Title:
Method and apparatus for combining a heat pump cycle with a power cycle
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Method and Apparatus for Combining a Heat Pump Cycle With A Power Cycle. The working fluid for the heat pump cycle will be different than that for the power cycle.



Inventors:
Mahl III, George (Harahan, LA, US)
Application Number:
11/203783
Publication Date:
06/28/2007
Filing Date:
08/15/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
F25B27/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
TYLER, CHERYL JACKSON
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GARVEY, SMITH & NEHRBASS, PATENT ATTORNEYS, L.L.C. (METAIRIE, LA, US)
Claims:
1. A method of power generation comprising: (a) a power cycle; and (b) a heat pump cycle, the heat pump cycle supplying heat to the power cycle.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the power cycle includes a first media and the heat pump cycle includes a second media, the first media being different from the second media.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the first media has a first flow rate and the second media has a second flow rate, the first flow rate being different from the second flow rate.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the heat pump cycle includes an expansion valve.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the heat pump cycle includes an expansion turbine.

6. The method of claim 3, wherein the first media is R600 and the second media is R11.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein the flow rate of the second media is about two times the flow rate of the second media.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the heat pump cycle includes a heat exchanger for rejecting heat and the power cycle uses this heat exchanger as a source of heat.

9. A method of removing heat from a space comprising: (a) a power cycle; (b) a heat pump cycle, the heat pump cycle supplying heat to the power cycle; and (c) the heat pump cycle removing heat from the space.

10. A method of adding heat to a space comprising: (a) a power cycle; (b) a heat pump cycle, the heat pump cycle supplying heat to the power cycle; and (c) the power cycle adding heat to the space.

11. A method of removing heat from a material in a process comprising: (a) a power cycle; (b) a heat pump cycle, the heat pump cycle supplying heat to the power cycle; and (c) the heat pump cycle removing heat from the material.

12. A method of adding heat to a material in a process comprising: (a) a power cycle; (b) a heat pump cycle, the heat pump cycle supplying heat to the power cycle; and (c) the power cycle adding heat to the material.

13. The invention substantially as shown and described herein.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

Priority is claimed to both U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/602,270, filed Aug. 16, 2004 and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/604,663, filed Aug. 26, 2004, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

Not applicable

REFERENCE TO A “MICROFICHE APPENDIX”

Not applicable

BACKGROUND

1. Field

The present invention relates to cycles. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method and apparatus for combining a power cycle with a refrigeration cycle or heat pump.

2. General Background

A general vapor power cycle can include a boiler, turbine, condenser and a pump. FIG. 1 shows a general power cycle. From “a” to “b” subcooled fluid can be heated to the saturated fluid temperature in the boiler. From “b” to “c” saturated fluid can be vaporized in the boiler, producing saturated gas. From “c” to “d” a superheater option can be used to increase the fluid temperature while maintaining pressure. From “d” to “e” vapor expands through a turbine and does work as it decreases in temperature, pressure, and quality. From “e” to “f” vapor is liquified in the condenser. From f to a liquid is brought up to the boiler pressure. The expansion process between states d and e is essentially adiabatic. Ideal turbine expansion also is isentropic.

The Carnot cycle is an ideal power cycle which is stated to set the maximum attainable work output from a power cycle or heat engine. Various property diagrams for a Carnot cycle are provided in FIGS. 2A through 2C. FIG. 2A shows a pressure-volume diagram. FIG. 2B shows a temperature-entropy diagram. FIG. 2C shows an enthalpy-entropy diagram. From “a” to “b” occurs isothermal expansion of a saturated fluid to a saturated gas. From “b” to “c” occurs isentropic expansion. From “c” to “d” occurs isothermal condensation. From “d” to “a” occurs isentropic compression. The thermal efficiency of the entire cycle is calculated by the following formula: nth=Thigh-TlowThigh

Refrigeration cycles are essentially power cycles in reverse. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a refrigeration cycle. It is necessary to do work on the refrigerant in order to have it discharge energy, QH, to a high temperature sink. After discharging energy to the high temperature heat sink the refrigerant is expanded through an expansion valve to drop its temperature allowing it to absorb energy, QL, from a low temperature heat source. A heat pump also operates on a refrigeration cycle. One difference between a refrigerator and a heat pump is the purpose of each. The refrigerator's main purpose is to cool a low temperature area and to reject the absorbed heat to a high temperature area. The heat pump's main purpose is to reject the absorbed heat to a high temperature area, having picked up that heat from a low temperature area. Heat pumps use energy more efficiently than resistance heaters. For each kilowatt of energy used by the compressor of a heat pump, one kilowatt of compression heat is produced plus heat picked up through a refrigeration effect. The refrigeration effect of the heat pump can vary from ten to as high as five hundred percent or higher of the energy input into the compressor. This refrigeration effect is dependent on the temperatures involved and fluid used.

