Title:
p38 MAP kinase inhibitors and methods for using the same
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Compounds effective as p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, methods of making the compounds, and methods of using the compounds for treatment of p38 MAP kinase-mediated diseases.



Inventors:
Arora, Nidhi (Cupertino, CA, US)
Billedeau, Roland Joseph (Santa Clara, CA, US)
Dewdney, Nolan James (San Jose, CA, US)
Gabriel, Tobias (San Francisco, CA, US)
Goldstein, David Michael (San Jose, CA, US)
O'yang, Counde (Sunnyvale, CA, US)
Soth, Michael (Milpitas, CA, US)
Trejo-martin, Teresa Alejandra (Union City, CA, US)
Application Number:
11/509115
Publication Date:
08/30/2007
Filing Date:
08/23/2006
Assignee:
Roche Palo Alto LLC
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
544/262
International Classes:
A61K31/519; C07D487/02
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
MOORE, SUSANNA
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. (Little Falls, NJ, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A compound selected from the group consisting of: 1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(2-methoxy-ethyl)-amine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(2-methyl-propane-2-sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 1-[3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol; 3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(propane-2-sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 5-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-2,4-dimethyl-2,4-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazol-3-one; 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isobutyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-yl]-[2-(2-methyl-imidazol-1-yl)-ethyl]-amine; 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-ethanesulfonylmethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carbaldehyde; [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]-methanol; 4-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-2-methyl-2,4-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazol-3-one; 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isopropyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(3-methanesulfonyl-propyl)-amine; [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(3-methanesulfonyl-propyl)-amine; 1-{[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ylmethyl]-amino}-propan-2-ol; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-methoxy-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ol; [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(1-methanesulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl)-amine; [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(1-methanesulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl)-amine; 3-[2-Chloro-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; N-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-methanesulfonamide; N-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-methanesulfonamide; 4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-phenylamine; 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-dimethyl-amine; 1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenylamino)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-ylamino]-propan-2-ol; 3-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yloxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-N*6*-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-N*5*-(2-methanesulfonyl-ethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine-5,6-diamine; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; 1-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-3-methyl-urea; 1-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-3-methylamino-sulfonamide; 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; 3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 3-[2-Chloro-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine; 4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenol; 3-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol; 3-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; 3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-one; 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methanone; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid(2-hydroxy-propyl)-amide; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid(2-dimethylamino-ethyl)-amide; 1-[3-[2-Chloro-5-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-phenyl]-6-;(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)-amide; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-one; 3-[2-Chloro-5-(4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 2-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-phenyl}-acetamide; 3-tert-Butyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-[2-(1,1-dioxo-1lambda*6*-isothiazolidin-2-yl)-ethyl]-amine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(morpholine-4-sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ylamine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid; 3-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-yloxy}-propane-1,2-diol; 3-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-ylamino}-propane-1,2-diol; 1-[3-(3,5-Dichloro-pyridin-4-yl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; N-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]-acetamide; 3-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-1,5,5-trimethyl-imidazolidine-2,4-dione; 1-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-ylamino}-propan-2-ol; 1-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-yloxy}-propan-2-ol; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-morpholin-4-ylmethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine; [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ylmethyl]-methyl-amine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine; (2-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-yloxy}-ethyl)-dimethyl-amine; 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-4-(2-hydroxy-propyl)-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one; 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-4-methyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one; and 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-isopropyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

2. The compound of claim 1, wherein said compound is selected from the group consisting of: 1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; 1-[3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ol; 4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-phenylamine; 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; 3-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yloxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-N*6*-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-N*5*-(2-methanesulfonyl-ethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine-5,6-diamine; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; 3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 3-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; 3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; 1-[3-[2-Chloro-5-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol; 3-[2-Chloro-5-(4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(morpholine-4-sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; 3-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-yloxy}-propane-1,2-diol; and 1-[3-(3,5-Dichloro-pyridin-4-yl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol.

3. The compound of claim 1, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of: 3-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol; 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol; 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; and 1-[3-[2-Chloro-5-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is entitled to the benefit of provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/712,012 filed on Aug. 25, 2005, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to fused pyrazolo pyrimidine derivatives, a process for their manufacture, pharmaceutical preparations comprising the same, and methods for using the same.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP) is a family of proline-directed serine/threonine kinases that activate their substrates by dual phosphorylation. The kinases are activated by a variety of signals including nutritional and osmotic stress, UV light, growth factors, endotoxin and inflammatory cytokines. One group of MAP kinases is the p38 kinase group that includes various isoforms (e.g., p38α, p39β, p38γ and p38δ). The p38 kinases are responsible for phosphorylating and activating transcription factors as well as other kinases, and are activated by physical and chemical stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

More importantly, the products of the p38 phosphorylation have been shown to mediate the production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF and IL-1, and cyclooxygenase-2. Each of these cytokines has been implicated in numerous disease states and conditions. For example, TNF-α is a cytokine produced primarily by activated monocytes and macrophages. Its excessive or unregulated production has been implicated as playing a causative role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. More recently, inhibition of TNF production has been shown to have broad application in the treatment of inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and asthma.

TNF has also been implicated in viral infections, such as HIV, influenza virus, and herpes virus including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus, human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6), human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7), human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), pseudorabies and rhinotracheitis, among others.

Similarly, IL-1 is produced by activated monocytes and macrophages, and plays a role in many pathophysiological responses including rheumatoid arthritis, fever and reduction of bone resorption.

Additionally, the involvement of p38 has been implicated in stroke, Alzheimer's disease, osteoarthritis, lung injury, septic shock, angiogenesis, dermatitis, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. J. Exp. Opin. Ther. Patents, 2000, 10(1).

The inhibition of these cytokines by inhibition of the p38 kinase is of benefit in controlling, reducing and alleviating many of these disease states.

SUMMARY

The invention provides a compound selected from the group consisting of:

  • 1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(2-methoxy-ethyl)-amine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(2-methyl-propane-2-sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 1-[3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(propane-2-sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 5-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-2,4-dimethyl-2,4-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazol-3-o ne;
  • 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isobutyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol;
  • [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-yl]-[2-(2-methyl-imidazol-1-yl)-ethyl]-amine;
  • 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-ethanesulfonylmethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carbaldehyde;
  • [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]-methanol;
  • 4-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-2-methyl-2,4-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazol-3-one;
  • 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isopropyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(3-methanesulfonyl-propyl)-amine;
  • [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(3-methanesulfonyl-propyl)-amine;
  • 1-{[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ylmethyl]-amino}-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-methoxy-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ol;
  • [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(1-methanesulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl)-amine;
  • [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-(1-methanesulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl)-amine;
  • 3-[2-Chloro-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • N-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-methanesulfonamide;
  • N-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-methanesulfonamide;
  • 4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-phenylamine;
  • 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol;
  • 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol;
  • [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-dimethyl-amine;
  • 1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenylamino)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-ylamino]-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yloxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-N*6*-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-N*5*-(2-methanesulfonyl-ethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine-5,6-diamine;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • 1-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-3-methyl-urea;
  • 1-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-3-methylamino-sulfonamide;
  • 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol;
  • 3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 3-[2-Chloro-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine;
  • 4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenol;
  • 3-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol;
  • 3-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-one;
  • 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol;
  • [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methanone;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid(2-hydroxy-propyl)-amide;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid(2-dimethylamino-ethyl)-amide;
  • 1-[3-[2-Chloro-5-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-phenyl]-6-;(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)-amide;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-one;
  • 3-[2-Chloro-5-(4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 2-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-phenyl}-acetamide;
  • 3-tert-Butyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-[2-(1,1-dioxo-1lambda*6*-isothiazolidin-2-yl)-ethyl]-ami ne;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(morpholine-4-sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ylamine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid;
  • 3-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-yloxy}-propane-1,2-diol;
  • 3-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-ylamino}-propane-1,2-diol;
  • 1-[3-(3,5-Dichloro-pyridin-4-yl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • N-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]-acetamide;
  • 3-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-1,5,5-trimethyl-imidazolidine-2,4-dione ;
  • 1-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-ylamino}-propan-2-ol;
  • 1-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-yloxy}-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-morpholin-4-ylmethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine;
  • [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ylmethyl]-methyl-amine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine;
  • (2-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-yloxy}-ethyl)-dimethyl-amine;
  • 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-4-(2-hydroxy-propyl)-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one;
  • 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-4-methyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one; and
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-isopropyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one.

Another aspect of the invention provides a compound selected from the group consisting of:

  • 1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • 1-[3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ol;
  • 4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-phenylamine;
  • 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol;
  • 3-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yloxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-N*6*-(2,4-difluoro-phenyl)-N*5*-(2-methanesulfonyl-ethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine-5,6-diamine;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 3-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol;
  • 1-[3-[2-Chloro-5-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol;
  • 3-[2-Chloro-5-(4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylmethyl)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(morpholine-4-sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine;
  • 3-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin-2-yloxy}-propane-1,2-diol; and
  • 1-[3-(3,5-Dichloro-pyridin-4-yl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Another aspect of the invention provides a compound selected from the group consisting of:

  • 3-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol;
  • 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol;
  • 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol; and
  • 1-[3-[2-Chloro-5-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol.

Another aspect of the invention provides a pharmaceutical formulation comprising one or more compounds of the invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent, and/or excipient therefor.

Compounds of the invention are inhibitors of protein kinases, and exhibit effective activity against p38 in vivo. They are selective for p38 kinase relative to cyclin-dependent kinases and tyrosine kinases. Therefore, compounds of the present invention can be used for the treatment of diseases mediated by the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF and IL-1. Thus, another aspect of the present invention provides a method for treating p38 mediated diseases or conditions in which a therapeutically effective amount of one or more compounds of the invention is administered to a patient.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

All publications cited in this disclosure are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Definitions

Unless otherwise stated, the following terms used in this Application, including the specification and claims, have the definitions given below. It must be noted that, as used in the specification and the appended claims, the singular forms “a”, “an,” and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

“Alkyl” means a linear saturated monovalent hydrocarbon moiety of one to six carbon atoms or a branched saturated monovalent hydrocarbon moiety of three to six carbon atoms, e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, 2-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, and the like.

“Alkylene” means a linear saturated divalent hydrocarbon moiety of one to six carbon atoms or a branched saturated divalent hydrocarbon moiety of three to six carbon atoms, e.g., methylene, ethylene, 2,2-dimethylethylene, propylene, 2-methylpropylene, butylene, pentylene, and the like.

“Alkoxy” means a moiety of the formula —OR, wherein R is an alkyl moiety as defined herein. Examples of alkoxy moieties include, but are not limited to, methoxy, ethoxy, isopropoxy, and the like.

“Alkoxyalkyl” means a moiety of the formula Ra—O—Rb—, where Ra is alkyl and Rb is alkylene as defined herein. Exemplary alkoxyalkyl groups include, by way of example, 2-methoxyethyl, 3-methoxypropyl, 1-methyl-2-methoxyethyl, 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-3-methoxypropyl, and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-3-methoxypropyl.

“Alkylsulfonylalkyl” means a moiety of the formula Ra—SO2—Rb—, where Ra is alkyl and Rb is alkylene as defined herein. Exemplary alkylsulfonylalkyl groups include, by way of example, 3-methanesulfonylpropyl, 2-methanesulfonylethyl, 2-methanesulfonylpropy, and the like.

“Amino” means a group —NR′R″ wherein R′ and R″ each independently is hydrogen or alkyl. “Amino” as used herein thus encompasses “alkylamino” and “dialkylamino”.

“Alkylaminoalkyl” means a group —R—NHR′ wherein R is alkylene and R′ is alkyl. Alkylaminoalkyl includes methylaminomethyl, methylaminoethyl, methylaminopropyl, ethylaminoethyl and the like.

“Dialkylaminoalkyl” means a group —R—NR′R″ wherein R is alkylene and R′ and R″ are alkyl as defined herein. Dialkylaminoalkyl includes dimethylaminomethyl, dimethylaminoethyl, dimethylaminopropyl, N-methyl-N-ethylaminoethyl, and the like.

“Alkylsulfanyl” means a moiety of the formula —SR wherein R is alkyl as defined herein.

“Alkylsulfonyl” means a moiety of the formula —SO2R wherein R is alkyl as defined herein.

“Aminoalkoxy” means a group —OR—R′ wherein R′ is amino and R is alkylene as defined herein.

“Alkylsulfonylamido” means a moiety of the formula —NR′SO2—R wherein R is alkyl and R′ is hydrogen or alkyl.

“Aryl” means a monovalent monocyclic or bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon moiety which is optionally substituted with one or more, preferably one, two or three, substituents, each of which is preferably selected from the group consisting of alkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, halo, nitro, cyano, amino, mono- and dialkylamino, methylenedioxy, ethylenedioxy, acyl, heteroalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted aralkyl, and optionally substituted heteroaralkyl. A particularly preferred aryl substituent is halide. More specifically the term aryl includes, but is not limited to, phenyl, 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, and the like, each of which can be substituted or unsubstituted.

“Aralkyl” refers to a moiety of the formula Ara—Rz—, where Ara is optionally substituted aryl and Rz is alkylene as defined herein.

“Substituted aralkyl” or “optionally substituted aralkyl” refers to aralkyl in which the aryl moiety is substituted or optionally substituted, respectively.

“Cycloalkyl” refers to a saturated monovalent cyclic hydrocarbon moiety of three to seven ring carbons e.g., cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclohexyl, 4-methyl-cyclohexyl, and the like. Cycloalkyl may optionally be substituted with one or more substituents, preferably one, two or three, substituents. Preferably, cycloalkyl substituent is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, halo, amino, mono- and dialkylamino, heteroalkyl, acyl, aryl and heteroaryl.

“Cycloalkylalkyl” refers to a moiety of the formula Rc—Rd—, where Rc is cycloalkyl and Rd is alkylene as defined herein.

“Halo”, “halogen” and “halide” are used interchangeably herein and refer to fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo. Preferred halides are fluoro and chloro with fluoro being a particularly preferred halide.

“Haloalkyl” means alkyl substituted with one or more same or different halo atoms, e.g., —CH2Cl, —CF3, —CH2CF3, —CH2CCl3, and the like.

“Heteroalkyl” means an alkyl moiety as defined herein wherein one or more, preferably one, two or three, hydrogen atoms have been replaced with a substituent independently selected from the group consisting of —ORa, —NRbRc (where n is 0 or 1 if Rb and Rc are both independently alkyl, cycloalkyl or cycloalkylalkyl, and 0 if not) and —S(O)nRd (where n is an integer from 0 to 2), with the understanding that the point of attachment of the heteroalkyl moiety is through a carbon atom, wherein Ra is hydrogen, acyl, alkoxycarbonyl, alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylsulfonyl, aminocarbonyl, aminosulfonylamino, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkylalkyl; Rb and Rc are independently of each other hydrogen, acyl, alkoxycarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, aminocarbonyl, aminosulfonylamino, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylsulfonyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, alkylsulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, mono- or di-alkylaminosulfonyl, aminoalkyl, mono- or di-alkylaminoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxyalkylsulfonyl or alkoxyalkylsulfonyl; and when n is 0, Rd is hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, or aryl, and when n is 1 or 2, Rd is alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, alkylamino, aminocarbonyl, aminosulfonylamino, alkylsulfonyl, amino, or optionally substituted phenyl. Representative examples include, but are not limited to, 2-hydroxyethyl, 3-hydroxypropyl, 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylethyl, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl, 1-hydroxymethylethyl, 3-hydroxybutyl, 2,3-dihydroxybutyl, 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl, 2-aminoethyl, 3-aminopropyl, 2-methylsulfonylethyl, aminosulfonylmethyl, aminosulfonylethyl, aminosulfonylpropyl, methylaminosulfonylmethyl, methylaminosulfonylethyl, methylaminosulfonylpropyl, and the like. Accordingly, hydroxyalkyl and alkoxyalkyl are subset of heteroalkyl.

“Heteroaryl” means a monovalent monocyclic or bicyclic moiety of 5 to 12 ring atoms having at least one aromatic ring containing one, two, or three ring heteroatoms selected from N, O, or S (preferably N or O), the remaining ring atoms being C, with the understanding that the attachment point of the heteroaryl moiety will be on an aromatic ring. The heteroaryl ring is optionally substituted independently with one or more substituents, preferably one, two or three substituents, each of which is independently selected from alkyl, haloalkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, halo, nitro and cyano. More specifically the term heteroaryl includes, but is not limited to, pyridyl, furanyl, thienyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, triazolyl, imidazolyl, isoxazolyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazolyl, pyrimidinyl, benzofuranyl, tetrahydrobenzofuranyl, isobenzofuranyl, benzothiazolyl, benzoisothiazolyl, benzotriazolyl, indolyl, isoindolyl, benzoxazolyl, quinolyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, isoquinolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzisoxazolyl or benzothienyl, imidazo[1,2-a]-pyridinyl, imidazo[2,1-b]thiazolyl, and the derivatives thereof.

“Heteroarylalkyl” refers to a moiety of the formula Arz—Ry—, where Arz is heteroaryl and Ry is alkylene as defined herein.

“Heterocyclyl” means a saturated or unsaturated non-aromatic cyclic moiety of 3 to 8 ring atoms in which one or two ring atoms are heteroatoms selected from N, O, or S(O)n (where n is an integer from 0 to 2), preferably N or O, the remaining ring atoms being C, where one or two C atoms may optionally be replaced by a carbonyl group. The heterocyclyl ring may be optionally substituted independently with one or more, preferably one, two, or three, substituents, each of which is independently selected from alkyl, haloalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, halo, nitro, cyano, cyanoalkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, amino, mono- and dialkylamino, aralkyl, —(X)n—C(O)Re (where X is O or NRf, n is 0 or 1, Re is hydrogen, alkyl, haloalkyl, hydroxy (when n is 0), alkoxy, amino, mono- and dialkylamino, or optionally substituted phenyl, and Rf is H or alkyl), -alkylene-C(O)Rg (where Rg is alkyl, —ORh or NR1Rj and Rh is hydrogen, alkyl or haloalkyl, and Ri and Rj are independently hydrogen or alkyl), and —S(O)nRk (where n is an integer from 0 to 2) such that when n is 0, Rk is hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, or cycloalkylalkyl, and when n is 1 or 2, Rk is alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, amino, acylamino, monoalkylamino, or dialkylamino. A particularly preferred group of heterocyclyl substituents include alkyl, haloalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, halo, hydroxy, alkoxy, amino, mono- and dialkylamino, aralkyl, and —S(O)nRk. In particular, the term heterocyclyl includes, but is not limited to, tetrahydrofuranyl, pyridinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, piperidino, N-methylpiperidin-3-yl, piperazino, N-methylpyrrolidin-3-yl, 3-pyrrolidino, morpholino, thiomorpholino, thiomorpholino-1-oxide, thiomorpholino-1,1-dioxide, 4-(1,1-dioxo-tetrahydro-2H-thiopyranyl), pyrrolinyl, imidazolinyl, N-methanesulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl, and the derivatives thereof, each of which may be optionally substituted.

