Title:
Temperature calculation based on non-uniform leakage power
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A system may include determination of a spatial power map associated with an integrated circuit based on an architecture of the circuit, generation of a spatial thermal map associated with the integrated circuit based on the spatial power map, and determination of a spatial leakage power map based on the spatial thermal map. In some aspects, a system includes determination of a temperature of an integrated circuit, comparison of the temperature with a thermal divergence temperature, determination that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power, and disabling of power to the integrated circuit.



Inventors:
Adhikari, Dhananjay (Austin, TX, US)
Cai, Zhong-ning George (Lake Oswego, OR, US)
Schneider, Jacob (Austin, TX, US)
Application Number:
11/646064
Publication Date:
07/03/2008
Filing Date:
12/27/2006
Primary Class:
International Classes:
G01N25/72
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Primary Examiner:
JACOB, MARY C
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WOMBLE BOND DICKINSON (US) LLP/Mission (Atlanta, GA, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A method comprising: determining a spatial power map associated with an integrated circuit based on an architecture of the circuit; generating a spatial thermal map associated with the integrated circuit based on the spatial power map; and determining a spatial leakage power map based on the spatial thermal map.

2. A method according to claim 1, wherein determining the spatial leakage power map comprises: modeling spatial leakage power based on a fabrication process of the integrated circuit.

3. A method according to claim 1, further comprising: determining a second spatial power map associated with the integrated circuit based on the spatial leakage power map; generating a second spatial thermal map associated with the integrated circuit based on the second spatial power map; and determining a second spatial leakage power map based on the second spatial thermal map.

4. A method according to claim 3, further comprising: determining whether the second spatial thermal map is substantially similar to the spatial thermal map.

5. A method according to claim 1, further comprising: determining a leakage power shutdown temperature based on the spatial leakage power map.

6. A method comprising: determining a temperature of an integrated circuit; comparing the temperature with a thermal divergence temperature; determining that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power; and disabling power to the integrated circuit.

7. A method according to claim 6, wherein determining that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power comprises: determining that the integrated circuit is inactive.

8. A method according to claim 6, wherein comparing the temperature with the thermal divergence temperature comprises: determining that the temperature is proximate to the thermal divergence temperature of the integrated circuit, and further comprising: after determining that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power, measuring a second temperature of the integrated circuit; and determining that the second temperature is greater than the thermal divergence temperature of the integrated circuit.

9. A method according to claim 6, further comprising: determining the thermal divergence temperature of the integrated circuit based on a plurality of stored temperatures.

10. An apparatus comprising: an integrated circuit; a temperature sensor to measure a temperature of the integrated circuit; and a comparator to compare the temperature with a thermal divergence temperature; wherein the integrated circuit is to determine that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power, and disable power to the integrated circuit.

11. An apparatus according to claim 10, wherein the determination that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power comprises: a determination that the integrated circuit is inactive.

12. An apparatus according to claim 10, wherein the comparator is to determine that the temperature is proximate to the thermal divergence temperature of the integrated circuit, wherein temperature sensor is to measure a second temperature of the integrated circuit after it is determined that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power, and wherein the integrated circuit is further to determine that the second temperature is greater than the thermal divergence temperature of the integrated circuit.

13. An apparatus according to claim 10, further comprising: a memory comprising a plurality of stored temperatures including the thermal divergence temperature.

14. A system comprising: a double data rate memory; an integrated circuit; a temperature sensor to measure a temperature of the integrated circuit; and a comparator to compare the temperature with a thermal divergence temperature; wherein the integrated circuit is to determine that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power, and disable power to the integrated circuit.

15. A system according to claim 14, wherein the determination that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power comprises: a determination that the integrated circuit is inactive.

16. A system according to claim 14, wherein the comparator is to determine that the temperature is proximate to the thermal divergence temperature of the integrated circuit, wherein temperature sensor is to measure a second temperature of the integrated circuit after it is determined that the temperature of the integrated circuit is primarily due to leakage power, and wherein the integrated circuit is further to determine that the second temperature is greater than the thermal divergence temperature of the integrated circuit.

