Title:
Supporting Wall and Moulded Blocks of Concrete for Building a Supporting Wall
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention relates to a molded block (20) of concrete. The molded block (20) is suitable for building a supporting wall (21) which is inclined to the vertical against an earth backfill (22) and in which the individual molded blocks (20) are arranged one above the other in layers.

The molded block (20) is formed as a cavity block in such a way that, with the molded blocks (20) arranged offset in relation to one another in layers in a supporting wall (21), the load-transferring regions of the molded blocks (20) arranged above or below one another are arranged essentially in line in the load-transferring direction.

This makes it possible for supporting walls to be built from molded blocks with considerably larger apertures than in the prior art, with the same or greater load-bearing capacity.




Inventors:
Koster, Uwe (Bremen, DE)
Application Number:
11/569099
Publication Date:
10/23/2008
Filing Date:
05/17/2005
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
405/286
International Classes:
E02D29/02; E04C1/39; E04B2/02
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
ANDRISH, SEAN D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SMITH, GAMBRELL & RUSSELL (ATLANTA, GA, US)
Claims:
1. A molded block of concrete for building a supporting wall (21) which is inclined to the vertical against an earth backfill (22) and in which the individual molded blocks are arranged one above the other in layers, characterized in that the molded block (20) is formed as a cavity block with at least one cavity or a vertically directed aperture (27, 28, 29), the, or essentially each, cavity or aperture (27, 28, 29) being arranged in such a way that, with the molded blocks (20) arranged offset in relation to one another in layers in a supporting wall (21), preferably the essentially load-transferring regions of the molded blocks (20) arranged above or below one another are arranged essentially in line in the load-transferring direction.

2. The molded block as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the molded block (20) is trapezoidally formed in horizontal projection.

3. The molded block as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the or each cavity or aperture (27, 28, 29) extends continuously from an upper side (25) to an underside (26) of the molded block (20).

4. The molded block as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that a number of cavities or apertures (27, 28, 29), which are separated from one another by webs (31) directed obliquely in horizontal projection, are provided in such a way that the cavities or apertures (27, 28, 29) are triangularly or trapezoidally formed in horizontal projection.

5. The molded block as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the molded block has three cavities or apertures (27, 28, 29), which are separated from one another by two webs (31) which run from two corner regions on one side face (24) of the molded block (20) approximately to the center of the opposite side face (24) of the molded block (20).

6. The molded block as claimed in claim 4, characterized in that the webs (31) finish flush with an upper side (25) and an underside (26) of the molded block (20).

7. The molded block as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that at least one upright side face (24) of the molded block (20) has a specially formed surface as a visible side (35) of the supporting wall (21).

8. The molded block as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the molded block (20) has in the region of an underside (26) and/or an upper side (25) at least one depression (32) formed for receiving connecting means (33) for the molded blocks (20).

9. The molded block as claimed in claim 8, characterized in that the depressions (32) extend from one upright side face (23) to an opposite upright side face (23) of the molded block (20) and are arranged at a distance from other side faces (24) of the molded block (20) to form visible sides.

10. The molded block as claimed in claim 8, characterized in that the depressions (32) run parallel to a visible side (36) of the supporting wall (21).

11. The molded block as claimed in claim 8, characterized in that the depressions (32) are formed in walls (30) and webs (31) of the molded block (20) that are formed between the apertures (27, 28, 29).

12. The molded block as claimed in claim 8, characterized in that the depressions (32) are arranged along an imaginary continuous axis and in that further the depressions (32) are preferably arranged in a second parallel axis.

13. A supporting wall comprising molded blocks (20) of concrete, which is inclined to the vertical against an earth backfill (22) and in which the individual molded blocks (20) are arranged one above the other in layers, characterized by the use of molded blocks (20), wherein each molded block (20) is formed as a cavity block with at least one cavity or a vertically directed aperture (27, 28, 29), the, or essentially each, cavity or aperture (27, 28, 29) being arranged in such a way that, with the molded blocks (20) arranged offset in relation to one another in layers in a supporting wall (21), preferably the essentially load-transferring regions of the molded blocks (20) arranged above or below one another are arranged essentially in line in the load-transferring direction.