“Heterocyclylalkyl” means a moiety of the formula —R—R′ wherein R is alkylene and R′ is heterocyclyl as defined herein.

“Heterocyclyloxy” means a moiety of the formula —OR wherein R is heterocyclyl as defined herein.

“Heterocyclylalkoxy” means a moiety of the formula —OR—R′ wherein R is alkylene and R′ is heterocyclyl as defined herein.

“Hydroxyalkoxy” means a moiety of the formula —OR wherein R is hydroxyalkyl as defined herein.

“Hydroxyalkylamino” means a moiety of the formula —NR—R′ wherein R is hydrogen or alkyl and R′ is hydroxyalkyl as defined herein.

“Hydroxyalkylaminoalkyl” means a moiety of the formula —R—NR′—R″ wherein R is alkylene, R′ is hydrogen or alkyl, and R″ is hydroxyalkyl as defined herein.

“Hydroxyalkyl” refers to a subset of heteroalkyl and refers in particular to an alkyl moiety as defined herein that is substituted with one or more, preferably one, two or three hydroxy groups, provided that the same carbon atom does not carry more than one hydroxy group. Representative examples include, but are not limited to, hydroxymethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, 2-hydroxypropyl, 3-hydroxypropyl, 1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpropyl, 2-hydroxybutyl, 3-hydroxybutyl, 4-hydroxybutyl, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl, 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethylethyl, 2,3-dihydroxybutyl, 3,4-dihydroxybutyl and 2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-hydroxypropyl

“Hydroxycycloalkyl” refers to a subset of cycloalkyl moiety as defined herein and specifically refers to a cycloalkyl moiety as defined herein where one or more, preferably one, two or three, hydrogen atoms in the cycloalkyl moiety have been replaced with a hydroxy substituent. Representative examples include, but are not limited to, 2-, 3-, or 4-hydroxycyclohexyl, and the like.

“Leaving group” has the meaning conventionally associated with it in synthetic organic chemistry, i.e., an atom or a group capable of being displaced by a nucleophile and includes halo (such as chloro, bromo, and iodo), alkanesulfonyloxy, arenesulfonyloxy, alkylcarbonyloxy (e.g., acetoxy), arylcarbonyloxy, mesyloxy, tosyloxy, trifluoromethanesulfonyloxy, aryloxy (e.g., 2,4-dinitrophenoxy), methoxy, N,O-dimethylhydroxylamino, and the like.

“Optionally substituted”, when used in association with “aryl”, phenyl”, “heteroaryl” “cycloalkyl” or “heterocyclyl”, means an aryl, phenyl, heteroaryl, cycloalkylyl or heterocyclyl which is optionally substituted independently with one to four substituents, preferably one or two substituents selected from alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, heteroalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, halo, nitro, cyano, hydroxy, alkoxy, amino, acylamino, mono-alkylamino, di-alkylamino, haloalkyl, haloalkoxy, heteroalkyl, —COR (where R is hydrogen, alkyl, phenyl or phenylalkyl), —(CR′R″)n—COOR (where n is an integer from 0 to 5, R′ and R″ are independently hydrogen or alkyl, and R is hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, phenyl or phenylalkyl), or —CR′R″)n—CONRaRb (where n is an integer from 0 to 5, R′ and R″ are independently hydrogen or alkyl, and Ra and Rb are, independently of each other, hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, phenyl or phenylalkyl), or as provided herein elsewhere.

“Pharmaceutically acceptable excipient” means an excipient that is useful in preparing a pharmaceutical composition that is generally safe, non-toxic and neither biologically nor otherwise undesirable, and includes excipient that is acceptable for veterinary use as well as human pharmaceutical use. A “pharmaceutically acceptable excipient” as used in the specification and claims includes both one and more than one such excipient.

“Pharmaceutically acceptable salt” of a compound means a salt that is pharmaceutically acceptable and that possesses the desired pharmacological activity of the parent compound. Such salts include: (1) acid addition salts, formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and the like; or formed with organic acids such as acetic acid, propionic acid, hexanoic acid, cyclopentanepropionic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, malic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, 1,2-ethane-disulfonic acid, 2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 4-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, 4-toluenesulfonic acid, camphorsulfonic acid, 4-methylbicyclo[2.2.2]-oct-2-ene-1-carboxylic acid, glucoheptonic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, trimethylacetic acid, tertiary butylacetic acid, lauryl sulfuric acid, gluconic acid, glutamic acid, hydroxynaphthoic acid, salicylic acid, stearic acid, muconic acid, and the like; or (2) salts formed when an acidic proton present in the parent compound either is replaced by a metal ion, e.g., an alkali metal ion, an alkaline earth ion, or an aluminum ion; or coordinates with an organic base such as ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, tromethamine, N-methylglucamine, and the like.

“Protecting group” refers to a grouping of atoms that when attached to a reactive group in a molecule masks, reduces or prevents that reactivity. Examples of protecting groups can be found in T. W. Green and P. G. Futs, Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry, (Wiley, 2nd ed. 1991) and Harrison and Harrison et al., Compendium of synthetic Organic Methods, Vols. 1-8 (John Wiley and Sons, 1971-1996). Representative amino protecting groups include, formyl, acetyl, trifluoroacetyl, benzyl, benzyloxycarbonyl (CBZ), tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc), trimethyl silyl (TMS), 2-trimethylsilyl-ethanesulfonyl (SES), trityl and substituted trityl groups, allyloxycarbonyl, 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC), nitro-veratryloxycarbonyl (NVOC), and the like. Representative hydroxy protecting groups include those where the hydroxy group is either acylated or alkylated such as benzyl, and trityl ethers as well as alkyl ethers, tetrahydropyranyl ethers, trialkylsilyl ethers and allyl ethers.

“Treating” or “treatment” of a disease includes: (1) preventing the disease, i.e., causing the clinical symptoms of the disease not to develop in a mammal that may be exposed to or predisposed to the disease but does not yet experience or display symptoms of the disease; (2) inhibiting the disease, i.e., arresting or reducing the development of the disease or its clinical symptoms; or (3) relieving the disease, i.e., causing regression of the disease or its clinical symptoms.

“A therapeutically effective amount” means the amount of a compound that, when administered to a mammal for treating a disease, is sufficient to effect such treatment for the disease. The “therapeutically effective amount” will vary depending on the compound, the disease and its severity and the age, weight, etc., of the mammal to be treated.

As used herein, the terms “those defined above” and “those defined herein” are used interchangeably herein and, when referring to a variable, incorporates by reference the broad definition of the variable as well as preferred, more preferred and most preferred definitions, if any.

“Modulator” means a molecule that interacts with a target. The interactions include, but are not limited to, agonist, antagonist, and the like, as defined herein.

“Optional” or “optionally” means that the subsequently described event or circumstance may but need not occur, and that the description includes instances where the event or circumstance occurs and instances in which it does not.

“Disease state” means any disease, condition, symptom, or indication.

“Inert organic solvent” or “inert solvent” means the solvent is inert under the conditions of the reaction being described in conjunction therewith, including for example, benzene, toluene, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, N,N-dimethylformamide, chloroform, methylene chloride or dichloromethane, dichloroethane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, tert-butanol, dioxane, pyridine, and the like. Unless specified to the contrary, the solvents used in the reactions of the present invention are inert solvents.

“Solvates” means solvent addition forms that contain either stoichiometric or non stoichiometric amounts of solvent. Some compounds have a tendency to trap a fixed molar ratio of solvent molecules in the crystalline solid state, thus forming a solvate. If the solvent is water the solvate formed is a hydrate, when the solvent is alcohol, the solvate formed is an alcoholate. Hydrates are formed by the combination of one or more molecules of water with one of the substances in which the water retains its molecular state as H2O, such combination being able to form one or more hydrate.

“Subject” means mammals and non-mammals. Mammals means any member of the mammalia class including, but not limited to, humans; non-human primates such as chimpanzees and other apes and monkey species; farm animals such as cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and swine; domestic animals such as rabbits, dogs, and cats; laboratory animals including rodents, such as rats, mice, and guinea pigs; and the like. Examples of non-mammals include, but are not limited to, birds, and the like. The term “subject” does not denote a particular age or sex.

The terms “those defined above” and “those defined herein” when referring to a variable incorporates by reference the broad definition of the variable as well as preferred, more preferred and most preferred definitions, if any.

The terms “treating”, “contacting” and “reacting” when referring to a chemical reaction means adding or mixing two or more reagents under appropriate conditions to produce the indicated and/or the desired product. It should be appreciated that the reaction which produces the indicated and/or the desired product may not necessarily result directly from the combination of two reagents which were initially added, i.e., there may be one or more intermediates which are produced in the mixture which ultimately leads to the formation of the indicated and/or the desired product.

Nomenclature

In general, the nomenclature used in this Application is based on AUTONOM™ v.4.0, a Beilstein Institute computerized system for the generation of IUPAC systematic nomenclature. Chemical structures shown herein were prepared using ISIS® version 2.2. Any open valency appearing on a carbon, oxygen or nitrogen atom in the structures herein indicates the presence of a hydrogen. Where a chiral center is present in a structure but no specific enantiomer is shown, the structure encompasses both enantiomers associated with the chiral center.

Compounds of the Invention

Compounds in accordance with the invention are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1
#StructureName (Autonom™)MP/M+H
1 embedded image 1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol447
2 embedded image [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- yl]-(2-methoxy-ethyl)-amine433
3 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyi)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-4-(2-methyl-propane-2- sulfonylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidine494
4 embedded image 1-[3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]- propan-2-ol404
5 embedded image 3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine316
6 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-4-(propane-2-sulfonylmethyl)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine480
7 embedded image 5-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-ethyl}-2,4-dimethyl-2,4-dihydro- [1,2,4]triazol-3-one514
8 embedded image 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isobutyl-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]- propane-1,3-diol
9 embedded image [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-yl]- [2-(2-methyl-imidazol-1-yl)-ethyl]-amine394
10 embedded image 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(tetrahydro- pyran-4-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine333
11 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-4-ethanesulfonylmethyl-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine466
12 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5- carbaldehyde387
13 embedded image [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]- methanol389
14 embedded image 4-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-ethyl}-2-methyl-2,4-dihydro- [1,2,4]triazol-3-one500
15 embedded image 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isopropyl-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine291
16 embedded image [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]- (3-methanesulfonyl-propyl)-amine496
17 embedded image [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]- (3-methanesulfonyl-propyl)-amine496
18 embedded image 1-{[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5- ylmethyl]-amino}-propan-2-ol446
19 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-5-methoxy-1H-pyrazolo[3,4- b]pyridine389
20 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ol375
21 embedded image [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]- (1-methanesulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl)-amine537
22 embedded image [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]- (1-methanesulfonyl-piperidin-4-yl)-amine537
23 embedded image 3-[2-Chloro-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)- phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine460
24 embedded image N-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5- difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}- methanesulfonamide497
25 embedded image N-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4- difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}- methanesulfonamide497
26 embedded image 4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-phenylamine375
27 embedded image 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4- ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol449
28 embedded image 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4- ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol449
29 embedded image [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]- dimethyl-amine404
30 embedded image 1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenylamino)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5- ylamino]-propan-2-ol432
31 embedded image 3-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5- yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol449
32 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yloxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine459
33 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-5-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine433
34 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-N*6*-(2,4-difluoro- phenyl)-N*5*-(2-methanesulfonyl-ethyl)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine-5,6-diamine480
35 embedded image 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol448
36 embedded image 1-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-ethyl}-3-methyl-urea475
37 embedded image 1-{2-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-ethyl}-3-methylamino-sulfonamide511
38 embedded image 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4- ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol449
39 embedded image 3-Cyclohexyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine179.2- 180.0° C.
40 embedded image 3-[2-Chloro-5-(tetrahydro-pyran-2-yloxy)- phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine459
41 embedded image 4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenol375
42 embedded image 3-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-yloxy]- propane-1,2-diol450
43 embedded image 3-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-phenoxy}- propane-1,2-diol449
44 embedded image 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4- ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol447
45 embedded image 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4- ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol447
46 embedded image 3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine317
47 embedded image 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-propan-2-ol252.9- 254.1° C.
48 embedded image 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,4-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-propan-2-one261.1- 264.4° C.
49 embedded image 2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4- ylamino]-propane-1,3-diol449
50 embedded image [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]- (4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-methanone485
51 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5- carboxylic acid (2-hydroxy-propyl)-amide460
52 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5- carboxylic acid (2-dimethylamino-ethyl)- amide473
53 embedded image 1-[3-[2-Chloro-5-(2-hydroxy-ethoxy)- phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]- propan-2-ol493
54 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5- carboxylic acid (2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)- amide476
55 embedded image 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4- ylamino]-propan-2-one229.1- 231.3° C.
56 embedded image 3-[2-Chloro-5-(4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3- ylmethyl)-phenyl]-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine251.3- 253.4° C.
57 embedded image 2-{4-Chloro-3-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl[-phenyl}- acetamide252.0- 252.9° C.
58 embedded image 3-tert-Butyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine174.0- 175.9° C.
59 embedded image 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,2-dimethyl- propyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine164.0- 165.0° C.
60 embedded image [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]- [2-(1,1-dioxo-1lambda*6*-isothiazolidin-2- yl)-ethyl]-amine523
61 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-4-(morpholine-4-sulfonylmethyl)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine256.5- 257.5° C.
62 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5- ylamine374
63 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5- carboxylic acid methyl ester417
64 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5- carboxylic acid403
65 embedded image 3-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin- 2-yloxy}-propane-1,2-diol451
66 embedded image 3-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin- 2-ylamino}-propane-1,2-diol450
67 embedded image 1-[3-(3,5-Dichloro-pyridin-4-yl)-6-(2,4- difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2- ol187.5- 188.3° C.
68 embedded image N-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-yl]- acetamide416
69 embedded image 3-{2-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5- difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-ethyl}-1,5,5- trimethyl-imidazolidine-2,4-dione205.7- 207.1° C.
70 embedded image 1-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin- 2-ylamino}-propan-2-ol434
71 embedded image 1-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin- 2-yloxy}-propan-2-ol435
72 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-5-morpholin-4-ylmethyl-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine458
73 embedded image [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5- ylmethyl]-methyl-amine402
74 embedded image [3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-5-pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl-1H- pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine442
75 embedded image (2-{5-Chloro-4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-pyridin- 2-yloxy}-ethyl)-dimethyl-amine448
76 embedded image 3-(3,5-Dichloro-pyridin-4-yl)-6-(2,4- difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidine225.0- 227.0° C.
77 embedded image 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-4-(2-hydroxy-propyl)-1,4-dihydro- pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one434
78 embedded image 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro- phenyl)-4-methyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4- b]pyrazin-5-one390
79 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-4-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)-1,4- dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one449
80 embedded image 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro- phenoxy)-4-isopropyl-1,4-dihydro- pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-one417

Pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts of the compounds of the invention include salts derived from inorganic acids such as hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, sulfuric, hydrobromic, hydriodic, phosphorous, and the like, as well as the salts derived from organic acids, such as aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids, phenyl-substituted alkanoic acids, hydroxy alkanoic acids, alkanedioic acids, aromatic acids, aliphatic and aromatic sulfonic acids, etc. Such salts thus include sulfate, pyrosulfate, bisulfate, sulfite, bisulfite, nitrate, phosphate, monohydrogenphosphate, dihydrogenphosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, chloride, bromide, iodide, acetate, propionate, caprylate, isobutyrate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, suberate, sebacate, fumarate, maleate, mandelate, benzoate, chlorobenzoate, methylbenzoate, dinitrobenzoate, phthalate, benzenesulfonate, toluenesulfonate, phenylacetate, citrate, lactate, maleate, tartrate, methanesulfonate, and the like. Also contemplated are salts of amino acids such as arginate and the like and gluconate, galacturonate (see, for example, Berge S. M., et al., “Pharmaceutical Salts,” J. of Pharmaceutical Science, 1977, 66, 1-19).

The acid addition salts of the basic compounds can be prepared by contacting the free base form with a sufficient amount of the desired acid to produce the salt in the conventional manner. The free base form can be regenerated by contacting the salt form with a base and isolating the free base in the conventional manner. The free base forms differ from their respective salt forms somewhat in certain physical properties such as solubility in polar solvents, but otherwise the salts are equivalent to their respective free base for purposes of the present invention.

Synthesis

Compounds of the present invention can be made by a variety of methods depicted in the illustrative synthetic reaction schemes shown and described below.

The starting materials and reagents used in preparing these compounds generally are either available from commercial suppliers, such as Aldrich Chemical Co., or are prepared by methods known to those skilled in the art following procedures set forth in references such as Fieser and Fieser's Reagents for Organic Synthesis; Wiley & Sons: New York, 1991, Volumes 1-15; Rodd's Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1989, Volumes 1-5 and Supplementals; and Organic Reactions, Wiley & Sons: New York, 1991, Volumes 1-40. The following synthetic reaction schemes are merely illustrative of some methods by which the compounds of the present invention can be synthesized, and various modifications to these synthetic reaction schemes can be made and will be suggested to one skilled in the art having referred to the disclosure contained in this Application.

The starting materials and the intermediates of the synthetic reaction schemes can be isolated and purified if desired using conventional techniques, including but not limited to, filtration, distillation, crystallization, chromatography, and the like. Such materials can be characterized using conventional means, including physical constants and spectral data.

Unless specified to the contrary, the reactions described herein preferably are conducted under an inert atmosphere at atmospheric pressure at a reaction temperature range of from about −78° C. to about 150° C., more preferably from about 0° C. to about 125° C., and most preferably and conveniently at about room (or ambient) temperature, e.g., about 20° C.

