Title:
Web hole reinforcing for metal wall stubs
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A metal panelized wall system having a plurality of generally parallel vertical wall studs with an opening formed in each one. A top horizontal member is connected to a top end of each of the vertical wall studs and a bottom horizontal member is connected to a bottom end of each of the vertical wall studs. Extending from the bottom horizontal member to the top horizontal member is at least one diagonal member. The diagonal member extends through the openings formed in the vertical wall studs such that loads from the vertical wall studs are not transferred to the diagonal member. In accordance with one embodiment, the wall system includes a web hole reinforcing system around the opening in at least one of the vertical wall studs.



Inventors:
Majlessi, Kamran R. (Fremont, CA, US)
Application Number:
11/820287
Publication Date:
01/24/2008
Filing Date:
06/18/2007
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04H9/02; E04B1/24; E04B1/98; E04C2/38; E04C3/02; E04C3/30; E04H12/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
FERENCE, JAMES M
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BUCHANAN, INGERSOLL & ROONEY PC (ALEXANDRIA, VA, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A panelized wall system that resists seismic forces, the system comprising: a plurality of generally parallel vertical wall studs, each of the vertical wall studs having an opening formed therein; a top horizontal member connected to a top end of each of the vertical wall studs; a bottom horizontal member connected to a bottom end of each of the vertical wall studs; at least one diagonal member extending from the bottom horizontal member to the top horizontal member, the diagonal member extending through the openings formed in the vertical wall studs such that loads from the vertical wall studs are not transferred to the diagonal member; and a web hole reinforcing system around the opening of at least one of the vertical wall studs.

2. The system of claim 1, wherein the web hole reinforcing system comprises a bent lip around the opening formed in the vertical wall stud.

3. The system of claim 1, wherein the web hole reinforcing system comprises a pair of angle plates, which are attached to the longitudinal axis of the vertical wall stud adjacent to the opening.

4. The system of claim 1, wherein the web hole reinforcing system comprises a plate having a plate opening equal to the opening in the vertical wall stud.

5. The system of claim 1, wherein the web hole reinforcing system comprises a second having an open tube having a backing portion, which is attachable to the vertical stud, a side portion, which extends perpendicular to the vertical stud member and a front portion, which runs horizontal to the face of the vertical wall stud.

6. The system of claim 1, wherein the at least one diagonal member comprises a first diagonal member and a second diagonal member, the second diagonal member being discontinuous at the intersection of the first diagonal member.

7. A panelized wall system that resists seismic forces, the system comprising: a plurality of generally parallel vertical wall studs, each of the vertical wall studs having an opening formed therein; a top horizontal member connected to a top end of each of the vertical wall studs; a bottom horizontal member connected to a bottom end of each of the vertical wall studs; at least one diagonal member extending from the bottom horizontal member to the top horizontal member, the diagonal member extending through the openings formed in the vertical wall studs such that loads from the vertical wall studs are not transferred to the diagonal member; and a web hole reinforcing system around the opening, the web hole reinforcing system comprising a bent lip around at least one of the openings.

8. The system of claim 7 wherein the vertical wall studs, the top horizontal member, the bottom horizontal member and the diagonal member are fabricated from steel.

9. The system of claim 7, wherein the bent lip is formed by: forming a cutout in the vertical stud, wherein the cutout is slightly smaller than the desired opening of the web hole reinforcing system; inserting a die tool into the cutout; and inducing the bent lip into an outer perimeter of the cutout.

10. The system of claim 7, wherein the at least one diagonal member comprises a first diagonal member and a second diagonal member, the second diagonal member being discontinuous at the intersection of the first diagonal member.

11. A panelized wall system that resists seismic forces, the system comprising: a plurality of generally parallel vertical wall studs, each of the vertical wall studs having an opening formed therein; a top horizontal member connected to a top end of each of the vertical wall studs; a bottom horizontal member connected to a bottom end of each of the vertical wall studs; at least one diagonal member extending from the bottom horizontal member to the top horizontal member, the diagonal member extending through the openings formed in the vertical wall studs such that loads from the vertical wall studs are not transferred to the diagonal member; and a web hole reinforcing system, wherein the web hole reinforcing system is attached to the vertical wall stud around the opening of at least one of the vertical wall studs.

12. The system of claim 11, wherein the web hole reinforcing system comprises a pair of angled plates, which are attached to the longitudinal axis of the vertical stud adjacent to the opening.

