Title:
SELF-LOCKING BLOCK AND COMPLEMENTARY PIECES FOR THE RAISING OF PILLARS AND FREE-STANDING WALLS
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The present invention refers to a prefabricated fit in blocks and derived and complementary pieces in cement mortar reinforced with steel fiber for raising of pillars and walls with no need to use mortar mixture or plasters. Pillars and resulting walls of the fit in of blocks and derived and complementary pieces do not require additional structural elements.



Inventors:
Rodriguez, Carassus Alberto (Montevideo, UY)
Application Number:
12/123783
Publication Date:
09/11/2008
Filing Date:
05/20/2008
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04B2/56
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Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
QUAST, ELIZABETH A
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DEFILLO & ASSOCIATES, INC. (Clearwater, FL, US)
Claims:
1. 1-11. (canceled)

12. A prefabricated fit in block of portland cement mortar reinforced with steel fiber for the raising of pillars and walls by dry method comprising: 1) a rectangular base parallelepiped having a top end, a bottom end, a length, a width, and a height, and an interior; wherein the length is double of the width and a height that is a third of the length; wherein the interior comprises two hollow volumes symmetrically placed; wherein each one of the hollow volumes includes a first and a second prismatic segment of square base of different dimensions arranged one on top of the other, the first and second segments having a top end and a bottom end, wherein the top and the bottom ends are opened; 2) a first square base straight prismatic tower and a second square base straight prismatic tower, wherein the first and second towers are identical and are symmetrically placed to overpass the top end of the rectangular base parallelepiped; wherein each tower has an interior hollow volume prismatic form of square base, a top end and a bottom end; wherein the hollow volumes are symmetrically placed; wherein the top end and the bottom end of each tower are open; wherein the inferior ends of the towers are in communication with the superior segments of the hollow volumes of the parallelepiped.

13. The prefabricated fit in block according to claim 12 wherein the block being self-locking since each one of the towers is fit in to each one of the inferior segments of the hollow volumes of another block without the use of the mortar mixture.

14. The prefabricated fit in block according to claim 12 wherein the block is of light weight.

15. The prefabricated fit in block according to claim 12 wherein the blocks are fit in with each other forming the pillars and walls, wherein each one of the towers is fit in to each one of the inferior segments of the hollow volumes of another block without the use of a mortar mixture.

16. A prefabricated fit in block according to claims 15 wherein the pillars and walls are free-standing.

17. The prefabricated fit in block according to claim 15 wherein the pillars and walls comprise a plurality of inner channels for the installation of light fixtures, water fixture, electrical wiring or combination thereof.

18. The prefabricated fit in block according to claim 15 wherein the pillars and walls are stable and monolithic.

19. The prefabricated fit in block according to claim 15 wherein the pillars have a square section and are obtained by providing alternatively successive layers of the blocks, wherein the blocks are linked to successive superior layers when turning ninety degrees their orientation.

20. The prefabricated fit in block according to claim 15 wherein the walls are obtained by providing successive blocks layers.

