Title:
HIGH CONCENTRATION DINOTEFURAN FORMULATIONS
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A topical insecticide is provided which can be safe to use and avoids many common deleterious side effects of conventional topical insecticides. In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the active ingredient of the insecticide formulation is an amine derivative, having a nitro-methylene group, a nitroamino group or a cyanoamino group, which can be formulated to have low toxicity and excellent insecticidal activity. One particularly suitable insecticide is 1-{(tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methyl}-2-nitro-3-methylguanidine (dinotefuran), an aldulticide that will kill adult fleas dissolved in ethyl lactate.



Inventors:
Cottrell, Ian W. (Basking Ridge, NJ, US)
Monro, Christine (Oakland, NJ, US)
Joseph, Pierre (Hamilton, NJ, US)
Fisher, Richard (Brookville, NJ, US)
Application Number:
11/877272
Publication Date:
02/14/2008
Filing Date:
10/23/2007
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/471
International Classes:
A01N43/08; A01N47/40; A01N51/00; A01P7/04; A61Q17/04
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Primary Examiner:
PAK, JOHN D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
STROOCK & STROOCK & LAVAN LLP (NEW YORK, NY, US)
Claims:
1. An insecticide and solvent combination consisting essentially of an insecticidably effective amount of dinotefuran dissolved in an effective amount of a solvent component consisting essentially of ethyl lactate and water or ethyl lactate to dissolve said dinotefuran.

2. The insecticide and solvent of claim 1, wherein said dinotefuran is dissolved in the formulation to a concentration of about 5 to 25%.

3. 3.-5. (canceled)

6. The insecticide and solvent of claim 1, wherein said solvent component comprises over about 35% ethyl lactate.

7. 7.-20. (canceled)

21. The insecticide and solvent of claim 1, wherein the formulation is not irritating to dogs or cats and is effective to kill fleas with applications of less than 20 ml to a cat.

22. (canceled)

23. The insecticide and solvent of claim 1, wherein 1.0 ml or less of the formulation is effective to kill fleas on a cat for at least one month.

24. 24.-26. (canceled)

27. The insecticide and solvent of claim 1, combined with one or more fragrances, hair conditioners, spreading agents or UV protectants.

28. (canceled)

29. A method of controlling insect infestation in animals, comprising dissolving dinotefuran in a solvent composition consisting essentially of ethyl lactate and water or ethyl lactate and applying an insecticidably effective amount of the solution to an animal.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the animal is a cat or a dog.

31. The method of claim 29, wherein the insect is a flea.

32. An insecticide formulation consisting essentially of dinotefuran and ethyl lactate or dinotefuran, ethyl lactate and water.

33. The insecticide formulation of claim 32, consisting essentially of dinotefuran and ethyl lactate.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

The present application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 10/411,720, filed Apr. 11, 2003, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 10/242,550, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,588,374, U.S. Ser. No. 10/242,551, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,867,223 and U.S. Ser. No. 10/242,552, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,814,030, all of which were filed Sep. 12, 2002. Priority is claimed to all of the applications listed above, which are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

The invention relates generally to insecticides and more particularly to a topical insecticide, such as one suitable to use on house pets such as cats and dogs.

The infestation of animals with fleas, ticks, flies and the like is highly undesirable. Accordingly, it has become common to administer both topical and internal insecticides to livestock and pets. Topical applications can be desirable, in that many insecticides are acceptably safe when used topically, but not when used internally.

Various topical insecticides have drawbacks. Some require a large volume to be applied to the animal. This can cause considerable mess and can lead to an unpleasant smell. Others use irritating or foul smelling solvents. Also, when the animal is a house pet, there is a further complication in that the insecticide should be safe for human contact. It should also not lead to staining of furniture, carpeting and the like. Finally, even if safe, topical insecticides for house pets should not be irritating or lead to rashes, hair loss or exhibit other unpleasant side effects.