Up to this point it was believed that the Carnot cycle was the most efficient power cycle that could be used. However, this belief did not consider a refrigeration/heat pump cycle being combined with a power cycle. No one has used a refrigeration cycle or heat pump as a heat source in a power cycle.

While certain novel features of this invention shown and described below are pointed out in the annexed claims, the invention is not intended to be limited to the details specified, since a person of ordinary skill in the relevant art will understand that various omissions, modifications, substitutions and changes in the forms and details of the device illustrated and in its operation may be made without departing in any way from the spirit of the present invention. No feature of the invention is critical or essential unless it is expressly stated as being “critical” or “essential.”

BRIEF SUMMARY

The apparatus of the present invention solves the problems confronted in the art in a simple and straightforward manner. What is provided is an original process for the removal and use of energy from the ambient environment, including air, water, or earth. This energy is removed in the form of mechanical motion such as work, which may be used either directly or to drive electrical generators, or supply other energy needs.

In one embodiment the process can consist of a combined refrigeration/power cycle. A first media (Media No. 1) can be vaporized at ambient temperatures, compressed, and condensed at a higher temperature, TH, in a first heat exchanger. This portion of the method and apparatus can be a cycle similar to conventional heat pumps.

The refrigeration/heat pump cycle can be combined with a second cycle in which a second media (Media No. 2) is vaporized at the higher temperature, TH. Energy can then be extracted from Media No. 2 by flowing it through a mechanical drive turbine or other engine, then condensing Media No. 2 at ambient temperature in the condenser.

The heat pump cycle using Media No. 1 produces a quantity of available energy at TH equal to the energy of evaporation of Media No. 1 at ambient temperature plus the energy of compression of Media No. 1. Thus, the energy available at TH compared to the input of mechanical energy is:
E@TH=E Evap.+E Mech. Input

The ratio of E@TH to E Mechanical Input depends upon the thermodynamic properties of Media No. 1, the ambient temperature and condensation temperature, TH at which the cycle is operating.

The second portion of this process is the cycle of Media No. 2. Media No. 2 is evaporated in Heat Exchanger No. 1 at TH by the condensation of Media No. 1. Media No. 2 is then passed through a turbine or other engine where mechanical energy is removed, then condensed at ambient temperature in the condenser. The energy of Media No. 2 available for transformation into mechanical energy is the difference of the energy of:

1. Heating, evaporating and superheating of Media No. 2 in the Heat Exchanger No. 1, and:

2. The energy of condensation of Media No. 1 at ambient temperature in the condenser, or;
Available Energy=E(Heat Exchanger No. 1)−E(Condensation at condenser).

The theoretical output of the process is then determined by the product of: E@THE Mech.Input
of Cycle No. 1 and the per unit available energy of Cycle No. 2. If the media for Cycle No. 1 and Cycle No. 2 and operating temperatures are properly selected such that the ratio of E@THE Mech.Input
of Cycle No. 1 is maximized and the available energy of Cycle No. 2 is maximized, then the theoretical mechanical output to mechanical input ratio exceeds unity. Thus, there is a net flow of energy from the ambient environment, which is converted into mechanical energy.

The drawings constitute a part of this specification and include exemplary embodiments to the invention, which may be embodied in various forms.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

For a further understanding of the nature, objects, and advantages of the present invention, reference should be had to the following detailed description, read in conjunction with the following drawings, wherein like reference numerals denote like elements and wherein:

FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a power cycle.

FIGS. 2A through 2C are schematic diagrams of various diagrams of the properties in a Carnot cycle.

FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a refrigeration cycle.

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 5 is a pressure-enthalpy diagram for R11.

FIG. 6 is a pressure-enthalpy diagram for R600.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Detailed descriptions of one or more preferred embodiments are provided herein. It is to be understood, however, that the present invention may be embodied in various forms. Therefore, specific details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting, but rather as a basis for the claims and as a representative basis for teaching one skilled in the art to employ the present invention in any appropriate system, structure or manner.