14. The supporting wall as claimed in claim 13, characterized in that the supporting wall (21) comprises at least a front wall (39) of molded blocks (20) and a rear wall (40) of molded blocks (20), with the molded blocks (20) of the rear wall (40) and the molded blocks (20) of the front wall (39) being connected to one another by connecting means (33).

15. The supporting wall as claimed in claim 14, characterized in that the connecting means (33) are positioned in depressions (32) of the molded blocks (20), in such a way that the molded blocks (20) of the front wall (39) and of the rear wall (40) that are positioned approximately at the same height are respectively connected to one another.

16. The supporting wall as claimed in claim 14, characterized in that the molded blocks (20) of the rear wall (40) are embedded in the earth backfill (22) and preferably covered by it.

17. The supporting wall as claimed in claim 14, characterized in that the connecting means (33) are formed in an annular manner and are in engagement with depressions (32) in the region of mutually facing side faces (24) of the molded blocks (20) of the front wall (39) and rear wall (40).

18. The supporting wall as claimed in claim 14, characterized in that the connecting means (33) connect the molded blocks (20) of the rear wall (40) and of the front wall (39) jointedly to one another for the transfer of tensile forces.

Description:

STATEMENT OF RELATED APPLICATIONS

This patent application is the United States Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) Chapter II National Phase of PCT/EP2005/005341 having an international filing date of 17 May 2005, which claims priority on German patent application no. 10 2004 024 802.8 having a filing date of 17 May 2004. The PCT applicant is SF-Kooperation GmbH Beton-Konzepte, a corporation of Germany, having a business address of Bremerhavener Heerstrasse 10, 28717, Bremen, Germany.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Technical Field

The invention relates to a molded block of concrete for building a supporting wall which is in particular inclined to the vertical against an earth backfill and in which the individual molded blocks are arranged one above the other in layers. Furthermore, the invention relates to a corresponding supporting wall comprising such molded blocks.

2. Prior Art

Such molded blocks or supporting walls are known in various embodiments in practice. To be mentioned by way of example is EP 0 191 908 B1, originating from the applicant.

The molded blocks and supporting walls known from the prior art basically perform their purpose. However, laying is laborious, in particular with regard to the necessary anchoring measures to secure the supporting wall.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Against this background, the invention is based on the object of further developing molded blocks and supporting walls of the type mentioned at the beginning.

A molded block to achieve this object is a molded block of concrete for building a supporting wall which is in particular inclined to the vertical against an earth backfill and in which the individual molded blocks are arranged one above the other in layers, characterized in that the molded block is formed as a cavity block with at least one cavity or a vertically directed aperture, the, or essentially each, cavity or aperture being arranged in such a way that, with the molded blocks arranged offset in relation to one another in layers in a supporting wall, preferably the essentially load-transferring regions of the molded blocks arranged above or below one another are arranged essentially in line in the load-transferring direction. The fact that the molded block is formed as a cavity block with at least one cavity or a vertically directed aperture has the effect that the molded block has a lower weight than conventional molded blocks for building supporting walls. The molded block can consequently be laid more easily, in particular manually. Furthermore, it is provided that the, or essentially each, cavity or aperture is arranged in such a way that, with the molded blocks arranged offset in relation to one another in layers in a supporting wall, load-transferring regions of molded blocks arranged above or below one another are arranged essentially in line in the load-transferring direction. This configuration makes very large cavities or apertures possible, so that the molded blocks have a comparatively low weight. The applicant has recognized that, if the load-transferring regions are arranged in line in spite of the offset arrangement in layers, the entire load-transferring cross section can be used for dimensioning purposes, so that the remaining walls can be made relatively thin.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, it is provided that the molded block is trapezoidally formed in horizontal projection. The or each cavity may be formed continuously from an upper side to an underside of the molded block, so that vertically directed apertures are created. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the molded block has three cavities or apertures, which are separated from one another by obliquely directed webs.