13. The system of claim 11, wherein the web hole reinforcing system comprises a plate.

14. The system of claim 11, wherein the web hole reinforcing system comprises a second having an open tube having a backing portion, which is attachable to the vertical stud, a side portion, which extends perpendicular to the vertical stud member and a front portion, which runs horizontal to the face of the vertical stud.

15. The system of claim 11, wherein the vertical wall studs, the top horizontal member, the bottom horizontal member and the diagonal member are fabricated from steel.

16. The system of claim 11, further comprising a gusset plate attached to the top horizontal member and a top end of the diagonal member.

17. The system of claim 11, further comprising a gusset plate attached to the bottom horizontal member and a bottom end of the diagonal member.

18. The system of claim 11, wherein the openings are formed in the vertical wall studs at the locations where the at least one diagonal member intersects the vertical wall studs.

19. The system of claim 11, wherein a width of the opening is about 70% the width of the vertical wall stud.

20. The system of claim 11, wherein the at least one diagonal member comprises a first diagonal member and a second diagonal member, the second diagonal member being discontinuous at the intersection of the first diagonal member.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/828,102, filed on Apr. 19, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,231,742 entitled “Structural braced frame wall panel system”, the content of which is incorporated herein in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to construction techniques using metal wall studs and more particularly to web hole reinforcing for metal wall studs.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Metal wall studs are used in the construction industry to provide the framing members used for the construction of buildings. The metal wall studs are used instead of conventional wood framing members to form the wall panels. The panels can be pre-assembled and delivered to the building site where they are put in place.

The typical wall panel consists of vertical studs and horizontal blocking members or continuous horizontal straps. In order to provide further reinforcement, diagonal wall members are placed between the corners of the panels. The diagonal members are needed to resist lateral loads to the wall panel and to comply with seismic building requirements. The diagonal members are straps that are typically connected to the face of the studs. In this arrangement, the diagonal members can only provide resistance to tension forces in one direction. Due to building requirements, this type of arrangement cannot be used for two story structures. Also, the strap usually adds thickness to the wall panel, which complicates the finishing of the structure.

In addition to using straps, threaded rods can also be used as the diagonal members. However, the threaded rods suffer the same drawbacks as the strap. Specifically, the threaded rod can only take tension loads and will buckle under compressive loads. The threaded rod is therefore not adequate to meet seismic building codes. Furthermore, the threaded rods add thickness to the building panel thereby complicating construction.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the present invention there is provided a panelized wall system with diagonal members that can meet seismic building standards for the construction of multistory buildings. The panelized wall system comprises vertical studs and horizontal blocking members or continuous straps with diagonal members to provide additional strength against compressive and tension forces. In order to meet seismic requirements, each of the vertical studs includes a reinforced opening through which a diagonal member extends through. In this respect, the gravity loads of the structure are not transferred to the diagonal members by the vertical studs because the vertical studs are not connected to the diagonal members. It is therefore possible to build multistory structures with a panelized wall system and still provide the necessary strength required by seismic building codes.

A panelized wall system of the present invention consists of a plurality of generally parallel vertical wall studs with an opening formed in each one. The system further includes a top horizontal member connected to a top end of each of the vertical wall studs. Furthermore, a bottom horizontal member is connected to a bottom end of each of the vertical wall studs. Extending from the bottom horizontal member to the top horizontal member is at least one diagonal member. The diagonal member extends through the openings formed in the vertical wall studs such that loads from the vertical wall studs are not transferred to the diagonal member.

In accordance with one embodiment, a panelized wall system that resists seismic forces, the system comprises: a plurality of generally parallel vertical wall studs, each of the vertical wall studs having an opening formed therein; a top horizontal member connected to a top end of each of the vertical wall studs; a bottom horizontal member connected to a bottom end of each of the vertical wall studs; at least one diagonal member extending from the bottom horizontal member to the top horizontal member, the diagonal member extending through the openings formed in the vertical wall studs such that loads from the vertical wall studs are not transferred to the diagonal member; and a web hole reinforcing system around the opening of at least one of the vertical wall studs.