21. A system for raising pillars and walls by dry method comprising: 1) at least two prefabricated fit in block of portland cement mortar reinforced with steel fiber; wherein each block has a length, a cross section, a longitudinal section, and a volume; wherein each block has a shape which comprises a rectangular base parallelepiped having a top end, a bottom end, a length, a width, and a height, and interior; wherein the length is double the width and a height that is a third of the length; wherein the interior comprises a two hollow volumes symmetrically placed; a first square base straight prismatic tower and a second square base straight prismatic tower, wherein the first and second towers are identical and are symmetrically placed to overpass the top end of the rectangular base parallelepiped; wherein each one of both symmetrical hollow volumes includes a first and a second prismatic segment of square base of different dimensions arranged one on top of the other, the first and second segments having a top end and a bottom end, wherein the top and the bottom ends are opened; 2) a lintel beam of portland cement mortar reinforced with steel fiber, the lintel beam having a length, a cross section, a longitudinal section, and a volume; wherein the lintel beam is of identical cross-sectional section to the cross section of the block, wherein the length of the lintel beam is equivalent to a multiple of the length of the block, wherein the longitudinal section of the lintel beam is equal to the longitudinal section obtained by placing several blocks aligned; wherein the volume of the lintel beam is equivalent to the volume of several blocks united; 3) a prefabricated fit in head-block of portland cement mortar reinforced with steel fiber, the head block having a length, a cross section, a longitudinal section, and a volume; wherein the head-block has a shape that derives from the shape of the block being eliminated the first and second towers and the rectangular base parallelepiped is provided with a solid superior face; wherein the solid superior face is obtained by filling the superior prismatic segments of the hollow volumes of the parallelepiped; 4) at least one semi-block, wherein each semi-block has a length, a cross section, a longitudinal section, and a volume; wherein the semi-block has a shape that derives from the shape of the block when a transversal cross-sectional section is performed; and wherein the pillars and walls are free-standing since they are raised by connecting successive layers of blocks, semi-block, head block and lintel beams one in the other or one over others.

Description:

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to the field of civil engineering, particularly to fit in prefabricated blocks suitable for the raising of pillars and walls.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The technical field, to which this invention refers, is continuously searching for obtaining firmness, stability, and high resistance in the prefabricated pieces destined to raise walls, as well as in the resulting walls.

In parallel, the mentioned technical field has been known world-wide in the use of fit in prefabricated pieces of different designs in order to prevent the use of the mortar mixture.

Additionally, in many cases, the use of larger amounts of elements for the raising of walls has been avoided so the task becomes as simple as possible to be attainable by workers without qualification or even by the future occupants of the house.

The proposed solutions in the matter of prefabricated pieces that do not require the use of a mortar mixture provided until the moment did not offer the firmness, stability and high resistance at a satisfactory level. At the same time, the proposed solutions in the matter of fit in prefabricated pieces had demonstrated that the use of elements to help in the construction as metal supports or beams had not being totally avoided.

Additionally, the proposed solutions until this moment have not allowed obtaining a suitable finish in spaces destined to openings, doors and windows, or an easy encounter to right angle walls.

The present invention proposes an alternative to solve these problems.

It is presented a fit in prefabricated block and its derived and complementary pieces for the task of raising pillars and walls without the need of a mortar mixture or plaster, being the block and the derived and complementary pieces prefabricated in a Portland cement mortar reinforced with steel fiber. The resulting pillars and walls of the fit in blocks and complementary derived pieces do not require structural elements as metal supports or beams.

The mortar mixture absence allows affirming that the blocks and the derived and complementary pieces are self-locking. The absence of additional structural elements, such as supports or metal beams, allows affirming that the pillars and walls are free-standing.

The pieces derived from the design of the block that complement it in the task of raising the pillars and walls are: a lintel beam which can also be used as a career beam or crown beam; a head block; and a semi-block.

All these prefabricated pieces are made in Portland cement mortar reinforced with steel fibers and are fit in between them.

The block and complementary derived pieces interact in a way that is described next, providing a technical alternative for the solution of the described technical problems. By the interaction of these elements, pillars and walls having firmness, stability, and high resistance and free-standing capacity are constructed, obtaining a suitable finish in spaces destined to openings, doors and windows, as well as a suitable encounter between the right angle walls that offer a solid mechanical entailment between the convergent walls.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a prefabricated block in Portland cement mortar reinforced with steel fiber fit in self-locking form, suitable for the raising of firm pillars and walls, stable and of high resistance, for interior or exterior.

It is also an objective of the present invention to provide three pieces derived from the design of the block that complements the block in the task of raising the pillars and walls. They are: lintel beam, head block, and semi-block.

The block and the complementary derived pieces interact allowing the raising of the pillars and walls by a dry method.

