Title:
KINASE INHIBITORS USEFUL FOR THE TREATMENT OF MYLEOPROLIFIC DISEASES AND OTHER PROLIFERATIVE DISEASES
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Compounds of the present invention find utility in the treatment of mammalian cancers and especially human cancers including but not limited to malignant, melanomas, glioblastomas, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancers, breast cancers, kidney cancers, cervical carcinomas, metastasis of primary tumor sites, myeloproliferative diseases, leukemias, papillary thyroid carcinoma, non small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, hypereosinophilic syndrome, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, colonic cancers, ocular diseases characterized by hyperproliferation leading to blindness including various retinopathies, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mastocyctosis, mast cell leukemia, a disease caused by c-Abl kinase, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof and polymorphs thereof, or a disease caused by c-Kit kinase, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof and polymorphs thereof.



Inventors:
Flynn, Daniel L. (Lawrence, KS, US)
Petillo, Peter A. (Lawrence, KS, US)
Kaufman, Michael D. (Lawrence, KS, US)
Application Number:
12/105376
Publication Date:
10/23/2008
Filing Date:
04/18/2008
Assignee:
Deciphera Pharmaceuticals, LLC (Lawrence, KS, US)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/235.5, 514/253.01, 514/318, 514/340, 514/341, 514/342, 514/343, 544/56, 544/131, 544/361, 546/193, 546/271.1, 546/272.4, 546/275.4, 546/279.1
International Classes:
A61K31/4439; A61K31/4545; A61K31/496; A61K31/5377; A61K31/541; A61P11/00; A61P19/02; A61P27/02; A61P35/00; C07D401/12; C07D413/12; C07D417/12
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Primary Examiner:
GRAZIER, NYEEMAH A
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
COOLEY LLP (Washington, DC, US)
Claims:
1. Compounds of the formula Ia and wherein the pyridine ring may be optionally substituted with one or more R20 moieties; each D is individually taken from the group consisting of C, CH, C—R20, N-Z3, N, O and S, such that the resultant ring is taken from the group consisting of triazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxazolyl, and thiadiazolyl; wherein E is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, pyridyl, and pyrimidinyl; E may be optionally substituted with one or two R16 moieties; wherein A is a ring system selected from the group consisting of phenyl, naphthyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, G1, G2, and G3; G1 is a heteroaryl taken from the group consisting of pyrrolyl, furyl, thienyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, isoxazol-4-yl, isoxazol-5-yl, isothiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl, pyridinyl, and pyrimidinyl; G2 is a fused bicyclic heteroaryl taken from the group consisting of indolyl, indolinyl, isoindolyl, isoindolinyl, indazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothienyl, benzothiazolyl, benzothiazolonyl, benzoxazolyl, benzoxazolonyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzimidazolonyl, benztriazolyl, imidazopyridinyl, pyrazolopyridinyl, imidazolonopyridinyl, thiazolopyridinyl, thiazolonopyridinyl, oxazolopyridinyl, oxazolonopyridinyl, isoxazolopyridinyl, isothiazolopyridinyl, triazolopyridinyl, imidazopyrimidinyl, pyrazolopyrimidinyl, imidazolonopyrmidinyl, thiazolopyridiminyl, thiazolonopyrimidinyl, oxazolopyridiminyl, oxazolonopyrimidinyl, isoxazolopyrimidinyl, isothiazolopyrimidinyl, triazolopyrimidinyl, dihydropurinonyl, pyrrolopyrimidinyl, purinyl, pyrazolopyrimidinyl, phthalimidyl, phthalimidinyl, pyrazinylpyridinyl, pyridinopyrimidinyl, pyrimidinopyrimidinyl, cinnolinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinazolinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, phthalazinyl, benzodioxyl, benzisothiazoline-1,1,3-trionyl, dihydroquinolinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, dihydroisoquinolyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, benzoazepinyl, benzodiazepinyl, benzoxapinyl, and benzoxazepinyl; G3 is a heterocyclyl taken from the group consisting of oxetanyl, azetadinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, pyrrolidinyl, oxazolinyl, oxazolidinyl, imidazolonyl, pyranyl, thiopyranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, dioxalinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl S-oxide, thiomorpholinyl S-dioxide, piperazinyl, azepinyl, oxepinyl, diazepinyl, tropanyl, and homotropanyl; the A ring may be optionally substituted with one or two R2 moieties; X is selected from the group consisting of —O—, —S(CH2)n—, —N(R3)(CH2)n—, —(CH2)p—, and wherein the carbon atoms of —(CH2)n—, —(CH2)p—, of X may be further substituted by oxo or one or more C1-C6alkyl moieties; when A, G1, G2 or G3 has one or more substitutable sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, each respective sp2 hybridized carbon atom may be optionally substituted with a Z1 substituent; when A, G1, G2 or G3 has one or more substitutable sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, each respective sp3 hybridized carbon atom may be optionally substituted with a Z2 substituent; when A, G1, G2 or G3 has one or more substitutable nitrogen atoms, each respective nitrogen atom may be optionally substituted with a Z4 substituent; each Z1 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, C3-C8cycloalkyl, halogen, fluoroC1-C6alkyl wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, cyano, C1-C6alkoxy, fluoroC1-C6alkoxy wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, —(CH2)nOH, oxo, C1-C6alkoxyC1-C6alkyl, (R4)2N(CH2)n—, (R3)2N(CH2)n—, (R4)2N(CH2)qN(R4)(CH2)n—, (R4)2N(CH2)qO(CH2)n—, (R3)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)C1-C6alkyl-, —(R4)NC(O)R8, C1-C6alkoxycarbonyl-, -carboxyC1-C6alkyl, C1-C6alkoxycarbonylC1-C6alkyl-, (R3)2NSO2—, —SOR3, (R4)2NSO2—, —N(R4)SO2R8, —O(CH2)qOC1-C6alkyl, —SO2R3, —SOR4, —C(O)R8, —C(O)R6, —C(═NOH)R6, —C(═NOR3)R6, —(CH2)nN(R4)C(O)R8, —N(R3)(CH2)qO-alkyl, —N(R3)(CH2)qN(R4)2, nitro, —CH(OH)CH(OH)R4, —C(═NH)N(R4)2, —C(═NOR3)N(R4)2, —NHC(═NH)R8, R17 substituted G3, R17 substituted pyrazolyl and R17 substituted imidazolyl; in the event that Z1 contains an alkyl or alkylene moiety, such moieties may be further substituted with one or more C1-C6alkyls; each Z2 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of aryl, C1-C6alkyl, C3-C8cycloalkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, hydroxyl, hydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, cyano, (R3)2N—, (R4)2N—, (R4)2NC1-C6alkyl-, (R4)2NC2-C6alkylN(R4)(CH2)n—, (R4)2NC2-C6alkylO(CH2)n—, (R3)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)—C1-C6alkyl-, carboxyl, -carboxyC1-C6alkyl, C1-C6alkoxycarbonyl-, C1-C6alkoxycarbonylC1-C6alkyl-, (R3)2NSO2—, (R4)2NSO2—, —SO2R8, —(CH2)nN(R4)C(O)R8, —C(O)R8, ═O, ═NOH, and ═N(OR6); in the event that Z2 contains an alkyl or alkylene moiety, such moieties may be further substituted with one or more C1-C6alkyls; each Z3 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, C3-C8cycloalkyl, fluoroC1-C6alkyl wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, hydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, C1-C6alkoxycarbonyl-, —C(O)R8, R5C(O)(CH2)n—, (R4)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)C1-C6alkyl-, R8C(O)N(R4)(CH2)q—, (R3)2NSO2—, (R4)2NSO2—, —(CH2)qN(R3)2, and —(CH2)qN(R4)2; each Z4 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-7alkyl, hydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, C1-C6alkoxyC2-C6alkyl-. (R4)2N—C2-C6alkyl-, (R4)2N—C2-C6alkylN(R4)-C2-C6alkyl-, (R4)2N—C2-C6alkyl-O—C2-C6alkyl-(R4)2NC(O)C1-C6alkyl-, carboxyC1-C6alkyl, C1-C6alkoxycarbonylC1-C6alkyl-, —C2-C6alkylN(R4)C(O)R8, R8-C(═NR3)—, —SO2R8, and —COR8; in the event that Z4 contains an alkyl or alkylene moiety, such moieties may be further substituted with one or more C1-C6alkyls; each R2 is selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C8alkyl, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl is fully or partially fluorinated, halogen, cyano, C1-C6alkoxy-, and fluoroC1-C6alkoxy- wherein the alkyl group is fully or partially fluorinated, hydroxyl substituted C1-C6alkyl-, hydroxyl substituted branched C3-C8alkyl-, cyano substituted C1-C6alkyl-, cyano substituted branched C3-C8alkyl-, (R3)2NC(O)C1-C6alkyl-, and (R3)2NC(O)C3-C8 branched alkyl-; wherein each R3 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, and C3-C8cycloalkyl; each R4 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, hydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, dihydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, C1-C6alkoxyC1-C6alkyl-, branched C3-C7alkyl, branched hydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, branched C1-C6alkoxyC1-C6alkyl-, branched dihydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, —(CH2)pN(R7)2, —(CH2)pC(O)N(R7)2, —(CH2)nC(O)OR3, and R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-; each R5 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of and wherein the symbol (##) is the point of attachment to Z3; each R6 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, and R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-; each R7 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, hydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, dihydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, C1-C6alkoxyC2-C6alkyl-, branched C3-C7alkyl, branched hydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, branched C1-C6alkoxyC2-C6alkyl-, branched dihydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, —(CH2)nC(O)OR3, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl- and —(CH2)nR17; each R8 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl moiety is partially or fully fluorinated, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, —OH, C1-C6alkoxy, —N(R3)2, and —N(R4)2; each R10 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of —CO2H, —CO2C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)N(R4)2, OH, C1-C6alkoxy and —N(R4)2; each R16 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, halogen, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, cyano, hydroxyl, C1-C6alkoxy, fluoroC1-C6alkoxy- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, —N(R3)2, —N(R4)2, R3 substituted C2-C3alkynyl- and nitro; each R17 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, halogen, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, cyano, hydroxyl, C1-C6alkoxy, fluoroC1-C6alkoxy- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, —N(R3)2, —N(R4)2, and nitro; each R19 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, OH and C1-C6alkyl; each R20 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, halogen, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, cyano, hydroxyl, C1-C6alkoxy, fluoroC1-C6alkoxy- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, —N(R3)2, —N(R4)2, —N(R3)C(O)R3, —C(O)N(R3)2 and nitro and wherein two R4 moieties independently and individually taken from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C6alkyl, hydroxyalkyl-, and alkoxyalkyl and attached to the same nitrogen heteroatom may cyclize to form a C3-C7 heterocyclyl ring; k is 0 or 1; n is 0-6; p is 1-4; q is 2-6; r is 0 or 1; t is 1-3; v is 1 or 2; m is 0-2; and stereo-, regioisomers and tautomers of such compounds.

2. Compounds of claim 1 wherein is selected from the group consisting of wherein the symbol (**) indicates the point of attachment to the pyridine ring.

3. Compounds of claim 2 having the formula Ib wherein A is any possible isomer of pyrazole.

4. Compounds of claim 3 having formula Ic

5. Compounds of claim 3 having formula Id

6. Compounds of claim 3 having formula Ie

7. Compounds of claim 2 having the formula If

8. Compounds of claim 7 having formula Ig

9. Compounds of claim 2 having the formula Ih wherein A is selected from the group consisting of any possible isomer of phenyl and pyridine.

10. Compounds of claim 9 having formula Ii

11. Compounds of claim 9 having formula Ij

12. Compounds of claim 2 having the formula Ik

13. Compounds of claim 12 having formula Il

14. A method of treating mammalian disease wherein the disease etiology or progression is at least partially mediated by the kinase activity of c-Abl kinase, bcr-Abl kinase, Flt-3 kinase, VEGFR-2 kinase mutants, c-Met, PDGFR-alpha kinase, PDGFR-beta kinase, HER-1, HER-2, HER-3, HER-4, FGFR, c-Kit, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof and polymorphs of any of the foregoing, comprising the step of administering to the mammal a compound of claim 1.

15. A method of claim 14 wherein said kinase is selected from the group consisting of bcr-Abl fusion protein kinases p210, bcr-Abl fusion protein kinases p190, bcr-Abl fusion protein kinases bearing the T315I gatekeeper mutant in the Abl kinase domain of p210, bcr-Abl fusion protein kinases bearing the T3315I gatekeeper mutant in the Abl kinase domain of p190, and other bcr-Abl polymorphs of any of the foregoing kinases.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein said bcr-Abl fusion protein kinases p210 having SEQ ID NO:3 & SEQ ID NO:4, wherein said bcr-Abl fusion protein kinase p190 has SEQ ID NO:5, wherein said bcr-Abl fusion protein kinases p210 bearing the T315I mutation in the Abl kinase domain has SEQ ID NO:6 & SEQ ID NO:7, and wherein said bcr-Abl fusion protein kinase p190 bearing the T315I mutation in the Abl kinase domain has SEQ ID NO:8.

17. A method of claim 14 wherein said kinase is selected from the group consisting of ckit protein kinase, PDGFR-alpha kinase, and any fusion protein, mutation and polymorphs of any of the foregoing.

18. A method of claim 14 wherein said kinase is selected from the group consisting of c-Met protein kinase, and any fusion protein, mutation and polymorphs of any of the foregoing.

19. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of claim 1, together with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, optionally containing an additive selected from the group including adjuvants, excipients, diluents, and stabilizers.

20. A method of treating an individual suffering from a condition selected from the group consisting of cancer, hyperproliferative diseases, metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, or diseases characterized by angiogenesis, such as solid tumors, melanomas, glioblastomas, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancers, breast cancers, renal cancers, hepatic cancers, cervical carcinomas, metastasis of primary tumor sites, myeloproliferative diseases, chronic myelogenous leukemia, leukemias, papillary thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, hypereosinophilic syndrome, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, colonic cancers, ocular diseases characterized by hyperproliferation leading to blindness including retinopathies, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and hypereosinophilic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary, mastocytosis, mast cell leukemia, or disease a disease caused by c-Kit kinase, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof and polymorphs thereof, comprising the step of administering to such individual a compound of claim 1.

