way to said fourth traveled way, (m) a third traveled way right turn ramp being disposed at a predetermined seventh point along the right side of said third traveled way, joining the right side of a fifth means, and diverting traffic from said third traveled way to said second traveled way, (n) a fourth traveled way right turn ramp being disposed at a predetermined eighth point along the right side of said fourth traveled way, joining the right side of a sixth means, and diverting traffic from said fourth traveled way to said first traveled way, whereby the interchange without any weaving section provides higher efficiency and safety.

2. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said first means is said first traveled way left turn ramp.

3. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said first means is said first traveled way.

4. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said second means is said second traveled way left turn ramp.

5. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said second means is said third traveled way.

6. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said third means is said second traveled way left turn ramp.

7. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said third means is said second traveled way.

8. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said fourth means is said first traveled way left turn ramp.

9. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said fourth means is said fourth traveled way.

10. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said fifth means is said fourth traveled way left turn ramp.

11. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said fifth means is said second traveled way.

12. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said sixth means is said third traveled way left turn ramp.

13. The interchange of claim 1 wherein said sixth means is said first traveled way.

14. An interchange, comprising: (a) a first traveled way for traffic traveling in a first direction, (b) a second traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to said first direction, (c) a third traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction intersecting said first and second traveled ways, (d) a fourth traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to said traffic traveling on said third traveled way, (e) said first and second traveled ways crossing under said third and fourth traveled ways, (f) each of said third and fourth traveled ways being designed according to street, road, or conventional highway design standards, (g) a first traveled way left turn ramp forming a substantially circular cloverleaf section, being disposed at a predetermined first point along the right side of said first traveled way, joining the right side of said fourth traveled way, and diverting traffic from said first traveled way to said fourth traveled way, (h) a second traveled way left turn ramp forming a substantially circular cloverleaf section, being disposed at a predetermined second point along the right side of said second traveled way, joining the right side of said third traveled way, and diverting traffic from said second traveled way to said third traveled way, (i) a third traveled way left turn ramp forming a distinct section, being disposed at a predetermined third point along the right side of said third traveled way, crossing over said first and second traveled ways, crossing under said third and fourth traveled ways, and joining the right side of said first traveled way, diverting traffic from said third traveled way to said first traveled way, (j) a fourth traveled way left turn ramp forming a distinct section, being disposed at a predetermined fourth point along the right side of said fourth traveled way, crossing over said first and second traveled ways, crossing under said third and fourth traveled ways, and joining the right side of said second traveled way, diverting traffic from said fourth traveled way to said second traveled way, (k) a first traveled way right turn ramp being disposed at a predetermined fifth point along the right side of a first means, joining the right side of said third traveled way, and diverting traffic from said first traveled way to said third traveled way, (l) a second traveled way right turn ramp being disposed at a predetermined sixth point along the right side of a second means, joining the right side of said fourth traveled way, and diverting traffic from said second traveled way to said fourth traveled way, (m) a third traveled way right turn ramp being disposed at a predetermined seventh point along the right side of a third means, joining the right side of a fourth means, and diverting traffic from said third traveled way to said second traveled way, (n) a fourth traveled way right turn ramp being disposed at a predetermined eighth point along the right side of a fifth means, joining the right side of a sixth means, and diverting traffic from said fourth traveled way to said first traveled way, whereby the interchange without any weaving section provides higher efficiency and safety.

15. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said first means is said first traveled way left turn ramp.

16. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said first means is said first traveled way.

17. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said second means is said second traveled way left turn ramp.

18. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said second means is said second traveled way.

19. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said third means is said third traveled way left turn ramp.

20. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said third means is said third traveled way.

21. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said fourth means is said fourth traveled way left turn ramp.

22. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said fourth means is said second traveled way.

23. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said fifth means is said fourth traveled way left turn ramp.

24. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said fifth means is said fourth traveled way.

25. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said sixth means is said third traveled way left turn ramp.

26. The interchange of claim 14 wherein said sixth means is said first traveled way.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

Not applicable.

FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH

Not applicable.

