Title:
Shaped Brick
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention relates to a shaped block for forming a wall or a retaining wall. The shaped block includes a body (K) and wings (F) arranged on the body that are oriented toward laterally adjacent shaped blocks. The shaped block (S) has a left wing (F, FL) and a right wing (F, FR) which are arranged in front of or behind a vertical plane (E), which divides the shaped block (S) at the half shaped block depth into a front half (SHV) and a rear half (SHH). The wings (F; FL, FR) are arranged offset with respect to one another by at least one wing depth.



Inventors:
Scheiwiller, Rolf (Hergiswil, CH)
Application Number:
11/577449
Publication Date:
10/25/2007
Filing Date:
10/17/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04C1/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:
20080271391Vent Stack Repair SleeveNovember, 2008Dalmasso
20050223669Stackable block for insulating concrete form systemOctober, 2005Cymbala et al.
20100024342Retainer Frame for a Swimming PoolFebruary, 2010Lin et al.
20070245648Profiled Frame as a Component of a Window or DoorOctober, 2007Hoffmann
20090038262Building Wall Panels of Hollow Core ConstructionFebruary, 2009Marschke
20100011680Aseismatic reinforcing structure of double flooring and aseismatic reinforcing method of double flooringJanuary, 2010Takahashi
20100064613Steamproof wallboards for damp roomMarch, 2010Rykkelid
20060283100Rotational roof jackDecember, 2006Evensen
20080026688Method and system for maintaining computer and data roomsJanuary, 2008Musick et al.
20060053702Fiberglass reinforced spray foam roof constructionMarch, 2006Kelly
20060070303Rear gutter cover closure diverter deviceApril, 2006Burnet III



Primary Examiner:
HIJAZ, OMAR F
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BURR & BROWN, PLLC (FAYETTEVILLE, NY, US)
Claims:
1. A shaped block for forming a wall or a retaining wall, the shaped block Comprising: a body having a vertical plane, which divides the shaped block at a half shaped block depth into a front half and a rear half; and left and right wings arranged on the body in front of or behind the vertical plane, wherein the wings are adapted to extend toward laterally adjacent shaped blocks and are arranged offset with respect to one another by at least one wing depth.

2. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, wherein the wings are adapted to interact in at least one of a form-fitting and frictional manner with wings arranged on the laterally adjacent shaped blocks.

3. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, wherein the left wing and the right wing have identical dimensions.

4. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, wherein the left wing is formed point-symmetrically with respect to the right wing.

5. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, wherein the shaped block can be produced from concrete.

6. A plurality of shaped blocks as claimed in claim 1, wherein a cavity is formed between the bodies of adjacent shaped blocks and the wings of the adjacent shaped blocks.

7. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, further comprising at least one of a projection and a recess arranged on the left and right wings.

8. The shaped block as claimed in claim 7, wherein the at least one of a projection and a recess is arranged on a free end of the left and right wings.

9. The shaped block as claimed in claim 7, wherein the body has at least one of a projection and a recess.

10. The shaped block as claimed in claim 9, wherein one of the at least one of a projection and a recess of the wing adapted to interact with the other one of the at least one of a recess and a projection on a body of the laterally adjacent shaped block.

11. The shaped block as claimed in claim 7, wherein the at least one of a projection and a recess of the wing adapted to interact with a wing of the adjacent shaped block.

12. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, wherein the body of the shaped block, when viewed in plan view, is formed as one of a rectangle, square, triangle, circle, ellipse and trapezoid.

13. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, wherein the body of the shaped block further comprises at least one vertical opening.

14. The shaped block as claimed in claim 13, wherein the opening tapers, at least in sections, toward a lower side of the shaped block.

15. The shaped block as claimed in claim 13, further comprising lugs arranged on an inner face of the opening.

16. The shaped block as claimed in claim 13, further comprising at least one slab inserted into the opening in older to at least partially close the opening.

17. The shaped block as claimed in claim 16, wherein the opening can be closed at least at one of an upper side and a lower side of the shaped block.

18. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, further comprising support ribs arranged on the body of the shaped block, the support ribs adapted to extend toward the laterally adjacent shaped blocks and adapted to support a shaped block of a wall layer situated immediately above the shaped block.

19. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a predetermined breaking point provided between the wings and the body of the shaped block.