21. The method of claim 20, said compound being administered by a method selected from the group consisting of oral, parenteral, inhalation, and subcutaneous.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of Provisional Application 60/913,216 filed Apr. 20, 2007. This provisional application is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

SEQUENCE LISTING

This application contains a Sequence Listing in both paper and computer readable format in accordance with 37 C.F.R. 1.821 (c) and (e), the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to novel kinase inhibitors and modulator compounds useful for the treatment of various diseases. More particularly, the invention is concerned with such compounds, kinase/compound adducts, methods of treating diseases, and methods of synthesis of the compounds. Preferably, the compounds are useful for the modulation of kinase activity of C-Abl, c-Kit, VEGFR, PDGFR kinases, Flt-3, c-Met, FGFR, the HER family and disease polymorphs thereof.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Several members of the protein kinase family have been clearly implicated in the pathogenesis of various proliferative and myleoproliferative diseases and thus represent important targets for treatment of these diseases. Some of the proliferative diseases relevant to this invention include cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and retinopathies. Important examples of kinases which have been shown to cause or contribute to the pathogensis of these diseases include C-Abl kinase and the oncogenic fusion protein bcr-Abl kinase; c-Kit kinase, PDGF receptor kinase; VEGF receptor kinases; and Flt-3 kinase.

C-Abl kinase is an important non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in cell signal transduction. This ubiquitously expressed kinase—upon activation by upstream signaling factors including growth factors, oxidative stress, integrin stimulation, and ionizing radiation—localizes to the cell plasma membrane, the cell nucleus, and other cellular compartments including the actin cytoskeleton (Van Etten, Trends Cell Biol. (1999) 9: 179). There are two normal isoforms of Abl kinase: Abl-1A and Abl-1B. The N-terminal half of c-Abl kinase is important for autoinhibition of the kinase domain catalytic activity (Pluk et al, Cell (2002) 108: 247). Details of the mechanistic aspects of this autoinhibition have recently been disclosed (Nagar et al, Cell (2003) 112: 859). The N-terminal myristolyl amino acid residue of Abl-1B has been shown to intramolecularly occupy a hydrophobic pocket formed from alpha-helices in the C-lobe of the kinase domain. Such intramolecular binding induces a novel binding area for intramolecular docking of the SH2 domain and the SH3 domain onto the kinase domain, thereby distorting and inhibiting the catalytic activity of the kinase. Thus, an intricate intramolecular negative regulation of the kinase activity is brought about by these N-terminal regions of c-Abl kinase. An aberrant dysregulated form of c-Abl is formed from a chromosomal translocation event, referred to as the Philadelphia chromosome (P. C. Nowell et al, Science (1960) 132: 1497; J. D. Rowley, Nature (1973) 243: 290). This abnormal chromosomal translocation leads aberrant gene fusion between the Abl kinase gene and the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) gene, thus encoding an aberrant protein called bcr-Abl (G. Q. Daley et al, Science (1990) 247: 824; M. L. Gishizky et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1993) 90: 3755; S. Li et al, J. Exp. Med. (1999) 189: 1399). The bcr-Abl fusion protein does not include the regulatory myristolylation site (B. Nagar et al, Cell (2003) 112: 859) and as a result functions as an oncoprotein which causes chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). CML is a malignancy of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. The p210 form of bcr-Abl is seen in 95% of patients with CML, and in 20% of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia and is exemplified by sequences such as e14a2 and e13a2. The corresponding p190 form, exemplified by the sequence e1a2 has also been identified. A p185 form has also been disclosed and has been linked to being causative of up to 10% of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. It will be appreciated by one skilled in the art that “p210 form”, “p190 form” and “p185 form” each describe a closely related group of fusion proteins, and that Sequence ID's used herein are merely representative of each form and are not meant to restrict the scope solely to those sequences.

C-KIT (Kit, CD117, stem cell factor receptor) is a 145 kDa transmembrane tyrosine kinase protein that acts as a type-III receptor (Pereira et al. J Carcin. (2005), 4: 19). The c-KIT proto-oncocgene, located on chromosome 4q11-21, encodes the c-KIT receptor, whose ligand is the stem cell factor (SCF, steel factor, kit ligand, mast cell growth factor, Morstyn G, et al. Oncology (1994) 51(2):205. Yarden Y, et al. Embo J (1987) 6(11):3341). The receptor has tyrosine-protein kinase activity and binding of the ligands leads to the autophosphorylation of KIT and its association with substrates such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Pi3K). Tyrosine phosphorylation by protein tyrosine kinases is of particular importance in cellular signalling and can mediate signals for major cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, attachment, and migration. Defects in KIT are a cause of piebaldism, an autosomal dominant genetic developmental abnormality of pigmentation characterized by congenital patches of white skin and hair that lack melanocytes. Gain-of-function mutations of the c-KIT gene and the expression of phosphorylated KIT are found in most gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. Further, almost all gonadal seminomas/dysgerminomas exhibit KIT membranous staining, and several reports have clarified that some (10-25%) have a c-KIT gene mutation (Sakuma, Y. et al. Cancer Sci (2004) 95:9, 716). KIT defects have also been associated with testicular tumors including germ cell tumors (GCT) and testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT).

The role of c-kit expression has been studied in hematologic and solid tumours, such as acute leukemias (Cortes J. et al. Cancer (2003) 97(11):2760) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, Fletcher C. D. et al. Hum Pathol (2002) 33(5):459). The clinical importance of c-kit expression in malignant tumors relies on studies with Gleevec® (imatinib mesylate, STI571, Novartis Pharma AG Basel, Switzerland) that specifically inhibits tyrosine kinase receptors (Lefevre G. et al. J Biol Chem (2004) 279(30):31769). Moreover, a clinically relevant breakthrough has been the finding of anti-tumor effects of this compound in GIST, a group of tumors regarded as being generally resistant to conventional chemotherapy (de Silva C M, Reid R: Pathol Oncol Res (2003) 9(1):13-19). GIST most often become Gleevec resistant and molecularly targeted small therapies that target c-KIT mutations remain elusive.

c-MET is a unique receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) located on chromosome 7p and activated via its natural ligand hepatocyte growth factor. c-MET is found mutated in a variety of solid tumors (Ma P. C. et al. Cancer Metastasis (2003) 22:309). Mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain are associated with hereditary papillary renal cell carcinomas (Schmidt L et al. Nat. Genet. (1997)16:68; Schmidt L, et al. Oncogene (1999) 18:2343), whereas mutations in the sema and juxtamembrane domains are often found in small cell lung cancers (SCLC; Ma P. C. et al. Cancer Res (2003) 63:6272). Many activating mutations are also found in breast cancers (Nakopoulou et al. Histopath (2000) 36(4): 313). The panoply of tumor types for which c-Met mediated growth has been implicated suggests this is a target ideally suited for modulation by specific c-MET small molecule inhibitors.

The TPR-MET oncogene is a transforming variant of the c-MET RTK and was initially identified after treatment of a human osteogenic sarcoma cell line transformed by the chemical carcinogen N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (Park M. et al. Cell (1986) 45:895). The TPR-MET fusion oncoprotein is the result of a chromosomal translocation, placing the TPR3 locus on chromosome 1 upstream of a portion of the c-MET gene on chromosome 7 encoding only for the cytoplasmic region. Studies suggest that TPR-MET is detectable in experimental cancers (e.g. Yu J. et al. Cancer (2000) 88:1801). Dimerization of the M, 65,000 TPR-MET oncoprotein through a leucine zipper motif encoded by TPR leads to constitutive activation of the c-MET kinase (Zhen Z. et al. Oncogene (1994) 9:1691). TPR-MET acts to activated wild-type c-MET RTK and can activate crucial cellular growth pathways, including the Ras pathway (Aklilu F. et al. Am J Physiol (1996) 271:E277) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway (Ponzetto C. et al. Mol Cell Biol (1993) 13:4600). Conversely, in contrast to c-MET RTK, TPR-MET is ligand independent, lacks the CBL binding site in the juxtamembrane region in c-MET, and is mainly cytoplasmic. c-Met immunohistochemical expression seems to be associated with abnormal β-catenin expression, and provides good prognostic and predictive factors in breast cancer patients.

The majority of small molecule kinase inhibitors that have been reported have been shown to bind in one of three ways. Most of the reported inhibitors interact with the ATP binding domain of the active site and exert their effects by competing with ATP for occupancy. Other inhibitors have been shown to bind to a separate hydrophobic region of the protein known as the “DFG-in-conformation” pocket wherein such a binding mode by the inhibitor causes the kinase to adopt the “DFG-out” conformation, and still others have been shown to bind to both the ATP domain and the “DFG-in-conformation” pocket again causing the kinase to adopt the “DGF-out” conformation. Examples specific to inhibitors of Raf kinases can be found in Lowinger et al, Current Pharmaceutical Design (2002) 8; 2269; Dumas, J. et al., Current Opinion in Drug Discovery &Development (2004) 7: 600; Dumas, J. et al, WO 2003068223 A1 (2003); Dumas, J., et al, WO 9932455 A1 (1999), and Wan, P. T. C., et al, Cell (2004) 116: 855.

Physiologically, kinases are regulated by a common activation/deactivation mechanism wherein a specific activation loop sequence of the kinase protein binds into a specific pocket on the same protein which is referred to as the switch control pocket. Such binding occurs when specific amino acid residues of the activation loop are modified for example by phosphorylation, oxidation, or nitrosylation. The binding of the activation loop into the switch pocket results in a conformational chance of the protein into its active form (Huse, M. and Kuriyan, J. Cell (109) 275)

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Compounds of the present invention find utility in the treatment of mammalian cancers and especially human cancers including but not limited to malignant, melanomas, glioblastomas, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancers, breast cancers, kidney cancers, cervical carcinomas, metastasis of primary tumor sites, myeloproliferative diseases, leukemias, papillary thyroid carcinoma, non small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, hypereosinophilic syndrome, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, colonic cancers, ocular diseases characterized by hyperproliferation leading to blindness including various retinopathies, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, a disease caused by c-Abl kinase, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof and polymorphs thereof, or a disease caused by c-Kit, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof and polymorphs thereof.

SECTION 1—DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The following descriptions refer to various compounds, stereo-, regioisomers and tautomers of such compounds and individual moieties of the compounds thereof.

Cycloalkyl refers to monocyclic saturated carbon rings taken from cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptanyl and cyclooctanyl;

Aryl refers to monocyclic or fused bicyclic ring systems characterized by delocalized π electrons (aromaticity) shared among the ring carbon atoms of at least one carbocyclic ring; preferred aryl rings are taken from phenyl, naphlthyl, tetrahydronaphthyl, indenyl, and indanyl;

Heteroaryl refers to monocyclic or fused bicyclic ring systems characterized by delocalized π electrons (aromaticity) shared among the ring carbon or heteroatoms including nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur of at least one carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; heteroaryl rings are taken from, but not limited to, pyrrolyl, furyl, thienyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl, indolyl, indolinyl, isoindolyl, isoindolinyl, indazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothienyl, benzothiazolyl, benzothiazolonyl, benzoxazolyl, benzoxazolonyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzimidazolonyl, benztriazolyl, imidazopyridinyl, pyrazolopyridinyl, imidazolonopyridinyl, thiazolopyridinyl, thiazolonopyridinyl, oxazolopyridinyl, oxazolonopyridinyl, isoxazolopyridinyl, isothiazolopyridinyl, triazolopyridinyl, imidazopyrimidinyl, pyrazolopyrimidinyl, imidazolonopyrimidinyl, thiazolopyridiminyl, thiazolonopyrimidinyl, oxazolopyridiminyl, oxazolonopyrimidinyl, isoxazolopyrimidinyl, isothiazolopyrimidinyl, triazolopyrimidinyl, dihydropurinonyl, pyrrolopyrimidinyl, purinyl, pyrazolopyrimidinyl, phthalimidyl, phthalimidinyl, pyrazinylpyridinyl, pyridinopyrimidinyl, pyrimidinopyrimidinyl, cinnolinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinazolinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, phthalazinyl, benzodioxyl, benzisothiazoline-1,1,3-trionyl, dihydroquiniolinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, dihydroisoquinolyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, benzoazepinyl, benzodiazepinyl, benzoxapinyl, and benzoxazepinyl;

Heterocyclyl refers to monocyclic rings containing carbon and heteroatoms taken from oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur and wherein there is not delocalized π electrons (aromaticity) shared among the ring carbon or heteroatoms; heterocyclyl rings include, but are not limited to, oxetanyl, azetadinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, pyrrolidinyl, oxazolinyl, oxazolidinyl, thiazolinyl, thiazolidinyl, pyranyl, thiopyranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, dioxalinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl S-oxide, thiomorpholinyl S-dioxide, piperazinyl, azepinyl, oxepinyl, diazepinyl, tropanyl, and homotropanyl;

Poly-aryl refers to two or more monocyclic or fused aryl bicyclic ring systems characterized by delocalized π electrons (aromaticity) shared among the ring carbon atoms of at least one carbocyclic ring wherein the rings contained therein are optionally linked together;

Poly-heteroaryl refers to two or more monocyclic or fused bicyclic systems characterized by delocalized π electrons (aromaticity) shared among the ring carbon or heteroatoms including nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur of at least one carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring wherein the rings contained therein are optionally linked together, wherein at least one of the monocyclic or fused bicyclic rings of the poly-heteroaryl system is taken from heteroaryl as defined broadly above and the other rings are taken from either aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl as defined broadly above;

Poly-heterocyclyl refers to two or more monocyclic or fused bicyclic ring systems containing carbon and heteroatoms taken from oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur and wherein there is not delocalized π electrons (aromaticity) shared among the ring carbon or heteroatoms wherein the rings contained therein are optionally linked, wherein at least one of the monocyclic or fused bicyclic rings of the poly-heteroaryl system is taken from heterocyclyl as defined broadly above and the other rings are taken from either aryl, heteroaryl, or heterocyclyl as defined broadly above;

Alkyl refers to straight or branched chain C1-C6alkyls;

Halogen refers to fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine;

Alkoxy refers to —O-(alkyl) wherein alkyl is defined as above;

Alkoxylalkyl refers to -(alkyl)-O-(alkyl) wherein alkyl is defined as above;

Alkoxylcarbonyl refers to —C(O)O-(alkyl) wherein alkyl is defined as above;

CarboxylC1-C6alkyl refers to —C(O)-alkyl wherein alkyl is defined as above;

Substituted in connection with a moiety refers to the fact that a further substituent may be attached to the moiety to any acceptable location on the moiety.