SEQUENCE LISTING OR PROGRAM

Not applicable.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

1. Field of Invention

This invention relates to cloverleaf type local interchanges, specifically, to weaving free two level cloverleaf type local interchanges.

2. Prior Art

The conventional cloverleaf type local interchange was patented on Feb. 29, 1916 under U.S. Pat. No. 1,173,505. It has the following disadvantages:

(a) This type of local interchange has highway weaving sections for fast moving vehicles swapping lanes at grade. A safe and efficient highway weaving section requires a long weaving length and thus large Right of Way. However, most local interchanges can not have such large Right of Way for the required weaving length. Traffic moves slowly inside the highway weaving sections. The Level of Service in the highway weaving sections is usually F during peak hours in urban highways. The efficiency of this interchange is low.

(b) The highway weaving section is a source of traffic congestion on the highway because the queue stretching from the highway weaving section to the highway blocks highway traffic.

(c) The street weaving section is a source of traffic congestion on a busy street because the street weaving blocks street traffic.

(d) Traffic accidents occur inside the highway weaving sections because of the competition between the highway bound traffic and street bound traffic in the highway weaving section. These accidents are mostly sideswipe collisions, fender-fender collisions, and tail on collisions, characteristics of bad weaving. Some of these can be fatal. The cloverleaf type local interchange has safety problems.

(e) The queues stretching from the highway weaving section to the highway also cause traffic accidents on the highway.

(f) Traffic accidents happen in busy street due to the street weaving.

Therefore, the conventional cloverleaf type local interchange has low efficiency, causes traffic congestion, and bears safety problems.

An improvement to the conventional cloverleaf type interchange was patented on Aug. 29, 1989 under U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184. In this cloverleaf type interchange, one traveled way left turn ramp flies over or under both the traveled way and the opposite traveled way, and lands in an area adjacent to the right side of the opposite traveled way. The same ramp then passes an interchange at the elevation of the traveled way, and finally joins the opposite traveled way right turn ramp. The opposite traveled way left turn ramp does the same things. The invention for a highway crossing under a street has the following disadvantages:

(a) This invention fails to achieve a substantially straight line horizontal alignment in the high speed zone of any flying over or under ramp. The ramp that flies over or under the highway has a left turning curve, a short straight segment, and a right turning curve in the high speed zone. The ramp that flies over or under the street has a left turning curve in the high speed zone.

(b) This invention fails to use minimal number of horizontal curve in any fly over or under ramps. Each fly over or under ramp has three horizontal curves. Two of them turn to the opposite directions. Because of these curves, the ramp would be made very long in order to meet stop sight distance requirements, which could render this type of interchange infeasible for local interchanges due to availability of right of way. Or, safety and efficiency could be compromised.

(c) This invention fails to achieve a flat profile in the high speed zone of any flying over or under ramp. The profile of the ramp flying over the highway goes up and down, and then reaches the highway elevation again before it crosses under the street. The profile of the ramp flying under the highway descends and ascends, and then reaches the highway elevation again before it crosses under the street. Drainage for the ramp flying under the highway would be a big issue. The profile of the ramp flying over or under the street is a slope instead of a flat profile in the high speed zone.

(d) This invention fails to utilize minimal number of slopes for any flying over or under ramps. All the flying over or under ramps have three slopes.

(e) This invention fails to use minimal number of sags and crests in the profile of any flying over or under ramp. The ramp profile has a combination of either three sags and two crests, or two sags and three crests. These sags and crests make the ramp very long in order to meet the stop sight distance requirements, which could render this type of interchange infeasible for local interchanges due to availability of right of way. Or, safety and efficiency will be compromised.

(f) This invention is a three level interchange in the cases of a ramp flying under the highway or over the street. This three level configuration for a local interchange does not blend well with urban environment.

(g) One of the embodiments employs exits from the left edge of highway traveled ways, which motorists are not accustomed to. This design should not be used in highway design.

Therefore, there are deficiencies in safety and efficiency. This patent may not be feasible for local interchanges. The three level configurations do not fit urban environment well.

OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES

Several objects and advantages of the present invention are:

(a) This invention eliminates both highway and street weaving sections.

(b) This invention has higher traveling speed than a conventional cloverleaf type of local interchange so that this invention is more efficient.

(c) This invention causes less traffic congestion on the highway and street by increasing the storage capacities for all left turn ramps.

(d) This invention eliminates all weaving related accidents inside the interchange, on the highway, and on the street.

(e) This invention achieves a substantially straight horizontal alignment in the high speed zone of each fly over or under ramp so that the safety and efficiency are improved from the interchange in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184. If a curve is used in the high speed zone of each fly over or under ramp, it will have a huge radius and work as a straight alignment.

(f) This invention achieves smaller size than the interchange in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184 because of the substantially straight horizontal alignment in the high speed zone.

(g) The horizontal curve in the low speed zone of each fly over or under ramp for making left turn achieves bigger radius and provides higher safety and efficiency than the similar curve in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184.

(h) Each fly over or under ramp of this invention uses a flat profile in the high speed zone between the location where the ramp crosses the street and the tip point of the gore area on highway, and a mild down slope in the low speed zone of the ramp. Minimal number of slope, one, can be achieved for each fly over or under ramp, which results in safer and more efficient interchanges than U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184.

(i) This invention has only one sag and one crest for the entire ramp profile of each fly over or under ramp and keeps the sag and crest in the low speed zone so that safety, efficiency, and smaller size are maintained from perspective of profile design. Minimal number of sag and crest, one sag and one crest, can be utilized for each fly over or under ramp.

(j) This invention has higher traveling speed in each fly over or under ramp than U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184 so that this invention is more efficient.

(k) This invention has a two level configuration for all situations so that this interchange is more adaptive to most environments, especially a busy metropolitan urban environment.

Therefore, the present invention has higher efficiency and safety standard than a conventional cloverleaf type local interchange and the interchange in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184. The high safety, high efficiency, two level configuration, and smaller size make it fit most situations, especially a busy metropolitan urban environment than the interchange in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184.

SUMMARY

The weaving free two level cloverleaf type local interchange for a highway crossing under a street accommodates traffic from a plurality of traveled ways which include a first traveled way for traffic traveling in a first direction, a second traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the first direction, a third traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction intersecting the first and second traveled ways, and a fourth traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the traffic traveling on the third traveled way. The first and second traveled ways cross under the third and fourth traveled ways. Each of the first and second traveled ways has a design speed compatible to a highway or freeway design speed, or is designed according to highway or freeway design standards. Each of the third and fourth traveled ways has a design speed compatible to the design speed of a street, road, or a conventional highway, or is designed according to the design standards of a street, road, or a conventional highway. In the preferred embodiment, the first traveled way left turn ramp crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways, then crosses over the first and second traveled ways, and finally joins the fourth traveled way. The second traveled way left turn ramp crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways, then crosses over the first and second traveled ways, and finally joins the third traveled way. In the additional embodiment, the third traveled way left turn ramp crosses over the first and second traveled ways, then crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways, and finally joins the first traveled way. The fourth traveled way left turn ramp crosses over the first and second traveled ways, then crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways, and finally joins the second traveled way. The present invention eliminated the highway and street weaving sections. Each fly over or under ramp has a better horizontal curve and achieves minimum number of slope, sag and crest, which represents a better geometric design than the one in the interchange in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184. The present invention has higher efficiency and safety standard than a conventional cloverleaf type local interchange and the interchange in U.S. Pat. No. 4,861,184. The two level configuration, compact ramp geometric design, higher safety, and better efficiency make this interchange a better choice for congested urban highway system.

DRAWINGS

Figures

FIG. 1.1, FIG. 1.2, and FIG. 1.3 show the preferred embodiment of the weaving free two level cloverleaf type local interchange in which the highway crosses under the street.

FIG. 2.1, FIG. 2.2, and FIG. 2.3 show the additional embodiment of the weaving free two level cloverleaf type local interchange in which the highway crosses under the street.