Accordingly, it is desirable to provide an improved topical insecticide, which overcomes drawbacks of the prior art.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Generally speaking, in accordance with the invention, a topical insecticide is provided which can be safe to use and avoids many common deleterious side effects of conventional topical insecticides. In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the active ingredient of the insecticide formulation is an amine derivative, having a nitro-methylene group, a nitroamino group or a cyanoamino group, which can be formulated to have low toxicity and excellent insecticidal activity. Active ingredients of insecticides and their method of formation in accordance with the preferred embodiments of the invention are discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,434,181, 5,532,365, 6,588,374, 6,814,030 and 6,867,223 and U.S. application Ser. No. 10/411,720 filed on Apr. 11, 2003, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. One particularly suitable insecticide is 1-{(tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methyl}-2-nitro-3-methylguanidine (dinotefuran). Dinotefuran is an aldulticide that will kill adult fleas.

In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the active portion of the insecticide formulation comprises (tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methylamine derivatives of following formula (1):

Active ingredients and insecticides in accordance with preferred embodiments of the invention are generally available as crystals and solids. Therefore, they need to be dissolved or otherwise put into a liquid form for use as topical spot products on animals. Topical spot products are more advantageous if the amount of liquid applied can be minimized. This must be balanced with the need for appropriate dosage to achieve the desired insecticidal effect. Therefore, it is desirable to use a solvent that will allow the solubilization of a high concentration of insecticide. It has been determined that ethyl lactate is a particularly useful solvent for forming dinotefuran containing compositions. Compositions containing ethyl lactate in combination with water and/or alcohols are also advantageous.

It is also desirable that the resulting formulation be stable. For example, it should not exhibit crystallization when stored at 0° F. and 40° F. for 1 month and longer. This is important because these conditions can be met in commerce. The crystallization would reduce the amount of insecticide in solution and reduce the efficacy of the solution applied to the animal.

Phenyl methanol is an alcohol, also known as benzyl alcohol, and is a liquid, somewhat soluble in water. It was surprisingly discovered that a relatively high concentration of the dinotefuran can be solubilized in phenyl methanol.

Methoprene is an insecticide that acts as an insect growth regulator that prevents flea eggs from hatching. It was unexpectedly determined that methoprene can act as a solubility enhancer for amine derivative insecticides such as dinotefuran, discussed above. For example, the addition of methoprene to the dinotefuran formulations with phenyl methanol allowed the preparation of more highly concentrated solutions of dinotefuran that do not crystallize at 0° F.

In one aspect of the current invention, the dinotefuran is dissolved in solvent containing methoprene to a concentration range of 5-25%, more preferably 9-20% and most preferably about 12.5 to 19.2%, with 17.5% as a preferred example. All percentages, unless otherwise evident, are on a weight basis.

The formulation can be applied as a topical drop about once per month, preferably in the area between the shoulder blades and the base of the skull to kill fleas and flea eggs for over a one month period.

Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide an improved topical insecticide, which overcomes drawbacks of the prior art.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The novel (tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methylamine derivatives of the formula (1) have an excellent insecticidal activity even in the absence of a pyridylmethyl group or a thiazolylmethyl group in their molecular structure. According to the present invention, there are provided (tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methylamine derivatives represented by formula (1), where X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 and X7 represent each a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; R1 represents a hydrogen atom, an alkyl group having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms, an alkenyl group having 3 carbon atoms, a benzyl group, an alkoxyalkyl group having from 2 to 4 carbon atoms (in its whole group), an alkyloxycarbonyl group having from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, a phenoxy carbonyl group, an alkylcarbonyl group having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an alkenylcarbonyl group having from 2 to 3 carbon atoms, a cycloalkylcarbonyl group having from 3 to 6 carbon atoms, a benzoyl group, a benzoyl group substituted by alkyl group(s) having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, a benzoyl group substituted by halogen atom(s), a 2-furanylcarbonyl group or an N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl group; R2 represents a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a methyl group, an alkylamino group having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms, a di-substituted alkylamino group having from 2 to 5 carbon atoms (in its whole group), a 1-pyrrolidinyl group, an alkenylamino group having 3 carbon atoms, an alkynylamino group having 3 carbon atoms, a methoxyamino group, an alkoxyalkylamino group having from 2 to 4 carbon atoms (in its whole group), a methylthio group or —N(Y1)Y2 (where Y1 represents an alkyloxycarbonyl group having from 1 to 3 carbon atoms, a phenoxycarbonyl group, an alkylcarbonyl group having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, an alkenylcarbonyl group having from 2 to 3 carbon atoms, a cycloalkylcarbonyl group having from 3 to 6 carbon atoms, a benzoyl group, a benzoyl group substituted by alkyl group(s) having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, a benzoyl group substituted by halogen atom(s), a 2-furanylcarbonyl group, an N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl group, a (tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methyl group or a benzyl group, and Y2 represents a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms); and Z represents ═N—NO2, ═CH—NO2 or ═N—CN; insecticides containing the derivatives as an effective ingredient; and intermediates for producing the compounds of the formula (1) represented by a formula (2):
where X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 and X7 represent each a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; R10 represents an alkyl group having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms or a benzyl group; and R11 represents an alkyl group having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms or a benzyl group.

