Title:
Foul-Resistant Condenser Using Microchannel Tubing
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A condenser coil for a refrigerated beverage and food service merchandiser includes a plurality of parallel flat, multichannel heat transfer tubes and a plurality heat transfer fins extending between adjacent tubes in a generally V-shaped zig-zag pattern. In order to reduce the likelihood of fouling by the bridging of fibers therebetween, the fins are spaced apart at a dimension, w, as measured from apex to apex, of at least about 0.25 inches. In an embodiment, the plurality of heat transfer fins extend between adjacent tubes in a generally V-shaped zig-zag pattern at a spacing, as measured from apex to apex, in the range of from about 0.4 to about 0.8 inches. In an embodiment, the plurality heat transfer fins extend between adjacent tubes in a generally V-shaped pattern at a spacing, as measured from apex to apex, in range of from about ⅓ inches to about ½ inches.



Inventors:
Daddis, Eugene Duane (Manlius, NY, US)
Chiang, Rober H. L. (Shanghai, CN)
Application Number:
12/089537
Publication Date:
10/16/2008
Filing Date:
09/07/2006
Assignee:
CARRIER CORPORATION (Farmington, CT, US)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
A47F3/04; F25B39/04; F25D21/12; F28D1/053; F28F1/32; F28F9/02; F25D17/06; F25D21/14; F25D23/00; F28F21/06
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
BAUER, CASSEY D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Cantor Colburn LLP - Carrier (Hartford, CT, US)
Claims:
We claim:

1. A refrigerated merchandiser comprising: an enclosure defining a refrigerated display cabinet and having an access opening for providing access to the refrigerated display cabinet; an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the refrigerated display cabinet; and a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with said evaporator coil, said condenser coil having a plurality of refrigerant carrying members aligned in generally parallel relationship and a plurality of fins connected in heat transfer relationship with and extending between adjacent members of said plurality of refrigerant carrying members, said plurality of fins being spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.4 inches between adjacent fins.

2. A refrigerated merchandiser as recited in claim 1 wherein said plurality of fins comprises a plurality of fins extending generally orthogonally relative to said plurality of refrigerant carrying members and being disposed in generally parallel relationship.

3. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 2 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches between adjacent fins.

4. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 2 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches between adjacent fins.

5. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 2 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart in the range of 0.7 to 0.8 inches between adjacent fins.

6. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 2 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart substantially 0.75 inches between adjacent fins.

7. A refrigerated merchandiser as recited in claim 1 wherein said plurality of fins comprises a plurality of generally V-fins being spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.4 inches between adjacent fins as measured from apex to apex.

8. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 7 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches between adjacent fins as measured from apex to apex.

9. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 7 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches between adjacent fins as measured from apex to apex.

10. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 7 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart in the range of 0.7 to 0.8 inches between adjacent fins as measured from apex to apex.

11. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 7 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart substantially 0.75 inches between adjacent fins as measured from apex to apex.

12. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 1 wherein said plurality of refrigerant carrying members comprises a plurality of flat tubes aligned in generally parallel relationship, each tube having a plurality of longitudinally extending channels that are fluidly connected at a first end to receive refrigerant flow from an inlet header and at a second end to discharge refrigerant flow to an outlet header.

13. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 12 wherein said flat tubes are spaced in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches between adjacent tubes.

14. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 12 wherein said flat tubes are spaced in the range of 0.7 to 0.8 inches between adjacent tubes.

15. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 12 wherein said flat tubes are spaced substantially 0.75 inches between adjacent tubes.

16. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 1 wherein said plurality of refrigerant carrying members comprises a serpentine tube having a plurality of flat tube segments aligned in generally parallel relationship with adjacent tube members being interconnected at their respective ends to form a serpentine refrigerant flow path, the serpentine tube having a plurality of longitudinally extending channels that are fluidly connected at a first end to receive refrigerant flow from an inlet header and at a second end to discharge refrigerant flow to an outlet header.

17. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 16 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches between adjacent tube segments.

18. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 16 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches between adjacent tube segments.

19. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 16 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced in the range of 0.7 to 0.8 inches between adjacent tube segments.

20. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 1 wherein each of said plurality of refrigerant carrying members comprises a flat tube segments having a plurality of longitudinally extending channels defining flow passages, each channel having a hydraulic diameter of about 1 millimeter to about 2 millimeters.

21. A refrigerated merchandiser comprising: an enclosure defining a refrigerated display cabinet and having an access opening for providing access to the refrigerated display cabinet; an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the refrigerated display cabinet; and a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with said evaporator coil, said condenser coil having at least one serpentine shaped refrigerant carrying member having a plurality of flat segments aligned in generally parallel relationship, said plurality of flat segments being spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.4 inches between adjacent flat segments.

22. A refrigerated merchandiser as recited in claim 21 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches between adjacent flat segments.

23. A refrigerated merchandiser as recited in claim 21 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced apart at a spacing in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches between adjacent flat segments.

24. A refrigerated merchandiser as recited in claim 21 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced apart at a spacing in the range of 0.7 to 0.8 inches between adjacent flat segments.

25. A refrigerated merchandiser as recited in claim 21 wherein each of said flat tube segments has a plurality of longitudinally extending channels providing a corresponding plurality of refrigerant flow passages.