REFERENCE NUMERALS

1 A first traveled way for traffic traveling in a first direction.

2 A second traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the first direction.

3 A third traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction intersecting the first and second traveled ways.

4 A fourth traveled way for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the traffic traveling on the third traveled way.

5 A first traveled way left turn ramp.

6 A first traveled way right turn ramp.

7 A second traveled way left turn ramp.

8 A second traveled way right turn ramp.

9 A third traveled way left turn ramp.

10 A third traveled way right turn ramp.

11 A fourth traveled way left turn ramp.

12 A fourth traveled way right turn ramp.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Description of Preferred Embodiment

FIG. 1.1, FIG. 1.2, and FIG. 1.3 illustrate the preferred embodiment of the present invention. A first traveled way 1 is for traffic traveling in a first direction. A second traveled way 2 is for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the first direction. A third traveled way 3 is for traffic traveling in a direction intersecting the first and second traveled ways 1, 2. A fourth traveled way 4 is for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the traffic traveling on the third traveled way 3.

The first and second traveled ways 1, 2 cross under the third and fourth traveled ways 3, 4.

Each of the first and second traveled ways 1, 2 has a design speed compatible to a highway or freeway design speed or is designed according to highway or freeway design standards. Each of the third and fourth traveled ways 3, 4 has a design speed compatible to the design speed of a street, road, or a conventional highway or is designed according to street, road, or conventional highway design standards.

The first traveled way left turn ramp 5 forms a distinct section, starts at a predetermined first point along the right side of the first traveled way 1, crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways 3, 4, then crosses over the first and second traveled ways 1, 2, and finally joins the right side of the fourth traveled way 4. The first traveled way right turn ramp 6 is disposed along the right side of the first traveled way left turn ramp 5 and joins the right side of the second traveled way left turn ramp 7. The second traveled way left turn ramp 7 forms a distinct section, starts at a predetermined second point along the right side of the second traveled way 2, crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways 3, 4, then crosses over the first and second traveled ways 1, 2, and finally joins the right side of the third traveled way 3. The second traveled way right turn ramp 8 is disposed along the right side of the second traveled way left turn ramp 7 and joins the right side of the first traveled way left turn ramp 5. The third traveled way left turn ramp 9 forms a substantially circular cloverleaf section, is disposed at a predetermined third point along the right side of the third traveled way 3, and joins the right side of the first traveled way 1. The third traveled way right turn ramp 10 is disposed along the right side of the third traveled way 3 and joins the right side of the fourth traveled way left turn ramp 11. The fourth traveled way left turn ramp 11 forms a substantially circular cloverleaf section, is disposed at a predetermined fourth point along the right side of the fourth traveled way 4, and joins the right side of the second traveled way 2. The fourth traveled way right turn ramp 12 is disposed along the right side of the fourth traveled way 4 and joins the right side of the third traveled way left turn ramp 9.

Operation of Preferred Embodiment

The first traveled way left turn ramp 5 diverts traffic from the first traveled way 1 to the fourth traveled way 4. The first traveled way right turn ramp 6 diverts traffic from the first traveled way 1 to the third traveled way 3. The second traveled way left turn ramp 7 diverts traffic from the second traveled way 2 to the third traveled way 3. The second traveled way right turn ramp 8 diverts traffic from the second traveled way 2 to the fourth traveled way 4. The third traveled way left turn ramp 9 diverts traffic from the third traveled way 3 to the first traveled way 1. The third traveled way right turn ramp 10 diverts traffic from the third traveled way 3 to the second traveled way 2. The fourth traveled way left turn ramp 11 diverts traffic from the fourth traveled way 4 to the second traveled way 2. The fourth traveled way right turn ramp 12 diverts traffic from the fourth traveled way 4 to the first traveled way 1.

Description of Additional Embodiment

FIG. 2. 1, FIG. 2.2 and FIG. 2.3 illustrate the additional embodiment of the present invention. A first traveled way 1 is for traffic traveling in a first direction. A second traveled way 2 is for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the first direction. A third traveled way 3 is for traffic traveling in a direction intersecting the first and second traveled ways 1, 2. A fourth traveled way 4 is for traffic traveling in a direction opposite to the traffic traveling on the third traveled way 3.