The term salts embraces pharmaceutically acceptable salts commonly used to form alkali metal salts of free acids and to form addition salts of free bases. The nature of the salt is not critical, provided that it is pharmaceutically-acceptable. Suitable pharmaceutically-acceptable acid addition salts may be prepared from an inorganic acid or from an organic acid. Examples of such inorganic acids are hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydroiodic, nitric, carbonic, sulfuric and phosphoric acid. Appropriate organic acids may be selected from aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, arylaliphatic, and heterocyclyl containing carboxylic acids and sulfonic acids, examples of which are formic, acetic, propionic, succinic, glycolic, gluconic, lactic, malic, tartaric, citric, ascorbic, glucuronic, maleic, fumaric, pyruvic, aspartic, glutamic, benzoic, anthranilic, mesylic, stearic, salicylic, p-hydroxybenzoic, phenylacetic, mandelic, embonic (pamoic), methanesulfonic, ethanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, pantothenic, toluenesulfonic, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic, sulfanilic, cyclohexylaminosulfonic, algenic, 3-hydroxybutyric, galactaric and galacturonic acid. Suitable pharmaceutically-acceptable salts of free acid-containing compounds of Formula I include metallic salts and organic salts. More preferred metallic salts include, but are not limited to appropriate alkali metal (group Ia) salts, alkaline earth metal (group IIa) salts and other physiological acceptable metals. Such salts can be made from aluminum, calcium, lithium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc. Preferred organic salts can be made from primary amines, secondary amines, tertiary amines and quaternary ammonium salts, including in part, tromethamine, diethylamine, tetra-N-methylammonium, N,N′-dibenzylethylenediamine, chloroprocaine, choline, diethanolamine, ethylenediamine, meglumine(N-methylglucamine) and procaine.

The term prodrug refers to derivatives of active compounds which revert in vivo into the active form. For example, a carboxylic acid form of an active drug may be esterified to create a prodrug, and the ester is subsequently converted in vivo to revert to the carboxylic acid form. See Ettmayer et. al, J. Med. Chem (2004) 47: 2393 and Lorenzi et. al, J. Pharm. Exp. Therapeutic (2005) 883 for reviews.

Structural, chemical and stereochemical definitions are broadly taken from IUPAC recommendations, and more specifically from Glossary of Terms used in Physical Organic Chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1994) as summarized by P. Müller, Pure Appl. Chem., 66, 1077-1184 (1994) and Basic Terminology of Stereochemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 1996) as summarized by G. P. Moss Pure and Applied Chemistry, 68, 2193-2222 (1996). Specific definitions are as follows:

Atropisomers are defined as a subclass of conformers which can be isolated as separate chemical species and which arise from restricted rotation about a single bond.

Regioisomers or structural isomers are defined as isomers involving the same atoms in different arrangements.

Enatiomers are defined as one of a pair of molecular entities which are mirror images of each other and non-superimposable.

Diastereomers or diastereoisomers are defined as stereoisomers other than enantiomers. Diastereomers or diastereoisomers are stereoisomers not related as mirror images.

Diastereoisomers are characterized by differences in physical properties, and by some differences in chemical behavior towards achiral as well as chiral reagents.

Tautomerism is defined as isomerism of the general form

where the isomers (called tautomers) are readily interconvertible; the atoms connecting the groups X,Y,Z are typically any of C, H, O, or S, and G is a group which becomes an electrofuge or nucleofuge during isomerization. The commonest case, when the electrofuge is H+, is also known as “prototropy”.

Tautomers are defined as isomers that arise from tautomerism, independent of whether the isomers are isolable.

1. First Aspect of the Invention—Compounds, Methods, Preparations and Adducts

and wherein the pyridine ring may be optionally substituted with one or more R20 moieties;

each D is individually taken from the group consisting of C, CH, C—R20, N-Z3, N, O and S, such that the resultant ring is taken from the group consisting of triazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxazolyl, and thiadiazolyl;

wherein E is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, pyridyl, and pyrimidinyl;

E may be optionally substituted with one or two R16 moieties;

wherein A is a ring system selected from the group consisting of phenyl, naphthyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, G1, G2, and G3;

G1 is a heteroaryl taken from the group consisting of pyrrolyl, furyl, thienyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, isoxazol-4-yl, isoxazol-5-yl, isothiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, triazolyl, tetrazolyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, triazinyl, pyridinyl, and pyrimidinyl;

G2 is a fused bicyclic heteroaryl taken from the group consisting of indolyl, indolinyl, isoindolyl, isoindolinyl, indazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothienyl, benzothiazolyl, benzothiazolonyl, benzoxazolyl, benzoxazolonyl, benzisoxazolyl, benzisothiazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzimidazolonyl, benztriazolyl, imidazopyridinyl, pyrazolopyridinyl, imidazolonopyridinyl, thiazolopyridinyl, thiazolonopyridinyl, oxazolopyridinyl, oxazolonopyridinyl, isoxazolopyridinyl, isothiazolopyridinyl, triazolopyridinyl, imidazopyrimidinyl, pyrazolopyrimidinyl, imidazolonopyrimidinyl, thiazolopyridiminyl, thiazolonopyrimidinyl, oxazolopyridiminyl, oxazolonopyrimidinyl, isoxazolopyrimidinyl, isothiazolopyrimidinyl, triazolopyrimidinyl, dihydropurinonyl, pyrrolopyrimidinyl, purinyl, pyrazolopyrimidinyl, phthalimidyl, phthalimidinyl, pyrazinylpyridinyl, pyridinopyrimidinyl, pyrimidinopyrimidinyl, cinnolinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinazolinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, phthalazinyl, benzodioxyl, benzisothiazoline-1,1,3-trionyl, dihydroquinolinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, dihydroisoquinolyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, benzoazepinyl, benzodiazepinyl, benzoxapinyl, and benzoxazepinyl;

G3 is a heterocyclyl taken from the group consisting of oxetanyl, azetadinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, pyrrolidinyl, oxazolinyl, oxazolidinyl, imidazolonyl, pyranyl, thiopyranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, dioxalinyl, piperidinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl S-oxide, thiomorpholinyl S-dioxide, piperazinyl, azepinyl, oxepinyl, diazepinyl, tropanyl, and homotropanyl;

the A ring may be optionally substituted with one or two R2 moieties;

X is selected from the group consisting of —O—, —S(CH2)n—, —N(R3)(CH2)n—, —(CH2)p—, and wherein the carbon atoms of —(CH2)n—, —(CH2)p—, of X may be further substituted by oxo or one or more C1-C6alkyl moieties;

when A, G1, G2 or G3 has one or more substitutable sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, each respective sp2 hybridized carbon atom may be optionally substituted with a Z1 substituent;

when A, G1, C2 or G3 has one or more substitutable sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, each respective sp3 hybridized carbon atom may be optionally substituted with a Z2 substituent;

when A, G1, G2 or G3 has one or more substitutable nitrogen atoms, each respective nitrogen atom may be optionally substituted with a Z4 substituent;

each Z1 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, C3-C8cycloalkyl, halogen, fluoroC1-C6alkyl wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, cyano, C1-C6alkoxy, fluoroC1-C6alkoxy wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, —(CH2)nOH, oxo, C1-C6alkoxyC1-C6alkyl, (R4)2N(CH2)n—, (R3)2N(CH2)n—, (R4)2N(CH2)qN(R4)(CH2)n—, (R4)2N(CH2)qO(CH2)n—, (R3)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)C1-C6alkyl-, —(R4)NC(O)R8, C1-C6alkoxycarbonyl-, -carboxyC1-C6alkyl, C1-C6alkoxycarbonylC1-C6alkyl-, (R3)2NSO2—, —SOR3, (R4)2NSO2—, —N(R4)SO2R8, —O(CH2)qOC1-C6alkyl, —SO2R3, —SOR4, —C((O)R8, —C(O)R6, —C(═NOH)R6, —C(═NOR3)R6, —(CH2)nN(R4)C(O)R8, —N(R3)(CH2)qO-alkyl, —N(R3)(CH2)qN(R4)2, nitro, —CH(OH)CH(OH)R4, —C(═NH)N(R4)2, —C(═NOR3)N(R4)2, —NHC(═NH)R8, R17 substituted G3, R17 substituted pyrazolyl and R17 substituted imidazolyl;

in the event that Z1 contains an alkyl or alkylene moiety, such moieties may be further substituted with one or more C1-C6alkyls;

each Z2 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of aryl, C1-C6alkyl, C3-C8cycloalkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, hydroxyl, hydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, cyano, (R3)2N—, (R4)2N—, (R4)2NC1-C6alkyl-, (R4)2NC2-C6alkylN(R4)(CH2)n—, (R4)2NC2-C6alkylO(CH2)n—, (R3)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)—C1-C6alkyl-, carboxyl, -carboxyC1-C6alkyl, C1-C6alkoxycarbonyl-, C1-C6alkoxycarbonylC1-C6alkyl-, (R3)2NSO2—, (R4)2NSO2—, —SO2R8, —(CH2)nN(R4)C(O)R8, —C(O)R8, ═O, ═NOH, and ═N(OR6);

in the event that Z2 contains an alkyl or alkylene moiety, such moieties may be further substituted with one or more C1-C6alkyls;

each Z3 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, C3-C8cycloalkyl, fluoroC1-C6alkyl wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, hydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, C1-C6alkoxycarbonyl-, —C(O)R8, R5C(O)(CH2)n—, (R4)2NC(O)—, (R4)2NC(O)C1-C6alkyl-, R8C(O)N(R4)(CH2)q—, (R3)2NSO2—, (R4)2NSO2—, —(CH2)qN(R3)2, and —(CH2)qN(R4)2;

each Z4 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-7alkyl, hydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, C1-C6alkoxyC2-C6alkyl-, (R4)2N—C2-C6alkyl-, (R4)2N—C2-C6alkylN(R4)—C2-C6alkyl-, (R4)2N—C2-C6alkyl-O—C2-C6alkyl-(R4)2NC(O)C1-C6alkyl-, carboxyC1-C6alkyl, C1-C6alkoxycarbonylC1-C6alkyl-, —C2-C6alkylN(R4)C(O)R8, R8-C(═NR3)—, —SO2R8, and —COR8;

in the event that Z4 contains an alkyl or alkylene moiety, such moieties may be further substituted with one or more C1-C6alkyls;

each R2 is selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C8alkyl, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl is fully or partially fluorinated, halogen, cyano, C1-C6alkoxy-, and fluoroC1-C6alkoxy- wherein the alkyl group is fully or partially fluorinated, hydroxyl substituted C1-C6alkyl-, hydroxyl substituted branched C3-C8alkyl-, cyano substituted C1-C6alkyl-, cyano substituted branched C3-C8alkyl-, (R3)2NC(O)C1-C6alkyl-, and (R3)2NC(O)C3-C8 branched alkyl-;

wherein each R3 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, and C3-C8cycloalkyl;

each R4 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, hydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, dihydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, C1-C6alkoxyC1-C6alkyl-, branched C3-C7alkyl, branched hydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, branched C1-C6alkoxyC1-C6alkyl-, branched dihydroxyC1-C6alkyl-, —(CH2)pN(R7)2, —(CH2)pC(O)N(R7)2, —(CH2)nC(O)OR3, and R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-;

each R5 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of

and wherein the symbol (##) is the point of attachment to Z3;

each R6 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, and R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-;

each R7 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, hydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, dihydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, C1-C6alkoxyC2-C6alkyl-, branched C3-C7alkyl, branched hydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, branched C1-C6alkoxyC2-C6alkyl-, branched dihydroxyC2-C6alkyl-, —(CH2)nC(O)OR3, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl- and —(CH2)nR17;

each R8 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl moiety is partially or fully fluorinated, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, —OH, C1-C6alkoxy, —N(R3)2, and —N(R4)2;

each R10 is independently and individually selected from the croup consisting of —CO2H, —CO2C1-C6alkyl, —C(O)N(R4)2, OH, C1-C6alkoxy, and —N(R4)2;

each R16 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, halogen, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, cyano, hydroxyl, C1-C6alkoxy, fluoroC1-C6alkoxy- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, —N(R3)2, —N(R4)2, R3 substituted C2-C3alkynyl- and nitro;

each R17 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, halogen, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or Filly fluorinated, cyano, hydroxyl, C1-C6alkoxy, fluoroC1-C6alkoxy- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, —N(R3)2, —N(R4)2, and nitro;

each R19 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of H, OH and C1-C6alkyl;

each R20 is independently and individually selected from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C7alkyl, R19 substituted C3-C8cycloalkyl-, halogen, fluoroC1-C6alkyl- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, cyano, hydroxyl, C1-C6alkoxy, fluoroC1-C6alkoxy- wherein the alkyl moiety can be partially or fully fluorinated, —N(R3)2, —N(R4)2, —N(R3)C(O)R3, —C(O)N(R3)2 and nitro and wherein two R4 moieties independently and individually taken from the group consisting of C1-C6alkyl, branched C3-C6alkyl, hydroxyalkyl-, and alkoxyalkyl and attached to the same nitrogen heteroatom may cyclize to form a C3-C7 heterocyclyl ring;

k is 0 or 1; n is 0-6; p is 1-4; q is 2-6; r is 0 or 1; t is 1-3; v is 1 or 2; m is 0-2;

and stereo-, regioisomers and tautomers of such compounds.