26. A refrigerated merchandiser as recited in claim 25 wherein each of said channels has a hydraulic diameter in the range from about 200 microns to about 5 millimeters.

27. A refrigerated merchandiser comprising: an enclosure defining a refrigerated display cabinet and having an access opening for providing access to the refrigerated display cabinet; an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the refrigerated display cabinet; and a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with said evaporator coil, said condenser coil having a plurality of refrigerant carrying members aligned in generally parallel relationship and a plurality of generally V-shaped fins connected in heat transfer relationship with and extending between adjacent members of said plurality of refrigerant carrying members, said plurality of generally V-shaped fins being spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.25 inches between adjacent fins.

28. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 27 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart in the range of about 0.4 to about 0.8 inches between adjacent fins as measured from apex to apex.

29. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 27 wherein said plurality of fins are spaced apart at a spacing of about ⅓ to about ½ inches between adjacent fins as measured from apex to apex.

30. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 27 wherein said plurality of refrigerant carrying members comprises a plurality of flat tubes aligned in generally parallel relationship, each tube having a plurality of longitudinally extending channels that are fluidly connected at a first end to receive refrigerant flow from an inlet header and at a second end to discharge refrigerant flow to an outlet header.

31. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 30 wherein said flat tubes are spaced in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches between adjacent tubes.

32. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 30 wherein said flat tubes are spaced in the range of 0.7 to 0.8 inches between adjacent tubes.

33. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 30 wherein said flat tubes are spaced substantially 0.75 inches between adjacent tubes.

34. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 27 wherein said plurality of refrigerant carrying members comprises a serpentine tube having a plurality of flat tube segments aligned in generally parallel relationship with adjacent tube members being interconnected at their respective ends to form a serpentine refrigerant flow path, the serpentine tube having a plurality of longitudinally extending channels that are fluidly connected at a first end to receive refrigerant flow from an inlet header and at a second end to discharge refrigerant flow to an outlet header.

35. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 34 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches between adjacent tube segments.

36. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 34 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches between adjacent tube segments.

37. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 34 wherein said flat tube segments are spaced in the range of 0.7 to 0.8 inches between adjacent tube segments.

38. A refrigerated merchandiser as set forth in claim 27 wherein each of said plurality of refrigerant carrying members comprises a flat tube segments having a plurality of longitudinally extending channels defining flow passages, each channel having a hydraulic diameter of about 1 millimeter to about 2 millimeters.

39. A refrigerated merchandiser as recited in claim 38 wherein each of said channels has a hydraulic diameter in the range from about 200 microns to about 5 millimeters.

40. A refrigerated merchandiser comprising: an enclosure defining a refrigerated display cabinet and having an access opening for providing access to the refrigerated display cabinet; an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the refrigerated display cabinet; and a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with said evaporator coil, said condenser coil having a plurality of refrigerant carrying members aligned in generally parallel relationship and a plurality of fins connected in heat transfer relationship with and extending between adjacent members of said plurality of refrigerant carrying members, said plurality of fins being arranged in a zig-zag pattern and spaced apart at a spacing in the range of from ⅓ inches to ½ inches apex to apex.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims priority from and the benefit of and is a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/255,426, filed Oct. 21, 2005, entitled FOUL-RESISTANT CONDENSER USING MICROCHANNEL TUBING, and published on Jul. 6, 2006, as U.S. Patent Publication No. 2006-0144076A1, which is a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/835,031, filed Apr. 29, 2004, entitled FOUL-RESISTANT CONDENSER USING MICROCHANNEL TUBING, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,000,415.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to refrigerated beverage and food service merchandisers and, more particularly, to a foul resistant condenser coil therefor.

It is long been the practice to sell soda and other soft drinks by way of vending machines or coin operated refrigerated containers for dispensing single bottles of beverages. These machines are generally stand alone machines that are plugged into standard outlets and include their own individual refrigeration circuit with both evaporator and condenser coils.

This self serve approach has now been expanded to include other types of “plug in” beverage and food merchandisers that are located in convenience stores, delicatessens, supermarkets and other retail establishments.

In such stores, cold beverages, such as soft drinks, beer, wine coolers, etc. are commonly displayed in refrigerated merchandisers for self-service purchase by customers. Conventional merchandisers of this type usually comprise a refrigerated, insulated enclosure defining a refrigerated product display cabinet and having one or more glass doors. The beverage product, typically in cans or bottles, single or in six-packs, is stored on shelves within the refrigerated display cabinet. To purchase a beverage, the customer opens one of the doors and reaches into the refrigerated cabinet to retrieve the desired product from the shelf.

Beverage merchandisers of this type necessarily include a refrigeration system for providing the cooled environment within the refrigerated display cabinet. Such refrigeration systems include an evaporator coil housed within the insulated enclosure defining the refrigerated display cabinet and a condenser coil and compressor housed in a compartment separate from and exteriorly of the insulated enclosure. Cold liquid refrigerant is circulated through the evaporator coil to cool the air within the refrigerated display cabinet. As a result of heat transfer between the air and the refrigerant passing in heat exchange relationship in the evaporator coil, the liquid refrigerant evaporates and leaves the evaporator coil as a vapor. The vapor phase refrigerant is then compressed in the compressor coil to a high pressure, as well as being heated to a higher temperature as a result of the compression process. The hot, high pressure vapor is then circulated through the condenser coil wherein it passes in heat exchange relationship with ambient air drawn or blown across through the condenser coil by a fan disposed in operative association with the condenser coil. As a result, the refrigerant is cooled and condensed back to the liquid phase and then passed through an expansion device which reduces both the pressure and the temperature of the liquid refrigerant before it is circulated back to the evaporator coil.