Visible faces of the molded block preferably have a specially formed surface, for example a surface similar to natural stone.

A further special feature comprises the formation of depressions intended for receiving connecting means that are envisaged when building special supporting walls.

The supporting wall according to the invention is a supporting wall comprising molded blocks of concrete, which is preferably inclined to the vertical against an earth backfill and in which the individual molded blocks are arranged one above the other in layers, characterized in that the molded blocks according to the invention are used. The supporting wall thereby benefits from the advantages that can be achieved by using the molded blocks.

In a preferred development of the invention, it is provided that the supporting wall comprises at least two walls, individual molded blocks of the two walls being connected to one another by connecting means. This results in a supporting wall which has a much greater static width and withstands correspondingly greater loading by the earth backfill.

Preferred developments of the invention concern the type of connection of the two walls and the configuration of the connecting means. Depending on requirements, the molded blocks of each layer may be connected to one another, or else only the blocks of every second, third, etc. layer. The same applies to the arrangement in horizontal projection.

The rear wall may have the same height, a smaller height or a greater height than the front wall, depending on requirements in terms of statics. A further special feature comprises that the molded blocks can not only be laid as straight walls but also make it possible to lay curved walls.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE DRAWINGS

Preferred exemplary embodiments of the invention are explained below on the basis of the drawing, in which:

FIG. 1 shows a three-dimensional representation of a molded block according to the invention, looking toward an underside.

FIG. 2 shows a three-dimensional representation of a molded block according to the invention, looking toward an underside.

FIG. 3 shows a three-dimensional representation of the molded block according to FIGS. 1 and 2, looking toward an upper side.

FIG. 4 shows a side view of the molded block according to FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 shows a plan view of the molded block according to FIG. 1.

FIG. 6 shows a supporting wall in side view.

FIG. 7 shows the supporting wall according to FIG. 6 in horizontal projection.

FIG. 8 shows a further supporting wall, comprising two walls, in side view.

FIG. 9 shows the supporting wall according to FIG. 8 in horizontal projection.

FIG. 10 shows a further exemplary embodiment of a supporting wall comprising two walls in side view.

FIG. 11 shows an alternative laying patterns of the molded blocks according to FIG. 1 in horizontal projection.

FIG. 12 shows an alternative laying patterns of the molded blocks according to FIG. 1 in horizontal projection.

FIG. 13 shows an alternative laying patterns of the molded blocks according to FIG. 1 in horizontal projection.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Shown in the figures are on the one hand a molded block 20 of concrete (FIGS. 1 to 5) and on the other hand supporting walls 21 comprising such molded blocks (FIGS. 6 to 10). FIGS. 11 to 13 show laying variants of the molded block 20. The molded block 20 shown in FIGS. 1 to 5 is suitable for building walls of any type. The molded blocks 20 can be laid without mortar, for example as a vertical wall or the like, or as a supporting wall 21 with an inclination against an earth backfill 22.

The molded blocks 20 have in each case a number of upright side walls 23, 24, and also an essentially horizontally directed upper side 25 and underside 26. The molded blocks 20 are essentially trapezoidally formed in horizontal projection. In this case, two opposite side walls 24 are parallel to one another and two opposite side walls 23 converge toward one another.

The molded block 20 may be produced in conventional (concrete block) molds, so that the side walls 23, 34 are formed by upright walls of mold cavities. The molded blocks 20 may be produced in the molds with the underside 26 facing upward, so that the upward-facing underside 26 can be shaped or embossed by a die.

In the exemplary embodiment shown, it is provided that at least one of the two parallel side walls 24, preferably at least the longer side wall 24, is provided with a special structure, for example a structure similar to natural stone. To achieve this effect, the mold may be formed for example according to the applicant's DE 102 47 259 A.