1.1 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Referred D Moieties

In a preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ia, said compounds have preferred

moieties of the formula:

wherein the symbol (**) indicates the point of attachment to the pyridine ring.

1.1.1 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A Moieties

In a preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ia, said compounds have structures of formula Ib

wherein A is any possible isomer of pyrazole.

1.1.2 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A and R16 Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ib, said compounds have structures of formula Ic

1.1.3 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A and R16 Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ib, said compounds have structures of formula Id

1.1.4 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A and R16 Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ib, said compounds have structures of formula Ie

1.1.5 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ia, said compounds have structures of formula If

1.1.6 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A and R16 Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ia, said compounds have structures of formula Ig

1.1.7 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A Moieties

In a preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ia, said compounds have structures of formula Ih

wherein A is selected from the group consisting of any possible isomer of phenyl and pyridine.

1.1.8 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A and R16 Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ih, said compounds have structures of formula Ii

1.1.9 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A and R16 Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ih, said compounds have structures of formula Ij

1.1.10 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ia, said compounds have structures of formula Ik

1.1.11 Compounds of Formula Ia which Exemplify Preferred A and R16 Moieties

In a more preferred embodiment of compounds of formula Ik, said compounds have structures of formula Il

1.1.12 Most Preferred Compounds of Formula Ia

1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)urea and 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea.

1.2 Methods

1.2a Methods of Protein Modulation

The invention includes methods of modulating kinase activity of a variety of kinases, e.g. C-Abl kinase, bcr-Abl Kinase, Flt-3, VEGFR-2 kinase mutants, c-Met, c-Kit, PDGFR and the HER family of kinases. The kinases may be wildtype kinases, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof or polymorphs of any of the foregoing. The method comprises the step of contacting the kinase species with compounds of the invention and especially those set forth in sections section 1. The kinase species may be activated or unactivated, and the species may be modulated by phosphorylations, sulfation, fatty acid acylations glycosylations, nitrosylation, cystinylation (i.e. proximal cysteine residues in the kinase react with each other to form a disulfide bond) or oxidation. The kinase activity may be selected from the group consisting of catalysis of phospho transfer reactions, inhibition of phosphorylation, oxidation or nitrosylation of said kinase by another enzyme, enhancement of dephosphorylation, reduction or denitrosylation of said kinase by another enzyme, kinase cellular localization, and recruitment of other proteins into signaling complexes through modulation of kinase conformation.

1.2b Treatment Methods

The methods of the invention also include treating individuals suffering from a condition selected from the group consisting of cancer and hyperproliferative diseases. These methods comprise administering to such individuals compounds of the invention, and especially those of section 1, said diseases including, but not limited to, malignant melanomas, glioblastomas, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancers, breast cancers, kidney cancers, cervical carcinomas, metastasis of primary tumor secondary sites, myeloproliferative diseases, leukemias, papillary thyroid carcinoma, non small cell lung cancer, mesothelioma, hypereosinophilic syndrome, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, colonic cancers, ocular diseases characterized by hyperproliferation leading to blindness including various retinopathies including diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, mastocytosis, mast cell leukemia, a disease caused by c-Abl kinase, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof and polymorphs thereof, or a disease caused by a c-Kit kinase, oncogenic forms thereof, aberrant fusion proteins thereof and polymorphs thereof. The administration method is not critical, and may be from the group consisting of oral, parenteral, inhalation, and subcutaneous.

1.3 Pharmaceutical Preparations

The compounds of the invention, especially those of section 1 may form a part of a pharmaceutical composition by combining one or more such compounds with a pharamaceutically acceptable carrier. Additionally, the compositions may include an additive selected from the group consisting of adjuvants, excipients, diluents, and stabilizers.

SECTION 2. SYNTHESIS OF COMPOUNDS OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

The compounds of the invention are available by the procedures and teachings of WO 2006/071940, incorporated by reference, and by the general synthetic methods illustrated in the Schemes below and the accompanying examples.

As indicated in Scheme 1, ureas of general formula 1 can be readily prepared by the union of amines of general formula 2 with isocyanates 3 or isocyanate surrogates, for example trichloroethyl carbamates (4) or isopropenyl carbamates (5). Preferred conditions for the preparation of compounds of general formula 1 involve heating a solution of 4 or 5 with 2 in the presence of a tertiary base such as diisopropylethylamine, triethylamine or N-methylpyrrolidine in a solvent such as dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, tetrahydrofuran or 1,4-dioxane at a temperature between 50 and 100° C. for a period of time ranging from 1 hour to 2 days.

As shown in Scheme 2, isocyanates 3 can be prepared from amines A-NH2 6 with phosgene, or a phosgene equivalent such as diphosgene, triphosgene, or N,N-dicarbonylimidazole. Trichloroethyl carbamates 4 and isopropenyl carbamates 5 are readily prepared from amines A-NH2, (6) by acylation with trichloroethyl chloroformate or isopropenyl chloroformate by standard conditions familiar to those skilled in the art. Preferred conditions for the preparation of 4 and 5 include include treatment of compound 6 with the appropriate chloroformate in the presence of pyridine in an aprotic solvent such as dichloromethane or in the presence of aqueous hydroxide or carbonate in a biphasic aqueous/ethyl acetate solvent system.

Additionally, compounds of formula 1 can also be prepared from carboxylic acids 7 by the intermediacy of in-situ generated acyl azides (Curtius rearrangement) as indicated in Scheme 3. Preferred conditions for Scheme 3 include the mixing of acid 7 with amine 2 and diphenylphosphoryl azide in a solvent such as 1,4-dioxane or dimethylformamide in the presence of base, such as triethylamine and raising the temperature of the reaction to about 80-120° C. to affect the Curtius rearrangement.

By analogy to Schemes 1 and 3 above, it will be recognized by those skilled in the art that the compounds of formula 1 can also be prepared by the union of amines A-NH2 6 with isocyanates 8 (Scheme 4). Isocyanates 8 can be prepared from general amines 2 by standard synthetic methods. Suitable methods for example, include reaction of 2 with phosgene, or a phosgene equivalent such as diphosgene, triphosgene, or N,N-dicarbonylimidazole. In addition to the methods above for converting amines 2 into isocynates 8, the isocyanates 8 can also be prepared in situ by the Curtius rearrangement and variants thereof. Those skilled in the art will further recognize that isocycanates 8 need not be isolated, but may be simply generated in situ. Accordingly, acid 9 can be converted to compounds of formula 1 either with or without isolation of 8. Preferred conditions for the direct conversion of acid 9 to compounds of formula 1 involve the mixing of acid 9, amine A-NH2 6, diphenylphosphoryl azide and a suitable base, for example triethylamine, in an aprotic solvent, for example dioxane. Heating said mixture to a temperature of between 80 and 120° C. provides the compounds of formula 1.

Additionally, compounds of formula 1 can also be prepared from amines 2 by first preparing stable isocyanate equivalents, such as carbamates (Scheme 5). Especially preferred carbamates include trichloroethyl carbamates (10) and isopropenyl carbamates (11) which are readily prepared from amine 2 by reaction with trichloroethyl chloroformate or isopropenyl chloroformate respectively using standard conditions familiar to those skilled in the art. Further reaction of carbamates 10 or 11 with amine A-NH2 6 provides compounds of formula 1. Those skilled in the art will further recognize that certain carbamates can also be prepared from acid 9 by Curtius rearrangement and trapping with an alcoholic co-solvent. For example, treatment of acid 9 (Scheme 5) with diphenylphosphoryl azide and trichloroethanol at elevated temperature provides trichloroethyl carbamate 10.

Many methods exist for the preparation of amines A-NH2 6 and acids A-CO2H 7, depending on the nature of the A-moiety. Indeed, many such amines (6) and acids (7) useful for the preparation of compounds of formula 1 are available from commercial vendors. Some non-limiting preferred synthetic methods for the preparation of amines 6 and acids 7 are outlined in the following schemes and accompanying examples.

As illustrated in Scheme 6, Z4-substituted pyrazol-5-yl amines 14 (a preferred aspect of A-NH2 6, Scheme 2) are available by the condensation of hydrazines 12 and beta-keto nitrites 13 in the presence of a strong acid. Preferred conditions for this transformation are by heating in ethanolic HCl. Many such hydrazines 12 are commercially available. Others can be prepared by conditions familiar to those skilled in the art, for example by the diazotization of amines followed by reduction or, alternately from the reduction of hydrazones prepared from carbonyl precursors.

Another preferred method for constructing Z4-substituted pyrazoles is illustrated by the general preparation of pyrazole acids 19 and 20. (Scheme 7), aspects of of general acid A-CO2H 7 (Scheme 3). As indicated in Scheme 7, pyrazole 5-carboxylic esters 17 and 18 can be prepared by the alkylation of pyrazole ester 16 with Z4-X 15, wherein X represents a leaving group on a Z4 moiety such as a halide, triflate, or other sulfonate. Preferred conditions for the alkylation of pyrazole 16 include the use of strong bases such as sodium hydride, potassium tert-butoxide and the like in polar aprotic solovents such as dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide or tetrahydrofuran. Z4-substituted pyrazoles 17 and 18 are isomers of one another and can both be prepared in the same reactions vessel and separated by purification methods familiar to those skilled in the art. The esters 17 and 18 in turn can be converted to acids 19 and 20 using conditions familiar to those skilled in the art, for example saponification in the case of ethyl esters, hydrogenation in the case of benzyl esters or acidic hydrolysis in the case of tert-butyl esters.

Scheme 8 illustrates the preparation of pyrazole amine 25, a further example of general amine A-NH2 6. Acid-catalyzed condensation of R2-substituted hydrazine 21 with 1,1,3,3-tetramethoxypropane 22 provides R2-substituted pyrazole 23. Those skilled in the art will further recognize that R2-substituted pyrazole 23 can also be prepared by direct alkylation of pyrazole. Pyrazole 23 can be regioselectively nitrated to provide nitro-pyrazole 24 by standard conditions familiar to those skilled in the art. Finally, hydrogenation of nitro-pyrazole 24 employing a hydrogenation catalyst, such as palladium or nickel provides pyrazole amine 25, an example of general amine A-NH2 6.

Additional pyrazoles useful for the synthesis of compounds of formula 1 can be prepared as described in Scheme 9. Thus, keto-ester 26 can be reacted with N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal to provide 27. Reaction of 27 with either 21 or 28 (wherein P is an acid-labile protecting group) in the presence of acid provides 29 or 30. In practice, both 29 and 30 can be obtained from the same reaction and can be separated by standard chromatographic conditions. In turn, esters 29 and 30 can be converted to acids 31 and 32 respectively as previously described in Scheme 7.

In a manner similar to Scheme 9, NH-pyrazole 34 can be prepared by reaction of acrylate 33 with hydrazine (Scheme 10). Alkylation of 34 with R2-X 35 as described above for Scheme 7 provides mixtures of pyrazole esters 36 and 37 which are separable by standard chromatographic techniques. Further conversion of esters 36 and 37 to acids 38 and 39 can be accomplished as described above in Scheme 7.

General amines 6 containing an isoxazole ring can be prepared as described in Scheme 11. Thus, by analogy to Scheme 6, reaction of keto-nitrile 9 with hydroxylamine can provide both the 5-aminoisoxazole 40 and 3-aminoisoxazole 41. Preferred conditions for the formation of 5-aminoisoxazole 40 include the treatment of 9 with hydroxylamine in the presence of aqueous sodium hydroxide, optionally in the presence of an alcoholic co-solvent at a temperature between 15 and 100° C. Preferred conditions for the formation of 3-aminoisoxazole 41 include the treatment of 9 with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in a polar solvent such as water, an alcohol, dioxane or a mixture thereof at a temperature between 15 and 100° C.

Amines 2 useful for the invention can be synthesized according to methods commonly known to those skilled in the art. Amines of general formula 2 contain three rings and can be prepared by the stepwise union of three monocyclic subunits as illustrated in the following non-limiting Schemes. Scheme 12 illustrates one mode of assembly in which an E-containing subunit 42 is combined with the central pyridine ring 43 to provide the bicyclic intermediate 44. In one aspect this general Scheme, the “M” moiety of 42 represents a hydrogen atom of a heteroatom on the X linker that participates in a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction with monocycle 43. Such reactions may be facilitated by the presence of bases (for example, potassium tert-butoxide), thus M may also represent a suitable counterion (for example potassium, sodium, lithium, or cesium) within an alkoxide, sulfide or amide moiety. Alternately, the “M” group can represent a metallic species (for example, copper, boron, tin, zirconium, aluminum, magnesium, lithium, silicon, etc.) on a carbon atom of the X2 moiety that can undergo a transition-metal-mediated coupling with monocycle 43.

The “Y” group of monocyclic species 42 is an amine or an amine surrogate, such as an amine masked by a protecting group (“P” in formula 45), a nitro group, or a carboxy acid or ester that can be used to prepare an amine via known rearrangement. Examples of suitable protecting groups “P” include but are not limited to tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc), benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz), and acetamide. In the instances wherein the “Y”-group of intermediate 42 is not an amine, the products of Scheme 11 will be amine surrogates such as 45 or 46 that can be converted to amine 2 by a deprotection, reduction or rearrangement (for example, Curtius rearrangement) familiar to those skilled in the all.

In these instances, the “LG” of monocycle 43 represents a moiety that can either be directly displaced in a nucleophilic substitution reaction (with or without additional activation) or can participate in a transition-mediated union with fragment 42. The W group of monocycle 43 or bicycle 44 represents a moiety that allows the attachment of the pyrazole. In one aspect, the “W” group represents a halogen atom that will participate in a transition-metal-mediated coupling with a pre-formed heterocyclic reagent (for example a boronic acid or ester, or heteroaryl stannane) to give rise to amine 2. In another aspect, the “W” group of 43 and 44 represents a functional group that can be converted to a five-membered heterocycle by an annulation reaction. Non-limiting examples of such processes would include the conversion of a cyano, formyl, carboxy, acetyl, or alkynyl moiety into a pyrazole moiety. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that such annulations may in fact be reaction sequences and that the reaction arrows in Scheme 11 may represent either a single reaction or a reaction sequence. Additionally, the “W” group of 44 may represent a leaving group (halogen or triflate) that can be displaced by a nucleophilic nitrogen atom of a pyrazole ring.