The (tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methylamine derivatives of the formula (1) and formula (2) according to the invention have a high insecticidal power and broad insecticidal spectrum. Further, agricultural chemicals containing the (tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methylamine derivatives of the formula (1) and (2) according to the invention have outstanding characteristics as insecticides and hence are useful.

Specific examples of the alkyl group for X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 and X7 in the above formulae (1) and (2) include a methyl group, an ethyl group, an n-propyl group, an iso-propyl group, a tert-butyl group, and the like, preferably a methyl group.

Specific examples of the alkyl group for R1 include a methyl group, an ethyl group, an n-propyl group, an iso-propyl group, an n-butyl group, an iso-butyl group, a sec-butyl group, a tert-butyl group, an n-pentyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkenyl group for R1 include a 1-propenyl group, a 2-propenyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkoxyalkyl group for R1 include a methoxymethyl group, an ethoxymethyl group, an n-propoxymethyl group, an iso-propoxymethyl group, a methoxyethyl group, an ethoxyethyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkyloxycarbonyl group for R1 include a methyloxycarbonyl group, an ethyloxycarbonyl group, an n-propyloxycarbonyl group, an iso-propyloxycarbonyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkylcarbonyl group for R1 include a methylcarbonyl group, an ethylcarbonyl group, an n-propylcarbonyl group, an iso-propylcarbonyl group, an n-butylcarbonyl group, an iso-butylcarbonyl group, a sec-butylcarbonyl group, a tert-butylcarbonyl group, an n-pentylcarbonyl group, an n-hexylcarbonyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkenylcarbonyl group for R1 include a vinylcarbonyl group, a 1-methylvinylcarbonyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the cycloalkylcarbonyl group for R1 include a cyclopropylcarbonyl group, a cyclobutylcarbonyl group, a cyclopentylcarbonyl group, a cyclohexylcarbonyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the benzoyl group substituted by alkyl group(s) for R1 include a 2-methylbenzoyl group, a 3-methylbenzoyl group, a 4-methylbenzoyl group, a 4-tert-butylbenzoyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the benzoyl group substituted by halogen atom(s) for R1 include a 2-chlorobenzoyl group, a 3-chlorobenzoyl group, a 4-chlorobenzoyl group, a 3,4-dichloro-benzoyl group, a 4-fluorobenzoyl group, and the like.

Although R1 can take various substituents as described above, it is preferably a hydrogen atom, an alkylcarbonyl group having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms or a cyclopropylcarbonyl group.

Specific examples of the alkylamino group for R2 include a methylamino group, an ethylamino group, an n-propyl-amino group, an iso-propylamino group, an n-butylamino group, an iso-butylamino group, a sec-butylamino group, a tert-butylamino group, an n-pentylamino group, and the like, preferably a methylamino group.

Specific examples of the di-substituted alkylamino group for R2 include a dimethylamino group, a diethylamino group, an N-methyl-N-ethylamino group, an N-methyl-N-n-propylamino group, an N-methyl-N-n-butylamino group, and the like, preferably a dimethylamino group.