In conventional practice, the condenser coil comprises a plurality of round tubes with parallel fins extending between tubes across the flow path of the ambient air stream being drawn or blown through the condenser coil. A fan, disposed in operative association with the condenser coil, passes ambient air from the local environment through the condenser coil. U.S. Pat. No. 3,462,966 discloses a refrigerated glass door merchandiser having a condenser coil with staggered rows of finned tubes and an associated fan disposed upstream of the condenser coil that blows air across the condenser tubes. U.S. Pat. No. 4,977,754 discloses a refrigerated glass door merchandiser having a condenser coil with in-line finned tube rows and an associated fan disposed downstream of the condenser that draws air across the condenser tubes.

One problem that occurs with such self-contained merchandisers is that they are often in area that is heavily trafficked by people that tend to track in debris and dirt from the outside. This, in turn, tends to expose the condenser coil, which is necessarily exposed to the flow of air in the immediate vicinity, to be susceptible to airside fouling. With such fouling, the accumulation of dust, dirt and oils impede refrigeration performance. As the condenser coil fouls, the compressor refrigerant pressure rises, which leads to system inefficiencies and possibly compressor failure. Further, such products are often used in locations where periodic cleaning is not likely to occur.

The usual structure for such a condenser coil is a tube and fin design wherein a plurality of serpentine tubes with refrigerant flowing therein are surrounded by orthogonally extending fins over which the cooling air is made to flow by way of a fan. Generally, the greater the tube and fin densities, the more efficient the performance of the coil in cooling the refrigerant. However, the greater the tube and fin densities, the more susceptible it is to being fouled by the accumulation of dirt and fiber.

This problem has been addressed in one form by the elimination of fins and relying on conventional tubes as set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 6,851,271, assigned to the assignee of the present application and incorporated herein by reference. A further approach has been to selectively stagger the successive rows of tubes in relation to the direction of airflow as described in U.S. Patent Application No. (PCT/US03/12468), Continuation In Part Application of Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/376,486 filed on Apr. 30, 2002, assigned to the assignee of the present application and incorporated herein by reference.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,988,538 discloses a fin-and-tube condenser coil for use in connection with retail store refrigeration systems wherein the condenser coil includes a plurality of parallel flat microchannel tubes having zig-zag fins extending between adjacent flat tubes. The fin density ranges from slightly less than 12 fins per inch to slightly more than 24 fins per inch. The high fin density is possible because the condenser coil is generally position outside the store, such as on the roof-top, where the condenser coil is not exposed to a high level of dust and debris.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,912,864 discloses a refrigerated display merchandiser having a fin-and-tube evaporator formed of a plurality of parallel, flat microchannel tubes having V-shaped fins extending between adjacent flat tubes. The fin density ranges from as low as 6 fins per inch to as high as 25 fins per inch. The high fin density is possible because the evaporator coil is positioned internally within the rear air duct of the refrigerated merchandiser and therefore not exposed to a high level of dust and debris

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In one aspect of the invention, a refrigerated merchandiser is provided having a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the display cabinet of the refrigerated merchandiser, wherein the condenser coil has a plurality of refrigerant carrying members aligned in generally parallel relationship and a plurality of fins connected in heat transfer relationship with and extending between adjacent members of the plurality of refrigerant carrying members, the plurality of fins being spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.4 inches between adjacent fins. In one embodiment, the fins are spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches. In another embodiment, the fins are spaced apart at a spacing in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches. In a further embodiment, the fins are spaced apart at a spacing in the range of 0.7 to 0.8 inches.

In one embodiment of the invention, the condenser coil has a plurality of fins extending generally orthogonally relative to said plurality of refrigerant carrying members and being disposed in generally parallel relationship. In another embodiment, the condenser coil has a plurality of generally V-fins being spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.4 inches between adjacent fins as measured from apex to apex.

In one embodiment of the invention, the plurality of refrigerant carrying members of the condenser coil are flat tubes aligned in generally parallel relationship with each tube having a plurality of longitudinally extending channels that are fluidly connected at a first end to receive refrigerant flow from an inlet header and at a second end to discharge refrigerant flow to an outlet header. In another embodiment of the invention, the plurality of refrigerant carrying members is a serpentine tube having a plurality of flat tube segments aligned in generally parallel relationship with adjacent tube members being interconnected at their respective ends to form a serpentine refrigerant flow path. The serpentine tube has a plurality of longitudinally extending channels that are fluidly connected at a first end to receive refrigerant flow from an inlet header and at a second end to discharge refrigerant flow to an outlet header.

In another aspect of the invention, a refrigerated merchandiser is provided having a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the display cabinet of the refrigerated merchandiser, wherein the condenser coil includes at least one serpentine shaped refrigerant tube having a plurality of flat segments aligned in generally parallel relationship, the plurality of flat segments being spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.4 inches between adjacent flat segments. Each of the flat tube segments of the serpentine shaped refrigerant tube may include a plurality of longitudinally extending channels providing a corresponding plurality of refrigerant flow passages, which may be minichannel or microchannel flow passages. In one embodiment, the flat tube segments are spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches between adjacent flat segments. In another embodiment, flat tube segments are spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.4 to 0.8 inches between adjacent flat segments. In a further embodiment, the flat tube segments are spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches between adjacent flat segments.