Some non-limiting examples of general Scheme 12 are illustrated in the Schemes below. Scheme 13 illustrates the preparation of pyrazole 51, an example of general amine 2. In Scheme 13, commercially available 3-fluoro-4-aminophenol (47) is reacted with potassium tert-butoxide and 2,4-dichloropyridine 48 to provide chloropyridine 49. The preferred solvent for this transformation is dimethylacetamide at a temperature between 80 and 100° C. Subsequent union of chloropyridine 49 with the commercially available oxazole-4-boronic acid pinacol ester 50 in the presence of a palladium catalyst, preferably tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium, provides oxazole amine 51.

Scheme 14 illustrates a non-limiting example of Scheme 12 wherein the “W” group is a leaving group for nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Thus, amine 53, an example of general amine 2, can be prepared from general intermediate 49 by reaction with 1,2,4-triazole (52). Preferred conditions include the use of polar aprotic solvents such as 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, dimethylacetamide, or dimethylsulfoxide in the presence of non-nucleophilic bases such as potassium carbonate, sodium hydride, 1,8-diaza-bicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU), and the like. Preferred temperatures are from ambient temperature up to about 250° C. and may optionally include the use of microwave irradiation or sonication. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the general methods of scheme 14 can be used to prepare additional triazole isomers by employing either 1,2,4-triazole 52, or alternatively, by employing 1,2,3-triazole in place of 52.

Scheme 15 illustrates the preparation of amine 55 and 56, non-limiting examples of general amine of formula 2, by way of an annulation sequence according to general Scheme 12. Conversion of chloropyridine 49 into alkyne 53 can be accomplished by Sonogashira cross-coupling with trimethylsilylacetylene, followed by aqueous hydrolysis of the trimethylsilyl group, conditions familiar to those skilled in the art. Further reaction of alkyne 53 with azidomethyl pivalate (54) in the presence of copper sulfate and sodium ascorbate provides the N-pivaloylymethyl triazole amine 55. (see Loren, et. al. Synlett, (2005), 2847). Deprotection under standard conditions, preferably dilute aqueous sodium hydroxide, provides 56. Alternatively, the amine 55 can be used directly to produce ureas of formula 1 prior to the removal of the N-pivaloylmethyl protecting group.

Additional examples of general amines of formula 2 can be prepared as illustrated in Scheme 16. Thus, by analogy to Scheme 12, the general intermediate 40 can be converted by palladium-mediated Stille-coupling into oxazoles 57 or 59 by reaction with the tributylstannanes 58 (see: Cheng et al., Biorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2006, 2076) or 60 (Aldrich Chemical). Preferred palladium catalysts for the Stille reactions include dichlorobis(triplhenylphosphine)palladium, dichloro[11′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]palladium and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium. Similarly, isoxazoles 61 and 63 can be obtained by the palladium-catalyzed reaction of 40 with 4-isoxazoleboronic acid pinacol ester 62 (Frontier Scientific) or tributylstannane 64 (see: Sakamoto, et al. Tetrahedron, 1991, 5111).

As an extension of Schemes 12, 13 and 16, amines of general formula 2 containing an isothiazole ring can also be prepared by the methods described above. Scheme 17 shows a non-limiting example wherein a palladium-catalyzed Stille reaction of trimethylstannane 65 (see: Wentland, et al. J. Med. Chem., 1993, 1580) with 40 can provide isothiazole 67. In a similar fashion, palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-cross coupling between 40 and the boronate ester 66 (see: Blackaby, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 7,030,128) gives rise to isothiazole amine 68.

Additional preferred synthetic methods for the preparation of compounds of formula 1 are found in the following examples.

SECTION 3. EXAMPLES

General Method A: To a stirring solution of the carboxylic acid (0.24 mmol) and TEA (1.2 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (4.5 mL) at RT was added DPPA (0.29 mmol). After stirring for 0.5 h at RT, the appropriate amine (0.71 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred with heating at 100° C. for 2 h. The reaction was cooled to RT, diluted with brine (15 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×30 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by chromatography to afford the target compound.

General Method B: To a solution of the starting pyrazole amine (1 eq) in EtOAc were added 2,2,2-trichloroethylchloroformate (1.1 eq) and saturated NaHCO3 (2-3 eq) at 0° C. After stirring for 3 h at RT, the layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated under vacuum to yield the crude TROC carbamate of the pyrazole amine.

To the TROC carbamate (1 eq) in DMSO were added diisopropylethylamine (2 eq), the appropriate amine (2 eq) and the mixture was stirred at 60° C. for 16 h or until all the starting carbamate was consumed. Water was added to the mixture and the product was extracted with EtOAc (2×25 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine solution, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to yield crude product, which was purified by column chromatography to yield the target compound.

Example A1

A suspension of 3-fluoro-4-aminophenol (8.0 g, 63.0 mmol) in dimethylacetamide (80 mL) was de-gassed in vacuo and treated with potassium tert-butoxide (7.3 g, 65 mmol). The resultant mixture was stirred at RT for 30 min. 2,4-Dichloropyridine (8 g, 54 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 80° C. for 12 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a residue which was partitioned between water and EtOAc (3×100 mL). The organic layers were washed with saturated brine, dried (MgSO4), concentrated in vacuo and purified by silica gel column chromatography to give 4-(2-chloro-pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluoro-phenylamine (11 g, 86% yield). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6), δ 8.24 (d, J=5.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.00 (dd, J=9.0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.89-6.73 (m, 4 H), 5.21 (br s, 2 H); MS (ESI) m/z: 239.2 (M+H+).

To a degassed solution of 4-(2-chloropyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorobenzenamine (0.801 g, 3.36 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) and TEA (2 mL) was added ethynyltrimethylsilane (0.929 ml, 6.71 mmol), trans-dichloro-bis(triphenyl phosphine)palladium(0) (0.236 g, 0.336 mmol) and copper (I) iodide (0.064 g, 0.336 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 90° C. for 16 h. Water (60 ml) was added to the mixture, product was extracted with EtOAc (2×45 ml) and the combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) concentrated to afford crude product. The product was dissolved in methanol (10 ml), K2CO3 (0.5 g) was added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 2 h. Solvent was removed, to the crude residue was added water (60 mL) and EtOAc (40 ml), the layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (1×30 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to afford crude product which was purified by column chromatography (ethylacetate/hexane) to afford 4-(2-ethynylpyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorobenzenamine as a thick residue (0.56 g, 73% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.37 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 6.98 (dd, J=8.0 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J=6.0 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.81-6.73 (m, 2H), 5.20 (brs, 2H), 4.03 (s, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z: 229.1 (M+H+).

Sodium azide (1.942 g, 29.9 mmol) was added to a suspension of chloromethyl pivalate (3.00 g, 19.92 mmol) in water (5 mL) and stirred vigorously at 90° C. for 16 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 ml). The organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to afford azidomethyl pivalate as a liquid (2 g, 64% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, Acetone-d6): δ 5.23 (s, 2H), 1.22 (s, 9H).

To a suspension of azidomethyl pivalate (0.075 g, 0.477 mmol), 4-(2-ethynylpyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorobenzenamine (0.109 g, 0.477 mmol) in t-butanol (0.6 mL) and water (0.6 mL) was added sodium ascorbate (0.021 g, 0.095 mmol). Copper(II)sulfate in water (0.048 ml, 0.048 mmol) was added to the above suspension and the dark red mixture was stirred for 3 h at RT. It was diluted with water (30 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL), the layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2×15 mL). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to afford (4-(4-(4-amino-3-fluorophenoxy)pyridin-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl pivalate as a red solid. (0.165 g, 90% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.54 (s, 1H), 8.46 (brs, 1H), 7.60 (s, 1H), 6.98 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (d, J=3.6 Hz, 1H), 6.83-6.81 (m, 2H), 6.42 (s, 2H), 4.78 (s, 2H), 1.17 (s, 9H); MS (ESI) m/z: 386.1 (M+H+).

Example A2

To a solution of 4-(2-chloropyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorobenzenamine from Example A1 (1.0 g, 4.2 mmol) in NMP (10 ml) was added DBU (0.94 mL, 6.3 mmol) and 1,2,4-triazol sodium salt (0.57 g, 6.3 mmol) and the mixture was heated overnight under argon atmosphere at 160° C. The reaction mixture cooled to RT, diluted with water (100 mL) and the solution was extracted with EtOAc (3×). The organics were combined and washed with LiCl solution and brine (2×), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was slurried in EtOAc (5 mL), the solid was filtered and washed with EtOAc to obtain a mixture of product and SM. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo, the residue was slurried in CH2Cl2, filtered and washed with CH2Cl2 to obtain 4-(2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorobenzenamine (0.35 g). MS (ESI) m/z: 272.2 (M+H+).

Example A3

4-(2-Chloropyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorobenzenamine from Example A1 (150 mg, 0.629 mmol), 2-(tri-n-butylstannyl)oxazole (0.132 ml, 0.629 mmol) and PdCl2(dppf)-CH2Cl2 (51.3 mg, 0.063 mmol) were combined in DMF (3 ml) under Ar and stirred with heating at 90° C. After 3 h, the completed reaction was cooled to RT and treated with satd. aq. KF (5 ml; prepared from equal portions of KF.H2O and H2O) and stirred at RT for 1 h. The suspension was diluted with EtOAc and filtered through Celite®, rinsing forward with EtOAc. The filtrate was diluted with H2O and the layers were separated. The aqueous was extracted with EtOAc (2×). The combined organics were washed with brine (2×), dried (MgSO4), concentrated in vacuo and purified by flash column chromatography (EtOAc/hexanes) to afford 80 mg of 2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)benzenamine (0.295 mmol, 47% yield) as an oil that solidified on standing. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.52 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 8.26 (s, 1H), 7.40 (d, J=2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 7.05-7.02 (m, 2H), 6.88-6.78 (m, 2H), 5.23 (s, 2H); ); MS (ESI) m/z: 272.1 (M+H+).

Example A4

In a 3:1 mix of DMF:H20 (6 mL) was placed 4-(2-chloropyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorobenzenamine from example A1 (245 mg, 1.026 mmol), cesium carbonate (1.337 g, 4.10 mmol), 5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)oxazole (300 mg, 1.538 mmol) and tetrakistriphenylphosphine Pd(0) (178 mg, 0.154 mmol). The mix was degassed, placed under Ar, warmed to 80° C. and stirred overnight. The reaction was cooled to RT, diluted with water (20 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3×20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo to give 2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)benzenamine (415 mg, 149% yield) as a dark oil. LC and LCMS shows mostly desired product as well as triphenylphosphine oxide as a by product. Used as is. MS (ESI) m/z: 272.1 (M+H+).

Example A5

In a microwave reaction vial, 4-(2-ethynylpyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorobenzenamine from Example A1 (0.201 g, 0.881 mmol) was dissolved in THF (4 mL). Acetaldoxime (0.078 g, 1.321 mmol), triethylamine (0.246 ml, 1.761 mmol), and 1-chloropyrrolidine-2,5-dione (0.176 g, 1.321 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred at 130° C. for 45 min under microwave irradiation. An additional 1.5 eq each of acetaldoxime and 1-chloropyrrolidine-2,5-dione were added and microwave heating was heated for an additional 45 min at 130° C. This process repeated one more time. The mixture was poured into a biphasic solution of water (40 mL) and EtOAc (30 mL). The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2×20 mL). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to afford 2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methylisoxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)benzenamine (58 mg, 23% yield) as light red colored residue. MS (ESI) m/z: 286.1 (M+H+).

Example B1

To an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide solution (40.00 g, 1 mol, in 200 ml of water) was added hydroxylamine hydrochloride (24.00 g, 346 mmol) and pivaloylacetonitrile (40.00 g, 320 mmol). The resulting solution was stirred at 50° C. for 3 hrs. The reaction mixture cooled and the resultant white crystalline solid filtered, washed with water and dried to provide 3-t-butylisoxazol-5-amine as a white crystalline solid (34 g, yield 76% yield). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 6.41 (brs, 2H), 4.85 (s, 1H), 1.18(s, 9H): LC-MS (ES, m/z, M+H) 141.3.

Example 1

Using General Method A, 3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (0.054 g, 0.3 mmol), Example A1 (0.1 g, 0.25 mmol), triethylamine (0.76 g, 0.75 mmol) and DPPA (0.137 g, 0.5 mmol) were combined and purified by column chromatography (ethylacetate/hexanes) to afford (4-(4-(4-(3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)ureido)-3-fluorophenoxy)pyridin-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl pivalate as a white solid (0.115 g, 82% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.89 (s, 1H), 8.84 (s, 1H), 8.68 (s, 1H), 8.50 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 8.19 (t, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.46 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (dd, J=12.0 Hz, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (dd, J=8.8 Hz, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (dd, J=5.6 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.35 (s, 2H), 6.07 (s, 1H), 3.60 (s, 3H), 1.19 (s, 9H), 1.10 (s, 9H); MS (ESI) m/z: 565.2 (M+H+).

To a solution of (4-(4-(4-(3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)ureido)-3-fluorophenoxy)pyridin-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl pivalate (0.11 g, 0.195 mmol) in MeOH (1 mL) was added 2M NaOH (0.4 mL) and the mixture was stirred for 30 min at RT. Solvent was removed, crude residue was diluted with water (5 mL) and neutralized with 50% aqueous acetic acid (1 ml). The resultant solid was filtered and dried to afford 1-(4-(2-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)urea as a white solid (75 mg, 85% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.89 (s, 1H), 8.84 (s, 1H), 8.68 (s, 1H), 8.49 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 8.36 (brs, 1H), 8.19 (t, J=9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (s, 1H), 7.33 (dd, J=11.6 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.06-7.04 (m, 1H), 6.94 (dd, J=5.6 Hz, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (s, 1H), 3.60 (s, 3H), 1.19 (s, 9H); MS (ESI) m/z: 451.1 (M+H+).