One of the specific methods for preparing compounds of the invention is shown in Scheme I below, wherein R1 represents one of the 4-substituents of the compounds of Table 1, q is 0, 1 or 2, and R2 represents a phenyl substituent on a compound of Table 1. embedded image

In Scheme I, a chlorothiopyrimidine a is deprotonated using a base, such as lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) or other suitable bases that are well known to one skilled in the art. The deprotonated pyrimidine a is reacted with a benzaldehyde b or its derivative to produce an alcohol c. This alcohol c is oxidized, e.g., by manganese oxide, to produce a pyrimidine phenyl ketone d. Reacting the ketone d with hydrazine affords a ring closure product in the form of a pyrazolopyrimidine e. The thio group on pyrazolopyrimidine e is oxidized, e.g., with Oxone, meta-chloroperbenzoic acid, or other oxidizing agents known to one skilled in the art, to produce a sulfonyl pyrazolopyrimidine derivative f. The sulfonyl group on pyrazolopyrimidine derivative f is then displaced with a nucleophilic aryl group g, such as an optionally substituted phenoxide or an optionally substituted thiophenoxide, to produce compounds of the invention. In certain embodiments R1 may represent a leaving group such as halo that is displaced by a nucleophilic reactant to introduce a substituent at the 4-position.

Another method for producing a compound of the invention is shown in Scheme II below, wherein R1 represents one of the 4-substituents of the compounds of Table 1, q is 0, 1 or 2, and R2 represents a phenyl substituent on a compound of Table 1. In this method, the starting material is an acetophenone i, e.g., such as chloroacetophenone, or its derivative. In Scheme II, acetophenone i is deprotonated using a base, such as sodium hydride or other suitable base known to one skilled in the art. Deprotonated acetophenone i is reacted with with a dialkyl carbonate (not shown), e.g., dimethyl carbonate, to provides a condensation product such as a β-ketoester compound j. The β-ketoester compound i is then reacted with an orthoester (not shown), e.g., triethylorthoformate, in the presence of an anhydride (not shown), e.g., acetic anhydride, to yield an acrylate derivative k. To form a pyrimidine ring, the acrylate derivative k is reacted with a thiourea (not shown) in the presence of a base, such as an alkoxide, followed by alkylation with methyl iodide, to form thiopyrimidine l. The thiopyrimidine l is then treated with phosphorous oxychloride to provide an (alkylsulfanyl hydroxy)pyrimidine chlorophenyl ketone d. This ketone d is then converted to a compound h using the procedure shown in Scheme I above. embedded image

The subject compounds also may be prepared as shown in Scheme III, wherein R1 represents one of the 5-substituents of the compounds of Table 1, q is 0, 1 or 2, and R2 represents a phenyl substituent on a compound of Table 1. A pyrazine derivative o, such as a dihalopyrazine compound like 2,6-dichloropyrazine, may be deprotonated using a strong base. Suitable bases for deprotonation of pyrazine include bases that are suitable in deprotonation of pyrimidine, which are discussed above. Typically, a metal amide compound, such as a lithium amide compound, preferably a sterically hindered base, e.g., LiTMP, is used in the deprotonation reaction. Lithium amide bases, such as lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (LiTMP) or LDA, are generated by reacting the corresponding amine compound with an alkyllithium compound. Suitable reaction conditions for generating lithium amide bases are well known to one skilled in the art.

The deprotonated pyrazine (not shown) may then be reacted with a benzaldehyde p or its derivative, depending on the desired substituents on the phenyl ring moiety, to afford a pyrazine phenylmethyl alcohol q. This secondary alcohol q is oxidized to a pyrazine phenyl ketone compound r. Suitable oxidizing agents for converting an alcohol to a carbonyl moiety are well known to one skilled in the art. Exemplary oxidizing agents include manganese (IV) oxide and chromium based compounds (such as PCC, PDC, and chromium trioxide). In addition, other oxidation conditions, such as Swern oxidation conditions, can be used to generate the ketone from the alcohol.

After the oxidation reaction, the ketone r is reacted with a suitable nucleophilic compound, such as a thiophenoxide or a phenoxide compound s, to displace one of the chloro group on the pyrazine ring moiety and for phenoxy pyrazolo ketone t. Formation of the pyrazoline ring moiety to afford compound u is achieved by reacting the ketone u with hydrazine in a manner similar to that described above in Scheme I above. embedded image

Compounds of the invention may also be prepared according to Scheme IV shown below, wherein R1 represents one of the 4-substituents of the compounds of Table 1, q is 0, 1 or 2, and R2 represents a phenyl substituent on a compound of Table 1. In this strategy, the nitrogen atom of pyridine compound v is oxidized using any one of the suitable oxidizing agents known to one skilled in the art, e.g., hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid, to form pyridine-N-oxide w. Nitration of the pyridine oxide compound w under typical nitration reaction conditions affords a 4-nitropyridine oxide compound x. Substitution reaction of this nitropyridine oxide compound x with an aryl or heteroaryl nucleophile, e.g., a phenoxide derivative y (or other aryl- or heteroaryloxide, aryl- or heteroarylamine, or aryl- or heteroarylthiophenoxide), affords a nitrophenoxy substituted pyridine oxide compound z.

Reduction of the nitro group of compound z via hydrogenation affords an aminopyridine N-oxide aa, the N-oxide moiety of which may be reduced with phosphorous trichloride to give an aminopyridine compound bb. Protection of the amino group, e.g., with an acetyl group gives a protected aminopyridine cc, which may then be treated with acetic anhydride under mild basic conditions to achieve formation of pyrazoline ring system and afford a pyrazolopyridine compound dd. Suitable reagents and reaction conditions for formation of pyrazoline ring moiety are well known to one skilled in the art. Only one particular set of reagents and reaction conditions is provided in Scheme IV.

The pyrazolopyridine compound dd can be further modified by removing the acetyl group from the pyrazoline nitrogen atom to yield an unprotected pyrazolopyridine ee. Iodination pyrazolopyridine ee yields iodopyrazolopyridine ff, which may then be protected, e.g., with a BOC group to yield protected iodopyrazolopyridine gg. Iodopyrazolopyridine gg may then be cross-coupled with an aryl- or heteroaryl group hh to yield protected pyrazolopyridine ii, which in turn may be deprotected to yield pyrazolopyridine compound jj. embedded image

One of skill in the art will understand that certain modifications to the above schemes are contemplated and within the scope of the present invention. For example, certain steps will involve the use of protecting groups for functional groups that are not compatible with particular reaction conditions.

Compounds of the invention may be prepared from a pyrazole compound as shown in Scheme V below, wherein PG is a protecting group and may be the same or different in each occurrence, and wherein R1 represents one of the 4-substituents of the compounds of Table 1, q is 0, 1 or 2, and R2 represents a phenyl substituent on a compound of Table 1. embedded image

In Scheme V esterification of a nitropyrazole carboxylic acid compound kk yields a nitro pyrazol ester, which is followed by protection of one of the ring nitrogen atom to affords a mixture of protected regioisomers mm, nn, which are separated. The protection group may comprise, for example, a 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoky-methyl group. The 2-protected pyrazole compound mm is then treated with a reducing agent, such as sodium borohydride or other suitable reducing agents known to one skilled in the art, to provide an alcohol oo. The alcohol oo is oxidized with manganese (IV) oxide or other suitable oxidizing agents, which are discussed above, to provide a pyrazole carbaldehyde compound pp. Condensation reaction of the aldehyde p with an anion of α-aryloxy ester qq provides an α-aryloxy-β-hydroxyester rr. Reduction of the nitro group of α-aryloxy-β-hydroxyester rr with a reducing agent, such as iron in the presence of ammonium chloride or other suitable reducing conditions known to one skilled in the art, results in concomitant ring formation and elimination of the β-hydroxy group to afford a pyrazolopyridinone derivative ss. The amide nitrogen is then alkylated under conventional conditions with alkylating agent such as an alkyl or heteroalkyl iodide R1I, to afford an N-alkyl pyrazolopyridinone tt. Functionalities present on R1I, such as hydroxy groups, may be protected and subsequently deprotected.

Deprotection of the pyrazoline ring portion of the N-alkylated pyrazolopyridinone t, followed by treatment with by iodine monochloride in the presence of potassium carbonate, or other suitable iodination conditions known to one skilled in the art, provides an iodopyrazolopyridinone uu. The pyrazole 1-position of iodopyrazolopyridinone uu is then protected with Boc or like protecting group, and a cross-coupling reaction with an appropriate aryl or heteroaryl compound vv (e.g., a Suzuki coupling with an aryl boronic acid in the presence of a palladium catalyst), provides a protected aryloxy iodopyrazolopyridinone ww. Removal of the protecting group on the pyrazoline ring nitrogen atom then affords a pyrazolopyridinone compound xx in accordance with the invention.

More specific details for producing compounds of the invention are described in the Examples section below.

Pharmaceutical Compositions And Administration

The present invention includes pharmaceutical compositions comprising at least one compound of the present invention, or an individual isomer, racemic or non-racemic mixture of isomers or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, together with at least one pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and optionally other therapeutic and/or prophylactic ingredients.

In general, the compounds of the present invention will be administered in a therapeutically effective amount by any of the accepted modes of administration for agents that serve similar utilities. Suitable dosage ranges are typically 1-500 mg daily, preferably 1-100 mg daily, and most preferably 1-30 mg daily, depending upon numerous factors such as the severity of the disease to be treated, the age and relative health of the subject, the potency of the compound used, the route and form of administration, the indication towards which the administration is directed, and the preferences and experience of the medical practitioner involved. One of ordinary skill in the art of treating such diseases will be able, without undue experimentation and in reliance upon personal knowledge and the disclosure of this Application, to ascertain a therapeutically effective amount of the compounds of the present invention for a given disease.

In general, compounds of the present invention will be administered as pharmaceutical formulations including those suitable for oral (including buccal and sub-lingual), rectal, nasal, topical, pulmonary, vaginal, or parenteral (including intramuscular, intraarterial, intrathecal, subcutaneous and intravenous) administration or in a form suitable for administration by inhalation or insufflation. The preferred manner of administration is generally oral using a convenient daily dosage regimen which can be adjusted according to the degree of affliction.

A compound or compounds of the present invention, together with one or more conventional adjuvants, carriers, or diluents, may be placed into the form of pharmaceutical compositions and unit dosages. The pharmaceutical compositions and unit dosage forms may be comprised of conventional ingredients in conventional proportions, with or without additional active compounds or principles, and the unit dosage forms may contain any suitable effective amount of the active ingredient commensurate with the intended daily dosage range to be employed. The pharmaceutical compositions may be employed as solids, such as tablets or filled capsules, semisolids, powders, sustained release formulations, or liquids such as solutions, suspensions, emulsions, elixirs, or filled capsules for oral use; or in the form of suppositories for rectal or vaginal administration; or in the form of sterile injectable solutions for parenteral use. Formulations containing about one (1) milligram of active ingredient or, more broadly, about 0.01 to about one hundred (100) milligrams, per tablet, are accordingly suitable representative unit dosage forms.

The compounds of the present invention may be formulated in a wide variety of oral administration dosage forms. The pharmaceutical compositions and dosage forms may comprise a compound or compounds of the present invention or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof as the active component. The pharmaceutically acceptable carriers may be either solid or liquid. Solid form preparations include powders, tablets, pills, capsules, cachets, suppositories, and dispersible granules. A solid carrier may be one or more substances which may also act as diluents, flavouring agents, solubilizers, lubricants, suspending agents, binders, preservatives, tablet disintegrating agents, or an encapsulating material. In powders, the carrier generally is a finely divided solid which is a mixture with the finely divided active component. In tablets, the active component generally is mixed with the carrier having the necessary binding capacity in suitable proportions and compacted in the shape and size desired. The powders and tablets preferably contain from about one (1) to about seventy (70) percent of the active compound. Suitable carriers include but are not limited to magnesium carbonate, magnesium stearate, talc, sugar, lactose, pectin, dextrin, starch, gelatine, tragacanth, methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, a low melting wax, cocoa butter, and the like. The term “preparation” is intended to include the formulation of the active compound with encapsulating material as carrier, providing a capsule in which the active component, with or without carriers, is surrounded by a carrier, which is in association with it. Similarly, cachets and lozenges are included. Tablets, powders, capsules, pills, cachets, and lozenges may be as solid forms suitable for oral administration.

Other forms suitable for oral administration include liquid form preparations including emulsions, syrups, elixirs, aqueous solutions, aqueous suspensions, or solid form preparations which are intended to be converted shortly before use to liquid form preparations. Emulsions may be prepared in solutions, for example, in aqueous propylene glycol solutions or may contain emulsifying agents, for example, such as lecithin, sorbitan monooleate, or acacia. Aqueous solutions can be prepared by dissolving the active component in water and adding suitable colorants, flavors, stabilizers, and thickening agents. Aqueous suspensions can be prepared by dispersing the finely divided active component in water with viscous material, such as natural or synthetic gums, resins, methylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, and other well known suspending agents. Solid form preparations include solutions, suspensions, and emulsions, and may contain, in addition to the active component, colorants, flavors, stabilizers, buffers, artificial and natural sweeteners, dispersants, thickeners, solubilizing agents, and the like.

The compounds of the present invention may be formulated for parenteral administration (e.g., by injection, for example bolus injection or continuous infusion) and may be presented in unit dose form in ampoules, pre-filled syringes, small volume infusion or in multi-dose containers with an added preservative. The compositions may take such forms as suspensions, solutions, or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, for example solutions in aqueous polyethylene glycol. Examples of oily or nonaqueous carriers, diluents, solvents or vehicles include propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil), and injectable organic esters (e.g., ethyl oleate), and may contain formulatory agents such as preserving, wetting, emulsifying or suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents. Alternatively, the active ingredient may be in powder form, obtained by aseptic isolation of sterile solid or by lyophilization from solution for constitution before use with a suitable vehicle, e.g., sterile, pyrogen-free water.

The compounds of the present invention may be formulated for topical administration to the epidermis as ointments, creams or lotions, or as a transdermal patch. Ointments and creams may, for example, be formulated with an aqueous or oily base with the addition of suitable thickening and/or gelling agents. Lotions may be formulated with an aqueous or oily base and will in general also containing one or more emulsifying agents, stabilizing agents, dispersing agents, suspending agents, thickening agents, or coloring agents. Formulations suitable for topical administration in the mouth include lozenges comprising active agents in a flavored base, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth; pastilles comprising the active ingredient in an inert base such as gelatine and glycerine or sucrose and acacia; and mouthwashes comprising the active ingredient in a suitable liquid carrier.

The compounds of the present invention may be formulated for administration as suppositories. A low melting wax, such as a mixture of fatty acid glycerides or cocoa butter is first melted and the active component is dispersed homogeneously, for example, by stirring. The molten homogeneous mixture is then poured into convenient sized molds, allowed to cool, and to solidify.

The compounds of the present invention may be formulated for vaginal administration. Pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or sprays containing in addition to the active ingredient such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate.

The compounds of the present invention may be formulated for nasal administration. The solutions or suspensions are applied directly to the nasal cavity by conventional means, for example, with a dropper, pipette or spray. The formulations may be provided in a single or multidose form. In the latter case of a dropper or pipette, this may be achieved by the patient administering an appropriate, predetermined volume of the solution or suspension. In the case of a spray, this may be achieved for example by means of a metering atomizing spray pump.

The compounds of the present invention may be formulated for aerosol administration, particularly to the respiratory tract and including intranasal administration. The compound will generally have a small particle size for example of the order of five (5) microns or less. Such a particle size may be obtained by means known in the art, for example by micronization. The active ingredient is provided in a pressurized pack with a suitable propellant such as a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), for example, dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, or dichlorotetrafluoroethane, or carbon dioxide or other suitable gas. The aerosol may conveniently also contain a surfactant such as lecithin. The dose of drug may be controlled by a metered valve. Alternatively the active ingredients may be provided in a form of a dry powder, for example a powder mix of the compound in a suitable powder base such as lactose, starch, starch derivatives such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP). The powder carrier will form a gel in the nasal cavity. The powder composition may be presented in unit dose form for example in capsules or cartridges of e.g., gelatine or blister packs from which the powder may be administered by means of an inhaler.

When desired, formulations can be prepared with enteric coatings adapted for sustained or controlled release administration of the active ingredient. For example, the compounds of the present invention can be formulated in transdermal or subcutaneous drug delivery devices. These delivery systems are advantageous when sustained release of the compound is necessary and when patient compliance with a treatment regimen is crucial. Compounds in transdermal delivery systems are frequently attached to an skin-adhesive solid support. The compound of interest can also be combined with a penetration enhancer, e.g., Azone (1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one). Sustained release delivery systems are inserted subcutaneously into the subdermal layer by surgery or injection. The subdermal implants encapsulate the compound in a lipid soluble membrane, e.g., silicone rubber, or a biodegradable polymer, e.g., polylactic acid.

The pharmaceutical preparations are preferably in unit dosage forms. In such form, the preparation is subdivided into unit doses containing appropriate quantities of the active component. The unit dosage form can be a packaged preparation, the package containing discrete quantities of preparation, such as packeted tablets, capsules, and powders in vials or ampoules. Also, the unit dosage form can be a capsule, tablet, cachet, or lozenge itself, or it can be the appropriate number of any of these in packaged form.

Other suitable pharmaceutical carriers and their formulations are described in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy 1995, edited by E. W. Martin, Mack Publishing Company, 19th edition, Easton, Pa. Representative pharmaceutical formulations containing a compound of the present invention are described in the Examples below.

Utility

Compounds of the invention are useful for, but not limited to, the treatment of any disorder or disease state in a human, or other mammal, which is exacerbated or caused by excessive or unregulated TNF or p38 kinase production by such mammal. Accordingly, the present invention provides a method of treating a p38-mediated disease which comprises administering an effective amount of a compound of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug thereof, to a subject or patient in need thereof.

Compounds of the invention are useful for, but not limited to, the treatment of inflammation in a subject, and for use as antipyretics for the treatment of fever. Compounds of the invention would be useful to treat arthritis, including but not limited to, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, gouty arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile arthritis, osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis and other arthritic conditions. Such compounds would be useful for the treatment of pulmonary disorders or lung inflammation, including adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary sarcoidosis, asthma, silicosis, and chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease. The compounds are also useful for the treatment of viral and bacterial infections, including sepsis, septic shock, gram negative sepsis, malaria, meningitis, cachexia secondary to infection or malignancy, cachexia secondary to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS, ARC (AIDS related complex), pneumonia, and herpes virus. The compounds are also useful for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis, endotoxic shock, toxic shock syndrome, reperfusion injury, autoimmune disease including graft vs. host reaction and allograft rejections, cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, thrombosis, congestive heart failure, and cardiac reperfusion injury, renal reperfusion injury, liver disease and nephritis, and myalgias due to infection.