In accordance with another embodiment, a panelized wall system that resists seismic forces, the system comprises: a plurality of generally parallel vertical wall studs, each of the vertical wall studs having an opening formed therein; a top horizontal member connected to a top end of each of the vertical wall studs; a bottom horizontal member connected to a bottom end of each of the vertical wall studs; at least one diagonal member extending from the bottom horizontal member to the top horizontal member, the diagonal member extending through the openings formed in the vertical wall studs such that loads from the vertical wall studs are not transferred to the diagonal member; and a web hole reinforcing system around the opening, the web hole reinforcing system comprising a bent lip around at least one of the openings.

In accordance with a further embodiment, a panelized wall system that resists seismic forces, the system comprises: a plurality of generally parallel vertical wall studs, each of the vertical wall studs having an opening formed therein; a top horizontal member connected to a top end of each of the vertical wall studs; a bottom horizontal member connected to a bottom end of each of the vertical wall studs; at least one diagonal member extending from the bottom horizontal member to the top horizontal member, the diagonal member extending through the openings formed in the vertical wall studs such that loads from the vertical wall studs are not transferred to the diagonal member; and a web hole reinforcing system, wherein the web hole reinforcing system is attached to the vertical wall stud around the opening of at least one of the vertical wall studs.

Preferably, the vertical wall studs, the top horizontal member, the bottom horizontal member and the diagonal member are fabricated from steel. A first gusset plate is used to attach the diagonal member to the top horizontal member and a second gusset plate is used to attach the diagonal member to the bottom horizontal member.

A stiffener or web hole reinforcing system may be attached to each vertical wall stud around the opening. Typically, the width of the opening is 70% the width of the vertical wall stud. The openings are formed in the vertical wall studs at the locations where the diagonal member intersects the vertical wall stud.

In a preferred embodiment, the panelized wall system has two diagonal members. Each of the diagonal members extends from opposite ends of the top horizontal member and the bottom horizontal member. At the location where the diagonal members intersect, one of the diagonal members is cut and a bracket is used to cross the other diagonal member.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

These, as well as other features of the present invention will become more apparent upon reference to the drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is an elevation view of a structure having the panelized wall system of the present invention using diagonal members.

FIG. 2 is an elevation view of a vertical stud used with the panelized wall system of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an elevation view of bracing used with the diagonal members of the panelized wall system of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is an elevation view of a base to foundation connection for the panelized wall system.

FIG. 5 is an elevation view of a floor to floor connection of the panelized wall system.

FIG. 6 is an elevation view of a portion of a vertical stud used with the panelized wall system as shown in FIG. 1 with web hole reinforcing in accordance with one embodiment.

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of the web hole reinforcing of FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is an elevation view of a portion of a vertical stud used with the panelized wall system with a web hole reinforcing in accordance with another embodiment.

FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of the web hole reinforcing of FIG. 8.

FIG. 10 is an elevation view of a portion of a vertical stud used with the panelized wall system with a web hole reinforcing in accordance with a further embodiment.

FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of the web hole reinforcing of FIG. 10.

FIG. 12 is an elevation view of a portion of a vertical stud used with the panelized wall system with a web hole reinforcing in accordance with another embodiment.

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of the web hole reinforcing of FIG. 12.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Referring now to the drawings wherein the showings are for purposes of illustrating preferred embodiments of the present invention only, and not for purposes of limiting the same, FIG. 1 is an elevation view of a wall 10 used in the construction of a building structure. The wall 10 is made from four panels 12a-12d. Each of the panels 12 is primarily fabricated from metal wall studs of light gage steel as is commonly known. The panels 12 can be constructed off-site and delivered to the building construction site for assembly. Referring to panel 12a, each of the panels 12 has vertical wall studs 14 and horizontal wall studs 16. The vertical wall studs 14 run continuously between a top plate 18 and a bottom plate 20 and are horizontally spaced about sixteen inches apart. The horizontal wall studs 16 as shown in FIG. 3 are blocking members that are connected between adjacent vertical studs 14. The horizontal studs 16 are fabricated from the same light gage steel as the vertical studs 14 and are connected thereto with clips, straps, brackets, screws, etc. The horizontal studs 16 are spaced vertically to have a maximum vertical spacing of about thirty-six inches. Alternatively, the panels 12 can include horizontal straps running continuously across the panels 12 to prevent rotation and buckling of the panel instead of horizontal stud blocking members 16. For sake of simplicity, the straps have been removed from the drawings. The straps are collinear with the horizontal wall studs 16.