Description:

BACKGROUND

Power dissipation directly affects the performance and reliability of modern integrated circuits. A microprocessor designer, for example, may model this power dissipation with respect to a high level micro-architecture, a register transfer level, and an actual implementation of the microprocessor. According to conventional methods for modeling power dissipation, source-to-drain leakage power is characterized as a constant depending only on a process corner of the subject integrated circuit. These methods typically neglect any dependence of leakage power on temperature as insignificant.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an apparatus according to some embodiments.

FIG. 2 is a flow diagram of a process according to some embodiments.

FIG. 3 illustrates a thermal divergence temperature determined according to some embodiments.

FIG. 4 is a flow diagram of a process according to some embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of integrated circuit 100 according to some embodiments. Integrated circuit 100 may comprise any type of semiconductor-based device having electrical devices integrated therein. Integrated circuit 100 may be fabricated according to any number of fabrication techniques that are or become known. In some embodiments, integrated circuit 100 comprises a silicon-based general-purpose microprocessor.

Integrated circuit 110 comprises core 110, temperature sensor 120, lookup table 130, power regulation circuit 140 and comparator 150. The positions and relative sizes of functional blocks 110 through 150 do not necessarily reflect any particular implementation. According to some embodiments, one or more of functional blocks 110 through 150 may share active or passive electrical elements amongst each other.

Core 110 may comprise an execution engine to execute processor-executable program code. Such execution may illicit desired behavior from circuit 100, which may include internal state changes as well the driving of desired signals to external pins (not shown) of circuit 100. Circuit 100 may store program code “on-chip” for low-level operations such as one or more processes described herein.

Memory 160 may be in communication with one or more external pins and may provide processor-executable program code to integrated circuit 100 according to some embodiments. Memory 160 may comprise any type of memory for storing data, including but not limited to a Single Data Rate Random Access Memory (SDR-RAM), a Double Data Rate Random Access Memory (DDR-RAM), or a Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM).

FIG. 2 is a diagram of process 200 according to some embodiments. Process 200 may be executed by any combination of hardware, software and/or firmware, and some elements may be executed manually. Process 200 may be executed during testing and/or other quality assurance activities after manufacture of an integrated circuit.

Initially, at 210, a spatial power map associated with an integrated circuit is determined. The spatial power map is based on an architecture of the circuit. Determination of the spatial power map at 210 may proceed according to any suitable system that is or becomes known. For example, some conventional systems receive an electronic “floorplan” of the integrated circuit, statistical historic studies of prior integrated circuits, and process data, and generate a three-dimensional map illustrating power consumption at various locations throughout the integrated circuit. The map typically reflects active power, gate power, and source-to-drain leakage power.

Next, at 220, a spatial thermal map associated with an integrated circuit is generated based on the spatial power map generated at 210. The spatial thermal map may indicate average operational temperatures at various points of the integrated circuit. Again, current or future conventional methods for generating such a thermal map may be employed at 220.

A spatial leakage power map is determined at 230 based on the spatial thermal map generated at 220. According to some embodiments, the spatial leakage power map reflects source-to-drain leakage power at various locations of the integrated circuit. The leakage power may be modeled as follows:


Psdleak2=Psdleak1e(β(T2−T1),

where β is obtained from process data simulations. The following table illustrates values of β generated by SPICE measurements using a minimum square fit method, with Vdd=1.1V, T=25 to 150 degrees C., and a PTTTT skew on conventional microprocessor fabrication process.

TTTTFFFF
LVT NMOS1.48E−029.35E−02
HVT NMOS1.94E−021.68E−02
LVT PMOS1.76E−021.06E−02
HVT PMOS2.01E−021.74E−02

As shown, β may vary depending on process corner. Accordingly, several spatial leakage power maps corresponding to respective process corners may be generated at 230.