20. The shaped block as claimed in claim 1, wherein a width of the wing is an amount between ⅓ and ¾ of a width of the body.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a shaped block for forming a wall or a retaining wall.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

CH 687 394 discloses a shaped block, which includes a body and wings arranged at two opposite sides of the body. A disadvantage with the known shaped block is that, when it is used to construct straight walls, the known shaped block only allows the construction of walls, which have openings toward one side and whose structure is weak in the region of these openings. A further disadvantage is that the known shaped block does not permit any length compensation when used to construct walls or retaining walls, thereby requiring that known shaped blocks have to be laboriously shortened in order to obtain dimensions which do not correspond to an even multiple of the known shaped block unit spacing.

The object of the present invention is to develop a shaped block by means of which stable straight walls can be constructed and which allows length or radius compensations during the construction of walls and retaining walls.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The shaped block according to the invention is equipped with a left wing and a right wing that are both arranged in front of, or which are both arranged behind, a vertical plane. The plane divides the shaped block into two halves. The wings are arranged offset with respect to one another by at least one wing depth. The offset arrangement of the wings makes it possible for adjacent shaped blocks to be arranged next to one another with their wings partially or completely overlapping. Firstly, this increases the stability of the wall since the whole wall or at least some of it has a thickness in the transition region of two adjacent shaped blocks that corresponds to a double wing depth. In addition, the offset wings enable adjacent shaped blocks to be arranged at different spacings from one another and the wall length to be varied as a result. By lining up the shaped blocks such that they are alternately rotated through 180° about a vertical axis, it is possible to construct walls in which the wings of adjacent shaped blocks respectively lie in front of and behind the vertical dividing plane and thus stabilize the wall particularly well. The essence of the invention is a body comprising laterally arranged wings, whose offset arrangement in front of or behind a mid-plane oriented parallel to the visible face of the shaped block allows adjacent shaped blocks to have a large number of positioning options. These positioning options include not only the option of allowing the shaped blocks in a wall layer to follow one another at various spacings while not having to accept any losses in terms of the wall quality, but also the option of joining together the shaped blocks in various orientations—yawing (rotation about a vertical axis) through 180°—and of making it possible thereby to produce walls of different structure and different appearance.

The invention provides a form-fitting and/or frictional interaction between the wings of adjacent shaped blocks so as to impart a high degree of intrinsic stability to the wall to be formed by virtue of the shaped blocks actively supporting one another.

Furthermore, the invention provides that the left wing and the right wing are formed with identical dimensions. Given the offset provided, this allows optimum interaction between the wings.

The invention particularly provides that the left wing is formed point-symmetrically with respect to the right wing. This simplifies the construction and leads to the two wings having comparable loadability.

According to the invention, the shaped block is made of concrete so that it can be produced cost-effectively in large quantities.

Furthermore, the invention provides that a cavity is formed between the bodies of adjacent shaped blocks and their wings, for which purpose the two wings are at a distance from one another or are offset with respect to one another by more than one wing depth, or have at least one recess. This cavity results in further stabilization of the wall and also allows concrete, mortar or soil to be introduced therein.

The invention provides that the wing is formed with at least one projection and/or at least one recess. This makes possible a form-fitting interaction, such as an interlocking, for example, between the shaped blocks.

A particular embodiment provides that the projection or the recess is formed on a free end of the wing. This allows force to be introduced deep into the adjacent shaped block, thereby permitting the transmission of considerable forces between the adjacent shaped blocks.

Furthermore, the invention provides that at least one projection or one recess is formed on the body. This configuration also allows a form fit between a wing and a body of an adjacent shaped block and increases the stability of the wall.

The invention particularly provides an interaction between the projection or the recess of the wing and the recess or the projection of an adjacent body in order to increase the stability of the wall.

Likewise, the invention provides an interaction between the projection or the recess of the wing and the wing of an adjacent shaped block in order to increase the stability of the wall.

Provision is made according to the invention for the body of the shaped block to be formed, in plan view, as a rectangle, square, triangle, circle, ellipse or trapezoid. This makes it possible to erect walls of widely varying appearance that have all the advantages of the invention.

Furthermore, the invention provides that the shaped block be provided in the region of its body with at least one vertical opening extending from an upper side to a lower side of the shaped block. This makes it possible for the weight of large shaped blocks to be kept within limits.

The invention also provides an opening which tapers toward the lower side of the shaped block. From a manufacturing point of view, such an opening can be produced simply using a block-molding machine since there is a large draft angle.

Furthermore, the invention provides that lugs are arranged on an inner face of the opening. As a result, the shaped block has supports which allow the fastening and installation of fittings.