To the effects of the present invention, it is understood by dry method the one that allows raising a pillar or wall without the use of a mortar mixture, and without the necessity of other different structural elements.

The fact that neither the blocks nor the complementary derived pieces need the mortar mixture to raise pillars and walls allows describing the block and the derived complementary pieces as self-locking.

The fact that the pillars and the walls do not need additional structural elements to provide the necessary raising capacity allows describing the pillars and walls as free-standing.

Additionally, the high resistance design that the prefabricated material grants to the blocks and the derived complementary pieces does not require plaster neither in the pillars nor in the walls, which carries advantages that are detailed in this document.

DESCRIPTION WITH REFERENCE TO THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1—illustrates a perspective view of the block in which the parallelepiped of rectangular base (1) and the two towers that overpass it (2) are shown. In the same figure a top view is shown where the hollow interiors of the towers (3) can be seen.

FIG. 2—illustrates a front view, longitudinal section, lateral view, and cross sectional view of the block showing the parallelepiped of rectangular base (1) of which the two towers (2) overpass.

The longitudinal and cross-sectional sections, show the two hollow volumes of the towers (3), and the two hollow volumes symmetrically placed inside the parallelepiped of rectangular base each one with two segments of straight prismatic form of square base, having each one of them different segment dimensions (4, 5).

FIG. 3—illustrates a vertical view, front view, and lateral view of the semi-block (6) showing a single tower (2).

FIG. 4—illustrates an inferior view of the head block (7) where the accesses to the two hollow volumes symmetrically placed are appraised (8); superior view (7a), horizontal (7b) and lateral (7c) of the head block.

In same FIG. 4, a longitudinal section and a cross-sectional view of the head block (7) allow to appreciate the hollow volumes (8) and the solid superior part (9).

FIG. 5—illustrates a perspective view of the lintel beam (10) and of its two ends (11).

FIG. 6—illustrate a vertical view of the lintel beam (10).

FIG. 7—illustrates a cross sectional view of one of the ends (11).

FIG. 8—illustrates a horizontal view of the lintel beam (10).

FIG. 9—illustrates a longitudinal view of the lintel beam (10) showing the stirrups (12), the main reinforcement (13) and the secondary reinforcement (14).

FIG. 10—Illustrates a vertical view of a pillar of square section (15) where two blocks (1) are placed one next to the other.

FIG. 11—illustrates a front view of a pillar of square section (15) showing the alternative disposition of layers of two blocks (1) that link with the superior layers when turning ninety degrees their direction.

FIG. 12—illustrates a lateral view of a pillar of square section (15) where can be appraised just like in FIG. 11.

FIG. 13—illustrates a perspective view of the superior part of a pillar of square section (15).

FIG. 14—illustrates a wall (16) constructed on the basis of the present system with the use of the block (1), semi-block (6), head block (7), lintel beam (10). The pieces used are observed at the foot of the representation. Also, a pillar of square section (15) is shown.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Block

The basic piece is constituted by a block. From the form of this piece, the other three mentioned pieces are derived.

The block basically comprises a parallelepiped of rectangular base whose length is double its width and its height is a third of the length, with two small identical towers that overpass its superior face.

The block comprises the parallelepiped and the towers that overpass the block. Nevertheless, in this chapter, for the single effects to give clarity to the description that follows, reference to the parallelepiped and the towers will be made separately.

The parallelepiped has in its interior two hollow volumes disposed symmetrically. Each one of the hollow volumes is made up of two segments of square base straight prismatic form placed one on top of the other, having each one of the segments different dimensions. The superior and inferior ends of the segments are opened.

The system to fit in the blocks between them is similar to the male/female system. The inferior segments of each one or both hollow volumes in the parallelepiped are predicted to function like the cavities or female elements in this system.

Both hollow volumes provide the block a favorable contribution to thermal insulation that is desirable in a wall designed to serve as a closing outer wall.