In one aspect of the invention, a refrigerated merchandiser is provided having a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the display cabinet of the refrigerated merchandiser, wherein the condenser coil has a plurality of refrigerant carrying members aligned in generally parallel relationship and a plurality of fins connected in heat transfer relationship with and extending between adjacent members of the plurality of refrigerant carrying members in a zig-zag arrangement, that is a generally V-shaped pattern, with the plurality of fins being spaced apart at a dimension, w, as measured from apex to apex, of at least about 0.4 inches. In one embodiment, the fins are spaced apart at a spacing of at least 0.6 inches. In another embodiment, the fins are spaced apart at a spacing in the range of about 0.4 to about 0.8 inches.

In another aspect of the invention, a refrigerated merchandiser is provided having a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the display cabinet of the refrigerated merchandiser, wherein the condenser coil has a plurality of refrigerant carrying members aligned in generally parallel relationship and a plurality of fins connected in heat transfer relationship with and extending between adjacent members of the plurality of refrigerant carrying members in a zig-zag arrangement, that is a generally V-shaped pattern, with the plurality of fins being spaced apart at a dimension, w, as measured from apex to apex, in range of from about ⅓ inches to about ½ inches.

In another aspect of the invention, a refrigerated merchandiser is provided having a condenser coil connected in refrigerant flow communication with an evaporator coil disposed in operative association with the display cabinet of the refrigerated merchandiser, wherein the condenser coil has a plurality of flat, multichannel refrigerant carrying tubes aligned in generally parallel relationship and a plurality of fins connected in heat transfer relationship with and extending between adjacent members of the plurality of refrigerant carrying members in a zig-zag arrangement, that is a generally V-shaped pattern, with the plurality of fins being spaced apart at a dimension, w, as measured from apex to apex, of at least 0.25 inches.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a further understanding of the invention, reference will be made to the following detailed description of the invention which is to be read in connection with the accompanying drawings.

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a refrigerated beverage merchandiser in accordance with the prior art.

FIG. 2 is a sectional, side elevation view of the refrigerated beverage merchandiser showing the evaporator and condenser sections thereof.

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a condenser coil in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a graphic illustration of the relationship between tube/fin density and occurrence of fouling.

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of an alternative embodiment of a condenser coil in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a side sectional view of a tube support arrangement in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 7 is a front view thereof.

FIG. 8 is an alternative embodiment of the invention showing staggered rows of microchannel tubes.

FIG. 9 is an alternate embodiment of a condenser coil in accordance with the invention.

FIG. 10 is an alternate embodiment of the invention showing an embodiment of the invention with V-shaped fins.

FIG. 11a is an enlarged elevation view of a one-inch length segment of a conventional round tube, parallel fin condenser having a fin density of 4 fins per inch illustrating a characteristic fouling pattern thereof.

FIG. 11b is an enlarged elevation view of a one-inch length segment of an exemplary embodiment of a flat tube, V-shaped fin pattern condenser in accord with invention having a fin density of 4 fins per inch illustrating a characteristic fouling pattern thereof.

FIG. 11c is an enlarged elevation view of a one-inch length segment of an exemplary embodiment of a flat tube, V-shaped fin pattern condenser in accord with invention having a fin density of 5 fins per inch illustrating a characteristic fouling pattern thereof.

FIG. 11d is an enlarged elevation view of a one-inch length segment of an exemplary embodiment of a flat tube, V-shaped fin pattern condenser in accord with invention having a fin density of 6 fins per inch illustrating a characteristic fouling pattern thereof.

FIG. 11e is an enlarged elevation view of a one-inch length segment of an exemplary embodiment of a flat tube, V-shaped fin pattern condenser in accord with invention having a fin density of 8 fins per inch illustrating a characteristic fouling pattern thereof.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Referring now to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is depicted therein a refrigerated cold beverage merchandiser generally designated by the numeral 10. The beverage merchandiser 10 includes an enclosure 20 defining a refrigerated display cabinet 25 and a separate utility compartment 30 disposed externally of and heat insulated from the refrigerated display cabinet 25. The utility compartment may be disposed beneath the refrigerated display cabinet 25 as depicted or the utility compartment may be disposed above the display cabinet 25. A compressor 40, a condenser coil 50, a condensate pan 53 and an associated condenser fan and motor 60 are housed within the compartment 30. A mounting plate 44 may be disposed beneath the compressor 40, the condenser coil 50, and the condenser fan 60. Advantageously, the mounting plate 44 may be slidably mounted within the compartment 30 for selective disposition into and out of the compartment 30 in order to facilitate servicing of the refrigeration equipment mounted thereon.