The molded block 20 is formed as a cavity block. In the exemplary embodiment shown, a total of three vertically directed apertures 27, 28, 29 are provided. The apertures 27, 28, 29 extend continuously from the upper side 25 to the underside 26 of the molded block 20. The apertures 27, 28, 29 are triangularly formed in horizontal projection and arranged such that they are evenly distributed over the cross section of the molded block 20. The base of the largest aperture 27 runs parallel to the shorter side wall 24 and extends over virtually its entire width. The point of the aperture 27 lies approximately in the longitudinal center of the longer side wall 24. The two other apertures 28 and 29 are approximately the same size, but smaller than the aperture 27. The bases of the apertures 28, 29 are arranged parallel to the longer side wall 24. The points of the apertures 28, 29 point toward the shorter side face 24. The apertures 28, 29 are respectively arranged on different sides of the aperture 27.

The apertures 27, 28, 29 are laterally bounded by remaining outer walls 30 in the region of the side walls 23, 24, and also inner webs 31, which run between the walls 30 and separate the apertures 27, 28, 29 from one another. The webs 31 run in a way corresponding to the arrangement of the apertures 27, 28, 29 from the corner regions of the shorter side wall 24 in the direction of the longitudinal center of the longer side wall 24. The upper side and underside of the webs 31 lie in the plane of the upper side 25 and underside 26, respectively, of the molded block 20.

Also formed in the region of the underside 26 of the molded block 20 are depressions 32, which serve for receiving connecting means 33. The depressions 32 run parallel to the side walls 24 and are arranged at a distance from them. In cross section, the depressions 32 are initially rectangularly formed, starting from the underside 26, followed by a region converging toward the upper side 25. The maximum depth of the depressions 32 is the same in each case.

The molded blocks 20 shown in FIGS. 1 to 5 can be laid as a supporting wall 21 according to FIGS. 6 and 7. Starting from a foundation 34 and a sloping block 35, arranged on it, with a sloping upper side directed obliquely in cross section, the molded blocks 20 are arranged one above the other in layers. On the side of the supporting wall 21 facing away from a visible side 36 is the earth backfill 22. The foundation 34 and some molded blocks 20 are located underneath an adjoining ground level 37, which adjoins on the side of the supporting wall 21 facing away from the earth backfill 22.

As can be seen from FIG. 7, the molded blocks 20 within a layer are always arranged in such a way that the longer side walls 24 face the visible side 36 of the supporting wall 21. In this way, a continuous supporting wall 21 in which the longer side walls are arranged in a plane is obtained in the region of the visible side. In a way corresponding to the trapezoidal shape of the molded blocks 20, the side face of the supporting wall 21 facing away from the visible side 36 has between neighboring molded blocks 20 clearances 38, which are triangular in horizontal projection and can be filled by the earth backfill 22.

As FIG. 7 further reveals, the molded blocks 20 are arranged offset in relation to one another in layers. In FIG. 7, the molded blocks of an upper layer are identified by way of example by the designation 20, whereas the molded blocks of a lower layer are provided with the designation 20′. On account of the special cross-sectional shape of the molded blocks 20, 20′, in spite of the arrangement of the molded blocks 20 chosen such that they are offset in relation to one another in layers, their load-transferring regions, i.e. in the present case the walls 30 and webs 31, are arranged in line one above the other. That is to say that, in the present case, the remaining cross-sectional area can be used completely for load transfer, so that the thickness of the walls 30 and webs 31 can be minimized considerably. The arrangement in the present case is chosen such that the greater aperture 27 of a molded block 20 is respectively located above a clearance 38 between two molded blocks 20′ and a smaller aperture 28 of a molded block 20 is located above a smaller aperture 29 of the molded block 20′ lying thereunder.

It is not imperative for the load-transferring regions to be arranged completely in line one above the other. It is also conceivable that this applies for example only to part of the walls 30 and webs 31. In this case, there is just a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the molded block 20 that can be used for load transfer, so that the load-transferring regions may have to be made with a greater wall thickness, or only lower loads can be accepted.

The supporting wall 21 shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 represents a special case, namely a supporting wall 21 comprising two walls 39, 40 of molded blocks 20 which are connected to one another by connecting means 33. The front wall 39 is formed exactly in the same way as the supporting wall 21 described above, according to FIGS. 6 and 7. The rear wall 40 is likewise correspondingly constructed, but aligned in such a way that the longer side wall 24 is facing outward. The molded blocks 20 of the two mutually parallel walls 39, 40 are accordingly aligned such that the shorter side walls 24 face one another. Correspondingly, the clearances 38 are also directed toward the “inside” of the supporting wall 21. In the exemplary embodiment shown, the rear wall 40 has a smaller height than the front wall 39 for reasons of statics.