The invention provides that at least one slab is inserted into the opening so that the opening can be at least partially closed. This makes it possible, for example in the case of retaining walls, to direct the roots of plants into the embankment.

The invention provides that the opening is closed in the shaped block at an upper side and/or at the lower side of the shaped block. Closing it at an upper side permits a simple termination of the uppermost block layer of a wall. By closing a wall block at the top and bottom, it is easily possible to provide a region in an embankment that is selectively free from vegetation.

The invention also provides support ribs which are formed on the body of the shaped block toward laterally adjacent shaped blocks. This provides an increased bearing surface for a shaped block of a wall layer situated immediately above, this bearing surface increasing the stability of the wall.

According to the invention, a predetermined breaking point is provided between the wing and the body so that corners or wall terminations in which the wing is not necessary can be formed with little effort.

Finally, the invention provides dimensioning the wing with a width which lies between ⅓ and ¾ of the body width. Such a wing-body ratio also allows considerable length compensation without having to surrender a sufficient overlapping of the wings.

For the purposes of the invention, the term “wing” is to be understood as a continuation whose width (EB) is greater than its depth (FT). For the purposes of the invention, a distinction should be drawn between this and a protrusion in which the width (FB) is less than the depth (FT). FB>FT applies in principle for the wings of the shaped blocks according to the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Further details of the invention will be described in the drawing by way of schematically illustrated exemplary embodiments.

FIGS. 1-3 show three variant embodiments of a first shaped block according to the invention in a perspective representation,

FIG. 4 shows a perspective representation of three shaped blocks arranged next to one another in a wall layer, these shaped blocks corresponding to the shaped block represented in FIG. 1,

FIGS. 5-6 show plan views of a second and a third shaped block according to the invention,

FIGS. 7a-7c show plan views of three different wall layers which are formed by the second shaped block known from FIG. 5,

FIGS. 8a-8c show plan views of three different wall layers which are formed by the third shaped block known from FIG. 6,

FIGS. 9a-9c show plan views of a fourth shaped block according to the invention and two wall layers formed therefrom,

FIG. 10 shows a plan view of a two-layer retaining wall,

FIG. 11 shows a plan view of a fifth shaped block according to the invention with projections and recesses,

FIG. 12 shows a plan view of a sixth shaped block according to the invention, and

FIG. 13 shows a plan view of a further wall variant.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

FIGS. 1 to 3 show three variant embodiments of a first shaped block S according to the invention in a perspective representation. The shaped block S essentially comprises a body K and two wings F, which are also referred to below as left wing FL and right wing FR. In plan view the body K has the contour of a rectangle R. The shaped block S or the body K is divided by a vertical plane E into a front half SHV and a rear half SHH. Here, the plane E is arranged centrally between a first visible side 1 and a second visible side 2 of the shaped block S. Based on a shaped block depth ST, the plane E thus has a spacing from both the front visible side 1 and from the rear visible side 2 that corresponds to a half shaped block depth HST=0.5×ST. The wings F are arranged on a right side face 3 and a left side face 4 of the shaped block S, extend approximately parallel to the plane E and, since with each having a wing depth FT, a wing width FB and a wing height FH, have identical dimensions. A front side 21 of the right wing FR lies together with the visible side 1 of the shaped block S in a common plane E1, which is parallel to the plane E. A front side 8 of the left wing FL is set back from this plane E1 in the direction of the plane E. The shaped block S has, apart from the shaped block depth ST, a shaped block width SB and a shaped block height SH, the shaped block depth ST corresponding to a body depth KT and the shaped block height SH corresponding to a body height KH. Finally, the shaped block width SB is the sum of the two wing widths FB and a body width KB. The shaped block S is delimited at the top and bottom by an upper side 5 and a lower side 6. Wings F or FL and FR arranged laterally in the front half SHV of the shape S are characteristic of the shaped block S. These wings are at a distance DF from one another in the y-direction, the distance DF being measured between a rear side 7 of the right wing FR and the front side 8 of the left wing FL. The wings FL and FR are point-symmetrical with respect to a point of symmetry SP. Optionally, edges K1 and/or K2 at which the wings F merge into the body K are provided, as predetermined breaking points S1, S2, with a notch (not shown here) so as to make it easier, at the ends of walls, to cut off a wing F which is not required.