Specific examples of the alkenylamino group for R2 include a 1-propenylamino group, a 2-propenylamino group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkynylamino group for R2 include a propargylamino group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkoxyalkylamino group for R2 include a methoxymethylamino group, an ethoxymethylamino group, an n-propoxymethylamino group, an iso-propoxymethylamino group, a methoxyethylamino group, an ethoxyethylamino group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkyloxycarbonyl group denoted by Y1 for R2 include a methyloxycarbonyl group, an ethyloxy-carbonyl group, an n-propyloxycarbonyl group, an iso-propyloxy-carbonyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkylcarbonyl group denoted by Y1 for R2 include a methylcarbonyl group, an ethylcarbonyl group, an n-propylcarbonyl group, an iso-propylcarbonyl group, an n-butylcarbonyl group, an isobutylcarbonyl group, a sec-butyl-carbonyl group, a tertbutylcarbonyl group, an n-pentylcarbonyl group, an n-hexylcarbonyl group, and the like, preferably a methylcarbonyl group, an ethylcarbonyl group, an n-propylcarbonyl group, an iso-propylcarbonyl group, an n-butylcarbonyl group, an iso-butylcarbonyl group, a sec-butylcarbonyl group and a tert-butylcarbonyl group.

Specific examples of the alkenylcarbonyl group denoted by Y1 for R2 include a vinylcarbonyl group, a 1-methyl-vinylcarbonyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the cycloalkylcarbonyl group denoted by Y1 for R2 include a cyclopropylcarbonyl group, a cyclobutylcarbonyl group, a cyclopentylcarbonyl group, a cyclohexylcarbonyl group, and the like, preferably a cyclopropyl-carbonyl group.

Specific examples of the benzoyl group substituted by alkyl group(s) denoted by Y1 for R2 include a 2-methylbenzoyl group, a 3-methylbenzoyl group, a 4-methylbenzoyl group, a 4-tert-butylbenzoyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the benzoyl group substituted by halogen atom(s) denoted by Y1 for R2 include a 2-chlorobenzoyl group, a 3-chlorobenzoyl group, a 4-chlorobenzoyl group, a 3,4-dichlorobenzoyl group, a 4-fluoro benzoyl group, and the like.

Specific examples of the alkyl group denoted by Y2 for R2 include a methyl group, an ethyl group, an n-propyl group, an iso-propyl group, an n-butyl group, an iso-butyl group, a sec-butyl group, a tert-butyl group, an n-pentyl group, and the like, preferably a methyl group.

In the formula (1), compounds in which R1 and Y1 are concurrently an alkylcarbonyl group having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms or a cyclopropylcarbonyl group are preferred from the viewpoint of both insecticidal activity and production method.

In the development of a formulation for use on animals, there are several parameters that should be considered. These include:

    • (a) Concentration high enough to minimize the volume of the topical applied to the animal (e.g., one would not want to put 20 ml onto a small cat).
    • (b) The formulation should be stable for one month at 130° F., 110° F., 40° F., room temperature and 0° F. This helps ensure that the formulation remains stable under the conditions that it could meet in commerce.
    • (c) Safe to use on the animal—particularly non-irritating since the product is applied to the skin. Also safe if ingested by the animal; ingestion can occur when cats groom themselves.
    • (d) Safe to use by the consumer.
    • (e) Stable and efficacious in use—should kill greater than 90% of the fleas up to 28 days.
    • (f) Efficacy would be reduced if crystallization occurred in the package.
    • (g) Aesthetically pleasing.
    • (h) Fast drying to reduce the chance of the animal shaking off the liquid thereby reducing efficacy.
    • (i) Microbiologically stable.

U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,434,181 and 5,532,365 recognize different possible solvents, but do not provide information on how to formulate the insecticide in a non-irritating manner. No examples were given in which the compounds were used on animals. Additionally, in all of the examples given, the compounds were dissolved into solvents that are undesirable to use on animals. Specifically, acetone, used in all but one of the examples, is very irritating by both inhalation and skin contact, due to de-fatting action on skin and mucous membranes. It is also very irritating to the eyes. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a different solvent for these compounds that can be used on animals. The present invention can satisfy the parameters detailed above.