The refrigerated display cabinet 25 is defined by an insulated rear wall 22 of the enclosure 20, a pair of insulated side walls 24 of the enclosure 20, an insulated top wall 26 of the enclosure 20, an insulated bottom wall 28 of the enclosure 20 and an insulated front wall 34 of the enclosure 20. Heat insulation 36 (shown by the looping line) is provided in the walls defining the refrigerated display cabinet 25. Beverage product 100, such as for example individual cans or bottles or six packs thereof, are displayed on shelves 70 mounted in a conventional manner within the refrigerated display cabinet 25, such as for example in accord with the next-to-purchase manner shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,977,754, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. The insulated enclosure 20 has an access opening 35 in the front wall 34 that opens to the refrigerated display cabinet 25. If desired, a door 32, as shown in the illustrated embodiment, or more than one door, may be provided to cover the access opening 35. It is to be understood however that the present invention is also applicable to beverage merchandisers having an open access without a door. To access the beverage product for purchase, a customer need only open the door 32 and reach into the refrigerated display cabinet 25 to select the desired beverage.

An evaporator coil 80 is provided within the refrigerated display cabinet 25, for example near the top wall 26. An evaporator fan and motor 82, as illustrated in FIG. 2, may be provided to circulate air within the refrigerated display cabinet 25 through the evaporator 80. However, the evaporator fan is not necessary as natural convection may be relied upon for air circulation through the evaporator. As the circulating air passes through the evaporator 80, it passes in a conventional manner in heat exchange relationship with refrigerant circulating through the tubes of the evaporator coil and is cooled as a result. The cooled air leaving the evaporator coil 80 is directed downwardly in a conventional manner into the cabinet interior to pass over the product 100 disposed on the shelves 70 before being drawn back upwardly to again pass through the evaporator.

Refrigerant is circulated in a conventional manner between the evaporator 80 and the condenser 50 by means of the compressor 40 through refrigeration lines forming a refrigeration circuit (not shown) interconnecting the compressor 40, the condenser coil 50 and the evaporator coil 80 in refrigerant flow communication. As noted before, cold liquid refrigerant is circulated through the evaporator coil 80 to cool the air within the refrigerated display cabinet 25. As a result of heat transfer between the air and the refrigerant passing in heat exchange relationship in the evaporator coil 80, the liquid refrigerant evaporates and leaves the evaporator as a vapor. The vapor phase refrigerant is then compressed in the compressor 40 to a high pressure, as well as being heated to a higher temperature as a result of the compression process. The hot, high pressure vapor is then circulated through the condenser coil 50 wherein it passes in heat exchange relationship with ambient air drawn or blown across through the condenser coil 50 by the condenser fan 60.

Referring now to FIG. 3, in accordance with the present invention, the tube and fin condenser coil 50 of FIG. 2 is replaced by a microchannel condenser coil as shown generally at 110. Here, rather than round tubes, a plurality of microchannel tubes 111, having a plurality of parallel channels 112 extending the length thereof, are provided in parallel relationship in a row 115 and are connected at their respective ends by inlet and outlet headers 113 and 114, respectively. An inlet line 116 is provided at the inlet header 113 and the outlet line 117 is provided at the outlet header 114. In operation, the hot, high pressure refrigerant vapor is passed from the compressor into the inlet line 116 where it is distributed to flow, by way of the individual microchannels 112, through each of the microchannel tubes 111 to be condensed to a liquid state. The liquid refrigerant then flows to the outlet header 114 and out the outlet line 117 to the expansion device.

In order to increase the heat exchange capacity of the coil 110, a plurality of fins 118 may be placed between adjacent microchannel tube pairs. These fins are preferably aligned orthogonally to the microchannel tube 111 and parallel with the direction of airflow through the microchannel condenser coil 110. The lateral spacing between adjacent fins is the dimension “W”.

One advantage offered by the microchannel tube 111 over the conventional round tubes in a condenser coil is that of obtaining more surface area per unit volume. That is, generally, a plurality of small tubes will provide more external surface area than a single large tube. This can be understood by comparison of a single ⅜ inch (8 millimeter) tube with a 5 millimeter tube. The external surface area-to-volume ratio of the 5 millimeter tube is 0.4, which is substantially greater than that for a 8 millimeter tube, which is 0.25.

One disadvantage to the use of a greater number of smaller tubes rather than fewer larger tubes is that it is generally more expensive to implement. However, the techniques that have been developed for manufacturing microchannel tubes with a plurality of channels has evolved to the extent that they are now economical as compared with the manufacturer and implementation of round tubes in a heat exchanger coil. Another advantage of the microchannel tubes is that they are more streamlined so as to result in a lower pressure drop and lower noise level. That is, there is much less resistance to the air flowing over the relatively narrow microchannels than there is to the air flowing over relatively large round tubes.

Considering now the problem of air side fouling which results from the accumulation of dust, dirt and oils between adjacent tubes and/or adjacent fins of a condenser coil, the applicants have recognized that such a fouling starts with the bridging of an elongate fiber between adjacent tubes or between adjacent fins. That is, most small particles will pass through the passages of a coil unless a passage is somewhat blocked by the lodging of a fiber therein. When a bridging fiber is lodged between adjacent fins or adjacent tubes, then small particles tend to collect on that fiber with the build up eventually resulting in a fouling of the passageway. In order to prevent or reduce the occurrence of fouling, it is therefore necessary to understand the manner in which the bridging effect is influenced by the structural configuration of the coil. With that in mind, the applicants have conducted experimental tests to determine how the variation in the spacing of the tubes and the spacing of the fins can affect the tendency of fouling to occur. The results are shown in FIG. 4.