The compounds are also useful for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, influenza, multiple sclerosis, cancer, diabetes, systemic lupus erthrematosis (SLE), skin-related conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, burns, dermatitis, keloid formation, and scar tissue formation. In addition, compounds of the invention are useful in treating gastrointestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, gastritis, irritable bowel syndrome and ulcerative colitis. The compounds are also useful in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases, such as retinitis, retinopathies, uveitis, ocular photophobia, and of acute injury to the eye tissue. The compounds can also be used in treating angiogenesis, including neoplasia; metastasis; ophthalmological conditions such as corneal graft rejection, ocular neovascularization, retinal neovascularization including neovascularization following injury or infection, diabetic retinopathy, retrolental fibroplasia and neovascular glaucoma; ulcerative diseases such as gastric ulcer; pathological, but non-malignant, conditions such as hemangiomas, including infantile hemangiomas, angiofibroma of the nasopharynx and avascular necrosis of bone; diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy; and disorders of the female reproductive system such as endometriosis. The compounds can further be used for preventing the production of cyclooxygenase-2 and have analgesic properties. Therefore, compounds of the invention are useful for treatment of pain.

Other uses for compounds of the invention include treatment of HCV, severe asthma, psoriasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other diseases that can be treated with an anti-TNF compound.

Besides being useful for human treatment, these compounds are also useful for veterinary treatment of companion animals, exotic animals and farm animals, including mammals, rodents, and the like. More preferred animals include horses, dogs, and cats.

The present compounds can also be used in co-therapies, partially or completely, in place of other conventional antiinflammatories, such as together with steroids, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, NSAIDs, DMARDS, immunosuppressive agents, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors, LTB4 antagonists and LTA4 hydrolase inhibitors.

As used herein, the term “TNF mediated disorder” refers to any and all disorders and disease states in which TNF plays a role, either by control of TNF itself, or by TNF causing another monokine to be released, such as but not limited to IL-1, IL-6 or IL-8. A disease state in which, for instance, IL-1 is a major component, and whose production or action, is exacerbated or secreted in response to TNF, would therefore be considered a disorder mediated by TNF.

As used herein, the term “p38 mediated disorder” refers to any and all disorders and disease states in which p38 plays a role, either by control of p38 itself, or by p38 causing another factor to be released, such as but not limited to IL-1, IL-6 or IL-8. A disease state in which, for instance, IL-1 is a major component, and whose production or action, is exacerbated or secreted in response to p38, would therefore be considered a disorder mediated by p38.

As TNF-β has close structural homology with TNF-α (also known as cachectin), and since each induces similar biologic responses and binds to the same cellular receptor, the synthesis of both TNF-α and TNF-β are inhibited by the compounds of the present invention and thus are herein referred to collectively as “TNF” unless specifically delineated otherwise.

EXAMPLES

The following preparations and examples are given to enable those skilled in the art to more clearly understand and to practice the present invention. They should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention, but merely as being illustrative and representative thereof.

Unless otherwise stated, all temperatures including melting points (i.e., MP) are in degrees celsius (° C.). It should be appreciated that the reaction which produces the indicated and/or the desired product may not necessarily result directly from the combination of two reagents which were initially added, i.e., there may be one or more intermediates which are produced in the mixture which ultimately leads to the formation of the indicated and/or the desired product. The following abbreviations may be used in the Examples.

Abbreviations

  • DCM dichloromethane
  • DMF N,N-dimethylformamide
  • DMAP 4-dimethylaminopyridine
  • gc gas chromatography
  • HMPA hexamethylphosphoramide
  • hplc high performance liquid chromatography
  • mCPBA m-chloroperbenzoic acid
  • MeCN acetonitrile
  • TEA triethylamine
  • THF tetrahydrofuran
  • LDA lithium diisopropylamine
  • TLC thin layer chromatography

Example 1

This example illustrates a synthesis of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine following the procedure of Scheme I above.
Step 1. Preparation of (4-chloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)-(2-chloropheny)-methanol. embedded image

To a solution of 4-chloro-2-(methylthio)pyrimidine (Aldrich) (20 g, 124.51 mmol) in dry THF (300 mL) at −78° C. under argon was slowly added a solution of 2.0 M lithium diisopropyl amide, i.e., LDA, (109 mL, 1.75 eq) in THF via a cannula. After addition was complete, the resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for an additional 15 minutes, after which 2-chlorobenzaldehyde (Aldrich) (29.5 mL, 2.1 eq) was added dropwise via syringe. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 30 minutes at −78° C. and then quenched with saturated ammonium chloride solution. Ethyl acetate was added, the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature, and the layers were partitioned and separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate, and the combined organic layers were washed with brine solution. The ethyl acetate layers were combined, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the crude product as an oil. Purification using Flash Column Chromatography on Silica Gel, eluting with a gradient of 5%-20% ethyl acetate in hexanes gave the title compound (10.8 g, (M+H)+=301) as an orange-yellow semi-solid.
Step 2. Preparation of (4-chloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-(2-chlorophenyl)-methanone. embedded image

To a solution of (2-chlorophenyl)-(4-chloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)methanol (10.8 g, 35.75 mmol) in toluene (150 mL) was added manganese (IV) oxide (Aldrich) (31.2 g, 10 eq). The resulting mixture was heated to reflux with stirring for a total of 2.5 hours. The reaction was then filtered hot through a 3.5 cm pad of Celite. The pad of Celite was rinsed with hot ethyl acetate, and the filtrate was concentrated to give a crude oil. Purification by Flash Column Chromatography on Silica Gel eluting with a gradient of 2%-10% ethyl acetate in hexanes gave the title compound as a yellow viscous semi-solid (5.3 g, (M+H)+=299.
Step 3. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

To a solution of (2-chlorophenyl)-(4-chloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-methanone (5.3 g, 17.72 mmol) in ethanol (25 mL) was added anhydrous hydrazine (1.12 ml, 2 eq) dropwise with stirring. The reaction was then stirred for 20 minutes, after which it was cooled in an ice bath and the precipitated solid was removed by filtration. The solid was rinsed with cold ethanol. The filtrate was concentrated to provide a crude oil, which was diluted with ethyl acetate (80 mL), tetrahydrofuran (10 mL), methanol (5 mL), and water (80 mL). This mixture was partitioned and the layers separated. The organic layer was collected and dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as a yellow powder (2.81 g, (M+H)+=277).
Step 4 Preparation of 3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methanesulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4d]pyrimidine embedded image

To a cooled (ice bath) solution of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (2.8 g, 10.37 mmol) in THF (46 mL) and methanol (28 mL) was added a solution of Oxone (Aldrich) (10.9 g) in water (38 mL) drop-wise. The mixture was stirred for 40 hours at room temperature. The reaction was monitored using a TLC analysis. The volume of the mixture was reduced about 80% via rotary evaporator after which ethyl acetate (80 mL), water (40 mL) and saturated sodium bicarbonate (15 mL) were added and the layers were partitioned and separated. The organic layer was further washed with brine (50 mL) and back extracted with ethyl acetate (80 mL). The ethyl acetate phase was dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as a red-brown powder (2.90 g, (M−H)=307).
Step 5. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

To a neat sample of 2,4-difluorophenol (Aldrich) (379 mg, 3 eq) in a Microwave Reactor Vessel, at 0° C. was added dropwise a 1.0 M potassium tert-butoxide solution in THF (2.9 mL, 3.05 eq). The mixture was stirred 5 minutes and then warmed to room temperature. Solid 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (300 mg, 0.971 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was placed in a Microwave Reactor and heated at 120° C. for 15 minutes. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (50 mL), saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (10 mL) and water (40 mL). The mixture was partitioned and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extract with ethyl acetate (40 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to provide the crude compound. Purification by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography eluting with 1.8% methanol in dichloromethane, followed by crystallization from methylene chloride/hexanes gave the title compound as a white powder (553 mg, (M+H)+=359, M.P.=173.4-176.4° C.).

Compounds prepared by the procedure of Example 1 are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 2

This example illustrates a synthesis of [3-(2-chlorophenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]-(2-fluorophenyl)amine in the manner shown in Scheme I above. embedded image

A mixture of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (280 mg, 0.91 mmol, from step 4 of Example 1) and 2-fluoroaniline (Aldrich) (1.0 g, 10 eq) was heated at 140° C. in an oil bath under argon atmosphere. After two hours, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and purified by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography eluting with 35% ethyl acetate in hexanes, followed by trituration from hot methylene chloride/hexanes gave the title compound as a white powder (35 mg, (M+H)+=340, M.P.=230.2-232.4° C.).

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 3

This example illustrates a synthesis of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenylsulfanyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. embedded image

To a 0° C. solution of 2,4-difluorothiophenol (Aldrich) (116 μL, 0.972 mmol) was added potassium tert-butoxide (Aldrich) (1.0M solution in tetrahydrofuran, 988 μL, 0.988 mmol), and the resulting yellow suspension was diluted with 5 mL tetrahydrofuran and stirred for 5 minutes at 0° C. The cooling bath was removed and the suspension was stirred for another 15 minutes at room temperature, and 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methanesulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (100 mg, 0.324 mmol) was then added as a powder. The resulting brown suspension was refluxed for 17 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and then concentrated. The yellow solid residue was diluted with 20 mL ethyl acetate and 20 mL of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (2×20 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to give the crude product as a yellow solid. Purification using preparative thin layer chromatography with 20% ethyl acetate in hexanes gave the title compound (64 mg, (M+H)+=375, M.P.=177.6-183.2° C.).

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 4

This example illustrates a synthesis of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine following the procedure of Scheme II.
Step 1. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-oxo-propionic acid, methyl ester. embedded image

To a suspension of sodium hydride (30.8 g, 770 mmol, 60% in oil) in benzene (275 mL) and dimethyl carbonate (50 mL) was slowly added a solution of 2-chloro-acetophenone (Aldrich) (40 mL, 308 mmol) in dimethyl carbonate (28 mL) via an addition funnel. The reaction mixture was then slowly and cautiously heated to 60° C. [Note: reaction is exothermic: ice bath cooling may be necessary to control the reaction]. After stirring for 15 minutes, the reaction mixture was stirred at 111° C. for one hour. The mixture was next cooled to ambient temperature and methanol was added to destroy excess sodium hydride. The material was poured onto a cold solution of aqueous hydrochloric acid (10%, 308 mL) in ice (300 mL). The resulting mixture was diluted with ether (250 mL). The organic layer was separated and washed with water (350 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with ether (250 mL). The ether layers were combined, dried (magnesium sulfate), filtered and concentrated to give a crude oil. Purification via distillation under vacuum provided the product as a pale, clear oil (53.6 g; B.P.=120-121° C., (M+H)+=213).
Step 2. Preparation of 2-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-ethoxyacrylic acid, ethyl ester. embedded image

To a flask containing 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-oxo-propionic acid, methyl ester (20 g, 94 mmol) was added triethylorthoformate (37.5 mL, 225.6 mmol) and acetic anhydride (63 mL, 667 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated to 130° C. with stirring for a total of 2 hours, then stirred over night at room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to provide a crude oil, which was used directly in the next step.
Step 3. Preparation of (2-chloro-phenyl)-(4-hydroxy-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-methanone. embedded image

To a solution of 2-(2-chlorobenzoyl)-3-ethoxyacrylic acid, ethyl ester (23.9 g, 23.9 mmol) in absolute ethanol (80 mL) was added thiourea (7.14 g, 23.9 mmol), followed by a solution of 25% sodium methoxide in methanol (20.4 mL, 89.3 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for four hours, and then stirred at room temperature over night. The resulting mixture was diluted with water (50 mL) and then treated with iodomethane (11.99 mL, 21.5 mmol). The material was warmed to 40° C. and stirred for three hours. Water (10 mL) was added and the material allowed to cool to room temperature over 10 minutes. Another 50 mL of water was added and the product slowly crystallized out of the resulting solution. The product was collected by filtration (18.72 g, (M+H)+=281).
Step 4 Preparation of (4-chloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-(2-chlorophenyl)-methanone. embedded image

To a cooled (ice bath) mixture of (2-chlorophenyl)-(4-hydroxy-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)methanone (18.72 g, 66 mmol) and picoline (3.95 mL, 39.6 mmol) was added dropwise phosphoryl chloride (37.3 mL, 396 mmol) via an addition funnel. The resulting mixture was removed from the ice bath and heated to 80° C. for 2 hours. The reaction was cooled to ambient temperature and poured onto ice (250 mL). Ethyl acetate was added and the layers were partitioned and separated. The organic layer was further washed with two consecutive solutions of saturated sodium bicarbonate (150 mL) followed by brine (150 mL). The aqueous layers were back extracted with ethyl acetate (2×150 mL). The combined ethyl acetate layers were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the product as a yellow solid (17.36 g, (M+H)+=299.

Step 5. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine.

(4-Chloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone was converted to the desired pyrazolo-pyrimidine targets using the procedures similar to those described in Example 1, steps 3, 4 and 5 above.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 5

This example illustrates a synthesis of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine following the procedure of Scheme III above.
Step 1. Preparation of (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)-methanol. embedded image

To a −20° C. solution of n-butyllithium (2.5 M in hexane, Aldrich, 26.5 mmol) in dry tetrahydrofuran (200 mL) under argon was added 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (Aldrich, 11.5 mL, 66.5 mmol, 1.22 eq). The resulting solution was warmed to 0° C. over 0.5 hour period. The solution was then cooled to −78° C., and a solution of 2,6-dichloropyrazine (Aldrich, 8.24 g, 55.3 mmol, 1.0 eq ) in tetrahydrofuran was slowly added via a syringe. After addition was complete, the resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for an additional 1 hour after which 2-chlorobenzaldehyde (Aldrich, 9.3 mL, 83 mmole, 1.5 eq) was added drop wise via a syringe. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 1 hour, quenched with hydrochloric acid (18 mL, 220 mmol, 4 eq)/ethanol (75 mL)/tetrahydrofuran (90 mL) mixture, and then warmed to room temperature. The reaction mixture was diluted with aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ether. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude oil which was purified via chromatography using dichloromethane/hexanes (1:1) as the eluent to give (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanol (12.8 g, 44 mmol, 80% yield). Mass spec, M+1=290.
Step 2. Preparation of (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanone. embedded image

To a dichloromethane solution of (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanol (7.1 g, 24.5 mmol) was added portion wise solid manganese (IV) oxide (25 g, 245 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to give (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanone (6.02 g, 21 mmol, 85% yield). Mass spec., M+1=288.
Step 3. Preparation of [3-chloro-5-(2,4-difluorophenoxyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-chlorophenyl)-methanone. embedded image

To a dimethylformamide, i.e., DMF, (25 mL) solution of (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanone (2.1 g, 7.3 mmol, 1.0 eq) under nitrogen was added 2,4-difluorophenol (0.7 mL, 7.3 mmol, 1.0 eq) and potassium carbonate (1.21 g, 8.76 mmol, 1.2 eq). The resulting mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature and then concentrated. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane and washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give a crude oil which was purified via a chromatography using dichloromethane/hexanes (1:1) as the eluent to give [3-chloro-5-(2,4-difluorophenoxyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone (2.46 g, 6.45 mmol, 88% yield). Mass spec., M+1=382.
Step 4. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine. embedded image

To a solution of [3-chloro-5-(2,4-difluorophenoxyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone (0.73 g, 1.9 mmol, 1.0 eq) in ethanol was added hydrazine hydrate (0.19 mL, 3.8 mmol, 2.0 eq). The resulting mixture was refluxed under nitrogen for 0.5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and filtered to give 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine (0.285 g, 0.8 mmol, 42% yield) as a solid. MP=240.5-241.5° C. Mass spec., M+1=359.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 6

This example illustrates a synthesis of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine following the procedure of Scheme IV.
Step 1. Preparation of 2-chloro-5-methylpyridine-1-oxide. embedded image

To a solution of 2-chloro-5-methylpyridine (10 mL) in 155 mL of glacial acetic acid was added 19 mL of 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The mixture was stirred at 80° C. for 8 hours. The mixture was diluted with 100 mL of water and then concentrated in a vacuum. The residue was made strongly alkaline with anhydrous sodium carbonate and shaken with 200 mL of chloroform. The solids were removed via filtration, and the filtrate was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give 10.8 g of the 2-chloro-5-methylpyridine-N-oxide (82%). Mass Spec. M+H=144.
Step 2. Preparation of 2-chloro-5-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide. embedded image

To a mixture of 165 mL of nitric acid and 209 mL of sulfuric acid was slowly added 56.4 g of 2-chloro-5-methylpyridine-1-oxide. The reaction mixture was stirred at 100° C. for two hours, cooled to room temperature, and added to ice. Sodium carbonate was added to adjust the pH to about pH 2 to pH 3. The resulting yellow solid was separated by filtration and washed with ice-water. The combined filtrates were extracted with hot chloroform. The extracts were combined, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to give 59.1 g of 2-chloro-5-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide (80%). Mass Spec. M+H=189.
Step 3. Preparation of 2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide. embedded image

To a suspension of sodium hydride (0.47 g, 60% in oil) in 50 mL of THF was added dropwise a solution of 1 mL of 2,4-difluorophenol in 10 mL of THF. The reaction mixture was stirred for one hour, and 2-chloro-5-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide (2.0 g) was added slowly. The resulting mixture was stirred at reflux for 8 hours and at room temperature overnight. The solvent was removed and the light yellow solid isolated by extraction with methylene chloride. Purification via chromatography (silica gel, ethyl acetate/hexane, 1:1) gave 1.65 g of 2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide (55% yield). Mass Spec. M+H=283.
Step 4. Preparation of 2-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-methyl-1-oxy-pyridin-4-ylamine. embedded image

To a solution of 2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methyl-4-nitropyridine-1-oxide (12.0 g) in 250 mL of anhydrous ethanol was added 2.0 g of 10% Pd on carbon catalyst. The hydrogenation was performed on a Parr hydrogenator at 40 psi for 30 minutes. The solution was filtered through a pad of Celite, dried and concentrated to give 10.1 g of 2-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-methyl-1-oxy-pyridin-4-ylamine (94% yield). Mass Spec. M+H=254.
Step 5. Preparation of 2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylpyridin-4ylamine. embedded image

To a solution of 2-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-5-methyl-1-oxy-pyridin-4-ylamine (4.0 g) in 75 mL of anhydrous chloroform, a solution of phosphorus trichloride (4.1 mL) in 20 mL of chloroform was added dropwise at 0-5° C. with stirring. The mixture was stirred for 12 hours at room temperature and then heated to reflux for three hours, cooled, poured into water, basified (NaOH), extracted (CHCl3), dried over Na2SO4 to give 3.5 g of 2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylpyridin-4ylamine (94% yield). Mass Spec. M+H=238.
Step 6. Preparation of N-[2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylpyridin-4-yl]acetamide. embedded image