The weight of the block is lightened, allowing easy work manipulation; thus, the approximated weight of the block may be 6.5 kg, for an example, in which the rectangular base blocks have a length of 30 cm, width of 15 cm and a height of 10 cm, obtaining in addition a wall with its own weight of approximately 217 kg/m2 in walls of 15 cm, comparable to the weight of a plastered solid brick wall of the same thickness.

The two towers that overpass the superior face of the described parallelepiped are symmetrically arranged and have a square base straight prismatic form. Each one of the towers is equipped with an interior hollow volume also with straight prismatic form of square base, being the hollow volumes symmetrically located. The superior and inferior ends of the hollow prism are open.

The inferior ends of the hollow volumes of the towers are in communication with the superior ends of the hollow volumes of the parallelepiped, so that each one of the hollow volumes of the towers is continued in each one of the hollow volumes of the parallelepiped.

The main function of the towers is to serve as a mechanical bond between the blocks constituting the male element in the mentioned male/female system. Each one of the blocks is fit in with another by introducing the towers of one of them in the inferior segments of the hollow volumes of the parallelepiped.

The fit in system allows to eliminate the necessity of a mortar mixture because their effects are replaced by the first, conferring to the wall, at the same time, stability and a monolithism similar to the obtained in a traditional wall with the use of a mortar mixture. It is for this reason that the block is called self-locking.

This fit in system allows in addition eliminating the necessity of additional structural elements, such as supports or metal beams, destined to equip the walls with the necessary raising capacity. The pillars and the walls that are constructed are by design free-standing for important wall height and with capacity to support reinforced concrete slabs with usual design overloads. Without damage to it, in the case of being needed as a structural reinforcement destined to other aims, this one can be implemented by adding reinforcement and concrete in the continuous hollow columns that are formed in the walls as a product of placing the blocks in successive layers.

The two towers allow an average adult worker to take the block comfortably with a single hand, which facilitates its manipulation and positioning in the work area.

As the blocks are fit into one another, walls can be perfectly raised saving in manual labor from the qualitative point of view. Non-specialized workers and people who work under the modality of auto-construction or mutual aid can execute the walls with professional finishing.

A result of the block design and placing them in successive layers is the formation of pillars and walls with continuous vertical hollow columns in its interior.

Another result of both is the greater yield per time because walls can be raised with a non-possible speed by other methods.

The pillars and walls do not need any fresh element that sets; they have high resistance which, along with the characteristics already mentioned, makes them suitable to offer immediately raising capacity.

In a preferable embodiment, the pillars are of square section with free-standing capacity, which is obtained by providing alternatively successive layers of two blocks that are linked to successive superior layers when turning ninety degrees their orientation. In the walls with free-standing capacity, somewhat, the standing capacity is obtained when successive block layers are placed and the link with the superior successive layers is made without the need to turn the direction of such.

Another result of the block design and alternatively intercalating in the junction of the walls encounter the blocks so they are simultaneously fit in both walls; its right angle walls are obtained that allow achieving, at the same time, in the considered corner a monolithism of equal order of the one of each wall itself.

The corners are conformed in the same hollow columns that are in the rest of the walls. These hollow columns can be used to produce reinforced concrete pillars in their interior if it is considered useful to the effects of providing additional stability.

Also, it is distinguishable to the facility to implement the installation of lights, water, or other services by means of interior canals that use the vertical hollow spaces of the walls.

The link between the blocks with each other causes the block to be set under compression forces, supported fundamentally by the mortar, and flexion and cut that are essentially supported by the steel fibers that integrate the mortar matrix. The content of steel fiber additionally confers a high resistance to impacts.

Lintel Beam

For the effects to totally allow the raising of walls with prefabricated elements a lintel beam is introduced.

The lintel beam is a piece having a cross-sectional section identical to the block, the length is equivalent to a multiple of the block length and the longitudinal section is equal to the one obtained by placing several aligned blocks. The volume is equivalent to the volume of combining several blocks in which the hollow openings symmetrically placed have been filled up; thus, they are parallelepipeds having a solid rectangular base with solid towers that overpass them, joined among them.