A field analysis was conducted to determine the types of material that were most likely to cause fouling in the condenser coil, and it was found that cotton fibers were the predominant cause of the foulings and that fouling is generally started by the bridging of an elongate fiber between adjacent fin or between adjacent tubes. Accordingly, experimental analysis was conducted to determine the fouling tendencies of a condenser coil in an environment of cotton fibers as the spacing of the fins is selectively varied. A number of heat exchangers, each being of a standard design with round tubes and plate fins of a specific spacing were exposed to an environment of natural cotton fibers and tested for their relative tendencies to foul. A heat exchanger having seven fins per inch, or a fin spacing of 0.14 inches between adjacent fins, was arbitrarily assigned a fouling goodness parameter (FGP) of 1. This is shown at point A on the graph of FIG. 4.

As the fin spacing is increased, the associated increase in FGP is substantially linear to point B where the spacing is 0.40 inches and the FGP is 1.5. At point C, the relationship is still close to linear wherein the spacing is point 0.50 inches with an associated FGP of 2, which means that the heat exchanger is twice as “good” as compared to the heat exchanger at Point A in regards to fouling.

As the front spacing is increased beyond the 0.50 spacing, it will be seen that the FGP begins to increase substantially beyond the linear relationship, and at a spacing of 0.75 inches as shown at point B, it approaches an asymptotic relationship. Thus, it can be concluded that ideally, the fin spacing should be maintained at 0.75 inches or greater if the maximum FGP is desired. At those higher spacing parameters, however, it will be recognized that the exposed surface area is reduced and therefore the heat exchange capability is also reduced. Accordingly, it may be desirable to maintain sufficient fin spacing so as to obtain a sufficiently high FGP while, at the same time, maintaining sufficient density to provide a desired amount of surface area. For example, at point E, a sufficiently high FGP of 6 is obtained with a fin spacing of 0.70 inches between adjacent fins.

Although the experiential data as discussed hereinabove relates to fin spacing on round tube heat exchangers, the applicants believe that the same performance characteristics will be true of fin spacing with a microchannel tubing heat exchanger as shown in FIG. 3 since the principals involving the attachment of elongate fibers will be substantially the same in each case. Further, recognizing that with a microchannel tubing arrangement as shown in FIG. 3, it is possible to eliminate the fins entirely, or to reduce the number such that they are simply provided for support between the microchannel tubes, while at the same time increasing the density of the microchannel tubes to obtain the desired surface area for heat exchange purposes. Such a heat exchanger is shown in FIG. 5.

In the FIG. 5 embodiment, it will be seen that the fins have been eliminated and the microchannel tubes 111 are simply cantilevered between the inlet header 113 and outlet header 114 as shown. With this arrangement, the construction is very much simplified, and the expense of the fins is eliminated. However, the benefit of having the surface area of the fin is also lost for heat transfer purposes. Accordingly, it may be necessary to increase the density of the microchannel tubing 111 such that the distance therebetween, shown as L in FIG. 5 is substantially reduced. In this regard, the considerations discussed hereinabove, with respect to the spacing of fins is also considered to be relevant with respect to the spacing of the microchannel tubes 111. That is, with the spacing L of 0.75 inches, there will be little or no fouling that occurs, and as that fin density is increased, the fouling goodness parameter (FGP) will be decreased or, said in another way, the probability of fouling will be increased.

With the complete elimination of fins as shown in FIG. 5, it may be necessary to provide some support between adjacent microchannel tubes 111, so that both during the manufacture of the heat exchanger and in the finished product, the microchannel tubes 111 are restrained from sagging from their relative parallel positions. Such a support is shown at 118 in FIGS. 6 and 7. In FIG. 6, the support member 118 with its plurality of teeth 119 is shown in the uninstalled position at the left and then in the installed position at the right. In FIG. 7, there is shown in a side elevational view and a front view, three such support members 118 in their installed positions. Such a support member 118 may be fabricated of a heat conductive material so as to not only provide support but also act as a conductor in the same manner as a fin. However, with the significant spacing as shown, so as to not significantly add to the heat conduction surface area, the benefit of the fin effect is minimal. Accordingly, the support members may as well be made of other materials such as a plastic material which will provide the necessary support but not contribute to the function of heat transfer. Here, the spacing of the support members 118 is clearly sufficient such that the lateral space between the support members will not contribute to the bridging of fibers that would cause fouling. Rather, it is only the distance L between adjacent microchannel tubes that will allow for the bridging of fibers therebetween. The considerations discussed with respect to the FIG. 5 embodiment are therefore relevant to the supported embodiment of FIGS. 6 and 7.

With the elimination of the fins as discussed hereinabove, another effect that must be considered is that with the resulting reduced heat exchange surface area, and with an associated increase in the density of the microchannel tubes, will there be still sufficient heat exchange surface area to obtain the necessary performance? Presuming that, because of the performance characteristics discussed hereinabove, the spacing L between adjacent microchannels tubes is maintained at around 0.75 inches, the resulting number of microchannel tubes may not be sufficient to bring about the desired amount of heat exchange. One approach for overcoming this problem is shown in FIG. 8 wherein a second row 121 of microchannel tubes 122 is shown with its associated header 123. This will, in effect, double the surface area of the heat exchanger without significantly adding to the problem of fouling between microchannel tubing. While the two rows 115 and 121 of microchannel tubes can be aligned one behind the other in the direction of the airflow, the airflow characteristics can be improved by staggering the two rows such that the tubes 122 of the second row are disposed substantially between, but downstream of, the tubes 111 of the first row 115. With such an arrangement, the controlling parameter with respect to the fouling resistant parameter is still the distance L since this is the distance not only between the individual tubes 111 of the first row 115 but also between the tubes 122 of the second row 121. That is, with such a staggered relationship, there is very little likelihood of a fiber tending to bridge the gap between a tube 111 in the first row 115 and a tube 122 in the second row 121.