To a solution of 2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylpyridin-4ylamine (3.6 g) in 80 mL of methylene chloride was added 4.7 g of acetic anhydride. The mixture was heated for 24 hours on a steam bath and then poured onto 200 mL of 5% aqueous sodium carbonate. The aqueous solution was extracted with methylene chloride. The organic layers were combined, dried and concentrated to give 4.2 g of N-[2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylpyridin-4-yl]acetamide (99% yield). Mass. Spec. M+H=279.
Step 7. Preparation of 1-[6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-1-yl]ethanone. embedded image

A mixture of N-[2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methylpyridin-4-yl]acetamide (2.3 g), acetic anhydride (2.6 g), acetic acid (2.7 mL) and potassium acetate (1.7 g) in 40 mL of benzene was brought to reflux. A solution of isoamyl nitrite (1.5 mL) in 10 mL of benzene was added to the refluxing solution over a period of two hours and refluxing was continued for an additional 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and stirred with 50 mL of a 5% aqueous sodium carbonate solution for 3 hours. The organic layer was separated, dried, concentrated and purified via chromatography (silica gel, 8% ethyl acetate/hexane) to give 0.27 g of 1-[6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-1-yl]ethanone (11% yield). Mass Spec. M+H=290.
Step 8. Preparation of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine. embedded image

A mixture of 1-[6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-1-yl]ethanone (0.26 g) in 15 mL of 20% aqueous hydrochloric acid was heated for 3 hours on a steam bath, cooled, neutralized with NaHCO3, and extracted with CH2Cl2 to give 0.21 g of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (95% yield). Mass Spec. M+H=248.
Step 9. Preparation of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine. embedded image

To a room temperature solution of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (0.10 g) in DMF was added 0.11 g of iodine and 0.049 g of potassium hydroxide. After 5 hours, additional 10% of iodine was added and a reaction mixture was stirred for an additional one hour. The mixture was quenched with 1 M sodium bisulfite (50 mL) solution and extracted with ethyl acetate (3×30 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried over MgSO4, and concentrated to give 0.11 g of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (71% yield). Mass Spec. M+H=374.
Step 10. Formation of N-t-Boc Derivative. embedded image

To a solution of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (0.10 g) in THF was added 0.15 g of di-tert-butyl dicarbonate and 1.6 mg of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine. The resulting solution was refluxed for one hour under a nitrogen atmosphere, cooled, concentrated, and the residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel. Elution with ethyl acetate/hexane (1/9) afforded 0.11 g of the N-BOC derivative of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (86% yield). Mass Spec. M+H=474.
Step 11. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-1-carboxylic acid, tert-butyl ester. embedded image

A solution of 1-BOC-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (0.071 g) and 2-chlorophenylboronic acid in 5 mL of benzene and 1 mL of methanol was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes. To this solution was added tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium catalyst (52 mg) and 0.3 mL of 1 M sodium carbonate. The resulting mixture was heated to reflux for five hours, cooled, filtered and the organic layer was separated. The organic layer was washed, dried and concentrated. The residue was purified via chromatography using 5% ethyl acetate in hexane as the eluent to afford 45 mg of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-1-carboxylic acid, tert-butyl ester (66% yield). Mass. Spec. M+H=458.
Step 12. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine. embedded image

A mixture of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-1-carboxylic acid, tert-butyl ester (14.0 mg) in 3 mL of 0.5 M sodium methoxide solution in methanol was stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature. The resulting solution was concentrated and the residue was extracted with ethyl acetate, washed, dried and concentrated to give 10.0 mg of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (91% yield). Mass Spec. M+H=356.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 7

This example illustrates a synthesis of 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine.
Step 1. Preparation of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanol embedded image

2,6-dichloropyridine (10.0 g, 67.6 mmol) was dissolved in 220 mL of dry THF and the reaction mixture was cooled to −78° C. under argon. Lithium diisopropylamine (60 mL, 118 mmol, 2M in heptanes) was added to the reaction mixture over 12 minutes via cannula, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at −78° C. 2-Chlorobenzaldehyde (16 mL, 141.96 mmol) was added dropwise, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at −78° C. The reaction was quenched by addition of 80 mL saturated ammonium chloride and 200 mL of water, and the aqueous mixture was extracted once with 300 mL of EtOAc and a second time with 250 mL of EtOAc. The combined organic phase was washed with saturated brine and water and was dried over MgSO4. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by FLASH column chromatography using 5%-20% EtOAc/Hexanes to yield 12.2 g of (12-chloro-phenyl)-(2,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanol as a yellow oil. Mass Spec. M+H=290.
Step 2. Preparation of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanone embedded image

(2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanol (12.2 g, 42.3 mmol) was dissolved in 200 mL of dry toluene, and 87 g of manganese dioxide was added. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 2.5 hours, and was then hot filtered through Celite. The Celite plug was washed with 80 mL of hot EtOAc (in several portions), and the organic solvents were combined. Removal of solvent under reduced pressure yielded 14.05 g of (2-chloro-phenyl)-(2,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanone as a viscous yellow oil. Mass Spec. M+H=288.
Step 3. Preparation of 6-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine embedded image

(2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanone (3.0 g, 10.47 mmol) was dissolved in 25 mL of ethanol/THF (4:1) and cooled in an ice bath. Hunig's base (N,N-diisopropylethylamine, 1.8 mL, 10.47 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture, followed by dropwise addition of 0.36 mL (11.52 mmol) of hydrazine. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for five minutes, then heated to 70° C. for 1.5 hours. Volatiles were removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was taken up in 150 mL of EtOAc, 10 mL of THF and 10 mL of MeOH. To this mixture was added 20 mL of saturated ammonium chloride and 110 mL of water. The organic phase was collected, and the aqueous phase was wahsed with an additional 100 mL of EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried (MgSO4), and solvent was removed to to yield 1.18 g of 6-chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine as a yellow solid. Mass Spec. M−H=262.
Step 4. Preparation of 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine. embedded image

2,4-Difluorophenol (517 mg, 4 mmol) was placed in a 10 mL microwave reactor tube under nitrogen and cooled in an ice bath. Potassium t-butoxide (4 mL of 1.0 M solution in THF) was added dropwise, and the solution was stirred for five minutes at 0° C. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature, and 6-chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine (350 mg, 1.33 mmol) was added in one portion. The reaction was then heated to 160° C. via microwave for nine hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic phase was washed with brine, followed by water, and then dried over MgSO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was eluted through a FLASH column using 0.5% MeOH in methylene chloride. Solvent was removed, and the residue was recrystallized from methylene chloride/hexanes to afford 78 mg of 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine as a white solid. Mass Spec. M+H=358.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of the above example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 8

This example illustrates a synthesis of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine.
Step 1. Preparation of (3,5-Difluoro-pyridin-2-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone embedded image

2-Methoxyphenyl magnesium bromide (53.3 mL of 1.75 M solution in THF was cooled to 0° C. 3,5-Difluoronicotinonitrile (5.0 g, 35.6 mmol) was added over 20 minutes to the reaction mixture at 0° C. The reaction was quenched by addition of of 60 mL of 2M H2SO4, and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. The reaction mixture was extracted with 40 mL 50 mL EtOAc, and the aqueous phase was basified by addition 12 mL of 5M NaOH. The aqueous phase was then extracted twice with 70 mL of EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were washed with water, and dried (MgSO4). The MgSO4 was removed by filtration and solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (40 mm×15 cm) with hexanes/EtOAc (0:1 to 4:1) to yield 7.9 g of (3,5-difluoro-pyridin-2-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone. Mass Spec. M+H=250.
Step 1. Preparation of [5-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-fluoro-pyridin-2-yl]-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone embedded image

Powdered cesium carbonate (1.8 g, 5.7 mmol) was suspended in 8 mL of DMF, and 2,4-difluorophenol (0.45 mL, 4.8 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture. (3,5-Difluoro-pyridin-2-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone (1.2 g, 4.8 mmol) dissolved in 7 mL of DMF was then added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for two hours at room temperature, and was then diluted with 60 mL of EtOAc, washed twice with 30 mL of water and once with 30 mL of saturated brine. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was purified by flash chromatography (40 mm×7.5 cm) with 20:1 to 4:1 hexanes/EtOAc to yield 0.37 g of [5-(2,4-fifluoro-phenoxy)-3-fluoro-pyridin-2-yl]-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone as an oil. Mass Spec. M+H=360.
Step 4. Preparation of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine. embedded image

[5-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-fluoro-pyridin-2-yl]-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone (560 mg, 1.5 mmol) was added to 17 mL of EtOH and the reaction mixture was heated until all solid had dissolved. The reaction mixture was cooled, and (N,N-diisopropyl)ethylamine (0.21 mL, 2.3 mmol) and hydrazine (0.1 mL, 3.1 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred for four hours at room temperature, and then was taken up in 60 mL of EtOAc, washed four times with 20 mL of water, dried (MgSO4). The organic solvent was filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography 40 mm×7.5 cm) with 4: to 1:1 hexanes/EtOAc to yield 0.03 g of 6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine. Mass Spec. M+H=354. Mp: 143.2-144.9° C.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of the above example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 9

This example illustrates a synthesis of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridazine.
Step 1. Preparation of (4,6-Dichloro-pyridazin-3-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone embedded image

4,6-Dichloro-pyridazine-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1.032 g, 4.67 mmol, prepared as described by Xie et al., WO 2004031174) was dissolved in 25 ml dry THF, and the reaction mixture was cooled in a dry ice/acetone bath for 15 minutes. 2-Methoxyphenyl magnesium bromide (7 mL of 1 M solution in THF, 7.00 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 8 hours under nitrogen at −78° C. Silica gel (11.0 g) was added, and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (0% to 20% EtOAc/Hexanes) to yield 1.029 g (3.65 mmol, 78%) of (4,6-dichloro-pyridazin-3-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone as a yellow solid. Mass Spec. M+H=283.
Step 2. Preparation of (6-Chloro-4-methylsulfanyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone embedded image

(4,6-Dichloro-pyridazin-3-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone (0.75 g, 2.66 mmol), 25 mL dry THF, and NaSCH3 (0.207 g, 2.81 mmol) were stirred under nitrogen at room temperature for 17 hours at room temperature. Diethyl ether (25 mL) was then added, and the reaction mixture was filtered through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified via flash chromatography (0% to 33% EtOAc/Hexanes) to give 0.510 g (65%) of (6-Chloro-4-methylsulfanyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone as a yellow solid. Mass Spec M+H=296.
Step 3. Preparation of [6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-4-methylsulfanyl-pyridazin-3-yl]-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone embedded image

(6-Chloro-4-methylsulfanyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone (0.101 g, 0.342 mmol, DMF (2 mL), 2,4-dinitrophenol (0.040 mL, 0.42 mmol) and sodium hydride ( (0.017 g, 0.42 mmol of mineral oil suspension) were stirred under nitrogen for three hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was then stirred for two hours at 68° C. The reaction mixture was cooled and 20 mL of diethyl ether was added. The organic mixture was washed twice with 20 mL water, once with 20 mL of saturated brine, and the organic layer was dried over MgSO4. The MgSO4 was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (0% to 33% EtOAc/Hexanes) to yield 0.107 g (81%) of [6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-methylsulfanyl-pyridazin-3-yl]-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone as a white solid. M+H=389.
Step 4. Preparation of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridazine. embedded image

[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-4-methylsulfanyl-pyridazin-3-yl]-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone (0.076 g, 0.196 mmol), dichloromethane (2 mL), and meta-chloro perbenzoic acid (0.055 g of 77% mCPBA, 0.25 mmol) were stirred together at room temperature for one hour. The reaction mixture was diluted with 5 mL of dichloromethane and washed three times with 5 mL of saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic phase was dried over MgSO4, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was dissolved in a mixture of 2 mL THF and 2 mL methanol, and hydrazine (0.0075 mL, 0.24 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (0.045 mmol, 0.26 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 18 hours at room temperature, then partitioned between 10 mL EtOAc and 10 mL water. The organic layer was washed with 10 mL of saturated aqueous NaCl solution and dried over MgSO4. The solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (0% to 33% EtOAc/Hexanes) to yield 0.030 g of a mixture of 6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridazine and [6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-methylsulfonyl-pyridazin-3-yl]-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-methanone. This mixture was again treated with excess hydrazine for 18 hours together with heating to 65° C. to drive the reaction to completion, followed by workup and chromatography as described above, to yield 6 mg of 6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridazine as a pale yellow solid. Mass Spec. M+H=355.

Similarly prepared, but replacing 2,4-difluorophenol in step 3 with 2,4-difluoroaniline, omitting the sodium hydride and adding conc. HCl instead, was (2,4-Difluoro-phenyl)-[3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridazin-6-yl]-amine.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 10

This example illustrates a synthesis of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isobutyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine following the procedure of Scheme V.
Step 1. Preparation of 5-Bromo-2,4-bis-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-pyrimidine embedded image

2,4-Difluorophenol (22 mL, 241.34 mmol) was dissolved in 140 mL of dry THF and cooled to 0° C. Sodium hydride (9.43 g, 235.85 mmol, 60% suspension in oil) was added in portions, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 0° C. 5-Bromo-2,4-dichloro-pyrimidine (25.0 g, 109.7 mmol) was added in portions over 10 minutes, and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction was quenched by addition of 30 mL saturated aqueous ammonium chloride and 100 mL of water. The aqueous mixture was extracted three times with 100 mL EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4), filtered, and the filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by FLASH chromatography (2% to 6% EtOAc/Hexanes. The resulting solid was recrystallized from diethyl ether/hexanes to afford 12.6 g of 5-bromo-2,4-bis-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-pyrimidine as a white solid. Mass Spec. M+H=416.
Step 2. Preparation of 1-[2,4-Bis-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-3-methyl-butan-1-one embedded image

5-Bromo-2,4-bis-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-pyrimidine (0.5 g, 1.2 mmol) was dissolved in 25 mL THF and cooled to 0° C. Isopropyl magnesium chloride (0.8 mL, 1.44 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for an hour at 0° C. Isovaleryl chloride (1.47 mL, 12.0 mmol) was then added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for another hour at 0° C. The reaction was quenched with 35 mL of saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and 25 mL water. The aqueous mixture was extracted three times with 25 mL EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were washed with saturated aqueous brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was eluted through silica gel using 20% EtOAc in hexanes to yield 0.429 g (85%) of 1-[2,4-bis-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-3-methyl-butan-1-one. Mass Spec. M+H=421.
Step 3. Preparation of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isobutyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. embedded image

1-[2,4-Bis-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-3-methyl-butan-1-one (0.427 g, 1.0 mmol) was dilloved in 10 mL of 10:1 dioxane:EtOH, and hydrazine (0.032 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was heated to 90° C. for four hours, then cooled and quenched by addition of 25 mL saturated aqueous ammonium chloride and 25 mL water. The aqueous mixture was extracted three times with 25 mL EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were washed with saturated aqueous brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was eluted through silica gel using 20% EtOAc in hexanes to yield 65 mg of 6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-3-isobutyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine as an oil. Mass Spec. M+H=305.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 11

This example illustrates a synthesis of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine
Step 1. Preparation of 4,6-Dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde embedded image

Phosphorous oxychloride (213 mL, 2.3 mol) was cooled in a sodium chloride-water ice bath to 1.8° C. under nitrogen. Dimethyl formamide (71.4 mL, 0.92 mol) was added dropwise over 45 minutes with stirring. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature and was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes, and followed by stirring at 40° C. for 20 minutes. The reaction mixture was then heated to 57° C., and 2-Methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine-4,6-diol ( 50.0 g, 0.307 mol) was added in 5.0 g portions over 90 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred for one hour at 55° C., and then heated to 110° C. with stirring for 17.5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and volatiles were removed under reduced pressure. The residue was poured into one litre of ice water. The resulting precipitate was isolated by filtration, washed with water, then with heptanes, and was dried to provide 25.2 g of crude 4,6-Dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde. Mass Spec. M+H=224.
Step 2. Preparation of 4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

4,6-Dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde (7.54 g, 0.0338 mol) was added to 80 mL of dioxane and stirred for 10 minutes at room temperature. Diisopropyl ethylamine (6.03 mL, 0.0340 mol) was added and the mixture was cooled in an ice bath with stirring for 10 minutes. Anhydrous hydrazine (1.08 mL, 0.0338 mmol) was added dropwise over three minutes, and stirring was continued for an additional five minutes. The ice bath was removed, and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux with stirring for two hours. The reaction mixture was then stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was added to 20 mL of 2 N HCl and 100 mL EtOAc. The resulting suspension was stirred and filtered, ad the solid was washed with water followed by EtOAc. The organic phase of the filtrate was collected, and the aqueous phase was extracted three times with 150 mL EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried (MgSO4), filtered, and the filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid was washed with diethyl ether/hexanes (1:1) and the solid was dried to provide 3.13 g of crude 4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=201.
Step 3. Preparation of 6-Methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-indazole (11.02 g, 0.0549 mol) was dissolved in a mixture of 160 mL THF and 350 mL MeOH, and triethylamine (7.66 mL, 0.055 mol) was added. While the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature under argon, palladium on activated carbon (2.0 g of 10% Pd, 0.001 mol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred under H2 atmosphere for two hours, after which the reaction flask was flushed with argon, and another 2.0 g of palladium on activated carbon was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was again stirred for two hours under H2, after which the flask was purged with argon, another 2.0 g of palladium on activated carbon was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 64 hours under hydrogen. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite, and the Celite pad was washed twice with 200 mL of warm MeOH and twice with 200 mL of warm methylene chloride. The combined organic phases were evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was suspended in water, filtered, and the filter cake was suspended in heptane, filtered, and dried to yield 5.36 g of 6-Methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=167.
Step 4. Preparation of 3-Iodo-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

6-Methylsulfanyl-1H-indazole (5.36 g, 0.0322 mol) was dissolved in 210 mL of dry DMF, and the resulting reaction mixture was placed under nitrogen with stirring. Ni-iodosuccinimide (9.16 g, 0.0387 mol) was added, and the reaction mixture was heated to 80° C. with stirring for 16 hours under nitrogen. The reaction was quenched by addition of 100 mL of 10% aqueous NaHCO3, 350 mL EtOAc and 150 mL water. The organic phase was removed and the remaining aqueous phase was extracted three times with 250 mL EtOAc. The combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid was stirred in 20 mL of heptanes, filtered, washed with heptanes, and dried to yield 6.66 g of 3-Iodo-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=293.
Step 5. Preparation of 3-Iodo-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