In one aspect of the current invention, the dinotefuran is dissolved in solvent containing methoprene to a concentration range of 5-25%, more preferably 9-20% and most preferably about 12.5 to 19.2%, with 17.5% as a preferred example. All percentages, unless otherwise evident, are on a weight basis. Methoprene is advantageously included as over 0.1%, advantageously about 0.1 to 3%. Advantageous weight ratios of dinotefuran:methoprene range from about 30:1 to 2.5:1, more preferably about 25:1 to 3:1.

Pyriproxyfen is an insect growth regulator that prevents fleas from hatching. It was unexpectedly determined that pyriproxyfen can act as a solubility enhancer for the amine derivative insecticides such as dinotefuran, discussed herein. For example, the addition of pyriproxyfen to the dinotefuran formulations with phenyl methanol allowed the preparation of more highly concentrated solutions of dinotefuran that do not crystallize at 0° F.

In another aspect of the present invention, the dinotefuran can be dissolved in solvent containing pyriproxyfen to a concentration range of 5-25%, more preferably 9-20% and most preferable about 12.5-19.2% with 17.5% as a preferred example. Pyriproxyfen is advantageously included as over 0.1%, advantageously about 0.1 to 3%.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the solvent component can contain ethyl lactate. It can be a mixture comprising water, ethyl lactate and alcohol, preferably ethanol. The final concentration of ethyl lactate can range from 5-20%. The final concentration of ethanol can range from 30-45%; more preferably 7-15% ethyl lactate and 35-43% ethanol and most preferable to a final concentration of 10% ethyl lactate and 40% ethanol. The remainder can be water. Isopropanol can also be added to ethanol to improve solubility.

It has been found that when the solvent comprises phenyl methanol or a combination of ethyl lactate and ethanol, higher concentrations of active ingredient can be incorporated. In one aspect of the current invention, the active compound is dissolved in solvent to a concentration range of 2-20%, more preferably 4-17% and most preferably about 8 to 14%, with 12.5% as a preferred example. All percentages, unless otherwise evident, are on a weight basis.

In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the preferred solvent component comprises a mixture comprising water, ethyl lactate and ethanol, wherein the final concentration of ethyl lactate ranges from 5-20% and the final concentration of ethanol ranges from 30-45%, more preferably 7-15% ethyl lactate and 35-43% ethanol and most preferable a final concentration of 10% ethyl lactate and 40% ethanol. The remainder can be water. Isopropanol can also be added to ethanol to improve solubility.

In another aspect of the present invention, the dinotefuran can be dissolved in a solvent component comprising ethyl lactate. The solvent component can consist essentially of ethyl lactate and water. The final concentration of ethyl lactate can range from about 35-57%; more preferably about 42-53% and most preferable about 47.5-50% with 48.6% as a preferred example. The final concentration of dinotefuran can range from about 5-25%, more preferably about 7-21% and most preferably about 12-17%, with 15% as a preferred example.

In one embodiment of the invention, the preferred solvent component comprises a mixture comprising water and ethanol at a concentration range of 50-80% ethanol, more preferably 65-75% ethanol and most preferably about 69-71% ethanol, with a preferred example 70% ethanol. The remainder can be water. The insecticide formulation can include various additions to the ethanol/water combination.

In another embodiment of the invention, the preferred solvent component comprises a mixture comprising water, ethanol and isopropanol, wherein the final concentration of total alcohol range from 50-80% alcohol, more preferably 65-75% alcohol and most preferably about 69-71% alcohol, with a preferred example 70% alcohol. The remainder can be water. The concentration of ethanol and isopropanol are 25-45% ethanol, 25-45% isopropanol, more preferably 30-40% ethanol, 30-40% isopropanol and most preferably 35% ethanol and 35% isopropanol.