Example 2

To a solution of 2,2,2-trichloroethyl 3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-ylcarbamate (0.080 g, 0.25 mmol), formed via General method B from Example B1, in dioxane (3 mL) was added Example A2 (70 mg, 0.25 mmol) and 1-methylpyrrolidine (22 mg, 0.25 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated overnight at 65° C. The reaction mixture cooled to RT, concentrated in vacuo, DCM (2 mL) was added and the slurry was stirred for 1 hour. The solid was filtered and air dried to obtain 1-(4-(2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)urea. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.3 (s, 1H), 9.56 (s, 1H), 8.70 (s, 1H), 8.34 (s, 1H), 8.29 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (t, J=9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (dd, J=2.0, and 5.6 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (d, J=1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.26 (dd, J=2.8, and 12.0 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (m, 1H), 6.05 (s, 1H), 1.24 (s, 9H); MS (ESI) m/z: 438.1 (M+H+).

Example 3

To a solution of 3-(t-butyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (0.054 g, 0.295 mmol) in dioxane (3 ml) was added TEA (0.123 ml, 0.885 mmol) followed by DPPA (0.095 ml, 0.442 mmol). The mixture was stirred at RT for 30 min and then treated with a solution of Example A3 (0.080 g, 0.295 mmol) in dioxane (3.00 ml). The reaction was then placed in an oil bath preheated to 100° C. and stirred with heating overnight. The completed reaction was cooled to RT. Without aqueous workup, the reaction mixture was purified directly by reverse phase chromatography (MeCN (w/0.1% TFA)/H2O (w/0.1% TFA)) to afford 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea of 96.8% purity. MS (ESI) m/z: 451.1 (M+H+).

Example 4

Using General Method A, 3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (205 mg, 1.127 mmol), triethylamine (415 mg, 4.10 mmol), Example A4 [max theoretical yield from previous reaction] (278 mg, 1.025 mmol) and DPPA (338 mg, 1.23 mmol) were combined and purified by reverse phase chromatography (acetonitrile/water/−0.1% TFA) to give a residue which was treated with 10% potassium carbonate (10 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3×25 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (25 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo to give 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (131 mg, 28% yield) as a film. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.15 (s, 9 H), 3.60 (s, 3 H), 6.07 (s, 1 H), 6.91-6.93 (m, 1 H), 7.04-7.07 (m, 1 H), 7.23 (d, 1 H), 7.30-7.34 (m, 1 H), 7.78 (s, 1 H), 8.18 (t, 1 H), 8.48-8.51 (m, 2 H), 8.85 (d, 1 H), 8.90 (s, 1 H); MS (ESI) m/z: 451.1 (M+H+).

Example 5

Using general method A, 3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (0.042 g, 0.23 mmol), Example A5 (0.51 g, 0.18 mmol), triethylamine (0.54 g, 0.53 mmol) and DPPA (0.1 g, 0.35 mmol) were combined and purified by column chromatography using (EtOAc/hexanes) to afford 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methylisoxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea as white solid (0.015 g, 18% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.89 (s, 1H), 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.56 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (t, J=8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (dd, J=12.0 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.08-7.05 (m, 1H), 7.03-7.00 (m, 1H), 6.97 (s, 1H), 6.07 (s, 1H), 3.60 (s, 3H), 2.82 (s, 3H), 1.19 (s, 9H); MS (ESI) m/z: 465.1 (M+H+).

Using the synthetic procedures and methods described herein and methods known to those skilled in the art, the following compounds are made: 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyloxazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isothiazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isothiazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isothiazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(5-tert-butylisoxazol-3-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(5-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-3H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(5-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-3H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyloxazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isothiazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isothiazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isothiazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(5-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-3H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(5-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-3H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl(pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1 2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(5-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(5-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)-3-(5-isopropylpyridin-3-yl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-5-(2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(5-(2-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)urea, 1-(5-(2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-5-(2-(oxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-5-(2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-5-(2-(oxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-5-(2-(3-methylisoxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-5-(2-(isoxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-5-(2-(isothiazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-5-(2-(3-methylisothiazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(5-(2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)urea, 1-(5-(2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)urea, 1-(5-(2-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)urea, 1-(5-(2-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methylisoxazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(3-methylisothiazol-5-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-tert-butyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)urea, 1-(4-(2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)-2-fluorophenyl)-3-(3-tert-butylisoxazol-5-yl)urea, and 1-(3-tert-butyl-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-(2-(oxazol-2-yl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea.

SECTION 4. BIOLOGICAL DATA

Abl Kinase (SEQ ID NO:1) Assay

Activity of Abl kinase (SEQ ID NO:1) was determined by following the production of ADP from the kinase reaction through coupling with the pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase system (e.g., Schindler, et al. Science (2000) 289, 1938-1942). In this assay, the oxidation of NADH (thus the decrease at A340nm was continuously monitored spectrophometrically. The reaction mixture (100 μl) contained Abl kinase (1 nM. Abl from deCode Genetics), peptide substrate (EAIYAAPFAKKK, 0.2 mM), MgCl2 (10 mM), pyruvate kinase (4 units), lactate dehydrogenase (0.7 units), phosphoenol pyruvate (1 mM), and NADH (0.298 mM) in 90 mM Tris buffer containing 0.2% octyl-glucoside and 3.5% DMSO, pH 7.5. Test compounds were incubated with Abl (SEQ ID NO:1) and other reaction reagents at 30° C. for 2 h before ATP (500 μM) was added to start the reaction. The absorption at 340 nm was monitored continuously for 2 hours at 30° C. on Polarstar Optima plate reader (BMG). The reaction rate was calculated using the 1.0 to 2.0 h time frame. Percent inhibition was obtained by comparison of reaction rate with that of a control (i.e. with no test compound). IC50 values were calculated from a series of percent inhibition values determined at a range of inhibitor concentrations using software routines as implemented in the GraphPad Prism software package.

Abl kinase (SEQ ID NO: 1)
GTSMDPSSPNYDKWEMERTDITMKHKLGGGQYGEVYEGVWKKYSLTVAVK
TLKEDTMEVEEFLKEAAVMKEIKHPNLVQLLGVCTREPPFYIITEFMTYG
NLLDYLRECNRQEVNAVVLLYMATQISSAMEYLEKKNFIHRDLAARNCLV
GENHLVKVADFGLSRLMTGDTYTAHAGAKFPIKWTAPESLAYNKFSIKSD
VWAFGVLLWEIATYGMSPYPGIDLSQVYELLEKDYRMERPEGCPEKVYEL
MRACWQWNPSDRPSFAEIHQAFETMFQE

Abl Kinase (SEQ ID NO:2) Assay

Activity of T3 15I Abl kinase (SEQ ID NO:2) was determined by following the production of ADP from the kinase reaction through coupling with the pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase system (e.g., Schindler, et al. Science (2000) 289, 1938-1942). In this assay, the oxidation of NADH (thus the decrease at A340nm) was continuously monitored spectrophometrically. The reaction mixture (100 μl) contained Abl kinase (4.4 nM. M315I Abl from deCode Genetics), peptide substrate (EAIYAAPFAKKK, 0.2 mM), MgCl2 (10 mM), pyruvate kinase (4 units), lactate dehydrogenase (0.7 units), phosphoenol pyruvate (1 mM), and NADH (0.28 mM) in 90 mM Tris buffer containing 0.2% octyl-glucoside and 1% DMSO, pH 7.5. Test compounds were incubated with T315I Abl (SEQ ID NO:2) and other reaction reagents at 30° C. for 1 h before ATP (500 μM) was added to start the reaction. The absorption at 340 nm was monitored continuously for 2 hours at 30° C. on Polarstar Optima plate reader (BMG). The reaction rate was calculated using the 1.0 to 2.0 h time frame. Percent inhibition was obtained by comparison of reaction rate with that of a control (i.e. with no test compound). IC50 values were calculated from a series of percent inhibition values determined at a range of inhibitor concentrations using software routines as implemented in the GraphPad Prism software package.