Sodium hydride (1.364 g of 60% dispersion in mineral oil, 0.0341 mol) was added to 50 mL dry DMF under nitrogen, and the reaction mixture was cooled to 5° C. A solution of 3-iodo-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-indazole (6.64 g, 0.0227 mol) in 100 mL of dry DMF was added, the ice cooling bath was removed, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes under nitrogen. (2-Chloromethoxy-ethyl)-trimethyl-silane (4.21 mL, 0.024 mol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours under nitrogen at room temperature. Volatiles were removed from the reaction mixture under reduced pressure, and the resulting residue was added to 70 mL aqueous saturated ammonium chloride, 50 mL water, and 250 mL EtOAc. The organic phase was removed and the aqueous phase was washed once with 250 mL of EtOAc. The combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was purified by elution through a silica gel column with heptanes/EtOAc (4:1) to yield 6.43 g of 3-Iodo-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine.
Step 6. Preparation of 3-Iodo-6-methanesulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

3-Iodo-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (11.63 g, 0.0275 mol) was dissolved in 250 dry THF and stirred. 3-Chloroperbenzoic acid (12.96 g of 77% MCPBA, 0.578 mol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue was added to 85 mL of 10% aqueous NaHCO3, 100 mL water, and 220 mL EtOAc. The aqueous phase was partitioned off and extracted once with 220 mL EtOAc. The combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield 15.0 g of 3-Iodo-6-methanesulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine.
Step 7. Preparation of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

Sodium hydride (3.88 g of 60% dispersion in mineral oil, 0.097 mol) was added to 150 mL of dry DMF under nitrogen, and the reaction mixture was cooled in an ice bath. 2,4-Difluorophenol (8.85 mL, 0.092 mol) was added dropwise over 10 minutes (maintaining temperature between 5 and 10° C.), after which the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at 0° C., followed by 15 minutes of stirring at room temperature. A solution of 3-Iodo-6-methanesulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (11.91 g, 0.026 mol) in 100 mL dry DMF was added, and the reaction mixture was heated to 140° C. for four hours while stirring under nitrogen. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and volatiles were removed under reduced pressure. The was added to 200 mL of 10% aqueous ammonium chloride, 50 mL water, and 250 mL EtOAc. The aqueous phase was partitioned off and extracted once with 250 mL EtOAc. The combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield an oil. The oil was eluted through silica gel with hexanes EtOAc (20:1 to 10:1) to afford 6.23 g of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine.
Step 8. Preparation of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (89 mg) was dissolved in 3 mL of MeOH. Aqueous HCl (2 mL, 18.5%) was added, and the mixture was heated to reflux for four hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, transferred to a stoppered flask, and heated to 90° C. for w hours. The reaction mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure and the residue was taken up in 12 mL of EtOAc, made basic with 25 mL of 5 N NaOH, wahsed with water, saturated brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield 26 mg of 6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=373.

Example 12

This example illustrates a synthesis of 4-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenol.
Step 1. Preparation of 4-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenol embedded image

6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine from Example 11 (0.5 g, 0.99 mmol) was dissolved in 10 mL of dry dioxane, and the reaction mixture was degassed by treatment with vacuum and flushed with argon. Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (0.115 g, 0.1 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 10 minutes. A solution of 4-hydroxy-2-methylphenyl boronic acid (0.311 g, 2.0 mmol) in 3 mL EtOH was added, and the reaction mixture was degassed, purged with argon, and stirred for 10 minutes. AA solution of potassium carbonate (0.411 g, 3.0 mmol) in 1 mL water was then added, and the reaction mixture was again degassed and flushed with argon. The reaction mixture was heated to 90° C. with stirring for 16 hours under argon. The reaction mixture was cooled, filtered, and the filtrate was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous phase was extracted three times with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was subject to flash chromatography (hexanes/EtOAc 1:0 to 2:1) to yield 0.308 g (0.64 mmol, 64%) of 4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenol.
Step 2. Preparation of 4-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenol. embedded image

4-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenol was treated with HCl using the procedure described in step 8 of Example 11 to afford 0.20 g of 4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenol. Mass Spec. M+H=355.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this example are shown in Table 1.

Example 13

This example illustrates a synthesis of 3-{4-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol. embedded image

4-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenol ( 0.125 g, 0.26 mmol) from Example 12 was placed in a microwave tube together with dry DMF (3.0 mL) and sodium hydride ( 0.021 g of 60% suspension in mineral oil, 0.31 mmol). 2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl p-toluene sulfonate (0.91 g, 0.31 mmol) was added, and the tube was sealed and heated to 85° C. for five minutes via microwave. The reaction mixture was cooled and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous phase was washed twice with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was dissolved in 3 mL of 4 N HCl in dioxane, transferred to a sealed tube, and heated to 90° C. for 90 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled, partitioned between water and ethyl acetate, and made basic by addition of aqueous sodium bicarbonate (to pH 9). The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous phase was extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative TLC plate using methylene chloride/MeOH 93:7 to yield 0.016 g (0.04 mmol, 14.5%) of 3-{4-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-3-methyl-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol. Mass Spec. M+H=429.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1.

Example 14

This example illustrates a synthesis of 6-(2-Chloro-phenoxy)-3-thiophen-2-yl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine.
Step 1. Preparation of 4-Chloro-2-methanesulfonyl-pyrimidine embedded image

4-Chloro-2-methanesulfanyl-pyrimidine (15.0 g, 98.38 mmol) was dissolved in 220 mL MeOH and cooled to 0° C. OXONE (potassium peroxymonosulfate, 97 g) dissolved in 350 mL was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for two hours. Approximately 2/5 of the volume of the reaction mixture was then removed under reduced pressure, and 10% aqueous sodium bicarbonate was carefully added. The mixture was partitioned with 300 mL EtOAc and the organic phase was separated. The aqueous phase was washed twice with 200 mL of EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield 15.23 g of crude 4-chloro-2-methanesulfonyl-pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=193.
Step 2. Preparation of 4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidine embedded image

To a solution of 2-chlorophenol (10.5 g) in 150 mL dry THF) at 0° C. under argon was added 88 mL of a 1.0 M solution of potassium t-butoxide in THF. The reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes and then cooled to −78° C. A solution of 4-Chloro-2-methanesulfonyl-pyrimidine (14.2 g, 2.6 mmol) in 160 mL of dry THF was slowly added over 25 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 30 minutes at −78° C., and then quenched by addition of 60 mL saturated aqueous ammonium chloride, and evaporated under reduced pressure to remove THF. 200 mL water, and 200 mL EtOAc were added, the organic phase was collected, and the aqueous phase was washed twice with 150 mL EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (5% to 10% EtOAc/Hexanes) to 10.2 g of 4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=242.
Step3. Preparation of [4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-thiophen-2-yl-methanol embedded image

4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidine (432 mg, 1.79 mmol) was dissolved in 10 mL of dry THF, and the reaction mixture was cooled to −78° C. under nitrogen. Lithium diisopropylamine (1.6 mL of 2M solution in THF) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for eight minutes. Thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (0.31 mL) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at −78° C. The reaction was quenched by addition of 10 mL saturated aqueous ammonium chloride, and evaporated under reduced pressure to remove THF. Water (40 mL) and EtOAc (60 mL) were added, the organic phase was collected, and the aqueous phase was washed twice with 40 mL EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative TLC using 1.8% MeOH in methylene chloride to yield 98 mg of [4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-thiophen-2-yl-methanol. Mass Spec. M+H=354.
Step4. Preparation of [4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-thiophen-2-yl-methanone embedded image

[4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-thiophen-2-yl-methanol (98 mg, 0.28 mmol)was dissolved in 15 mL dry toluene, and 250 mg of MnO2 was added. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 30 minutes, and water was removed using a Dean Stark apparatus. The hot reaction mixture was filtered through Celite, and the Celite was washed five times with 3.5 mL of hot EtOAc. The combined organics were evaporated under reduced pressure to yiled 82 mg of [4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-thiophen-2-yl-methanone as an oil. Mass Spec. M+H=352.
Step 5. Preparation of 6-(2-Chloro-phenoxy)-3-thiophen-2-yl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. embedded image

[4-Chloro-2-(2-chloro-phenoxy)-pyrimidin-5-yl]-thiophen-2-yl-methanone (82 mg, 0.23 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of 10 mL ethanol and 0.5 mL THF, and 15 mg of anhydrous hydrazine was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 minutes and then was heated to 80° C. for 20 minutes. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified by preparative scale TLCusing 1.8% MeOH in methylene chloride to yield 36 mg of 6-(2-Chloro-phenoxy)-3-thiophen-2-yl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=329. Mp=221.3-223.1° C.

Example 15

This example illustrates a synthesis of 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine.
Step 1. Preparation of [6-Chloro-5-(2-chloro-benzoyl)-pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-fluoro-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester embedded image

To a solution of sodium hydride (0.175 g, 7 mmol) and (2-Chloro-phenyl)-(3,5-dichloro-pyrazin-2-yl)-methanone (0.86 g, 2.99 mmol) in 5 mL DMF was added (2-Fluoro-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester (0.503 g, 2.99 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for one hour at room temperature, and then was quenched by addition of water and aqueous HCl. The aqueous mixture was extracted with methylene chloride, and the combined organic phases were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure to give 1.19 g of crude [6-Chloro-5-(2-chloro-benzoyl)-pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-fluoro-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester. Mass Spec. M+H=419.
Step 2. Preparation of 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine embedded image

Hydrazine (54 mg, 1.7 mmol) was added to a solution of [6-Chloro-5-(2-chloro-benzoyl)-pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-fluoro-phenyl)-acetic acid methyl ester (0.59 g, 1.4 mmol) in 50 mL THF at 0° C., and the reaction mixture was stirred and allowed to warm to room temperature. Lithium hydroxide (27 mg, 5.0 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 64 hours at room temperature. Concentrated aqueous HCl (1 ml) was then added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for one hour at room temperature. The reaction mixture was poured into water, extracted with diethyl ether, and the combined organic phases were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified via chromatography using 5% ethyl acetate in hexanes as the eluent to afford 0.151 g of 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine. Mass Spec. M+H=340.

Compounds prepared according to the above example are shown in Table 1.

Example 16

This example illustrates a synthesis of (S)-1-[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]propan-2-ol following the procedure of Scheme I above.
Step 1. Preparation of (2-chlorophenyl)-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-methanol. embedded image

To a solution of 4,6-dichloro-2-(methylthio)pyrimidine (Aldrich) (5.0 g, 25.64 mmol) in dry THF (130 mL) at −78° C. under nitrogen was slowly added a solution of 2.0 M LDA (23.0 mL, 1.8 eq) in THF via a syringe. The resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for an additional 20 minutes, after which 2-chlorobenzaldehyde (Aldrich) (7.2 mL, 2 eq) was added dropwise via a syringe. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 30 minutes at −78° C. and then quenched with saturated ammonium chloride solution. Ethyl acetate was added, and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the crude product (14.2 g) as an oil. Purification using Flash Column Chromatography on Silica Gel, eluting with 5% ethyl acetate in hexanes gave the title compound (8.60 g, (M+H)+=336, M.P.=109.5-112.5° C.) which crystallized upon standing to give a white solid.
Step 2. Preparation of (2-chlorophenyl)-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-methanone embedded image

To a solution of (2-chlorophenyl)-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-methanol (8.6 g, 25.6 mmol) in toluene (300 mL) was added manganese (IV) oxide (Aldrich) (22.3 g, 10 eq), and the resulting mixture was heated to reflux with stirring for a total of 5 hours. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and then filtered through a 3.5 cm pad of Celite and the filtrate was concentrated to give 8.84 g of a crude product. Purification by Flash Column Chromatography on Silica Gel eluting with a gradient starting with pure hexanes and progressing to 2% ethyl acetate in hexanes and finally 5% ethyl acetate in hexanes gave the title compound as an off-white powder (1.388 g, (M+H)+=333).
Step 3. Preparation of 4-chloro-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. embedded image

To a mixture of (2-chlorophenyl)-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanylpyrimidin-5-yl)-methanone (875 mg, 2.62 mmol) and N,N-diisopropyl ethyl amine (0.69 mL, 1.5 eq) in THF (20 mL) at 0° C. was added a solution of hydrazine (83 μL, 1 eq) in THF (20 mL) dropwise with stirring. After addition was complete, the reaction was gradually warmed to room temperature over 2 hours. Analysis by TLC indicated that there was still starting material remaining. Additional 3 mL of a solution of hydrazine (17 μL) in THF (10 mL) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture, and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (150 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with water (4×50 mL) and brine (1×50 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound (867 mg, (M+H)+=311).
Step 4. Preparation of (S)-1-[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

To a mixture of 4-chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (300 mg, 0.964 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethyl amine (0.34 mL, 2 eq) in THF (5 mL) was added dropwise a solution of (S)-(+)-1-amino-2-propanaol (Aldrich) (0.217 g, 3 eq) in THF. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was monitored by TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (150 mL) and water (70 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with water (2×70 mL) and brine (1×70 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as an off-white solid (328 mg, (M+H)+=350).
Step 5. Preparation of (S)-1-[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methanesulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4d]pyrimidin4-ylamino]propan-2-ol embedded image

To a solution of (S)-1-[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]propan-2-ol (320 mg, 0.915 mmol) in THF (15 mL) and methanol (5 mL) was added m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (Aldrich) (431 mg, 2.1 eq) and the resulting mixture was stirred for 30 hours at room temperature. The reaction was monitored by TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (170 mL) and saturated sodium bicarbonate (50 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (3×50 mL) and brine (1×50 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as an off-white powder (325 mg, (M+H)+=382).
Step 6. Preparation of (S)-1-[3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]propan-2-ol embedded image

To a 0° C. solution of 2,4-difluorophenol (Aldrich) (0. 15 mL, 4 eq) in DMSO (2 mL) in a Microwave Reactor Vessel was added a 1.0 M solution of potassium tert-butoxide in THF (1.61 mL, 4.1 eq). The resulting solution was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 10 minutes and then the reaction mixture was placed in the Microwave Reactor and heated at 150° C. for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was cooled and diluted with ethyl acetate (150 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with water (2×50 mL) and brine (1×50 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to provide the crude compound (370 mg). Purification by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography eluting with 5% methanol in dichloromethane gave the title compound as a white powder (109 mg, (M+H)+=432, M.P.=254.6-258.2° C.).

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1.

Example 17

This example illustrates the synthesis of 3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-methyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one following the procedure of Scheme II above.
Step 1. Preparation of 4-Nitro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, ethyl ester. embedded image

Acetyl chloride (50 mL) was added dropwise to ethanol (450 mL) at 0° C. with stirring. After addition was complete, the ice-bath was removed, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. To this mixture was added 4-nitro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (Aldrich) (10 g, 63.65 mmol), and the resulting homogeneous mixture was stirred at room temperature for a total of 48 hours. The reaction was monitored by TLC. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and then co-evaporated with ethyl acetate four times. The residue was concentrated under high vacuum to give the title compound as a white powder (11.426 g, (M−H)+=184, M.P.=128.0-130.1° C.).
Step 2. Preparation of 4-nitro-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, ethyl ester and 4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, ethyl ester. embedded image

To a 0° C. solution of 4-nitro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (6.4 g, 34.58 mmol) in dimethylformamide (80 mL) was added sodium hydride (2.07 g, 1.5 eq), and the resulting mixture was stirred from 0° C. to room temperature for one hour. To this mixture was added 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy-methyl chloride (Aldrich) (9.17 mL, 1.5 eq), and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 days. The reaction was monitored by TLC. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (300 mL) and water (100 mL). the organic layer was separated, washed with water (6×100 mL) and brine (1×100 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give 10 g of the crude product. Purification by column chromatography using 5% ethyl acetate in hexanes afforded 4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, ethyl ester (3.82 g) as a colorless oil and 4-nitro-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, ethyl ester (4.055 g) as a light tan oil. (M−H)+=314.
Step 3. Preparation of [4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazol-3-yl]-methanol. embedded image

To a 0° C. solution of 4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid, ethyl ester (10 g, 31.7 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (200 mL) was added methanol (24 mL) followed by sodium borohydride (9.59 g, 8 eq) in one portion. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 20 minutes. The reaction mixture was then added to a mixture of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution (600 mL) and ethyl acetate (800 mL) in an ice-bath. A solution of 4 N HCl was added with stirring at 0° C. to adjust the pH of the aqueous layer to about 4. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine (1×500 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound (7.76 g) as a reddish oil. M+=273.
Step 4. Preparation of 4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazole-3-carbaldehyde. embedded image

To a solution of [4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazol-3-yl]methanol (7.776 g, 28.38 mmol) in chloroform (500 mL) was added manganese dioxide (29.18 g, 9 eq). The resulting mixture was heated at reflux for 4 hours, cooled to room temperature and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was again heated to reflux for 3 hours, filtered through a 3 cm plug of celite using additional chloroform. The filtrate was concentrated to give 4.55 g of crude material and purified via silica gel chromatography with a 2-4% ethyl acetate in hexanes gradient to give the title compound as a colorless oil (1.55 g). M+=271
Step 5: Preparation of 2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-hydroxy-3-[4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazol-3-yl]propionic acid methyl ester. embedded image

To a −78° C. solution of diisopropylamine (0.3 mL, 2.1 eq) in diethyl ether (3 mL) was added a 2.5 M solution of n-butyllithium in hexanes (Aldrich) (0.84 mL, 2.1 eq). The resulting mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. To this mixture was added a solution of (2,4-difluorophenoxy)acetic acid methyl ester (425 mg, 2.1 eq) in diethyl ether (2 mL) via a syringe, and the resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 minutes, after which a solution of 4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazole-3-carbaldehyde (271 mg, 1 mmol) in diethyl ether (2 mL) was added. The resulting mixture was stirred for 2 hours. The −78° C. reaction mixture was diluted with a saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution, then diluted with ethyl acetate (150 mL) and water (25 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with brine (1×50 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the crude product as an oil (709 mg). Purification of the crude product by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography eluting with 25% ethyl acetate in hexanes gave the title compound as a diastereomeric mixture (257 mg, thick colorless oil). M+=473.
Step 6: Preparation of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one. embedded image