In another embodiment of the invention, the solvent comprises a mixture comprising dipropyleneglycol monomethyl ether (DPM) and water at a concentration range of about 30-70% DPM, more preferably about 45-55% DPM and most preferably about 50% DPM/50% water mixture.

In yet another embodiment of the invention, the preferred solvent is a mixture comprising water, ethanol and DPM at a concentration range of 25-40% ethanol, 25-40% DPM, more preferably 30-35% ethanol, 30-35% DPM and most preferably equal volumes of each component (i.e., 33% ethanol, 33% DPM and 33% water).

In one aspect of the current invention, the compound is dissolved in solvent to a concentration range of 2-15%, more preferably 4-9% and most preferably about 5 to 8%, with 6% as a preferred example. All percentages, unless otherwise evident, are on a weight basis.

In one embodiment of the invention, the preferred solvent component comprises a mixture comprising water and an alcohol, preferably ethanol, at a concentration range of 50-80% ethanol, more preferably 65-75% ethanol and most preferably about 69-71% ethanol, with a preferred example 70% ethanol. The remainder can be water. The insecticide formulation can include various additions to the ethanol/water combination.

In another embodiment of the invention, the preferred solvent component comprises a mixture comprising water, ethanol and isopropanol, wherein the final concentration of total alcohol range from 50-80% alcohol, more preferably 65-75% alcohol and most preferably about 69-71% alcohol, with a preferred example 70% alcohol. The remainder can be water. The concentration of ethanol and isopropanol are 25-45% ethanol, 25-45% isopropanol, more preferably 30-40% ethanol, 30-40% isopropanol and most preferably 35% ethanol and 35% isopropanol.

In another embodiment of the invention, the preferred solvent comprises a mixture comprising dipropyleneglycol monomethyl ether (DPM) and water at a concentration range of about 30-70% DPM, more preferably about 45-55% DPM and most preferably about 50% DPM/50% water mixture.

In yet another embodiment of the invention, the preferred solvent is a mixture comprising water, ethanol and DPM at a concentration range of 25-40% ethanol, 25-40% DPM, more preferably 30-35% ethanol, 30-35% DPM and most preferably equal volumes of each component (i.e., 33% ethanol, 33% DPM and 33% water).

It will be readily appreciated by the skilled artisan that the formulations described herein may also comprise additives including, but not limited to, fragrances, hair conditioners, salvation aids, spreading agents, solubilizers and UV protectants.

The formulation can be applied as a topical drop about once per month, preferably in the area between the shoulder blades and the base of the skull to kill fleas and flea eggs for over a one month period. In the embodiments of the present invention described herein, up to 20 ml of the formulation can be applied to the animal, with about 1.0 ml being a more typical application to kill fleas and flea eggs for over a one month period. In certain embodiments of the invention, as application of about 0.4 ml can be sufficient to kill fleas and flea eggs for over a one month period.

The following examples are given for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to be construed in a limiting manner.

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of 1-{(tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methyl}-2-nitro-3-methylguanidine (dinotefuran)

A mixture comprising 10.0 g of (tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methanol, 29.5 g of trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride, 10.0 g of pyridine and 200 ml of dichloromethane was stirred for an hour at room temperature. Water was poured into the reaction solution to separate the organic layer, which was washed with 1 N hydrochloric acid, water and a saturated saline solution, dried, and concentrated to obtain 20 g of 3-tetrahydro-furanylmethyl triflate. 3.25 g of 60% sodium hydride were added to 12.5 g of 1,5-dimethyl-2-nitroiminohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine and 60 ml of DMF at room temperature, followed by stirring for an hour. 20.0 g of the 3-tetrahydrofuranylmethyl triflate were added thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 50° C. for 2 hours. After cooling the mixture to room temperature, 50 ml of 2N hydrochloric acid were added thereto, followed by stirring at 50° C. for 2 hours. The resultant mixture was neutralized with sodium bicarbonate and extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract was dried and concentrated. The residue thus obtained was purified by silica gel column chromatography (eluent: ethyl acetate/hexane=1/1) to obtain 7.8 g of 1-{(tetrahydro-3-furanyl)methyl}-2-nitro-3-methylguanidine (dinotefuran).