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment 10. In this embodiment a heat pump cycle 20 is used as the heat source for a power cycle 30. Heat pump cycle 20 can comprise expansion valve 60, evaporator 70, compressor 40, and a condenser. The condenser can be heat exchanger 50. Power cycle 30 can comprise engine 80, condenser 90, pump 100, and a heat source or boiler. The heat source or boiler can also be heat exchanger 50.

In heat pump cycle 20, a first media (Media No. 1) can be vaporized at ambient temperatures, compressed, and condensed at a higher temperature, TH, in heat exchanger 50.

Heat pump cycle 20 is combined with a second cycle 30 in which a second media (Media No. 2) is vaporized at the higher temperature, TH. Energy can then be extracted from Media No. 2 by flowing it through a mechanical drive turbine or other engine 80, then condensing Media No. 2 at ambient temperature in condenser 90.

Heat pump cycle 20 using Media No. 1 produces a quantity of available energy at TH equal to the energy of evaporation of Media No. 1 at ambient temperature plus the energy of compression of Media No. 1. Thus, the energy available at TH compared to the input of mechanical energy is:
E@TH=E Evap.+E Mech. Input

The ratio of E@TH to E Mechanical Input depends upon the thermodynamic properties of Media No. 1, the ambient temperature and condensation temperature, TH at which the cycle is operating.

The second portion of this process is power cycle 30 using Media No.2. Media No.2 can be evaporated in heat exchanger 50 at TH by the condensation of Media No. 1 of cycle 20. Media No. 2 is then passed through turbine or other engine 80 where mechanical energy is removed, then condensed at ambient temperature in condenser 90. The energy of Media No. 2 available for transformation into mechanical energy is the difference of the energy of:

1. Heating, evaporating and superheating of Media No.2 in heat exchanger 50, and:

2. The energy of condensation of Media No. 1 at ambient temperature in condenser 90, or;
Available Energy=E(heat exchanger 50)−E(Condensation at condenser 90).

The theoretical output of overall process 10 is then determined by the product of: E@THE Mech.Inputof Cycle No. 1 (cycle 20)×the per unit available energy of Cycle No. 2 (cycle 30).
If the media for Cycle No. 1 and Cycle No. 2 and operating temperatures are properly selected such that the ratio of E@THE Mech.Input
of Cycle No. 1 (cycle 20) is maximized and the available energy of Cycle No. 2 (cycle 30) is maximized, then the theoretical mechanical output to mechanical input ratio exceeds unity for overall cycle 10. Thus, there is a net flow of energy from the ambient environment, which is converted into mechanical energy.

One example of a preferred embodiment 10 using specific fluids is shown in FIG. 4. This system uses refrigerant No. R11 as the media of Cycle No. 1 (cycle 20), evaporating at an ambient temperature of 70° F. and condensing in heat exchanger 50 at 190° F. Refrigerant R600 is used in Cycle No. 2 (cycle 30), evaporating in heat exchanger 50 and condensing at the ambient temperature of 70° F.

Cycle 20 shows refrigerant entering expansion valve 60 at 70° F., at a pressure of 90 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 22.4 BTUs per pound. After passing through expansion valve 60 the refrigerant is at a pressure of 13.39 pounds per square inch and maintain a heat content of 22.4 BTUs per pound. It should be noted that depending on the refrigerant used, an expansion turbine may be used in place of expansion valve 60 to enhance performance of the overall process. Next, the refrigerant enters evaporator 70. Fed into evaporator 70 can be water at 70° F. having a heat capacity of 78.3 BTUs per pound (or 166.2 BTUs per minute). The refrigerant leaves evaporator 70 at 70° F., at a pressure of 13.39 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 100.72 BTUs per pound. Next the refrigerant is compressed by compressor 40 which can require an input energy of 142 BTUs per pound (or 30.146 BTUs per minute). The refrigerant leaves compressor 40 at 200° F., at a pressure of 90 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 114.9 BTUs per pound. Finally, the refrigerant passing through heat exchanger 50 where it absorbs heat and leaves at 70° F., at a pressure of 90 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 22.4 BTUs per pound. The heat loss by the working fluid in heat exchanger 50 can be 92.5 BTUs per pound (or 196.37 BTUs per minute).