At 240, it is determined whether the spatial leakage power map is substantially convergent. Convergence in this context may indicate that a difference between the most-recently determined spatial thermal map and a previously-determined thermal map is less than a predetermined threshold. Some embodiments therefore require flow to return to 220 and continue as described above to generate a second spatial thermal map for comparison against a first spatial thermal map at 240. Flow continues to cycle between 220, 230 and 240 until the most-recently determined spatial thermal map is determined to be substantially convergent.

One or more leakage power shutdown temperatures are determined at 250 based on the spatial leakage power map. The determination at 250 may be based on the direct proportionality of temperature to total power, written as Tj=Ta+Θ (Source-Drain Leakage Power+Gate Leakage Power+Active Power). Assuming that Y1=Tj and Y2=Ta+Θ, the function Y=Y1−Y2 may be defined. The function Y has one minimum and no maximums. Moreover, if the minimum is less than 0, either one solution (i.e., a converging case) or two solutions (i.e., a diverging case) exists.

FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating a plot of Y according to some embodiments. The plot is associated with a particular process corner based on which the associated spatial leakage power map was determined at 230. Also shown is solution A of the function Y, which may represent a leakage power shutdown temperature according to some embodiments. The leakage power shutdown temperature may be a temperature at which, for the given process corner, temperature and leakage power become self-reinforcing and cause a runaway condition.

FIG. 4 is a flow diagram of process 400 according to some embodiments. Process 400 may be executed by any combination of hardware, software and/or firmware. Process 400 may be executed by circuit 100 according to some embodiments.

A temperature of an integrated circuit is determined at 410. The temperature may be determined by an on-chip temperature sensor such as temperature sensor 120, which may comprise a digital thermometer or any other type of sensor that is or becomes known. The sensor may measure the temperature at a particular location of the integrated circuit at which temperature and leakage power are of concern.

At 420, it is determined whether the temperature is proximate to a thermal divergence temperature. As described above with respect to the leakage power shutdown temperature, the thermal divergence temperature may be a temperature at which the continued application of supply power may cause a runaway temperature condition. Accordingly, the thermal divergence temperature may be determined for a particular location of the integrated circuit as described above with respect to the leakage power shutdown temperature.

The thermal divergence temperature may be stored on-chip (e.g., in lookup table 130) after manufacture of the integrated circuit. In some embodiments, several thermal divergence temperatures are stored on-chip and one of the stored temperatures is flagged to indicate its applicability to the particular integrated circuit. Such an arrangement may allow a manufacturer to customize process 400 in view of a process corner or intended use of the integrated circuit.

Comparator 130 may compare the determined temperature to the thermal divergence temperature at 420. Comparator 130 may indicate TRUE if the measured temperature is less than but sufficiently proximate to the thermal divergence temperature. Comparator 130 may be an element of core 110. Flow returns to 410 if the determined temperature is not proximate to the thermal divergence temperature.

Flow proceeds to 430 if the determination at 420 is affirmative. At 430, it is determined if the integrated circuit is active. The determination at 430 may be intended to determine if the measured temperature is primarily due to active power or leakage power. The determination may be based on communication with the operating system, internal performance counters of the integrated circuit, etc. If the integrated circuit is active, flow continues to 440 to hand control to other temperature control processes. Such control may comprise reducing operational frequency, supply power, workload, etc.

If it is determined that the integrated circuit is not active, a temperature of the integrated circuit is again determined at 450, and this temperature is compared against the thermal divergence point at 460. If the measured temperature is less than the thermal divergence point, flow returns to 420 to determine whether to determine whether the temperature of the integrated circuit is still proximate to the thermal divergence temperature and flow continues as described above.

If the measured temperature is greater than the thermal divergence point at 460, power to the integrated circuit is disabled at 470. Disabling the power is intended to prevent a runaway temperature condition. The power may be disabled by operating power regulation circuit 140 to reduce or eliminate power supplied to all or a portion of integrated circuit 100. The power may be disabled at 470 by instructing an off-chip voltage regulator (not shown) to stop power delivery to integrated circuit 100.

The several embodiments described herein are solely for the purpose of illustration. Therefore, persons in the art will recognize from this description that other embodiments may be practiced with various modifications and alterations.