EXAMPLE 2

Preparation of Insecticide Formulation Containing Dinotefuran, Ethanol and Water

5 g (i.e., 5.6% (weight/weight)) of dinotefuran was dissolved into 100 ml of a mixture comprising 70% ethanol and 30% water. The resulting mixture can be spot applied to companion animals, such as dogs and cats and will kill fleas, ticks and other insects.

EXAMPLE 3

Preparation of Insecticide Formulation Containing Dinotefuran and Phenyl Methanol

15 g (i.e., 12.5% (weight/weight)) of dinotefuran was dissolved into 100 ml of phenyl methanol. The resulting solution can be spot applied to companion animals, such as dogs and cats and will kill fleas, ticks and other insects.

EXAMPLE 4

Preparation of Insecticide Formulation Containing Dinotefuran, Pyriproxyfen and Phenyl Methanol

20 g of dinotefuran was added to 100 ml phenyl methanol with stirring until it dissolves. 3 g of pyriproxyfen was added to the solution with stirring to produce a clear, homogeneous solution.

EXAMPLE 5

Preparation of Insecticide Formulation Containing Dinotefuran, Pyriproxyfen and Phenyl Methanol

25 g of dinotefuran was added to 100 ml phenyl methanol with stirring until it dissolved. 1 g of pyriproxyfen was added to the solution with stirring to produce a clear, homogeneous solution of high insecticide concentration.

The resulting solution can be spot applied to companion animals, such as dogs and cats and will kill fleas, ticks and other insects.

EXAMPLE 6

Stability of Dinotefuran/Pyriproxyfen Formulations

Table 1 demonstrates that an approximate 50% increase in concentration can be achieved for dinotefuran by including pyriproxyfen at low levels in the formulation based on the criterion of no crystal formation at 0° F. during a 1 month period.

TABLE 1
Formulation Stability Studies
(% are w/w)
DinotefuranPyriproxyfenPhenyl MethanolStable
12.5087.5Yes
14.7085.3No*
15.72.481.9Yes
15.90.883.3Yes
19.20.880.0Yes

*Crystallizes at 0° F.

EXAMPLE 7

Preparation of Insecticide Formulation Containing Dinotefuran, Methoprene and Phenyl Methanol

20 g of dinotefuran was added to 100 ml phenyl methanol with stirring until it dissolved. 1 g of methoprene was added to the solution with stirring to produce a clear, homogeneous solution of high insecticide concentration.

EXAMPLE 8

Preparation of Insecticide Formulation Containing Dinotefuran, Methoprene and Phenyl Methanol

18 g of dinotefuran was added to 100 ml phenyl methanol with stirring until it dissolved. 1 g of methoprene was added to the solution with stirring to produce a clear, homogeneous solution of high insecticide concentration.

EXAMPLE 9

Preparation of Insecticide Formulation Containing Dinotefuran, Methoprene and Phenyl Methanol

16 g of dinotefuran was added to 100 ml phenyl methanol with stirring until it dissolved. 1 g of methoprene was added to the solution with stirring to produce a clear, homogeneous solution of high insecticide concentration.

EXAMPLE 10

Stability of Dinotefuran/Methoprene Formulations

TABLE 2
Formulation Stability Studies
(% are w/w)
DinotefuranMethoprenePhenyl MethanolStable
12.5087.5Yes
14.7085.3No*
19.20.880.0No*
18.50.880.7Yes
17.50.881.7Yes
16.00.883.2Yes
14.60.884.6Yes
12.93.283.9Yes
12.14.083.9Yes

*Crystallizes at 0° F.

It has been determined that the concentration of dinotefuran can be increased up to 50% and more by including methoprene, even at low levels of about 0.8% and below, compared to a similar formulation without methoprene. Also, inclusion of methoprene up to and over 4% are stable. Typically, dinotefuran concentration of over about 8% will crystallize at 0° F. within a few days.