Its reinforcement is equivalent to that of a traditional beam.

The ends of the lintel beam have the same form of a block which confers a type of uniform fit in for the whole structure. These ends are those that link the lintel beam to the masonry allowing a fit in with the rest of the wall.

Its function is double: they can serve as lintel beam in openings; but, in addition, placing them in series, can function as career beam or crown beam, according to the case.

They may be prefabricated of several lengths being advisable to limit them, for simplicity as well as for economy, in addition to the inherent conditioning to the work manipulation and design factors.

The lintel beam has main reinforcement, secondary reinforcement, and stirrups according to the usual design hypotheses in reinforced concrete, and they are made with the same material of the blocks including the steel fibers.

Head Block

To the effects of having a space of windows and doors that are adapted to the rapidity and convenience of the raising of walls according to this system, the piece of the head block is introduced.

This piece allows to easily construct a ledge, as well as to finish off the crowning of a wall or a crown beam in a uniform way offering a smooth surface when it is required for construction reasons.

It is prefabricated with the same material of the above identified block.

It derives from the design of the block because starting from the block design, the towers are eliminated and the rectangular base parallelepiped is provided with a solid superior face.

The solid superior face is obtained by filling the superior prismatic segments of the hollow volumes of the mentioned parallelepiped.

It is linked by means of the inferior face where they are the two cavities or female elements constituted by the prismatic hollow volumes symmetrically placed that are equivalent to the inferior segments of the hollow volumes of the rectangular parallelepiped that forms part of a block.

The head block is fit in an inferior block by means of the previously mentioned male/female, because the towers of the inferior block are fit in the cavities that are opened in the inferior face of the head block.

Semi-Block

In addition, a semi-block is added which, along with the lintel beam, allows forming a space suitable to tie down windows or doors by means of suitable adherences.

It is a piece derived from the block.

Starting from a block as it has been described; a transversal cross-sectional section is performed as previously described to obtain two identical semi-blocks.

The semi-blocks are fit in blocks in order to complete the lateral closing of the wall in those places where they need to be implementing, for example, spaces destined to windows and doors, or joining of walls.

Next to the lintel beam, the semi-block allows producing a space suitable for armor of windows or doors by means of suitable adherences, for example, wall anchor.

Characteristic of the Wall

The dosage of the elements of the mortar—cement, water, and sand including its mesh—allows obtaining a wall of texture comparable to texture of a plastered wall, that along with its resistance, allows leaving out the plaster for interior as well as for exterior.

The mentioned texture and consistency grant a suitable impermeability, making it only necessary to perform the sealing of the superficial junctions that form in the ornament between the pieces, with cement mortar or a suitable pastine. This sealing may be applied by a person that does not have any technical skill in a similar way to the enforcement of joints, for example, ceramics pieces or floor tiles.

The morphology of these pieces and link also grant facility and monolithism in the execution of the walls joints and the corners in right angle that prevail at general level.

From the point of view of the work schedule, it is obtained a shortening of the same by way of eliminating the necessary of habitual waiting times that assure a minimum structural resistance in traditional resistant elements, as well as to eliminate delays due to the incidence of the adverse weather in outdoor work.

The use of the block and the pieces derived from it, with the characteristics described for the raising of pillars and inner and outer walls, constitutes an integral constructive system. This system assures the fast emergence of complementary elements like doors, windows, or ceilings.

In addition, it is to emphasize the remarkable resistance to impact that confers the steel fiber content, important point for a wall that is designed to be without interior or exterior plaster.

A WORKING EMBODIMENT

Next a working embodiment is described without meaning in anyway some limitation in the reach of this request for patent, since it is possible to always give other measures to the block and other pieces obtaining the same results as long as the proportion between the measures is maintained.