It will, of course, be understood that multiple rows of tubes can be placed in such a staggered relationship such that the third row would most likely be aligned with the first row and a fourth row would be most aligned with a second row and so forth. Again, the fouling goodness parameter would not significantly change since the controlling parameter would still be the distance L between tubes in any single row.

Referring now to FIG. 9, there is depicted an alternate embodiment of the condenser coil of the invention designated generally as 120. In this embodiment, rather than being formed of a plurality of parallelly disposed, flat multi-channel tubes 111 extending longitudinally between common inlet and outlet headers 113 and 114 as in the condenser coil 110 depicted in the FIG. 5 embodiment of the invention, the condenser coil 120 is formed of at least one serpentine, flat multichannel tube 130 having a plurality of parallelly disposed, flat tube segments 131 interconnected by tube bends 132 to form a serpentine tube extending between an inlet header (not shown) connected in flow communication to one end thereof and an outlet header (not shown) connected in flow communication to the other end thereof. The parallelly disposed, flat multichannel tube segments 131 of the condenser coil 120 are generally aligned with the direction of airflow thereover and are spaced apart with a spacing L between adjacent tubes similarly to the flat tubes 111 of FIG. 5 embodiment of the condenser coil. For the reasons discussed hereinbefore, to provide a satisfactory fouling goodness parameter, the spacing L between adjacent flat tube segments should be at least 0.4 inches. In an embodiment, the flat tube segments are spaced apart at a distance in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches. In another embodiment, the flat tube segments are spaced apart at a distance of at least 0.6 inches. In another embodiment, the flat tube segments are spaced apart at a distance in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches. For the reasons discussed hereinbefore, to provide a satisfactory fouling goodness parameter, the spacing L between adjacent flat tubes 111 or flat tube segments 131 should be at least 0.4 inches. In an embodiment, the flat tubes or tube segments are spaced apart at a distance in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches. In another embodiment, the flat tubes or tube segments are spaced apart at a distance of at least 0.6 inches. As noted hereinbefore, the multichannel tubes 111 and 130 have a plurality of parallel channels extending the length thereof to provide multiple refrigerant flow passages therethrough. The channels may be of circular or non-circular cross-section. In condenser coils for refrigerated merchandisers, the individual channels typically would have a hydraulic diameter, defined as 4 times the flow area divided by the perimeter, of about 1 millimeter to about two millimeters, but may have a hydraulic diameter as large as about 5 millimeters and as small as about 200 microns.

In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 9, only one serpentine tube is shown. It is to be understood that in practice, the condenser coil 120 may include a plurality of serpentine tubes 130 extending between the respective inlet and outlet headers and being disposed in axially spaced relationship with respect to airflow through the condenser coil. The serpentine tubes could be disposed in alignment or in a staggered relationship, such as discussed hereinbefore with respect to the embodiment of the condenser coil depicted in FIG. 8. In operation, the hot, high pressure refrigerant vapor from the compressor is passed to an inlet header (not shown) where it is distributed to flow, by way of the individual channels of the serpentine multichannel tube or tubes 130, through each of tubes 130 to be condensed to a liquid state. The liquid refrigerant is collected in an outlet header (not shown) and flows therefrom through the refrigerant circuit to the expansion device and thence on to an evaporator. Similarly, although depicted in FIG. 10 as having only one tube bank, the condenser 140 may have a plurality of tube banks extending between respective inlet and outlet headers disposed in axially spaced relationship with respect to airflow through the condenser coil and disposed in alignment or in staggered relationship, such as discussed hereinbefore with respect to the embodiment of the condenser coil depicted in FIG. 8.

In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 9, the condenser coil 120 is formed of at least one serpentine, flat multichannel tube 130 having a plurality of parallelly disposed, flat tube segments 131 having a plurality of generally V-shaped fins 128 extending between adjacent tube segments 131 in a zig-zag pattern. In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 10, the condenser coil is formed of a plurality of parallelly disposed, flat multi-channel tubes 111, which extend longitudinally between common inlet and outlet headers 113 and 114, having a plurality of generally V-shaped fins 128 extending between adjacent tubes 111 in a zig-zag pattern. The parallel disposed, flat multichannel tube segments 131 of the condenser coil 120 and the parallel disposed, flat multichannel tubes 111 of the condenser coil 140 are generally aligned with the direction of airflow thereover and are spaced apart with a spacing L between adjacent tubes.