Cycle 30 shows a working fluid entering engine 80 (which can be a turbine) at 190° F., at a pressure of 173.25 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 256.374 BTUs per pound. Leaving engine 80 the working fluid can be at 70° F., at a pressure of 31.279 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 217.017 BTUs per pound. The mechanical output of engine 80 can be 39.357 BTUs per pound or 39.357 BTUs per minute. Next, the working fluid can enter condenser 90 and leave at 70° F., at a pressure of 31.279 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 59.867 BTUs per pound. To achieve such a change in properties of the working fluid water at 70° F. can be fed through condenser 90 and exiting at 157.15 BTUs per pound (or 157.15 BTUs per minute). Next, the working fluid is pumped by pump 100 and leaves at 70° F., at a pressure of 194.09 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 60.22 BTUs per pound. The mechanical input to pump 100 can be 0.3618 BTUs per pound or 0.3618 BTUs per minute. Next, the working fluid enters heat exchanger 50 and exits at 190° F., at a pressure of 173.25 pounds per square inch, and having a heat content of 256.374 BTUs per pound. The heat gain for the working fluid entering heat exchanger 50 can be 196.154 BTUs per pound (or 196.154 BTUs per minute).

The working fluid for cycle 20 can be R11. The working fluid for cycle 30 can be R600. The ratios of flow rates for R11 to R600 can be 2.123 to 1. For example, the flow rate of R11 can be 2.123 pounds per minute and the flow rate of R600 can be 1 pound per minute. FIG. 5 is a pressure-enthalpy diagram for R11. FIG. 6 is a pressure-enthalpy diagram for R600. In both FIGS. 5 and 6 pressure is on the y-axis and enthalpy is on the x-axis. Tables 1A and 1B list various thermophysical properties for R11. Tables 2A and 2B list various thermophysical properties for R600.