In accordance with the present invention, each of the panels 12 includes at least one diagonal member 22. Preferably, each of the diagonal members 22 is connected to the corners of each panel to form an “X” and provide the necessary strength to resist seismic forces. The diagonal members 22 are formed from steel also and can have a cross-section configuration such as a channel, tube or any other suitable shape. Preferably, the cross-section of the diagonal members is tubular.

Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, the diagonal members 22 are connected to the corners of each panel 12 with a gusset plate 24. FIG. 4 illustrates the connection of the panel 12 to a foundation, while FIG. 5 illustrates a floor to floor connection of a panel 12. The gusset plate 24 is made from structural steel and is preferably welded to the diagonal member 22. Of course, it will be recognized by those of ordinary skill in the art that there are other types of methods for attaching the gusset plate 24 to the diagonal member 22 using screws, bolts, etc.

Referring to FIG. 4, the gusset plate 24 is connected to a base plate 26 in order to securely fasten the diagonal member 22 to the corner of the panel 12. The base plate 26 is connected to the bottom plate 20 and a foundation 28 through the use of base plate anchor bolts 30 which are embedded into the foundation 28. Referring to FIG. 5, the connection of the diagonal member 22 to the panel 12 for a floor to floor connection is shown and is similar to the floor to foundation connection. In this respect, the diagonal member 22 is connected to the gusset plate 24 which in turn is connected to the base plate 26. The base plate 26 is connected to a base plate 26 and gusset 24 of an adjoining floor through the use of threaded rods 38. A compression element 32 and web stiffener 36 are placed between the adjoining panels. In this regard, the floor joists 34 separate the panels.

As can be seen in FIG. 1, the diagonal members 22 cross each other at the center of the “X”. Therefore, the diagonal members 22 are braced at this intersection in order to transfer loads. Specifically, referring to FIG. 3, a bracket 42 is attached to both sides of the diagonal member 22 that is not continuous across the intersection. As will be recognized, in order to form the intersection, one of the diagonal members 22 must be cut and is discontinuous. The bracket 42 connects both ends of the discontinuous diagonal member 22 and is fastened to the diagonal member 22 through a suitable connection method such as using plug welding or fasteners. Preferably, a bracket 42 is attached to both sides of the diagonal member 22.

In order to prevent gravity loads from the vertical wall studs 14 being transferred to the diagonal members 22, each vertical stud 14 has an opening formed therein for the diagonal member 22 to extend therethrough. Referring to FIG. 2, an opening 44 in a vertical stud 14 is shown. The opening 44 is formed slightly larger than the diagonal member 22. Typically, the opening is less than 70% of the width of the vertical stud 14 in order to maintain the structural integrity of the vertical stud 14. Furthermore, in order to further strengthen the vertical stud 14 in the area of the opening, a stiffener 46 is attached to the vertical stud 14. The stiffener 46 is a plate of steel and is attached to the vertical stud with screws 48. The opening 44 allows the diagonal member 22 to pass through the vertical stud 14 without transferring load. This allows the diagonal members 22 to carry lateral loads without the gravity loads from the vertical wall studs 14. Furthermore, because the diagonal member 22 is positioned within the vertical studs 14, finishing the building with the panel is simplified because the exterior of the vertical wall studs 14 are smooth and flush.

Referring to FIG. 6, a web hole reinforcing system 60 having a drawn or bent lip 62 is shown. As shown in FIG. 6, in accordance with one embodiment, the web hole reinforcing system 60 includes a pre-fabricated metal wall stud 14 of light gage steel as is commonly known. The stud 14 can be constructed off-site and delivered to the building construction site for assembly. A portion of the stud 14 is removed forming a cutout (not shown) in the vertical stud 14, wherein the cutout is slightly smaller than the desired opening 66 of the web hole reinforcing system 60. As shown in FIG. 6, the opening 66 is preferably formed slightly larger than the diagonal member 22, which is attached to the vertical stud 14. A die tool (not shown) is inserted into the cutout, which induces a drawn or bent lip 62 into an outer perimeter of the cutout, which forms the web opening 64. The web opening 64 has a height 68 and a width 69, which can vary according to the size of the vertical stud 14 and diagonal member 22. The web opening 64 is preferably less than 70% of the width of the vertical stud 14 in order to maintain the structural integrity of the vertical stud 14.