The condensers of the invention depicted in FIGS. 9 and 10 have a plurality of fins 128 arranged in a zig-zag pattern, instead of being parallelly disposed. For similarly spaced fin arrangements, zig-zag or generally V-shaped fin arrangements provide more fin surface area per unit of width across the condenser coil than do parallelly disposed fins. It is to be understood that the term “generally V-shaped fins” includes not only the actual V-shaped pattern fin arrangements depicted in FIGS. 9 and 10, but also similar zig-zag pattern fin configurations, such as for example, but not limited to, sinusoidal waveform fins and other generally U-shaped waveform fins. The plurality of generally V-shaped arranged fins 128 extend between adjacent multichannel tubes, as depicted in FIG. 10, or between parallel tube segments of a serpentine multichannel tube of the type depicted in FIG. 9. These fins are preferably aligned parallel with the direction of airflow through the multichannel condenser coil. In zig-zag or generally V-shaped pattern arrangements, the fin spacing, that is the dimension “w”, is measured from apex to apex as illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10.

Referring now to FIG. 11a, there is depicted an exemplary fouling pattern on a conventional round tube, parallel fin condenser having a fin density of 4 fins per inch of the type commonly installed in stand-alone refrigerated merchandisers found in supermarkets and other commercial establishments. As illustrated, dust and debris tend to accumulate in the corners where the flat fins 8 meet orthogonally with the round tubes 11, resulting in not only the surface of the fins being fouled, but also the surface of the heat transfer tube being fouled. This type of fouling pattern results in a degradation of the heat transfer efficiency of the condenser.

Referring now to FIGS. 11b-11e, representative characteristic fouling patterns are depicted for various exemplary embodiments of flat tube, finned condensers according to the present invention. As noted hereinbefore, rather than being arranged in a parallel array orthogonally to the heat transfer tube as in the conventional condenser depicted in FIG. 11a, in the condenser of the refrigerated merchandiser of the present invention, the heat transfer fins 128 are arranged in a zig-zag or V-shaped pattern at a spacing, w, as measured from apex to apex and meet with the flat multichannel heat transfer tubes 111, or segments 131, at an acute angle, rather than orthogonally. In the embodiments depicted in FIGS. 11b, 11c and 11d, the heat transfer fins 128 are arranged at a fin spacing, w, as measured from apex to apex, of ½ inch (0.5 inches), 4/10 inch (0.4 inches) and ⅓ inch (0.33 inches), respectively, providing respective fin densities of four fins 128 per inch (FIG. 11b), of five fins 128 per inch (FIG. 11c) and of six fins 128 per inch (FIG. 11c).

In the embodiment depicted in FIG. 11e, the heat transfer fins 128 are arranged in a zig-zag or V-shaped pattern at a fin spacing, w, as measured from apex to apex of 0.25 inches, thereby providing a relatively high fin density of 8 fins per inch. At this relatively high fin density, the fouling is significantly more severe than in the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 11b, 11c and 11e, but not much more severe than the fouling characteristic of the round tube, parallel fin condenser on a refrigerated merchandiser in a supermarket or retail store environment as illustrated in FIG. 11a. Further, a condenser having flat heat transfer tubes with the eight fin per inch fin arrangement depicted in FIG. 11e would be substantially more foul resistant than a condenser having round heat transfer tubes with parallel fins at an eight fin per inch density.

As illustrated in FIGS. 11a-11e, in zig-zag arrangements, the dust, debris and other fouling material 125 tend to collect more prominently in the apex between intersecting fins 128. Thus, the surface of the heat transfer tube remains relatively free of fouling. Further, because the fins 128 extend a longer length between the heat transfer tubes than would orthogonal fins 118 extending between similarly space tubes, there is a significantly greater likelihood of a greater portion of the fin surface remaining relatively foul free. Accordingly, the heat transfer efficiency of the flat tube, V-shaped fin pattern condensers of the invention depicted in FIGS. 11b, 11c, 11d and 11e will be superior, at comparable fin densities, to the heat transfer efficiency of the conventional round tube, parallel fin pattern condensers commonly used in conventional refrigerated merchandisers, particularly when used in a high fouling inducing environment, such as for example the environment within most supermarkets and retail stores.

In general, to provide a satisfactory fouling goodness parameter in a high fouling inducing environment, the flat heat transfer tube condenser of the invention will have heat transfer fins extending between adjacent tubes in a zig-zag or generally V-shaped pattern at a spacing, w, as measured from apex to apex, in the range of ⅓ inches to ½ inches or greater. In an embodiment, the generally V-shaped fins are spaced apart at a distance of at least about 0.4 inches apex to apex. In an embodiment, the generally V-shaped fins are spaced apart at a distance in the range of 0.4 to 0.8 inches apex to apex. In another embodiment, the generally V-shaped fins are spaced apart at a distance of at least 0.6 inches apex to apex. In applications subject to a somewhat lesser fouling environment, the generally V-shaped fins may be spaced apart at a distance of as little as ¼ inches apex to apex.

As noted hereinbefore, the multichannel tubes 111 and 130 have a plurality of parallel channels extending the length thereof to provide multiple refrigerant flow passages therethrough. The channels may be of circular or non-circular cross-section. In condenser coils for refrigerated merchandisers, the individual channels typically would have a hydraulic diameter, defined as 4 times the flow area divided by the perimeter, of about 1 millimeter to about two millimeters, but may have a hydraulic diameter as large as about 5 millimeters and as small as about 200 microns.

While the present invention has been particular shown and described with reference to preferred and alternate embodiments as illustrated in the drawings, it will be understood by one skilled in the art that various changes in detail may be effective therein without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the claims.