Abl T3151 kinase (SEQ ID NO: 2)
GTSMDPSSPNYDKWEMERTDITMKHKLGGGQYGEVYEGVWKKYSLTVAVK
TLKEDTMEVEEFLKEAAVMKEIKHPNLVQLLGVCTREPPFYIIIEFMTYG
NLLDYLRECNRQEVNAVVLLYMATQISSAMEYLEKKNFIHRDLAARNCLV
GENHLVKVADFGLSRLMTGDTYTAHAGAKFPIKWTAPESLAYNKFSIKSD
VWAFGVLLWEIATYGMSPYFGIDLSQVYELLEKDYRMERPEGCPEKVYEL
MRACWQWNPSDRPSFAEIHQAFETMFQE
BCR-Abl p210-e14a2 (SEQ ID NO: 3)
MVDPVGFAEAWKAQFPDSEPPRMELRSVGDIEQELERCKASIRRLEQEVN
QERFRMIYLQTLLAKEKKSYDRQRWGFRRAAQAFDGASEPRASASRPQPA
PADGADPPPAEEPEARPDGEGSPGKARPGTARRPGAAASGERDDRGPPAS
VAALRSNFERIRKGHGQPGADAEKPFYVNVEFHHERGLVKVNDKEVSDRI
SSLGSQAMQMERKKSQHGAGSSVGDASRPPYRGRSSESSCGVDGDYEDAE
LNPRFLKDNLIDANGGSRPPWPPLEYQPYQSIYVGGIMEGEGKGPLLRSQ
STSEQEKRLTWPRRSYSPRSFEDCGGGYTPDCSSNENLTSSEEDFSSGQS
SRVSPSPTTYRMFRDKSRSPSQNSQQSFDSSSPPTPQCHKRHRHCPVVVS
EATIVGVRKTGQIWPNDDEGAFHGDADGSFGTPPGYGCAADRAEEQRRHQ
DGLPYIDDSPSSSPHLSSKGRGSRDALVSGALKSTKASELDLEKGLEMRK
WVLSGILASEETYLSHLEALLLPMKPLKAAATTSQPVLTSQQIETIFFKV
PELYEIHKESYDGLFPRVQQWSHQQRVGDLFQKLASQLGVYRAFVDNYGV
AMEMAEKCCQANAQFAEISENLRARSNKDAKDPTTKNSLETLLYKPVDRV
TRSTLVLHDLLKHTPASHPDHPLLQDALRISQNFLSSINEEITPRRQSMT
VKKGEHRQLLKDSFMVELVEGARKLRHVFLFTDLLLCTKLKKQSGGKTQQ
YDCKWYIPLTDLSFQMVDELEAVPNIPLVPDEELDALKIKISQIKSDIQR
EKRANKGSKATERLKKKLSEQESLLLLMSPSMAFRVHSRNGKSYTFLISS
DYERAEWRENIREQQKKCFRSFSLTSVELQMLTNSCVKLQTVHSIPLTIN
KEDDESPGLYGFLNVIVHSATGFKQSSKALQRPVASDFEPQGLSEAARWN
SKENLLAGPSENDPNLFVALYDFVASGDNTLSITKGEKLRVLGYNHNGEW
CEAQTKNGQGWVPSNYITPVNSLEKHSWYHGPVSRNAAEYPLSSGINGSF
LVRESESSPSQRSISLRYEGRVYHYRINTASDGKLYVSSESRFNTLAELV
HHHSTVADGLITTLHYPAPKRNKPTVYGVSPNYDKWEMERTDITMKHKLG
GGQYGEVYEGVWKKYSLTVAVKTLKEDTMEVEEFLKEAAVMKEIKHPNLV
QLLGVCTREPPFYIITEFMTYGNLLDYLRECNRQEVNAVVLLYMATQISS
AMEYLEKKNFIHRDLAARNCLVGENHLVKVADFGLSRLMTGDTYTAHAGA
KFPIKWTAPESLAYNKFSIKSDVWAFGVLLWEIATYGMSPYPGIDRSQVY
ELLEKDYRMKRPEGCPEKVYELMRACWQWNPSDRPSFAEIHQAFETMFQE
SSISDEVEKELGKQGVRGAVTTLLQAPELPTKTRTSRRAAEHRDTTDVPE
MPHSKGQGESDPLDHEPAVSPLLPRKERGPPEGGLNEDERLLPKDKKTNL
FSALIKKKKKTAPTPPKRSSSFREMDGQPERRGAGEEEGRDISNGALAFT
PLDTADPAKSPKPSNGAGVPNGALRESGGSGFRSPHLWKKSSTLTSSRLA
TGEEEGGGSSSKRFLRSCSVSCVPHGAKDTEWRSVTLPRDLQSTGRQFDS
STFGGHKSEKPALPRKRAGENRSDQVTRGTVTPPPRLVKKNEEAADEVFK
DIMESSPGSSPPNLTPKPLRRQVTVAPASGLPHKEEAWKGSALGTPAAAE
PVTPTSKAGSGAPRGTSKGPAEESRVRRHKHSSESPGRDKGKLSKLKPAP
PPPPAASAGKAGGKPSQRPGQEAAGEAVLGAKTKATSLVDAVNSDAAKPS
QPAEGLKKPVLPATFKPHPAKPSGTPISPAPVPLSTLPSASSALAGDQPS
STAFIPLISTRVSLRKTRQPPERASGAITKGVVLDSTEALCLAISGNSEQ
MASHSAVLEAGKNLYTFCVSYVDSIQQMRNKFAFREAINKLENNLRELQI
CPASAGSGPAATQDFSKLLSSVKEISDIVQR
BCR-Abl p210-e13a2 (SEQ ID NO: 4)
MVDPVGFAEAWKAQFPDSEPPRMELRSVGDIEQELERCKASIRRLEQEVN
QERFRMIYLQTLLAKEKKSYDRQRWGFRRAAQAPDGASEPRASASRPQPA
PADGADPPPAEEPEARPDGEGSPGKARPGTARRPGAAASGERDDRGPPAS
VAALRSNFERIRKGHGQPGADAEKPFYVNVEFHHERGLVKVNDKEVSDRI
SSLGSQAMQMERKKSQHGAGSSVGDASRPPYRGRSSESSCGVDGDYEDAE
LNPRFLKDNLIDANGGSRPPWPPLEYQPYQSIYVGGIMEGEGKGPLLRSQ
STSEQEKRLTWPRRSYSPRSFEDCGGGYTPDCSSNENLTSSEEDFSSGQS
SRVSPSPTTYRMFRDKSRSPSQNSQQSFDSSSPPTPQCHKRHRHCPVVVS
EATIVGVRKTGQIWPNDDEGAFHGDADGSFGTPPGYGCAADRAEEQRPHQ
DGLPYIDDSPSSSPHLSSKGRGSRDALVSGALKSTKASELDLEKGLEMRK
WVLSGILASEETYLSHLEALLLPMKPLKAAATTSQPVLTSQQIETIFFKV
PELYEIHKESYDGLFPRVQQWSHQQRVGDLFQKLASQLGVYRAFVDNYGV
AMEMAEKCCQANAQFAEISENLRARSNKDAKDPTTKNSLETLLYKPVDRV
TRSTLVLHDLLKHTPASHPDHPLLQDALRISQNFLSSINEEITPRRQSMT
VKKGEHRQLLKDSFMVELVEGARKLRHVFLFTDLLLCTKLKKQSGGKTQQ
YDCKWYIPLTDLSFQMVDELEAVPNIPLVPDEELDALKIKISQIKSDIQR
EKRANKGSKATERLKKKLSEQESLLLLMSPSMAFRVHSRNGKSYTFLISS
DYERAEWRENIREQQKKCFRSFSLTSVELQMLTNSCVKLQTVHSIPETIN
KEEALQRPVASDFEPQGLSEAARWNSKENLLAGFSENDPNLFVALYDFVA
SGDNTLSITKGEKLRVLGYNHNGEWCEAQTKNGQGWVPSNYITPVNSLEK
HSWYHGPVSRNAAEYPLSSGINGSFLVRESESSPSQRSISLRYEGRVYHY
RINTASDGKLYVSSESRFNTLAELVHHHSTVADGLITTLHYPAPKRNKPT
VYGVSPNYDKWEMERTDITMKHKLGGGQYGEVYEGVWKKYSLTVAVKTLK
EDTMEVEEFLKEAAVMKEIKHPNLVQLLGVCTREPPFYIITEFMTYGNLL
DYLRECNRQEVNAVVLLYMATQISSAMEYLEKKNFIHRDLAARNCLVGEN
HLVKVADFGLSRLMTGDTYTAHAGAKFPIKWTAPESLAYNKFSIKSDVWA
FGVLLWEIATYGMSPYPGIDRSQVYELLEKDYRMKRPEGCPEKVYELMRA
CWQWNPSDRPSFAEIHQAFETMFQESSISDEVEKELGKQGVRGAVTTLLQ
APELPTKTRTSRRAAEHRDTTDVPEMPHSKGQGESDPLDHEPAVSPLLPR
KERGPPEGGLNEDERLLPKDKKTNLFSALIKKKKKTAPTPPKRSSSFREM
DGQPERRGAGEEEGRDISNGALAFTPLDTADPAKSPKPSNGAGVPNGALR
ESGGSGFRSPHLWKKSSTLTSSRLATGEEEGGGSSSKRFLRSCSVSCVPH
GAKDTEWRSVTLPRDLQSTGRQFDSSTFGGHKSEKPALPRKRAGENRSDQ
VTRGTVTPPPRLVKKNEEAADEVFKDIMESSPGSSPPNLTPKPLRRQVTV
APASGLPHKEEAWKGSALGTPAAAEPVTPTSKAGSGAPRGTSKGPAEESR
VRRHKHSSESPGRDKGKLSKLKPAPPPPPAASAGKAGGKPSQRPGQEAAG
EAVLGAKTKATSLVDAVNSDAAKPSQPAEGLKKPVLPATPKPHPAKPSGT
PISPAPVPLSTLPSASSALAGDQPSSTAFIPLISTRVSLRKTRQPPERAS
GAITKGVVLDSTEALCLAISGNSEQMASHSAVLEAGKNLYTFCVSYVDSI
QQMRNKFAFREAINKLENNLRELQICPASAGSGPAATQDFSKLLSSVKEI
SDIVQR
BCR-Abl p190-e1a2 (SEQ ID NO: 5)
MVDPVGFAEAWKAQFPDSEPPRMELRSVGDIEQELERCKASIRRLEQEVN
QERFRMIYLQTLLAKEKKSYDRQRWGFRRAAQAPDGASEPRASASRPQPA
PADGADPPPAEEPEARPDGEGSPGKARPGTARRPGAAASGERDDRGPPAS
VAALRSNFERIRKGHGQPGADAEKPFYVNVEFHHERGLVKVNDKEVSDRI
SSLGSQAMQMERKKSQHGAGSSVGDASRPPYRGRSSESSCGVDGDYEDAE
LNPRFLKDNLIDANGGSRPPWPPLEYQPYQSIYVGGIMEGEGKGPLLRSQ
STSEQEKRLTWPRRSYSPRSFEDCGGGYTPDCSSNENLTSSEEDFSSGQS
SRVSPSPTTYRMFRDKSRSPSQNSQQSFDSSSPPTPQCHKRHRHCPVVVS
EATIVGVRKTGQIWPNDDEGAFHGDAEALQRPVASDFEPQGLSEAARWNS
KENLLAGPSENDPNLFVALYDFVASGDNTLSITKGEKLRVLGYNHNGEWC
EAQTKNGQGWVPSNYITPVNSLEKHSWYHGPVSRNAAEYPLSSGINGSFL
VRESESSPSQRSISLRYEGRVYHYRINTASDGKLYVSSESRFNTLAELVH
HHSTVADGLITTLHYPAPKRNKPTVYGVSPNYDKWEMERTDITMKHKLGG
GQYGEVYEGVWKKYSLTVAVKTLKEDTMEVEEFLKEAAVMKEIKHPNLVQ
LLGVCTREPPFYIITEFMTYGNLLDYLRECNRQEVNAVVLLYMATQISSA
MEYLEKKNFIHRDLAARNCLVGENHLVKVADFGLSRLMTGDTYTAHAGAK
FPIKWTAPESLAYNKFSIKSDVWAFGVLLWEIATYGMSPYPGIDRSQVYE
LLEKDYRMKRPEGCPEKVYELMRACWQWNPSDRPSFAEIHQAFETMFQES
SISDEVEKELGKQGVRCAVTTLLQAPELPTKTRTSRRAAEHRDTTDVPEM
PHSKGQGESDPLDHEPAVSPLLPRKERGPPEGGLNEDERLLPKDKKTNLF
SALIKKKKKTAPTPPKRSSSFREMDGQPERRGAGEEEGRDISNGALAFTP
LDTADPAKSPKPSNGAGVPNGALRESGGSGFRSPHLWKKSSTLTSSRLAT
GEEEGGGSSSKRFLRSCSVSCVPHGAKDTEWRSVTLPRDLQSTGRQFDSS
TFGGHKSEKPALFRKRAGENRSDQVTRGTVTPPPRLVKKNEEAADEVFKD
IMESSPGSSPPNLTPKPLRRQVTVAPASGLPHKREAWKGSALGTPAAAEP
VTPTSKAGSGAPRGTSKGPAEESRVRRHKHSSESPGRDRGKLSKLKPAPP
PPPAASAGKAGGKPSQRPGQEAAGEAVLGAKTKATSLVDAVNSDAAKPSQ
PAEGLKKPVLPATPKPHPAKPSGTPISPAPVPLSTLPSASSALAGDQPSS
TAFIPLISTRVSLRKTRQPPERASGAITKGVVLDSTEALCLAISGNSEQM
ASHSAVLEAGKNLYTFCVSYVDSIQQMRNKFAFREAINKLENNLRELQIC
PASAGSGPAATQDFSKLLSSVKEISDIVQR
BCR-Abl p210-e14a2 T315I (SEQ ID NO: 6)
MVDPVGFAEAWKAQFPDSEPPRMELRSVGDIEQELERCKASIRRLEQEVN
QERFRMIYLQTLLAKEKKSYDRQRWGFRRAAQAPDGASEPRASASRPQPA
PADGADPPPAEEPEARPDGEGSPGKARPGTARRPGAAASGERDDRGPPAS
VAALRSNFERIRKGHGQPGADAEKPFYVNVEFHHERGLVKVNDKEVSDRI
SSLGSQAMQMERKKSQHGAGSSVGDASRPPYRGRSSESSCGVDGDYEDAE
LNPRFLKDNLIDANGGSRPPWPPLEYQPYQSIYVGGIMEGEGKGPLLRSQ
STSEQEKRLTWPRRSYSPRSFEDCGGGYTPDCSSNENLTSSEEDFSSGQS
SRVSPSPTTYRMFRDKSRSPSQNSQQSFDSSSPPTPQCHKRHRHCPVVVS
EATIVGVRKTGQIWPNDDEGAFHGDADGSFGTPPGYGCAADRAEEQRRHQ
DGLPYIDDSPSSSPHLSSKGRGSRDALVSGALKSTKASELDLEKGLEMRK
WVLSGILASEETYLSHLEALLLPMKPLKAAATTSQPVLTSQQIETIFFKV
PELYEIHKESYDGLFPRVQQWSHQQRVGDLPQKLASQLGVYRAFVDNYGV
AMEMAEKCCQANAQFAEISENLRARSNKDAKDPTTKNSLETLLYKPVDRV
TRSTLVLHDLLKHTPASHPDHPLLQDALRISQNFLSSINEEITPRRQSMT
VKKGEHRQLLKDSFMVELVEGARKLRHVFLFTDLLLCTKLKKQSGGKTQQ
YDCKWYIPLTDLSFQMVDELEAVPNIPLVPDEELDALKIKISQIKSDIQR
EKRANKGSKATERLKKKLSEQESLLLLMSPSMAFRVHSRNGKSYTFLISS
DYERAEWRENIREQQKKCFRSFSLTSVELQMLTNSCVKLQTVHSIPLTIN
KEDDESPGLYGFLNVIVHSATGFKQSSKALQRPVASDFEPQGLSEAARWN
SKENLLAGPSENDPNLFVALYDFVASGDNTLSITKGEKLRVLGYNHNGEW
CEAQTKNGQGWVPSNYITPVNSLEKHSWYHGPVSRNAAEYPLSSGINGSF
LVRESESSPSQRSISLRYEGRVYHYRINTASDGKLYVSSESRFNTLAELV
HHHSTVADGLITTLHYPAPKRNKPTVYGVSPNYDKWEMERTDITMKHKLG
GGQYGEVYEGVWKKYSLTVAVKTLKEDTMEVEEFLKEAAVMKEIKHPNLV
QLLGVCTREPPFYIIIEFMTYGNLLDYLRECNRQEVNAVVLLYMATQISS
AMEYLEKKNFIHRDLAARNCLVGENHLVKVADFGLSRLMTGDTYTAHAGA
KFPIKWTAPESLAYNKFSIKSDVWAFGVLLWEIATYGMSPYPGIDRSQVY
ELLEKDYRMKRPEGCPEKVYELMRACWQWNPSDRPSFAEIHQAFETMFQE
SSISDEVEKELGKQGVRGAVTTLLQAPELPTKTRTSRRAAEHRDTTDVPE
MPHSKGQGESDPLDHEPAVSPLLPRKERGPPEGGLNEDERLLPKDKKTNL
FSALIKKKKKTAPTPPKRSSSFREMDGQPERRGAGEEEGRDISNGALAFT
PLDTADPAKSPKPSNGAGVPNGALRESGGSGFRSPHLWKKSSTLTSSRLA
TGEEEGGGSSSKRFLRSCSVSCVPHGAKDTEWRSVTLPRDLQSTGRQFDS
STFGGHKSEKPALPRKRAGENRSDQVTRGTVTPPPRLVKKNEEAADEVFK
DIMESSPGSSPPNLTPKPLRRQVTVAPASGLPHKEEAWKGSALGTPAAAE
PVTPTSKAGSGAPRGTSKGPAEESRVRRHKHSSESPGRDKGKLSKLKPAP
PPPPAASAGKAGGKPSQRPGQEAAGEAVLGAKTKATSLVDAVNSDAAKPS
QPAEGLKKPVLPATPKPHPAKPSGTPISPAPVPLSTLPSASSALAGDQPS
STAFIPLISTRVSLRKTRQPPERASGAITKGVVLDSTEALCLAISGNSEQ
MASHSAVLEAGKNLYTFCVSYVDSIQQMRNKFAFREAINKLENNLRELQI
CPASAGSGFAATQDFSKLLSSVKEISDIVQR
BCR-Abl p210-e13a2 T315I (SEQ ID NO: 7)
MVDPVGFAEAWKAQFPDSEPPRMELRSVGDIEQELERCKASIRRLEQEVN
QERFRMIYLQTLLAKEKKSYDRQRWGFRRAAQAPDGASEPRASASRPQPA
PADGADPPPAEEPEARPDGEGSPGKARPGTARRPGAAASGERDDRGPPAS
VAALRSNFERIRKGHGQPGADAEKPFYVNVEFHHERGLVKVNDKEVSDRI
SSLGSQAMQMERKKSQHGAGSSVGDASRPPYRGRSSESSCGVDGDYEDAE
LNPRFLKDNLIDANGGSRPPWPPLEYQPYQSIYVGGIMEGEGKGPLLRSQ
STSEQEKRLTWPRRSYSPRSFEDCGGGYTPDCSSNENLTSSEEDFSSGQS
SRVSPSPTTYRMFRDKSRSPSQNSQQSFDSSSPPTPQCHKPHRHCPVVVS
EATIVGVRKTGQIWPNDDEGAFHGDADGSFGTPPGYGCAADRAEEQRRHQ
DGLPYIDDSPSSSPHLSSKGRGSRDALVSGALKSTKASELDLEKGLEMRK
WVLSGILASEETYLSHLEALLLPMKPLKAAATTSQPVLTSQQIETIFFKV
PELYEIHKESYDGLFPRVQQWSHQQRVGDLFQKLASQLGVYRAFVDNYGV
AMEMAEKCCQANAQFAEISENLRARSNKDAKDPTTKNSLETLLYKPVDRV
TRSTLVLHDLLKHTPASHPDHPLLQDALRISQNFLSSINEEITPRRQSMT
VKKGEHRQLLKDSFMVELVEGARKLRHVFLFTDLLLCTKLKKQSGGKTQQ
YDCKWYIPLTDESFQMVDELEAVPNIPLVPDEELDALKIKISQIKSDIQR
EKRANKGSKATERLKKKLSEQESLLLLMSPSMAFRVHSRNGKSYTFLISS
DYERAEWRENIREQQKKCFRSPSLTSVELQMLTNSCVKLQTVHSIPLTIN
KEEALQRPVASDFEPQGLSEAAPWNSKENLLAGPSENDPNLFVALYDFVA
SQDNTLSITKGEKLRVLGYNHNGEWCEAQTKNGQGWVPSNYITPVNSLEK
HSWYHGPVSRNAAEYPLSSGINGSFLVRESESSPSQRSISLRYEGRVYHY
RINTASDGKLYVSSESRFNTLAELVHHHSTVADGLITTLHYPAPKRNKPT
VYGVSPNYDKWEMERTDITMKHKLGGGQYGEVYEGVWKKYSLTVAVKTLK
EDTMEVEEFLKEAAVMKEIKHPNLVQLLGVCTREPPFYIIIEFMTYGNLL
DYLRECNRQEVNAVVLLYMATQISSAMEYLEKKNFIHRDLAARNCLVGEN
HLVKVADFGLSRLMTGDTYTAHAGAKFPIKWTAFESLAYNKFSIKSDVWA
FGVLLWEIATYGMSPYPGIDRSQVYELLEKDYRMKRPEGCPEKVYELMRA
CWQWNPSDRPSFAEIHQAFETMFQESSISDEVEKELGKQGVRGAVTTLLQ
APELPTKTRTSRRAAEHRDTTDVPEMPHSKGQGESDPLDHEPAVSPLLPR
KERGPFEGGLNEDERLLPKDKKTNLFSALIKKKKKTAPTPPKRSSSFREM
DGQFERRGAGEEEGRDISNGALAFTPLDTADPAKSFKPSNGAGVPNGALR
ESGGSGFRSPHLWKKSSTLTSSRLATGEEEGGGSSSKRFLRSCSVSCVPH
GAKDTEWRSVTLPRDLQSTGRQFDSSTFGGHKSEKPALPRKRAGENRSDQ
VTRGTVTPPPRLVKKNEEAADEVFKDIMESSPGSSPPNLTPKPLRRQVTV
APASGLPHKEEAWKGSALGTPAAAEPVTPTSKAGSGAPRGTSKGPAEESR
VRRHKHSSESPGRDKGKLSKLKPAPPPPPAASAGKAGGKPSQRPGQEAAG
EAVLGAKTKATSLVDAVNSDAAKPSQPAEGLKKPVLPATPKPHPAKPSGT
PISPAPVPLSTLPSASSALAGDQPSSTAFIPLISTRVSLRKTRQPPERAS
GAITKGVVLDSTEALCLAISGNSEQMASHSAVLEAGKNLYTFCVSYVDSI
QQMRNKFAFREAINKLENNLRELQICPASAGSGPAATQDFSKLLSSVKEI
SDIVQR
BCR-Abl p190-e1a2 (SEQ ID NO: 8)
MVDPVGFAEAWKAQFPDSEPPRMELRSVGDIEQELERCKASIRRLEQEVN
QERFRMIYLQTLLAKEKKSYDRQRWGFRRAAQAFDGASEPRASASRPQPA
PADGADPPPAEEPEARPDGEGSPGKARPGTARRPQAAASGERDDRGPPAS
VAALRSNFERIRKGHGQPGADAEKPFYVNVEFHHERGLVKVNDKEVSDRI
SSLGSQAMQMERKKSQHGAGSSVGDASRPPYRGRSSESSCGVDGDYEDAE
LNPRFLKDNLIDANGGSRPPWFPLEYQPYQSIYVGGIMEGEGKGPLLRSQ
STSEQEKRLTWPRRSYSPRSFEDCGGGYTPDCSSNENLTSSEEDFSSGQS
SRVSPSPTTYRMFRDKSRSPSQNSQQSFDSSSPPTPQCHKRHRHCPVVVS
EATIVGVRKTGQIWPNDDEGAFHGDAEALQRPVASDFEPQGLSEAARWNS
KENLLAGPSENDPNLFVALYDFVASGDNTLSITKGEKLRVLGYNHNGEWC
EAQTKNGQGWVPSNYITPVNSLEKHSWYHGPVSRNAAEYPLSSGINGSFL
VRESESSPSQRSISLRYEGRVYHYRINTASDGKLYVSSESRFNTLAELVH
HHSTVADGLITTLHYPAPKRNRPTVYGVSPNYDKWEMERTDITMKHKLGG
GQYGEVYEGVWKKYSLTVAVKTLKEDTMEVEEFLKEAAVMKEIKHPNLVQ
LLGVCTREPPFYIIIEFMTYGNLLDYLRECNRQEVNAVVLLYMATQISSA
MEYLEKKNFIHRDLAARNCLVGENHLVKVADFGLSRLMTGDTYTAHAGAK
FPIKWTAPESLAYNKFSIKSDVWAFGVLLWEIATYGMSPYPGIDRSQVYE
LLEKDYRMKRPEGCPEKVYELMPACWQWNPSDRPSFAEIHQAFETMFQES
SISDEVEKELGKQGVRGAVTTLLQAPELPTKTRTSRRAAEHRDTTDVPEM
PHSKGQGESDPLDHEPAVSFLLPRKERGPPEGGLNEDERLLPKDKKTNLF
SALIKKKKKTAPTPPKRSSSFREMDGQPERRGAGEEEGRDISNGALAFTP
LDTADPAKSPKPSNGAGVPNGALRESGGSGFRSPHLWKKSSTLTSSRLAT
GEEEGGGSSSKRFLRSCSVSCVPHGAKDTEWRSVTLPRDLQSTGRQFDSS
TFGGHKSEKPALPRKRAGENRSDQVTRGTVTPPPRLVKKNEEAADEVFKD
IMESSPGSSPPNLTPKPLRRQVTVAPASGLPHKEEAWKGSALGTPAAAEP
VTPTSKAGSGAPRGTSKGPAEESRVRRHKHSSESPGRDKGKLSKLKPAPP
PPPAASAGKAGGKPSQRPGQEAAGEAVLGAKTKATSLVDAVNSDAAKPSQ
PAEGLKKPVLPATPKPHPAKPSGTPISPAPVPLSTLPSASSALAGDQPSS
TAFIPLISTRVSLRKTRQPPERASGAITKGVVLDSTEALCLAISGNSEQM
ASHSAVLEAGKNLYTFCVSYVDSIQQMRNKFAFREAINKLENNLRELQIC
PASAGSGPAATQDFSKLLSSVKEISDIVQR
C-Kit kinase (SEQ ID NO: 9) assay