Block

In a preferred form to obtain an easily manageable volume by the workers, by its dimensions as well as by its weight, and considering a suitable wall width, the rectangular base parallelepiped has a length of 30 cm, a width of 15 cm, and a height of 10 cm, whereas the towers has a length of 10 cm, a width of 10 cm and a height of 4.5 cm.

From the inferior face of the rectangular base parallelepiped it is possible to access the two cavities or female elements constituted by the prismatic inferior segments of the hollow volumes symmetrically placed. Each one of these prismatic segments has a length of 11 cm, a width of 11 cm, and a height of 5 cm.

Between the internal faces of the inferior segments of both hollow volumes there is a separation of 4 cm. From the external faces of the inferior segments of both hollow volumes there is a separation of 2 cm with respect to the lateral faces of the parallelepiped.

The prismatic superior segments of the hollow volumes symmetrically placed have a length of 7 cm, a width of 7 cm, and a height of 5 cm.

The towers measure 10 cm in length, 10 cm width, and 4.5 cm in height, whereas the inner hollow volumes measure 7 cm in length, 7 cm in width, and 4.5 cm in height.

The towers symmetrically placed in the superior face of the block have a separation among them of 5 cm, and each one of them moved away 2.5 cm of the respective lateral faces of the parallelepiped. The thickness of the walls of the towers is of 1.5 cm.

The described measures constitute a preferred example by the inventor without for that reason limiting the reach of this request of patent. The mentioned measures can change if the proportions are maintained.

When placing the blocks one next to another, and one fit in the other as a male/female, layers or rows of blocks are formed that allow to raise as an example columns, inner or outer walls.

The fit in between pieces allows forming square pillars of 30 cm of side with standing capacity, this is obtained by alternatively placing layers of two blocks that link with the superior layers when turning ninety degrees their direction.

The height of the pillars and the walls is a multiple of the height of the block. In the above mentioned example it is a multiple of 10 cm. This is particularly useful in the case of using foundation stall, in which case the pillars may be placed as an additional ceiling support.

Lintel Beam

For the case of rectangular base block type of a length of 30 cm, a width of 15 cm, and a height of 10 cm, the beams may be made with a section of 15 cm of base by 10 cm of height, which limits the amount of reinforcement to be placed.

Its weight must be so that it allows to manipulate it and to place it in the wall with facility, to such effects, in a manufacture example for the previously mentioned case, is considered to prefabricate the lintel beams of two lengths, that is to say: of 1.20 m for lintels of doors, and 1.50 ms for lintels of windows. The fact that the beam door lintel has 1.20 m allows a free light of 90 cm to the effects to locate the door and the frame. The length of the lintel beam of window of 1.50 m allows that the width of the window with the frame is 1.20 m.

In the case of the beams section lintels 15 cm by 10 cm and 1.50 cm of overall length, its total weight is approximately of 65 kg, which allows that two workers position it in work area without greater difficulty.

Head Block

Starting from the design of the block, and having eliminated the towers, the superior hollow segments of the parallelepiped that are filled up have a length of 7 cm, width of 7 cm and a height of 5 cm.

From the inferior face of the head block it is possible to access the two cavities or female elements constituted by the prismatic hollow volumes symmetrically placed. Each one of these volumes has a length of 11 cm, width of 11 cm, and a height of 5 cm.

Semi-Block

Starting from the block as it has been described; a cross-sectional section is performed in the block to obtain two identical semi-blocks.

Consequently, starting from the measures previously described for the block it is possible to easily deduce the measures of the semi-block.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION

The blocks are feasible products to be produced exclusively at industrial level by means of matrix or molds, which facilitates the necessary quality control and made possible the desirable scale economies.

The semi-blocks, which can be obtained by sectioning blocks with common equipment, are feasible industrially prefabricated by means of matrices or molds.

The head block and the beams can only be prefabricated industrially by means of matrices or molds obtaining the desirable standardization.