The shaped block S represented in FIG. 1 is configured as a solid block. The shaped blocks S represented in FIGS. 2 and 3, although having identical dimensions and an identical external shape, differ therefrom in that they each have a vertical opening 9 which traverses the shaped block S from the upper side 5 to the lower side 6. In the variant embodiment of the shaped block S represented in FIG. 2, the opening 9 tapers in an arrow direction z′ in the manner of an inverted truncated pyramid.

In the third variant embodiment of the shaped block S represented in FIG. 3, the opening 9 is cuboidal in shape. Four lugs 10 are arranged on inner walls (without reference signs) of the opening 9 and serve as supports 11 for a slab 12 which can be inserted into the opening 9. The positioning chosen for the lugs 10 allows the opening 9 of the shaped block S to be closed off toward its upper side 5. This is particularly advantageous in the case of the uppermost layer of a wall of shaped blocks S, since a relatively neat wall termination is thus possible with little effort. Of course, the invention also makes provision to arrange the lugs close to the lower side 6 of the shaped block S so as to make it possible to delimit the opening 9 at the bottom using the slab.

The variant embodiment of the shaped block represented in FIG. 2 also allows slabs to be inserted at different heights (z). For this purpose, it is possible for example to use slabs formed as truncated pyramids. Analogously to the variant embodiment shown in FIG. 3, provision is also made to provide the opening with lugs or shoulders which can serve as supports for slabs or other inserts, such as baskets or water storage means, for example.

FIG. 4 shows a left shaped block SL, a central shaped block S and a right shaped block SR in a perspective representation. The shaped blocks SL, S, SR are arranged next to one another and form part of a wall layer ML of a wall M. The shaped blocks SL, S, SR represented in FIG. 4 correspond in terms of their dimensions to the shaped block known from FIG. 1. All three shaped blocks SL, S, SR are arranged in the same orientation. Consequently, the wings F are situated in front of the plane E which divides the shaped blocks SL, S, SR. FIG. 4 shows a plane E for each of the shaped blocks SL, S, SR, these individual planes E, of course, forming a common plane when the wall M is formed straight. The offset arrangement of the wings F means that the wing FR of the shaped block S and the wing F of the shaped block SR, and the wing FL of the shaped block S and the wing F of the shaped block SL, each lie parallel to one another in front of the plane E. Hence, the wall M or the wall layer ML is also formed solidly, and thus stably, between the bodies K by virtue of a double wing arrangement. In the arrangement of the shaped blocks SL, S, SR shown in FIG. 4, the side faces 3, 4 of the shaped blocks SL, S, SR and the wings F enclose cavities 13. These have a depth T13 which corresponds to the distance DF represented in FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 shows a plan view of a second shaped block S. This is similar in design to the shaped block shown in FIG. 1, but here, wings F or FL and FR are offset with respect to one another in the y-direction by only one wing depth FT and thus, unlike the shaped block known from FIG. 1, do not have any distance from one another. Analogously to the shaped blocks represented in FIGS. 2 and 3, the shaped block S has an opening 9. The two wings F are arranged in front of a plane E which divides the shaped block S or its body K.

FIG. 6 shows a third shaped block S in which wings F or FL, FR are situated in front of a plane E which divides a body K. By contrast with the shaped blocks shown in the preceding figures, the wings F have projections 15 on free ends 14. The wings FL and FR have a distance DS from one another.

FIGS. 7a to 7c are plan views showing different wall layers ML which are formed by shaped blocks S which correspond to the shaped block represented in FIG. 5. By way of example the individual wall layers ML are each formed by a left shaped block SL, a central shaped block S and a right shaped block SR.

The individual wall layers ML have different lengths L1, L2, L3, where L1<L2<L3. These differences are determined by a different degree of overlapping between the wings F of adjacent shaped blocks SL, S or S, SR. In the wall layer ML represented in FIG. 7a, not counting tolerances, the wings F overlap one another virtually completely, so that the degree of overlapping can be said to be approximately 100%. The shaped blocks SL, S, SR of the wall layer ML represented in FIG. 7b have a degree of overlapping of approximately 50%, since the wings F are each situated in front of or behind one another by approximately half a wing width FB. In the wall layer ML represented in FIG. 7c, the degree of overlapping, being approximately 25%, is at a lower limit.