Activity of c-Kit kinase (SEQ ID NO:9) was determined by following the production of ADP from the kinase reaction through coupling with the pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase system (e.g.. Schindler, et al. Science (2000) 289, 1938-1942). In this assay, the oxidation of NADH (thus the decrease at A340 nm) was continuously monitored spectrophometrically. The reaction mixture (100 μl) contained c-Kit (cKIT residues T544-V976, from ProQinase, 5.4 nM), polyE4Y (1 mg/ml), MgCl2 (10 mM), pyruvate kinase (4 units), lactate dehydrogenase (0.7 units), phosphoenol pyruvate (1 mM), and NADH (0.28 mM) in 90 mM Tris buffer containing 0.2% octyl-glucoside and 1% DMSO, pH 7.5. Test compounds were incubated with C-Met (SEQ ID NO:9) and other reaction reagents at 22° C. for <2 min before ATP (200 μM) was added to start the reaction. The absorption at 340 nm was monitored continuously for 0.5 hours at 30° C. on Polarstar Optima plate reader (BMG). The reaction rate was calculated using the 0 to 0.5 h time frame. Percent inhibition was obtained by comparison of reaction rate with that of a control (i.e. with no test compound). IC50 values were calculated from a series of percent inhibition values determined at a range of inhibitor concentrations using software routines as implemented in the GraphPad Prism software package.

c-Kit with N-terminal GST fusion (SEQ ID NO: 9)
LGYWKIKGLVQPTRLLLEYLEEKYEEHLYERDEGDKWRNKKFELGLEFPN
LPYYIDGDVKLTQSMAIIRYIADKHNMLGGCPKERAEISMLEGAVDIRYG
VSRIAYSKDFETLKVDFLSKLPEMLKMFEDRLCHKTYLNGDHVTHPDFML
YDALDVVLYMDPMCLDAFPKLVCFKKRIEAIPQIDKYLKSSKYIWPLQGW
QATFGGGDHPPKSDLVPRHNQTSLYKKAGSAAAVLEENLYFQGTYKYLQK
PMYEVQWKVVEEINGNNYVYIDPTQLPYDHKWEFPRNRLSFGKTLGAGAF
GKVVEATAYGLIKSDAAMTVAVKMLKPSAHLTEREALMSELKVLSYLGNH
MNIVNLLGACTTGGPTLVITEYCCYGDLLNFLRRKRDSFICSKQEDHAEA
ALYKNLLHSKESSCSDSTNEYMDMKPGVSYVVPTKADKRRSVRIGSYIER
DVTPAIMEDDELALDLEDLLSFSYQVAKGMAFLASKNCIHRDLAARNILL
THGRITKICDFGLARDIKNDSNYVVKGNARLPVKWMAPESIFNCVYTFES
DVWSYGIFLWELFSLGSSPYPGMPVDSKFYKMIKEGFRMLSFEHAPAEMY
DIMKTCWDADPLKRPTFKQIVQLIEKQISESTNHIYSNLANCSPNRQKPV
VDHSVRINSVGSTASSSQPLLVHDDV

C-Met Kinase (SEQ ID NO:10) Assay

Activity of C-Met kinase (SEQ ID NO:10) was determined by following the production of ADP from the kinase reaction through coupling with the pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase system (e.g., Schindler, et al. Science (2000) 289, 1938-1942). In this assay, the oxidation of NADH (thus the decrease at A340 nm) was continuously monitored spectrophometrically. The reaction mixture (100 μl) contained C-Met (c-Met residues: 956-1390, from Invitrogen, catalogue #PV3143, 6 nM), polyE4Y (1 mg/ml), MgCl2 (10 mM), pyruvate kinase (4 units), lactate dehydrogenase (0.7 units), phosphoenol pyruvate (1 mM), and NADH (0.28 mM) in 90 mM Tris buffer containing 0.25 mM DTT, 0.2% octyl-glucoside and 1% DMSO, pH 7.5. Test compounds were incubated with C-Met (SEQ ID NO:10) and other reaction reagents at 22° C. for 0.5 h before ATP (100 μM) was added to start the reaction. The absorption at 340 nm was monitored continuously for 2 hours at 30° C. on Polarstar Optima plate reader (BMG). The reaction rate was calculated using the 1.0 to 2.0 h time frame. Percent inhibition was obtained by comparison of reaction rate with that of a control (i.e. with no test compound), IC50 values were calculated from a series of percent inhibition values determined at a range of inhibitor concentrations using software routines as implemented in the GraphPad Prism software package.

cMet Kinase (SEQ ID NO: 10)
MSYYHHHHHHDYDIPTTENLYFQGAMLVPRGSPWIPFTMKKRKQIKDLGS
ELVRYDARVHTPHLDRLVSARSVSPTTEMVSNESVDYRATFPEDQFPNSS
QNGSCRQVQYPLTDMSPILTSGDSDISSPLLQNTVHIDLSALNPELVQAV
QHVVIGPSSLIVHFNEVIGRGHFGCVYHGTLLDNDGKKIHCAVKSLNRIT
DIGEVSQFLTEGIIMKDFSHPNVLSLLGICLRSECSPLVVLPYMKHGDLR
NFIRNETHNPTVKDLIGFGLQVAKGMKYLASKKFVHRDLAARNCMLDEKF
TVKVADFGLARDMYDKEYYSVHNKTGAKLPVKWMALESLQTQKFTTKSDV
WSFGVLLWELMTRGAPPYPDVNTFDITVYLLQGRRLLQPEYCPDPLYEVM
LKCWHPKAEMRPSFSELVSRISAIFSTFIGEHYVHVNATYVNVKCVAPYP
SLLSSEDNADDEVDTRPASFWETS

The biochemical IC50 Values of other compounds disclosed herein are at least 10 μM against Abl enzyme.

Cell Culture

BaF3 cells (parental or transfected with the following: wild type p210 BCR-Abl and T315I p210 BCR-Abl was obtained from Professor Richard Van Etten (New England Medical Center, Boston, Mass.). Briefly, cells were grown in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% characterized fetal bovine serum (HyClone, Logan, Utah) at 37 degrees Celsius, 5% CO2, 95% humidity. Cells were allowed to expand until reaching 80% saturation at which point they were subcultured or harvested for assay use.

Cell Proliferation Assay

A serial dilution of test compound was dispensed into a 96 well black clear bottom plate (Coming, Coming, N.Y.). For each cell line, three thousand cells were added per well in complete growth medium. Plates were incubated for 72 hours at 37 degrees Celsius, 5% CO2, 95% humidity. At the end of the incubation period Cell Titer Blue (Promega, Madison, Wis.) was added to each well and an additional 4.5 hour incubation at 37 degrees Celsius, 5% CO2, 95% humidity was performed. Plates were then read on a BMG Fluostar Optima (BMG, Durham, N.C.) using an excitation of 544 nM and an emission of 612 nM. Data was analyzed using Prism software (Graphpad, San Diego. Calif.) to calculate IC50's.