TABLE 1A
Refrigerant 11 (Trichlorofluoromethane) Properties of Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor
Density,Volume,Enthalpy,Entropy,Specific Heat cp,
Temp,*Pressure,lb/ft3ft3/lbBtu/lbBtu/lb · ° F.Btu/lb · ° F.
° F.psiaLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVapor
−166.85a 0.001110.4124230.−24.92273.328−0.070850.264670.1005
−160.00 0.002109.9314650.−23.11674.019−0.064740.259400.18400.1019
−150.00 0.003109.237355.6−21.26775.045−0.058670.252350.18600.1038
−140.00 0.006108.523882.0−19.39876.088−0.052730.245970.18780.1058
−130.00 0.012107.812143.2−17.51177.149−0.046920.240220.18940.1077
−120.00 0.022107.091232.5−15.61078.226−0.041230.235020.19090.1095
−110.00 0.037106.37735.62−13.69479.318−0.035680.230320.19220.1114
−100.00 0.062105.65454.14−11.76780.425−0.030240.226080.19330.1133
−90.00 0.100104.92289.15−9.82981.546−0.024930.222250.19430.1151
−80.00 0.156104.19189.37−7.88082.681−0.019730.218800.19530.1170
−70.00 0.239103.46127.27−5.92383.827−0.014640.215680.19620.1188
−60.00 0.355102.7387.583−3.95784.986−0.009660.212880.19700.1206
−50.00 0.517101.9961.601−1.98386.155−0.004780.210360.19780.1225
−40.00 0.738101.2544.2030.00087.3350.000000.208100.19860.1243
−30.00 1.032100.5032.3101.99188.5240.004690.206080.19940.1262
−20.00 1.41999.7524.0223.98989.7210.009280.204270.20020.1280
−10.00 1.91899.0018.1435.99790.9270.013800.202670.20110.1298
 0.002.55498.2413.9038.01392.1390.018230.201240.20200.1316
 5.002.93197.8612.2339.02492.7470.020410.200590.20240.1325
10.003.35297.4810.79810.03893.3570.022580.199980.20290.1334
15.003.82297.099.560611.05493.9670.024730.199410.20330.1343
20.004.34396.718.490612.07294.5790.026860.198870.20380.1352
25.004.92096.327.562113.09395.1920.028980.198370.20430.1361
30.005.55795.936.753614.11795.8060.031080.197900.20480.1370
35.006.25995.546.047715.14396.4200.033160.197470.20530.1379
40.007.03195.145.429416.17297.0350.035230.197060.20590.1388
45.007.87694.754.886317.20397.6500.037280.196680.20640.1397
50.008.80094.354.408018.23898.2650.039310.196330.20700.1406
55.009.80993.953.985619.27598.8800.041340.196010.20750.1415
60.0010.90793.553.611620.31599.4950.043340.195710.20810.1424
65.0012.09993.143.279521.358100.1090.045340.195430.20870.1433
70.0013.39292.732.984122.405100.7230.047320.195180.20930.1442
 74.67b14.69692.352.736923.386101.2970.049160.194960.20990.1451
75.0014.79092.332.720623.455101.3370.049280.194950.21000.1452
80.0016.30191.912.485124.507101.9490.051240.194730.21060.1461
85.0017.92991.502.274125.564102.5600.053180.194540.21130.1470
90.0019.68191.082.084626.624103.1700.055110.194370.21190.1479
95.0021.56390.661.914227.687103.7780.057030.194210.21260.1489
Velocity ofViscosity,Thermal Cond,Surface
Temp,*cp/cvSound, ft/slbm/ft · hBtu/h · ft · ° F.Tension,Temp,*
° F.VaporLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVapordyne/cm° F.
−166.85a 1.1680352.−166.85
−160.00 1.1655356.−160.00
−150.00 1.16203953.361.35.26−150.00
−140.00 1.15883895.366.34.44−140.00
−130.00 1.15583829.371.33.63−130.00
−120.00 1.15313758.376.32.82−120.00
−110.00 1.15063684.381.32.01−110.00
−100.00 1.14823609.386.31.21−100.00
−90.00 1.14613533.391.30.41−90.00
−80.00 1.14423457.396.29.62−80.00
−70.00 1.14253382.400.28.83−70.00
−60.00 1.14103308.405.28.04−60.00
−50.00 1.13963235.409.27.26−50.00
−40.00 1.13843163.414.26.49−40.00
−30.00 1.13743093.418.25.72−30.00
−20.00 1.13663024.422.1.8890.02220.059524.95−20.00
−10.00 1.13602955.426.1.7820.02270.058724.19−10.00
 0.001.13562888.430.1.6780.02310.057923.430.00
 5.001.13542855.432.1.6270.02330.057523.055.00
10.001.13542822.433.1.5780.02360.057122.6810.00
15.001.13532789.435.1.5290.02380.056722.3015.00
20.001.13542757.437.1.4820.02400.056321.9320.00
25.001.13552725.438.1.4360.02430.055921.5625.00
30.001.13562693.440.1.3900.02450.055521.1930.00
35.001.13582661.442.1.3470.02470.05510.0047020.8235.00
40.001.13612629.443.1.3040.02500.05480.0047520.4540.00
45.001.13642598.444.1.2620.02520.05440.0048020.0845.00
50.001.13682567.446.1.2220.02540.05400.0048519.7250.00
55.001.13732536.447.1.1830.02560.05360.0049019.3555.00
60.001.13782505.448.1.1450.02590.05320.0049518.9960.00
65.001.13852474.450.1.1090.02610.05280.0050118.6365.00
70.001.13922444.451.1.0730.02640.05240.0050618.2770.00
 74.67b1.13992415.452.1.0410.02660.05210.0051117.9474.67
75.001.14002413.452.1.0390.02660.05210.0051217.9175.00
80.001.14092383.453.1.0060.02680.05170.0051717.5680.00
85.001.14192353.454.0.9740.02710.05130.0052317.2085.00
90.001.14292323.455.0.9430.02730.05090.0052816.8590.00
95.001.14412293.456.0.9130.02760.05050.0053416.4995.00