FIGS. 8a to 8c again show three different wall layers ML which are each composed of two shaped blocks SL, S which correspond to the shaped block described in FIG. 6. As far as the matter of the lengths of the wall layers and the degree of overlapping is concerned, reference should be made to the comments pertaining to FIGS. 7a to 7c. As FIG. 8c shows, the projections 15 on the free ends 14 of the wings F prevent the possibility of falling below a minimum degree of overlapping, since these projections would only allow a further parting movement of the shaped blocks S and SL if one of the shaped blocks S, SL were simultaneously displaced in the y-direction. FIGS. 8a and 8b show how a cavity 13 enclosed between the wings F also decreases in volume as the degree of overlapping decreases. In the wall layers ML represented in FIGS. 8a to 8c, the shaped blocks S, SL involved are always placed in the same orientation next to one another.

FIG. 9a shows a plan view of a fourth shaped block S which is similar in configuration to the shaped block represented in FIG. 6. The shaped block S essentially comprises a body K and wings F or FL and FR arranged thereon.

In FIG. 9b, a first wall layer ML comprising three shaped blocks SL, S, SR is represented. These shaped blocks SL, S, SR, like the shaped blocks of the wall layers represented in the preceding figures, are all laid out with the same orientation so as to generate a smooth wall pattern at a visible side 1, all the wings F being situated in front of the plane E in the y′-direction. At a second visible side 2 which may be present (free-standing wall), the wall layer ML has recesses 16 alternating with the bodies K.

FIG. 9c shows a further wall layer ML containing four shaped blocks SL, S, SR, SRR, in which the shaped blocks S and SRR are arranged with the known orientation. The remaining shaped blocks SL and SR are rotated through 180° with respect to the shaped block S, the rotation taking place about a vertical axis H which emerges vertically from the plane of the drawing. To make the description of the wings F of the shaped blocks SL, S, SR, SRR clearer to understand, a distinction will now be drawn between wings FF which are remote from the plane E and wings FN which are situated close to the plane E.

The various transitions between adjacent shaped blocks SL, S or S, SR or SR, SRR are now defined by the interaction between two wings FF remote from the plane E or by the interaction between two wings FN close to the plane E. If two wings FF interact, the resulting impression is of a recess-free wall section M1 at both visible sides. If two wings FN interact, the result is a wall section M2 which has recesses 16 at both visible sides.

The third design variant has already been represented in FIG. 9b. This is obtained by the interaction of a wing FN close to the plane E with a wing FF remote from the plane E. There results a wall section M3 which has a recess 16 at only one visible side of the wall.

Depending on the particular system, it is possible using the shaped block according to the invention to form either wall layers which are composed continuously of wall sections M3 or in which wall sections M1 and M2 alternate or in which wall sections M1, M2 and M3 alternate.

In particular, the formation of a wall which is built up from wall sections M3 also allows the formation of arcuate retaining walls.

FIG. 10 shows a plan view of a retaining wall M made up of shaped blocks S, the shaped blocks S corresponding to the shaped block shown in FIG. 9a. The wall M comprises a lower wall layer ML1 and, set back from this, a wall layer ML2. Adjacent shaped blocks S of the lower wall layer ML1 are each rotated with respect to one another through an angle α=15° about a vertical axis rising vertically from the drawing. When considered in an idealized manner, the shaped blocks S of the lower wall layer ML1 describe an arc (not shown) having a radius R1. On account of the upper layer ML2 being set back from the lower wall layer ML1, the upper wall layer ML2 when considered in an idealized manner describes an arc (not shown) having a radius R2, where R1>R2. The shaped blocks S of the upper wall layer ML2 are each rotated with respect to one another through an angle β, it also being the case in principle, given the smaller radius R2, that α<β. Such a structure of the retaining wall M is only possible if the degree of overlapping of interacting wings F increases from the lower wall layer ML1 to the upper wall layer ML2.