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of the web hole reinforcing system 60 of FIG. 6. As shown in FIG. 7, the stud 14 includes a drawn or bent lip 62, which allows the diagonal member 22 (FIG. 1) to pass through the vertical stud 14 without transferring load. Furthermore, because the diagonal member 22 is positioned within the vertical studs 14, finishing the building with the panel is simplified because the exterior of the vertical wall studs 14 are smooth and flush.

FIG. 8 is an elevation view of a portion of a vertical stud used with the panelized wall system with a web hole reinforcing system 70 in accordance with another embodiment. As shown in FIG. 8, the web hole reinforcing system 70 includes a pair of steel angle plates 72, which are attached to the longitudinal axis of the vertical stud 14 adjacent to the opening 44. The pair of steel angle plates 72 is preferably attached to the vertical stud with screws 48 or other suitable fasteners. In accordance with an alternative embodiment, the pair of steel angle plates 72 is welded to the vertical stud 14.

FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of the web hole reinforcing of FIG. 8. As shown in FIG. 9, the web hole reinforcing system 70 includes a pre-fabricated steel stud 14 having an opening 44 therein, which is configured to receive a diagonal member 22. The pair of steel angle plates 72 include an first section 76 attachable to the vertical stud 14 and a second section 78, which extends perpendicular to the first section 76. It can be appreciated that in order to accommodate the various loads, the pair of steel angled plates 72 are sized to accommodate the loads bearing vertical studs 14 as needed.

FIG. 10 is an elevation view of a portion of a vertical stud 14 used with the panelized wall system with a web hole reinforcing system 80 in accordance with a further embodiment. As shown in FIG. 10, the web hole reinforcing system 80 comprises a plate 82 having a plate opening 84 equal to the opening 44 in the vertical wall stud 14. It can be appreciated that in order to prevent gravity loads from the vertical wall studs 14 being transferred to the diagonal members 22, each vertical stud 14 has an opening 44 formed therein for the diagonal member 22 to extend therethrough. In accordance with one embodiment, the opening 44 is formed slightly larger than the diagonal member 22. For example, the opening 44 is preferably less than 70% of the width of the vertical stud 14 in order to maintain the structural integrity of the vertical stud 14. Furthermore, in order to further strengthen the vertical stud 14 in the area of the opening, a web hole reinforcing system 80 is attached to the vertical stud 14. In accordance with one embodiment, the web hole reinforcing system 80 is comprised of a plate 82, which is attached to the vertical stud with fasteners 48, such as screws.

The plate 82 is preferably made of steel, however, it can be appreciated that the plate 82 can be made of any suitable material, and including carbon fiber reinforced materials. It can be appreciated that the opening 44 allows the diagonal member 22 to pass through the vertical stud 14 without transferring load. This allows the diagonal members 22 to carry lateral loads without the gravity loads from the vertical wall studs 14. Furthermore, because the diagonal member 22 is positioned within the vertical studs 14, finishing the building with the panel is simplified because the exterior of the vertical wall studs 14 are smooth and flush.

FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view of the web hole reinforcing of FIG. 10. As shown in FIG. 11, the steel plate 82 is preferably attachable with a plurality of fasteners 48, such as screws to the vertical stud 14. In accordance with an alternative embodiment, the steel plate 82 can be welded to the vertical stud 14. The steel plate 82 has a width 84 and a height 86, which can vary according to the design of the panelized wall system. In accordance with one embodiment, the width 84 of the steel plate 82 is approximately equal to the width of the vertical stud 14.

FIG. 12 is an elevation view of a portion of a vertical stud 14 used with the panelized wall system with a web hole reinforcing system 90 in accordance with another embodiment. As shown in FIG. 12, the web hole reinforcing system 90 includes a second metal stud 92, which is attached to the vertical stud 14 with a suitable fastener 48, such as a screw or other suitable device.

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view of the web hole reinforcing of FIG. 12. As shown in FIG. 13, the second metal stud 92 includes an open steel tube 94 having a backing portion 95, which is attachable to the vertical stud 14, a side portion 96, which extends perpendicular to the vertical stud member 14 and a front portion 97, which runs horizontal to the face of the vertical stud 14.

Additional modifications and improvements of the present invention may also be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art such as scaling up or down the size of the panels depending upon the application. Thus, the particular combination of parts described and illustrated herein is intended to represent only certain embodiments of the present invention, and is not intended to serve as limitations of alternative devices within the spirit and scope of the invention.