To a solution of 2-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-hydroxy-3-[4-nitro-2-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-2H-pyrazol-3-yl]propionic acid methyl ester (125 mg, 0.264 mmol) in ethanol (2 mL) and water (1 mL) was added ammonium chloride (74 mg, 5.2 eq) followed by iron powder (Fisher Brand, Electrolytic). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 45 minutes, refluxed overnight, cooled to room temperature, diluted with ethanol, and filtered through a 3 cm bed of celite with additional ethanol. The filtrate was concentrated, and the residue was diluted with ethyl acetate (80 mL) and water (40 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with water (2×40 mL) and brine (1×40 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as a thick tan oil (98 mg, (M+H)+=394).
Step 7: Preparation of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-4-methyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one. embedded image

To a 0° C. solution of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one (98 mg, 0.249 mmol) in dimethylformamide (1 mL) was added sodium hydride (60% dispersion in oil, Aldrich) (15 mg, 1.5 eq) and the resulting mixture was stirred at for 30 minutes, after which methyl iodide (25 μL, 1.5 eq) was added and the mixture was stirred additional 1 hour with warming from 0° C. to room temperature. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (35 mL) and water (25 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with water (2×25 mL) and brine (1×25 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as a tan powder (118 mg, (M+H)+=408).
Step 8: Preparation of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-4-methyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one. embedded image

To a solution of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-4-methyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one (118 mg, 0.289 mmol) in chloroform (25 mL) was added iodine monochloride (141 mg, 3 eq) followed by potassium carbonate (200 mg, 5 eq) and the resulting mixture was heated under reflux with stirring (in the dark) for 24 hours. Additional iodine monochloride (large excess) was added and the resulting solution was stirred under reflux for another 16 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and diluted with dichloromethane, and washed 2× with an aqueous solution of Na2S2O3(aq) followed by brine. The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the crude product as an oil (97 mg). Purification by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography eluting with 60% ethyl acetate in hexanes gave the title compound as an off-white powder (12 mg, (M+H)+=462).
Step 9: Preparation of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester. embedded image

To a solution of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-4-methyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one (12 mg, 0.0298 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (5 mL) was added BOC2O (16 mg, 2.5 eq) and DMAP (catalytic). The resulting mixture was heated under reflux for 30 minutes, cooled to room temperature, and diluted with ethyl acetate (35 mL) and water (25 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed successively with water (2×25 mL), 0.5 N HCl (2×20 mL) and brine (1×25 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as a white powder (18 mg, (M+H)+=504).
Step 10: Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester. embedded image

To a solution of 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-3-iodo-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (18 mg) in benzene (1.3 mL) and methanol (0.26 mL) was added I M aqueous solution of sodium carbonate (76 μL, 2 eq), 2-chlorophenylboronic acid (12 mg, 2 eq), and Pd(PPh3)4 (13 mg, 0.3 eq). The mixture was purged with argon, heated at reflux for 2 hours, cooled to room temperature, and diluted with ethyl acetate (35 mL) and water (25 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with brine (1×25 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give the crude product ((M+H)+=488) which was used without purification for the following step.
Step 11. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-4-methyl-1,4-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridin-5-one. embedded image

A mixture of the crude 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (0.0298 mmol) in a solution of 0.5 M sodium methoxide in methanol (Aldrich) (7 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure at 55° C., and the resulting residue was diluted with ethyl acetate (35 mL) and water (25 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with brine (1×25 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, concentrated, and purified by Preparative Thin Layer Chromatography eluting with 60% ethyl acetate in hexanes to give the title compound (5.2 mg, (M+H)+=388) as a white powder.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 18

This example illustrates a synthesis of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide.
Step 1 Preparation of 3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4ylamine. embedded image

200 mg of 4-chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (from step 4 of Example 1) was dissolved in 5 ml of 7N ammonia in methanol, and the solution was stirred at 80° C. over night in a sealed tube. The resulting reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum and then extracted in 60 ml ethylacetate. The solution was washed first with water and next with brine, dried and after removing the solvent in vacuo afforded 190 mg (90%)) of 3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4ylamine as a light tan solid. MS: 292 (M+H). The crude 3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4ylamine was used in the next step without further purification.
Step 2 Preparation of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide embedded image

Pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (78 mg, 0.64 mmol) was placed in 5 ml thionyl chloride and refluxed for 3 hours. Excess thionyl chloride was then removed in vacuo and the crude acid chloride was suspended in 2 ml anhydrous tetrahydrofuran. The solution of acid chloride was added to a mixture of 3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamine (190 mg, 0.64 mmol) and diisopropylamine (247 mg, 1.92 mmol) in 6 ml anhydrous tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 15 h. After cooling to room temperature the resulting mixture was partition between 60 ml ethylacetate and 15 ml brine. The organic layer was washed 3 times with 3N HCl, next with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and brine. After drying with sodium sulfate and solvent evaporation in vacuo, 140 mg of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide, MS: 397.1 (M+H), was obtained.
Step 3 Preparation of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methanesulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl-amide embedded image

Pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo{3,4pyrimidin-4-yl)-amide (140 mg, 0.35 mmol) was dissolved in 9 ml tetrahydrofuran and 3 ml methanol. To this solution was added m-chloroperbenzoic acid [190 mg (77%), 0.84 mmol]. The mixture was stirred at temperature 4 h. The reaction mixture was taken into 60 ml ethylacetate, washed 3 times with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and 1 time with brine. After drying of the organic layer with sodium sulfate and removing of solvents in vacuo 105 mg of crude pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methanesulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl-amide, MS: 429.1 (M+H), was obtained and used without further purification in the next step.
Step 4 Preparation of pyridine-2-carboxylic acid [3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide embedded image

To pyridine-2-carboxylic acid[3-2(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methanesulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide (105 mg, 0.24 mmol) in anhydrous NMP (2 ml) was added anhydrous potassium carbonate (25 mg, 0. 18 mmol) and 2,4-difluoro-phenol (47 mg, 0.36 mmol) in 0.5 ml NMP. The mixture was heated 2 h at 120° C. After cooling the reaction mixture was partition between 50 ml ethylacetate and 20 ml brine. The organic layer was washed 2 more times with brine, dried with sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The crude mixture was chromtographed twice using first 5% methanol in methylen chloride and next 50% ethylactate in hexane, to afford 18 mg of the title compound as a white solid, MS: 479 (M+H).

Additional compounds prepared by the above example are shown in Table 1.

Example 19

This example illustrates a synthesis of (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-ethoxy-5-fluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol
Step 1. Preparation of 4,6-Dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde embedded image

Phosphorous oxychloride (213 mL, 2.3 mol) was cooled in a sodium chloride-water ice bath to 1.8° C. under nitrogen. Dimethyl formamide (71.4 mL, 0.92 mol) was added dropwise over 45 minutes with stirring. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature and was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes, and followed by stirring at 40° C. for 20 minutes. The reaction mixture was then heated to 57° C., and 2-Methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine-4,6-diol ( 50.0 g, 0.307 mol) was added in 5.0 g portions over 90 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred for one hour at 55° C., and then heated to 110° C. with stirring for 17.5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and volatiles were removed under reduced pressure. The residue was poured into one litre of ice water. The resulting precipitate was isolated by filtration, washed with water, then with heptanes, and was dried to provide 25.2 g of crude 4,6-Dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde. Mass Spec. M+H=224.
Step 2. Preparation of 4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

4,6-Dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde (7.54 g, 0.0338 mol) was added to 80 mL of dioxane and stirred for 10 minutes at room temperature. Diisopropyl ethylamine (6.03 mL, 0.0340 mol) was added and the mixture was cooled in an ice bath with stirring for 10 minutes. Anhydrous hydrazine (1.08 mL, 0.0338 mmol) was added dropwise over three minutes, and stirring was continued for an additional five minutes. The ice bath was removed, and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux with stirring for two hours. The reaction mixture was then stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was added to 20 mL of 2 N HCl and 100 mL EtOAc. The resulting suspension was stirred and filtered, ad the solid was washed with water followed by EtOAc. The organic phase of the filtrate was collected, and the aqueous phase was extracted three times with 150 mL EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried (MgSO4), filtered, and the filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid was washed with diethyl ether/hexanes (1:1) and the solid was dried to provide 3.13 g of crude 4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=201.
Step 3. Preparation of 4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (497 mg, 2.477 mmol) was dissolved in 5 mL dry DMF, and the reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C. Sodium hydride (109 mg of 60% suspension in mineral oil) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for five minutes. (2-Chloromethoxy-ethyl)-trimethyl-silane (0.52 mL, 2.922 mmol) was then added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 10 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition to water, and was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified via flash chromatography using 5% EtOAc in hexanes to give 391 mg of 4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine.
Step 4. Preparation of(R)-1-[6-Methylsualinyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

4-Chloro-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (391 mg, 1.182 mmol) was dissolved in 5 mL of dry THF. Triethylamine (239 mg, 2.363 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for four hours. (S)-1-Amino-propan-2-ol (93 mg, 1.241 mmol) was then added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 64 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition to water, and was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure to give (R)-1-[6-Methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol (469 mg). Mass Spec. M+H=370.
Step 5. Preparation of (R)-1-[6-Methanesulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

1-[6-Methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol (456 mg, 1.239 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of 6 mL of THF and 2 mL MeOH. Meta-chloro perbenzoic acid (447 mg of 77% MCPBA, 2.592 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for two hours. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition to water, and was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure to give 529 mg of (R)-1-[6-Methanesulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass Spec. M+H=402.

Additional compounds prepared by the above example are shown in Table 1.
Step 6. Preparation of (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

2,4-Difluorophenol (510 mg, 3.922 mmol) was dissolved in 5 mL dry DMF, and sodium hydride (152 mg of 60% suspension in mineral oil, 3.791 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 25 minutes, and then (R)-1-[6-Methanesulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol (525 mg, 1.307 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was heated to 100° C. for four hours with stirring, then was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition to water, and was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (8% MeOH in methylene chloride) to give 258 mg of (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass Spec. M+H=452.
Step 7. Preparation of (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difuoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

(R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol (258 mg) was dissolved in 8 mL MeOH, and 0.6 mL of 6M HCl was added. The reaction mixture was heated to 80° C. for 3.5 hours, then cooled. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition to water, and was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (10% MeOH in methylene chloride) to give 116 mg of (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass Spec. M+H=322.
Step 8. Preparation of (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

N-iodo succinimide (35 mg. 0.157 mmol) was dissolved in 3 mL of DMF, and (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol (42 mg, 0.131 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was heated to 80° C. for two hours, after which an additional 35 mg of N-iodo succinimide was added. After heating for two more hours at 80° C., an additional 35 mg of N-iodo succinimide was added. The reaction mixture was heated at 80° C. for 5 more hours, then was cooled to room temperature. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition to water, and was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure to give 64 mg of 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass Spec. M+H=448.
Step 9. Preparation of (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-ethoxy-5-fluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-iodo-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol (200 mg, 0.447 mmol), 5-fluoro-2-ethoxyphenyl boronic acid (246 mg), K3PO4 (285 mg), and Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) CH2Cl2 (73 mg) were added to 2 mL dioxane in a microwave vial. The vial was sealed and the reaction mixture was heated to 180° C. for 10 minutes. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate, and the organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was filtered through silica gel using 10% MeOH in methylene chloride, then purified by preparative scale thin layer chromatography using 10% MeOH in methylene chloride, to give 62.9 mg of (R)-1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2-ethoxy-5-fluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass Spec. M+H=460.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 20

This example illustrates a synthesis of (S)-3-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol.
Step 1. Preparation of 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

To (R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-ethanol (2.12 g) in 10 mL dioxane was added sodium hydride (0.656 g) at 0° C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, and then 4-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (1.0 g, 3.213 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for one hour, then cooled to room temperature. Water (150 mL) and ethyl acetate (300 mL) was added, and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was washed four times with ethyl acetate, and the combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (20% to 30% EtOAc in hexanes) to yield 1.03 g of 3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=407. Mp.=119.5-122.3° C.
Step 2. Preparation of (S)-3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-6-methylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (1.2 g, 2.95 mmol) was treated with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid using the procedure of step 5 of Example 1 to provide 1.342 g of (S)-3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-6-methylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=440. Mp.=161.0-162.3° C.
Step 3. Preparation of (S)-3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

Powdered KOH (1.0 g) was taken up in 4 mL of 2,4-difluorophenol, and the resulting mixture was heated at 120° C. for 15 minutes. (S)-3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-6-methylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (1.34 g, 0.305 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for one hour at 120° C. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, partitioned between water (100 mL) and 15 EtOAc (300 mL0, and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed three times with 2N aqueous NaOH, once with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative scale TLC (50% MeOH in methylene chloride to provide 1.395 mg of (S)-3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=489. Mp. 70.1-75.9° C.
Step 4. Preparation of (S)-3-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol embedded image

(S)-3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (1.395 g) was taken up in 30 mL dioxane, and 25 mL of 4N HCl was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 25 minutes, and then the reaction mixture was partitioned between water (100 mL) and EtOAc (300 mL). The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was eluted through silica gel with 30% EtOAc in methylene chloride to provide 886.4 mg of (S)-3-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yloxy]-propane-1,2-diol. Mass Spec. M+H=449. Mp.=179.2-181.3° C.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1.

Example 21

This example illustrates a synthesis of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonamide.
Step 1. Preparation of 4-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

4-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (10.0 g, 0.032 mol) was added to 100 mL of dry DMF, and the resulting solution was cooled to 0° C. (2-Chloromethoxy-ethyl)-trimethyl-silane (6.8 mL, 0.038 mol) was added dropwise, and the reaction mixture was stirred for five minutes. Sodium hydride (1.40 g, 0.0333 mol) was then added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 0° C. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was washed twice with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers were washed with brine, washed with water, dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (0% to 10% hexanes in EtOAc) to afford 8.55 g of 4-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine.
Step 2. Preparation of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonamid e embedded image

To a solution of N,N-dimethyl methanesulfonamide (419 mg, 3.40 mmol) in 5 mL dry THF at 5° C. was added n-BuLi (2.2 mL of 1.6M solution in hexanes 3.50 mmol) dropwise. To this stirring solution was added dropwise a solution of 4-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (0.500 g, 1.13 mmol) in 1 mL dry THF. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours and allowed to warm to room temperature during this time. The reaction was quenched by addition of 10 mL water and 1 mL of 1.2M HCl, and the resulting aqueous solution was extracted twice w2ith 20 mL methylene chloride. The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (0% to 30% EtOAc in hexanes) to give 421 mg of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonamid e.
Step 3. Preparation of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methanesulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonami de embedded image

C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfanyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonam ide (421 mg, 0.997 mmol) was treated with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid using the procedure of step 5 of Example 1 to provide 398 mg of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonamid e. Mass Spec. M+H=560.
Step 4. Preparation of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesu lfonamide embedded image

C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-methylsulfonyl-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonam ide (398 mg) was treated with 2,4-difluorophenol in the presence of KOH using the procedure of step 6 of Example 4 to afford 287 mg of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesu lfonamide. Mass Spec. M+H=610.
Step 5. Preparation of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonamide embedded image

C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1-(2-trimethylsilanyl-ethoxymethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methane sulfonamide (273 mg, 0.447 mmol) was dissolved in 5 mL chloroform, and 2.5 mL of trifluoroacetic acid was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 22 hours at room temperature, and was then concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in 7 mL of MeOH, and sodium borohydride (109 mg, 4.47 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes, then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was partitioned between 100 mL EtOAc and 100 mL brine, and the organic layer was separated, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified via flash chromatography (0% to 40% EtOAc in hexanes) to yield 167 mg of C-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-yl]-N,N-dimethyl-methanesulfonamide. Mass Spec. M+H=481.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 22

This example illustrates a synthesis of (R)-1-[3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol.
Step 1. Preparation of Cyclopentyl-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)-methanol embedded image

4,6-Dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidine (8.0 g, 41.01 mmol) was dissolved in 500 mL dry THF and cooled to −78° C. Lithium diisopropylamine (36.9 mL of 2.0 M solution in hexanes) was added dropwise, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at −78° C. Cyclopentane-carboxaldehyde (8.05 g, 82.02 mmol was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 45 minutes at −78° C. The reaction was quenched by addition of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The aqueous mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate, and the combined organic layers were washed with water, washed with brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered, and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (5% to 40% EtOAc in hexanes) to yield 9.76 g of cyclopentyl-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)-methanol. Mass Spec. M+H=294.
Step 2. Preparation of Cyclopentyl-(4,6-dichloro-2-methysulffanyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)-methanone embedded image

Cyclopentyl-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)-methanol (8.1 g, 27.62 mmol) was dissolved in 100 mL dry acetone and stirred under nitrogen at 0° C. CrO3 (11.05 g, 110.497 mmol) was added in portions over three minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes. The reaction was quenched by addition of 15 mL isopropanol, followed by basificaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The resulting solution was filtered through Celite, and the Celite was washed with acetone. The resulting solution was dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 3.1 g of Cyclopentyl-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)-methanone. Mass Spec. M+H=292.
Step 3. Preparation of 4-Chloro-3-cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine embedded image

Cyclopentyl-(4,6-dichloro-2-methylsulfanyl-pyrimidin-5-yl)-methanone (2.0 g, 6.868 mmol) was dissolved in 25 mL dry THF and stirred at 0° C. under nitrogen. N,N-diisopropylethylamine (2.392 mL, 13.763 mmol) was added dropwise, and the reaction mixture was stirred for five minutes. Hydrazine (0.205 mL, 6.525 mmol) was added dropwise, and the reaction was stirred for 16 hours, during which time the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate, and the organic phase was separated, washed with water, washed with brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to give 2.09 g of 4-Chloro-3-cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine. Mass Spec. M+H=270.
Step 3. Preparation of (R)-1-(3-Cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-propan-2-ol embedded image

4-Chloro-3-cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (500 mg, 1.860 mmol) was dissolved in 25 mL dry THF, and (S)-1-Amino-propan-2-ol (1.758 mL, 22.32 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for three hours, then cooled to room temperature. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate, and the organic phase was separated, washed with water, washed with brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to give 0.56 g of (R)-1-(3-Cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-propan-2-ol. Mass Spec. M+H=309.
Step 4. Preparation of (R)-1-(3-Cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-propan-2-ol. embedded image

(R)-1-(3-Cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-propan-2-ol was treated with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid using the procedure of step 5 of Example 1 to provide 0.60 g of (R)-1-(3-Cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-propan-2-ol. Mass Spec. M+H=340.
Step 5. Preparation of (R)-1-[3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

(R)-1-(3-Cyclopentyl-6-methylsulfonyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-propan-2-ol was treated with 2,4-difluorophenol in the presence of KOH using the procedure of step 6 of Example 4 to afford 0.56 mg of (R)-1-[3-Cyclopentyl-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass Spec. M+H=390.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 23