EXAMPLE 11

In Vivo Activity of a Flea Dermal Treatment Against the Cat Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) on Cats

Eighteen cats were separated into three groups each containing 6 cats. Group 1 (6 cats each weighing 9 lbs. or less) remained untreated as Non-Treated Controls. Group 2 (6 cats each over 9 lbs.) were treated with 3.4 ml of the dinotefuran insecticide formulation (5.71% w/w). Group 3 (6 cats each weighing 9 lbs. or less) were treated with 1.5 ml of the dinotefuran insecticide formulation (5.71% w/w).

Approximately 18 hours prior to treatment the cats were infested with 100 cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) which were applied to the animal's back. Cats in Groups 2 and 3 were then treated with the indicated volume of insecticide by dispensing the liquid at skin level between the shoulder blades. Flea counts were taken at day 1 (i.e., 24 hours post-treatment), day 8, day 15, day 22 and day 29. Cats were re-infested with 100 fleas on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. To determine the efficacy of the dermal treatment, the number of fleas found on treated cats was compared to the number of fleas found on untreated cats. Percent reduction was determined as follows and the results are summarized in Table 2: Mean Number of fleas on Untreated Cats-Mean Number of fleas on Treated CatsMean Number of fleas on Untreated Cats×100%

As shown in Table 2 the results demonstrate that the dosages used on Groups 2 and 3 are both effective at reducing the number of adult fleas on cats through at least 29 days and thus are effective as a one month dermal treatment.

TABLE 3
Controlled Percent Reduction in Flea Population
Day 1Day 8Day 15Day 22Day 29
Control00000
Group 1
Group 2100100999996
Group 310098959591

EXAMPLE 9

Preparation of Insecticide Formulation Containing Dinotefuran Dissolved in Ethyl Lactate

An insecticide formulation comprising the ingredients listed in Table 4 at the concentrations indicated was prepared according to the illustrative method below.

TABLE 4
IngredientCAS #% (wt/wt)
Olealkonium chloride37139-99-41
Sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate577-11-71
Glycerol-polyethylene glycol61788-85-07.5
oxystearate (hydrogenated)
castor oil
Vitamin E acetate7695-91-22.5
n-Octyl pyrrolidone2687-94-70.1
Ethyl lactate97-64-348.6
Water (buffered)*Local Source24.3
Dinotefuran165252-70-015
Total100
pH6.1

*Water contains 0.2M citric acid and 0.2M sodium citrate buffer solution

Prepare 0.2M citric acid and 0.2M sodium citrate buffer solution in a beaker. Set aside. In a separate beaker add olealkonium chloride (10 g). Heat the solution to 50° C. with mixing. Add 75 g of glycerol-polyethylene glycol oxystearate (hydrogenated) castor oil, 25 g Vitamin E acetate, 10 g sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate with continuous mixing at an increased speed as the mixture will be viscous. Once the solution becomes homogeneous, add 486 g ethyl lactate. Adjust mixing speed as needed. Add 243 g of the citric acid solution and then 150 g dinotefuran. Heat the solution to 40° C. until the dinotefuran completely dissolves. Add 1 g n-octyl pyrrolidone. Cool the solution and measure the pH. The pH should be within 5.5-7.

The formulation described hereinabove is advantageous because of its speed-of-kill attribute, non-greasy appearance and excellent safety profile.

The percentage by weight of additives can be varied in the formulation. For example, the olealkonium chloride can be from about 1-4%; the sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate can be from about 1-2%; the glycerol-polyethylene glycol oxystearate castor oil can be from about 7.5-10% and the n-Octyl pyrrolidone can be from about 0.1-2.0%. It will be readily appreciated by the skilled artisan that the amount of ethyl lactate/water solvent used in the formulation described herein will be adjusted accordingly to accommodate increases or decreases in the amount of additive added to the formulation.

It will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description, are efficiently attained and, since certain changes may be made in carrying out the above method and in the composition set forth without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.

Particularly it is to be understood that in said claims, ingredients or compounds recited in the singular are intended to include compatible mixtures of such ingredients wherever the sense permits.