To connect the two walls 39, 40 to one another, every second layer of the molded blocks 20 of the two walls 39, 40 is connected in the region of the depressions 32 by connecting means 33. In this case, a connecting means 33 respectively connects two opposing molded blocks 20. In the present case, the connecting means 33 is led through the depressions 32 of the opposing molded blocks 20 in the manner of a loop. It is not imperative for the connecting means 33 to be formed as a closed band. It may also be that the connecting means 33 are formed as two essentially C-shaped, clasp-like formations, which engage in the depressions 32 from both sides.

In the present case, the connecting means 33 are placed in the depressions 32, so that a jointed connection of the opposing molded blocks 20 is created. From a statics viewpoint, this creates a supporting wall 21 with a greater width, which can accept greater loads (in particular tilting moments) than conventional, single-skin supporting walls 21. The covering of the rear wall 40 by the earth backfill 22 also contributes to this.

The supporting wall 21 shown in FIG. 10 differs from the supporting wall 21 according to FIG. 8 in that the rear wall 40 has a greater height. The height of the rear wall 40 may be adapted to the requirements in terms of statics.

In principle, supporting walls 21 which have more than two walls 39, 40 can also be built by the system presented. For example, the walls may also be formed with a graduated height with increasing distance from the visible side 36.

Furthermore, it is conceivable that an anchorage by the connecting means 33 is not provided over the entire height of the walls 39, 40. The number of connecting means 33 may additionally vary. Depending on requirements in terms of statics, every layer or every second layer may be connected by connecting means 33. Greater intervals are also conceivable. In the longitudinal direction of the wall, it is also not imperative for every molded block 20 to be connected to an opposing molded block 20 of another wall 39, 40. Depending on dimensioning in terms of statics, greater intervals may also be chosen here.

As mentioned at the beginning, the molded blocks 20 can be laid without mortar, so that the retention between the individual layers is obtained by the dead weight of the blocks and the covering by the earth backfill 22. Alternatively, positive or non-positive connections may of course also be provided between the molded blocks 20 of neighboring layers.

The connecting means 33 provided here should be produced from a durable material that is fit for the intended purpose. Connecting means 33 made of plastic or (stainless) metal are conceivable for example.

FIGS. 11 to 13 show laying variants of the molded block 20 according to the invention. To be able to lay molded blocks 20 as supporting walls 21 which have a curved horizontal projection, it may be necessary to arrange neighboring molded blocks 20 in a relative position such that they are turned by 180° in relation to one another. In this way it is possible for example to erect the supporting wall 21 shown in FIG. 11, of an S-shaped form in horizontal projection. A special feature in this case also comprises that the neighboring molded blocks 20 are respectively laid in such a way that the converging side walls 23 of neighboring molded blocks 20 lie against one another.

FIG. 12 shows in the above sense a “corner formation” of a supporting wall 21, all the molded blocks 20 in the corner region being laid with the same relative position and side walls 23 lying against one another.

FIG. 13 shows a straight supporting wall 21 in which the relative position of neighboring molded blocks 20 is respectively turned by 180° in relation to one another, so that in the region of the visible side 36 of the supporting wall 21 a short side wall 24 respectively follows a long side wall 24.

LIST OF DESIGNATIONS

  • 20 molded block
  • 21 supporting wall
  • 22 earth backfill
  • 23 side wall
  • 24 side wall
  • 25 upper side
  • 26 underside
  • 27 aperture
  • 28 aperture
  • 29 aperture
  • 30 wall
  • 31 web
  • 32 depression
  • 33 connecting means
  • 34 foundation
  • 35 sloping block
  • 36 visible side
  • 37 ground level
  • 38 clearance
  • 39 wall
  • 40 wall