This example illustrates a synthesis of (R)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-ylamino]-propan-2-ol.
Step 1. Preparation of (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)-methanol. embedded image

To a −20° C. solution of n-butyllithium (2.5 M in hexane, Aldrich, 26.5 mmol) in dry tetrahydrofuran (200 mL) under argon was added 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (Aldrich, 1 1.5 mL, 66.5 mmol, 1.22 eq). The resulting solution was warmed to 0° C. over 0.5 hour period. The solution was then cooled to −78° C., and a solution of 2,6-dichloropyrazine (Aldrich, 8.24 g, 55.3 mmol, 1.0 eq ) in tetrahydrofuran was slowly added via a syringe. After addition was complete, the resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for an additional 1 hour after which 2-chlorobenzaldehyde (Aldrich, 9.3 mL, 83 mmole, 1.5 eq) was added drop wise via a syringe. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 1 hour, quenched with hydrochloric acid (18 mL , 220 mmol, 4 eq)/ethanol (75 mL)/tetrahydrofuran (90 mL) mixture, and then warmed to room temperature. The reaction mixture was diluted with aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ether. The organic layer was separated and washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude oil which was purified via chromatography using dichloromethane/hexanes (1:1) as the eluent to give (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanol (12.8 g, 44 mmol, 80% yield). Mass spec M+1=290.
Step 2. Preparation of (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanone. embedded image

To a dichloromethane solution of (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanol (7.1 g, 24.5 mmol) was added portion wise solid manganese (IV) oxide (25 g, 245 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to give (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanone (6.02 g, 21 mmol, 85% yield). Mass spec., M+1=288.
Step 3. Preparation of [3-chloro-5-(2,4-difluorophenoxyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-chlorophenyl)-methanone. embedded image

To a dimethylformamide, i.e., DMF, (25 mL) solution of (2-chlorophenyl)-(3,5-dichloropyrazin-2-yl)methanone (2.1 g, 7.3 mmol, 1.0 eq) under nitrogen was added 2,4-difluorophenol (0.7 mL, 7.3 mmol, 1.0 eq) and potassium carbonate (1.21 g, 8.76 mmol, 1.2 eq). The resulting mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature and then concentrated. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane and washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give a crude oil which was purified via a chromatography using dichloromethane/hexanes (1:1) as the eluent to give [3-chloro-5-(2,4-difluorophenoxyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone (2.46 g, 6.45 mmol, 88% yield). Mass spec. M+1=382.
Step 4. Preparation of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine. embedded image

To a solution of [3-chloro-5-(2,4-difluorophenoxyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone (0.73 g, 1.9 mmol, 1.0 eq) in ethanol was added hydrazine hydrate (0.19 mL, 3.8 mmol, 2.0 eq). The resulting mixture was refluxed under nitrogen for 0.5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and filtered to give 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine (0.285 g, 0.8 mmol, 42% yield) as a solid. MP 240.5-241.5° C. Mass spec. M+1=359.
Step 5. Preparation of 5-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine embedded image

A suspension of 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine (2.70 g, 7.5 mmol) in 500 mL carbon tetrachloride was bubbled with chlorine gas for 16 hours at room temperature while stirring. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was purified by chromatography (methylene chloride/hexanes 2:3 to 1:0) to give 1.21 g of 5-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine. Mass spec. M+1=394.
Step 6. Preparation of (R)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

To a stirring ethanol (100 mL) suspension of 5-Chloro-3-(2-chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine (0.66 g, 1.7 mmol) under nitrogen at room temperature was added (S)-1-amino-2-propanol (0.63 g, 8.4 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux and stirred for 16 hours at reflux. The reaction mixture was cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was chromatographed (2% MeOH in hexanes) to yield 82 mg of (R)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass spec., M+1=433.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1 above.

Example 24

This example illustrates the synthesis of (S)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol.
Step 1. Preparation of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,4,6-trifluoro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanol embedded image

2,4,6-Trifluoropyridine (7.5 g, 56.36 mmol) was taken up in 9 mL of dry THF, and the reaction mixture was cooled to −78° C. under argon with stirring. Lithium diisopropylamine (42.3 mL of 2M solution in THF) was added dropwise, and the solution was stirred for 10 minutes. 2-Chlorobenzaldehyde (9.5 mL, 1.5 equiv) was added dropwise via syringe, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. The reaction was quenched by addition of saturated ammonium chloride and water, and the aqueous mixture was extracted once with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine and water, dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by FLASH column chromatography using 5%-10% EtOAc/Hexanes to yield 8.02 g of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,4,6-trifluoro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanol. Mass spec., M+1=275.
Step 2. Preparation of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,4,6-trifluoro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanone embedded image

(2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,4,6-trifluoro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanol (8.02 g, 29.3 mmol) was taken up in 80 mL of dry toluene, and manganese dioxide 26 g) was added. The reaction mixture was refluxed for 2.5 hours, after which 2.5 g of additional MnO2 was added. The reaction mixture was refluxed for another hour and an additional 2.5 g of MgO2 was added. The reaction mixture was refluxed for three hours, and was then hot filtered through Celite. The Celite plug was washed with hot EtOAc (in several portions), and the organic solvents were combined. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, and the residue was subject to flash chromatography 5% to 10% EtOAc in hexanes) to give 2.55 g of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,4,6-trifluoro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanone. Mass Spec. M−H=270.
Step 3. Preparation of (S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-[4,6-difluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone and (S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-[2,6-difluoro-4-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone. embedded image

(S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-(2,4,6-trifluoro-pyridin-3-yl)-methanone (2.0 g, 7.36 mmol) was taken up in 30 mL dry THF and cooled to −78° C. under argon with stirring. N,N-diisopropylethylamine (1.4 mL) and (S)-1-amino-2-propanol (0.64 mL) were added, and the reaction mixture was allowed to slowly warm to −10° C. with stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours at −10° C., and was then quenched by addition of saturated ammonium chloride and water. The aqueous mixture was extracted with EtOAc, and the combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine and water, dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by FLASH column chromatography using 5%-30% EtOAc/Hexanes to yield 652 mg of (S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-[4,6-difluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone in a first fraction, and 1.338 g of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-[2,6-difluoro-4-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone in a second fraction. Mass Spec. M+H=327 for each isomer. H1 NMR was used to confirm purity of the individual isomers.
Step 4. Preparation of (S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone embedded image

(S)-2,4-difluorophenol (0.77 mL) was placed in a flask and cooled to 0° C. with stirring, and potassium tert-butoxide (8.1 mL of 1 M THF solution) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 minutes at 0° C., and then was allowed to warm to room temperature. A solution of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-[4,6-difluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone (65,0 mg, 1.79 mmol) in 5 mL dry THF was added dropwise to the stirring solution, and stirring was continued for five minutes after addition. The reaction was then quenched by addition of saturated ammonium chloride and water, and the aqueous mixture was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine and water, dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by preparative scale TLC (30% EtOAc in hexanes) to yield 795 mg of (S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-4-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone. Mass Spec. M+H=437.
Step 5. Preparation of (S)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol (690 mg, 1.6 mmol) was taken up in a mixture of 15 mL dioxane and 2 mL EtOH. N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.3 mL) and anhydrous hydrazine (0.15 mL) were added, and the reaction mixture was slowly heated to 90° C. with stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred for six hours at 90° C., then was cooled to room temperature and quenched by addition of water and partitioned with ethyl acetate, followed by back extraction of the aqueous phase with additional ethyl acetate. The combined organic phases were were washed with saturated brine and water, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative scale TLC (3.5% MeOH in methylene chloride), then recrystallized from methylene chloride/hexanes to give 246 mg of (S)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass spec., M+1=432. Mp=171.2-172° C.

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1.

Example 25

This example illustrates the synthesis of (S)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol.
Step 1. Preparation of (S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-2-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone embedded image

(S)-2,4-difluorophenol (0.45 mL) was placed in a flask and cooled to 0° C. via ice bath with stirring, and potassium tert-butoxide (3.1 mL of 1 M THF solution) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 minutes at 0° C. A solution of (2-Chloro-phenyl)-[2,6-difluoro-4-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone (610 mg, 1.87 mmol) in 8 mL THF was added dropwise. After addition the ice bath was remove, and the reaction mixture was allowed to stir for two hours, during which time the reaction mixture warmed to room temperature. The reaction was then quenched by addition of saturated ammonium chloride and water, and the aqueous mixture was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine and water, dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by preparative scale TLC (30% EtOAc in hexanes) to yield 864 mg of a mixture of (S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-2-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone together with the isomer (2-Chloro-phenyl)-[2-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-6-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone as a minor product. This crude product mixture was used directly in the next step without separation.
Step 1. Preparation of (S)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol embedded image

Crude (S)-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-[6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-2-fluoro-4-(2-hydroxy-propylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-methanone (837 mg, 1.92 mmol) was treated with hydrazine using the procedure of step 5 of Example 9 to afford 148 mg of (S)-1-[3-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-6-(2,4-difluoro-phenoxy)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ylamino]-propan-2-ol. Mass spec., M+1=432. Mp=237.9

Compounds prepared by the procedure of this Example are shown in Table 1.

Example 26

This example illustrates a p38 (MAP) kinase in vitro assay useful for evaluating the compounds of the invention.

The p38 MAP kinase inhibitory activity of compounds of this invention in vitro was determined by measuring the transfer of the γ-phosphate from γ-33P-ATP by p-38 kinase to Myelin Basic Protein (MBP), using a minor modification of the method described in Ahn, et al., J. Biol. Chem. 266:4220-4227 (1991). 12801 The phosphorylated form of the recombinant p38 MAP kinase was co-expressed with SEK-1 and MEKK in E. Coli (see, Khokhlatchev, et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272:11057-11062 (1997)) and then purified by affinity chromatography using a Nickel column.

The phosphorylated p38 MAP kinase was diluted in kinase buffer (20 mM 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid, pH 7.2, 25 mM β-glycerol phosphate, 5 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid, 1 mM sodium or tho-vanadate, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 40 mM magnesium chloride). Test compound dissolved in DMSO or only DMSO (control) was added and the samples were incubated for 10 min at 30° C. The kinase reaction was initiated by the addition of a substrate cocktail containing MBP and γ-33P-ATP. After incubating for an additional 20 min at 30° C., the reaction was terminated by adding 0.75% phosphoric acid. The phosphorylated MBP was then separated from the residual γ-33P-ATP using a phosphocellulose membrane (Millipore, Bedfrod, Mass.) and quantitated using a scintillation counter (Packard, Meriden, Conn.).

Using the above procedure, the compounds of the invention were found to be inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase. For example, 1-[6-(2,4-Difluoro-phenoxy)-3-(2,5-difluoro-phenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridin-4-ylamino]-2-methyl-propan-2-ol exhibited a p38 IC50 (uM) of approximately 0.001.

Example 27

In Vitro Assay to Evaluate the Inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α Production in THP1 Cells.

This example illustrates an in vitro assay to evaluate the inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP1 cells.

The ability of the compounds of this invention to inhibit the TNF-α release is determined using a minor modification of the methods described in Blifeld, et al. Transplantation, 51:498-503 (1991).

(a) Induction of TNF biosynthesis:

THP-1 cells are suspended in culture medium [RPMI (Gibco-BRL, Gaithersburg, Md.) containing 15% fetal bovine serum, 0.02 mM 2-mercaptoethanol], at a concentration of 2.5×106 cells/mL and then plated in 96 well plate (0.2 mL aliquots in each well). Test compounds are dissolved in DMSO and then diluted with the culture medium such that the final DMSO concentration is 5%. Twenty five μL aliquots of test solution or only medium with DMSO (control) are added to each well. The cells are incubated for 30 min., at 37° C. LPS (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.) is added to the wells at a final concentration of 0.5 μg/ml, and cells were incubated for an additional 2 h. At the end of the incubation period, culture supernatants are collected and the amount of TNF-α present is determined using an ELISA assay as described below.

(b) ELISA Assay:

The amount of human TNF-α present is determined by a specific trapping ELISA assay using two anti-TNF-α antibodies (2TNF-H12 and 2TNF-H34) described in Reimund, J. M., et al. GUT. Vol. 39(5), 684-689 (1996).

Polystyrene 96-well plates are coated with 50 μl per well of antibody 2TNF-H12 in PBS (10 μg/mL) and incubated in a humidified chamber at 4° C. overnight. The plates are washed with PBS and then blocked with 5% nonfat-dry milk in PBS for 1 hour at room temperature and washed with 0.1% BSA (bovine serum albumin) in PBS.

TNF standards are prepared from a stock solution of human recombinant TNF-α (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, Minn.). The concentration of the standards in the assay began at 10 ng/mL followed by 6 half log serial dilutions.

Twenty five μL aliquots of the above culture supernatants or TNF standards or only medium (control) are mixed with 25 μL aliquots of biotinylated monoclonal antibody 2TNF-H34 (2 μg/mL in PBS containing 0.1% BSA) and then added to each well. The samples are incubated for 2 hr at room temperature with gentle shaking and then washed 3 times with 0.1% BSA in PBS. 50 μl of peroxidase-streptavidin (Zymed, S. San Francisco, Calif.) solution containing 0.416 μg/mL of peroxidase-streptavidin and 0.1% BSA in PBS was added to each well. The samples are incubated for an additional 1 hr at room temperature and then washed 4 times with 0.1% BSA in PBS. Fifty μL of O-phenylenediamine solution (1 μg/mL O-phenylene-diamine and 0.03% hydrogen peroxide in 0.2M citrate buffer pH 4.5) is added to each well and the samples are incubated in the dark for 30 min., at room temperature. Optical density of the sample and the reference are read at 450 nm and 650 nm, respectively. TNF-α levels are determined from a graph relating the optical density at 450 nm to the concentration used.

Example 28

In Vitro Assay to Evaluate the Inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α Production in THP1 Cells.

This example illustrates an in vivo assay to evaluate the inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-α production in mice (or rats).

The ability of the compounds of this invention to inhibit the TNF-α release, in vivo, is determined using a minor modification of the methods described in described in Zanetti, et. al., J. Immunol., 148:1890 (1992) and Sekut, et. al., J. Lab. Clin. Med., 124:813 (1994).

Female BALB/c mice weighing 18-21 grams (Charles River, Hollister, Calif.) are acclimated for one week. Groups containing 8 mice each are dosed orally either with the test compounds suspended or dissolved in an aqueous vehicle containing 0.9% sodium chloride, 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose, 0.4% polysorbate 80, 0.9% benzyl alcohol (CMC vehicle) or only vehicle (control group). After 30 min., the mice are injected intraperitoneally with 20 μg of LPS (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.). After 1.5 h, the mice are sacrificed by CO2 inhalation and blood is harvested by cardiocentesis. Blood is clarified by centrifugation at 15,600×g for 5 min., and sera are transferred to clean tubes and frozen at −20° C. until analyzed for TNF-α by ELISA assay (Biosource International, Camarillo, Calif.) following the manufacturer's protocol.

Example 29

Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

AIA-induced arthritis is evaluated using the procedure of Badger et al., Arthritis & Rheumatism, 43(1) pp175-183 (2000) AIA is induced by a single injection of 0.75 mg of parrafin-suspended Mycobacterium Butycricum) into male Lewis rats. Hindpaw volume is measured by water displacement on days 15, 20 and 30. A set of control animals is dosed with tragacanth. Test compounds in 0.5% tragacanth are administered orally at 3, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day dosages. Indomethacin is used as a positive control. Percentage inhibition of hindpaw edema is calculated by
1−[AIA(treated)/AIA(control)]×100
where AIA (treated) and AIA (control) represent the mean paw volume.

Example 30

Formulations

Pharmaceutical preparations for delivery by various routes are formulated as shown in the following Tables. “Active ingredient” or “Active compound” as used in the Tables means one or more of the compounds of the invention.

Composition for Oral Administration
Ingredient% wt./wt.
Active ingredient20.0%
Lactose79.5%
Magnesium stearate0.5%

The ingredients are mixed and dispensed into capsules containing about 100 mg each; one capsule would approximate a total daily dosage.

Composition for Oral Administration
Ingredient% wt./wt.
Active ingredient20.0%
Magnesium stearate0.5%
Crosscarmellose sodium2.0%
Lactose76.5%
PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidine)1.0%

The ingredients are combined and granulated using a solvent such as methanol. The formulation is then dried and formed into tablets (containing about 20 mg of active compound) with an appropriate tablet machine.

Composition for Oral Administration
IngredientAmount
Active compound1.0g
Fumaric acid0.5g
Sodium chloride2.0g
Methyl paraben0.15g
Propyl paraben0.05g
Granulated sugar25.5g
Sorbitol (70% solution)12.85g
Veegum K (Vanderbilt Co.)1.0g
Flavoring0.035ml
Colorings0.5mg
Distilled waterq.s. to 100 ml

The ingredients are mixed to form a suspension for oral administration.

Parenteral Formulation
Ingredient% wt./wt.
Active ingredient0.25g
Sodium Chlorideqs to make isotonic
Water for injection100ml

The active ingredient is dissolved in a portion of the water for injection. A sufficient quantity of sodium chloride is then added with stirring to make the solution isotonic. The solution is made up to weight with the remainder of the water for injection, filtered through a 0.2 micron membrane filter and packaged under sterile conditions.

Suppository Formulation
Ingredient% wt./wt.
Active ingredient1.0%
Polyethylene glycol 100074.5%
Polyethylene glycol 400024.5%

The ingredients are melted together and mixed on a steam bath, and poured into molds containing 2.5 g total weight.

Topical Formulation
Ingredientsgrams
Active compound0.2-2
Span 602
Tween 602
Mineral oil5
Petrolatum10
Methyl paraben0.15
Propyl paraben0.05
BHA (butylated hydroxy anisole)0.01
Waterq.s. 100

All of the ingredients, except water, are combined and heated to about 60° C. with stirring. A sufficient quantity of water at about 60° C. is then added with vigorous stirring to emulsify the ingredients, and water then added q.s. about 100 g.

Nasal Spray Formulations

Several aqueous suspensions containing from about 0.025-0.5 percent active compound are prepared as nasal spray formulations. The formulations optionally contain inactive ingredients such as, for example, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, dextrose, and the like. Hydrochloric acid may be added to adjust pH. The nasal spray formulations may be delivered via a nasal spray metered pump typically delivering about 50-100 microliters of formulation per actuation. A typical dosing schedule is 2-4 sprays every 4-12 hours.

While the present invention has been described with reference to the specific embodiments thereof, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation, material, composition of matter, process, process step or steps, to the objective spirit and scope of the present invention. All such modifications are intended to be within the scope of the claims appended hereto.