The first and second traveled ways 1, 2 cross under the third and fourth traveled ways 3, 4.

Each of the first and second traveled ways 1, 2 has a design speed compatible to a highway or freeway design speed or is designed according to highway or freeway design standards. Each of the third and fourth traveled ways 3, 4 has a design speed compatible to the design speed of a street, road, or a conventional highway or is designed according to street, road, or conventional highway design standards.

The first traveled way left turn ramp 5 forms a substantially circular cloverleaf section, is disposed at a predetermined first point along the right side of the first traveled way 1, and joins the right side of the fourth traveled way 4. The first traveled way right turn ramp 6 is disposed along the right side of the first traveled way left turn ramp 5 and joins the right side of the third traveled way 3. The second traveled way left turn ramp 7 forms a substantially circular cloverleaf section, is disposed at a predetermined second point along the right side of the second traveled way 2, and joins the right side of the third traveled way 3. The second traveled way right turn ramp 8 is disposed along the right side of the second traveled way left turn ramp 7 and joins the right side of the fourth traveled way 4. The third traveled way left turn ramp 9 forms a distinct section, starts at a predetermined third point along the right side of the third traveled way 3, crosses over the first and second traveled ways 1, 2, then crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways 3, 4 and finally joins the right side of the first traveled way 1. The third traveled way right turn ramp 10 is disposed along the right side of the third traveled way left turn ramp 9 and joins the right side of the fourth traveled way left turn ramp 11. The fourth traveled way left turn ramp 11 forms a distinct section, starts at a predetermined fourth point along the right side of the fourth traveled way 4, crosses over the first and second traveled ways 1, 2, then crosses under the third and fourth traveled ways 3, 4 and finally joins the right side of the second traveled way 2. The fourth traveled way right turn ramp 12 is disposed along the right side of the fourth traveled way left turn ramp 11 and joins the right side of the third traveled way left turn ramp 9.

Operation of Additional Embodiment

The first traveled way left turn ramp 5 diverts traffic from the first traveled way 1 to the fourth traveled way 4. The first traveled way right turn ramp 6 diverts traffic from the first traveled way I to the third traveled way 3. The second traveled way left turn ramp 7 diverts traffic from the second traveled way 2 to the third traveled way 3. The second traveled way right turn ramp 8 diverts traffic from the second traveled way 2 to the fourth traveled way 4. The third traveled way left turn ramp 9 diverts traffic from the third traveled way 3 to the first traveled way 1. The third traveled way right turn ramp 10 diverts traffic from the third traveled way 3 to the second traveled way 2. The fourth traveled way left turn ramp 11 diverts traffic from the fourth traveled way 4 to the second traveled way 2. The fourth traveled way right turn ramp 12 diverts traffic from the fourth traveled way 4 to the first traveled way 1.

Conclusion, Ramifications, and Scope

Accordingly, the reader will see that the interchanges eliminate two highway and two street weaving sections and provide all ramps with free flow that is right turn into a ramp, undisturbed flow throughout the ramp, and right turn out of the ramp. The interchanges are equipped with better ramp horizontal alignments and profiles. Thus, these interchanges are efficient.

The interchanges eliminate weaving related traffic accidents. The better ramp horizontal alignments and profiles also make these interchanges safer. Thus, the interchanges have high safety standards, which prevent injuries and save lives.

The two level configuration and relatively smaller size make the interchanges better choices for congested urban environment.

Although the description above contains many specifications, these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention but as merely providing illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments of this invention. Many other variations are possible. For example, any traveled way left turn ramp and right turn ramp can share a pathway at the beginning. Optionally, each of the two ramps can have its own separate pathway. Any traveled way left turn ramp and the opposite traveled way right turn ramp can share a pathway at the end. Alternatively, each of the two ramps can have its own pathway.

Thus the scope of the invention should be determined by the appended claims and their legal equivalents, rather than by the examples given.





 
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