Finally, FIG. 11 shows a plan view of a fifth shaped block S which has projections 17 and recesses 18 on visible sides 1, 2 and on side faces 3, 4 of its body K. Projections 15 are also formed on free ends 14 of wings F or FL, FR. The wings F are situated in front of a plane E which divides the shaped block S in half and extends perpendicularly into the plane of the drawing. The shaped block S is divided by the plane E into a front shaped block half SHV and a rear shaped block half SHH. The wings FL and FR formed in the front shaped block half SHV are arranged offset with respect to one another and have a spacing DF from one another, the projections 15 arranged on the free ends 14 bridging this distance DF if wings F of adjacent and identically oriented shaped blocks S interact. Furthermore, the shaped block S has an opening 9 which extends from an upper side 5 to a lower side (without reference sign). Similarly to an inverted truncated pyramid, the opening 9 has inclined inner faces 19 of which two merge into a shoulder 20. Onto the shoulders 20 can be deposited a slab 12 which partially closes the opening. According to a variant embodiment which has not been represented, provision is made to form further shoulders on the inclined inner faces and thus make it possible to insert a plurality of slabs at different levels. Provision is made in particular for the shaped block to be closed off at its lower side and at its upper side using a slab. The recesses 18 arranged on the side faces 3, 4 in FIG. 11 are dimensioned such that the free ends 14 of shaped blocks S are rotated through 180° with respect to one another enter these recesses, resulting in a form-fitting retention of adjacent shaped blocks S. Here, the recess 18 is arranged on the side face 3 alongside the wing FR or FN close to the plane E, the recess being intended to accommodate a wing likewise close to the plane E that belongs to a neighboring block (not shown). Conversely, the recess 18 is arranged on the side face 4 alongside the wing FL or FF remote from the plane E, this recess being intended to accommodate a wing likewise remote from the plane E that belongs to an adjacent block (not shown). The recesses 18 arranged on the visible sides 1, 2 make it possible, in the case of right-angled wall runs for the leg of an adjacent shaped block, to be supported in a form-fitting manner. When considered in an idealized manner, the body K has the contour of a trapezoid T in plan view.

FIG. 12 shows a further shaped block S in plan view. In this shaped block S the two wings FL, FR are set back from a visible side 1 of the shaped block S. A front side 8 of the left wing FL has an offset V1 from the visible side 1, and a front side 21 of the right wing FR has an offset V2 from the visible side 1.

FIG. 13 shows a plan view of a wall M made up of five shaped blocks SLL, SL, S, SR and SRR. The shaped blocks SL and SR are laid by each being rotated through 180° about a vertical axis H with respect to the shaped blocks S, SLL and SRR, in which arrangement wings FL, FR of adjacent shaped blocks SLL, SL or SL, S or S, SR or SR, SRR respectively bear against one another with their front sides 21 or rear sides 22. Provision is made in particular in such a wall M for the shaped blocks SLL, SL, S, SR and SRR to be formed as stakes so as to be able to form a wall run tailored to unevenly terminating ground.

The invention is not limited to exemplary embodiments which have been represented or described. Instead, it covers developments of the invention within the scope of the claims. In particular, the invention also makes provision to form the body, in plan view, as a polygon with straight and/or rounded sides. Furthermore, the invention makes provision to form the body as a stake.

LIST OF REFERENCE SIGNS

  • 1 first visible side of S
  • 2 second visible side of S
  • 3 right side face of S
  • 4 left side face of S
  • 5 upper side of S
  • 6 lower side of S
  • 7 rear side of FR
  • 8 front side of FL
  • 9 vertical opening in K or S
  • 10 lug on 9
  • 11 support for 12
  • 12 slab
  • 13 cavity
  • 14 free end of F
  • 15 projection on F
  • 16 recess in M
  • 17 projection on A
  • 18 recess on K
  • 19 inner face of 9
  • 20 shoulder
  • 21 front side of FR
  • 22 rear side of FL
  • DF distance
  • E vertical plane
  • E1 plane of 1
  • F wing
  • FL, FR left or right wing
  • FF wing remote from E
  • FN wing close to E
  • FB wing width
  • FH wing height
  • FT wing depth
  • H vertical axis of S
  • HST half shaped block depth
  • K body
  • KB body width
  • KH body height
  • KT body depth
  • K1, K2 edge between F and K
  • L1-L3 length of ML
  • M wall
  • ML wall layer
  • ML1 lower wall layer
  • ML2 upper wall layer
  • M1 recess-free wall section
  • M2 wall section with recess on both sides
  • M3 wall section with single recess
  • R rectangle
  • R1 radius of ML1
  • R2 radius of ML2
  • S shaped block
  • SL left shaped block
  • SR right shaped block
  • SLL further shaped block
  • SRR further shaped block
  • SB shaped block width
  • SH shaped block height
  • ST shaped block depth
  • SHV front half of S
  • SHH rear half of S
  • SP point of symmetry for F
  • S1, S2 predetermined breaking points
  • T trapezoid
  • V1, V2 offset between 1 and 8 or 1 and 21
  • α angle between adjacent shaped blocks in ML1
  • β angle between adjacent shaped blocks in ML2
  • x, y, z spatial directions