*temperatures are on the ITS-90 scale

a = triple point

b = normal boiling point

c = critical point

TABLE 1B
Refrigerant 11 (Trichlorofluoromethane) Properties of Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor
Density,Volume,Enthalpy,Entropy,Specific Heat cp,
Temp,*Pressure,lb/ft3ft3/lbBtu/lbBtu/lb · ° F.Btu/lb · ° F.
° F.psiaLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVapor
100.0023.58190.231.760528.754104.3840.058940.194070.21340.1498
105.0025.74389.811.621729.825104.9890.060830.193940.21410.1508
110.0028.05389.381.496030.900105.5910.062720.193830.21490.1518
115.0030.52088.941.382131.978106.1910.064590.193740.21560.1528
120.0033.15088.511.278733.060106.7880.066460.193650.21640.1538
125.0035.95088.071.184634.147107.3820.068320.193580.21720.1548
130.0038.92687.621.098835.238107.9740.070170.193520.21810.1558
135.0042.08787.171.020536.333108.5620.072000.193460.21890.1569
140.0045.43986.720.948937.433109.1460.073830.193420.21980.1580
145.0048.98986.260.883338.537109.7270.075650.193390.22070.1591
150.0052.74585.800.823239.646110.3040.077470.193360.22170.1602
160.0060.90584.860.717241.878111.4450.081070.193330.22360.1626
170.0069.97983.910.627344.130112.5660.084640.193330.22570.1650
180.0080.03082.930.550646.403113.6660.088190.193340.22790.1677
190.0091.12081.930.484948.699114.7430.091710.193370.23030.1705
200.00103.3180.900.428351.019115.7930.095210.193410.23280.1735
210.00116.6879.850.379353.364116.8150.098700.193440.23560.1768
220.00131.2878.770.336755.736117.8050.102160.193480.23850.1804
230.00147.1877.650.299658.136118.7600.105610.193510.24180.1844
240.00164.4676.500.267060.567119.6770.109050.193530.24530.1888
250.00183.1975.300.238463.032120.5510.112480.193530.24930.1937
260.00203.4374.060.213165.533121.3780.115910.193510.25370.1993
270.00225.2672.780.190668.074122.1520.119340.193460.25870.2057
280.00248.7771.430.170670.659122.8670.122780.193360.26450.2131
290.00274.0370.010.152873.294123.5130.126230.193220.27130.2219
300.00301.1268.510.136775.985124.0820.129700.193010.27940.2326
310.00330.1466.920.122278.742124.5590.133200.192730.28940.2457
320.00361.1865.210.109081.578124.9260.136750.192350.30200.2625
330.00394.3663.350.097084.510125.1590.140370.191840.31880.2848
340.00429.7861.290.085987.565125.2200.144080.191170.34230.3159
350.00467.6058.970.075590.787125.0540.147940.190260.37780.3628
360.00507.9856.240.065794.248124.5610.152030.189010.43760.4418
370.00551.1552.860.056198.092123.5410.156510.187180.55700.6042
380.00597.4948.250.0458102.678121.4170.161800.18412
 388.33c639.2734.590.0289112.749112.7490.173500.17350
Velocity ofViscosity,Thermal Cond,Surface
Temp,*cp/cvSound, ft/slbm/ft · hBtu/h · ft · ° F.Tension,Temp,*
° F.VaporLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVapordyne/cm° F.
100.001.14542263.456.0.8840.02780.05020.0054016.14100.00
105.001.14682234.457.0.8560.02810.04980.0054615.79105.00
110.001.14832204.458.0.8290.02830.04940.0055215.45110.00
115.001.15002174.458.0.8040.02860.04900.00559115.00
120.001.15172145.459.0.7780.02880.04860.00565120.00
125.001.15362115.459.0.7540.02910.04830.00572125.00
130.001.15572086.459.0.7310.02930.04790.00578130.00
135.001.15792057.459.0.7080.02960.04750.00585135.00
140.001.16022027.459.0.6870.02990.04710.00592140.00
145.001.16281998.460.0.6660.03020.04680.00599145.00
150.001.16551969.459.0.6460.03040.04640.00606150.00
160.001.17151910.459.0.6070.03100.04560.00621160.00
170.001.17831851.458.0.5720.03160.04490.00637170.00
180.001.18611793.457.0.5390.03220.04420.00654180.00
190.001.19501734.456.0.5080.03280.04340.00671190.00
200.001.20521675.454.0.4790.03340.04270.00689200.00
210.001.21691615.451.0.4530.03410.04190.00707210.00
220.001.23021555.448.0.4280.03470.04120.00727220.00
230.001.24561495.445.0.4040.03540.04040.00748230.00
240.001.26341434.441.0.3830.03620.03970.00769240.00
250.001.28421372.437.0.3630.03690.03900.00792250.00
260.001.30861309.432.0.3440.03770.03820.00815260.00
270.001.33751245.426.0.3260.03850.03750.00840270.00
280.001.37211180.420.0.3100.03930.03670.00866280.00
290.001.41421114.413.0.2940.04010.03600.00893290.00
300.001.46631046.406.0.2800.04100.03520.00921300.00
310.001.5322976.397.310.00
320.001.6179904.388.320.00
330.001.7336830.378.330.00
340.001.8976752.366.340.00
350.002.1476671.354.350.00
360.002.5730586.340.360.00
370.003.4525499.325.370.00
380.00380.00
 388.33c0.0.0.00388.33

TABLE 2A
Refrigerant 600 (n-Butane) Properties of Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor
Pres-Density,Volume,Enthalpy,Entropy,Specific Heat cp,
Temp,*sure,lb/ft3ft3/lbBtu/lbBtu/lb · ° F.Btu/lb · ° F.
° F.psiaLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVapor
−150.00 0.02143.722680.0−54.034145.702−0.149040.495950.48040.2930
−140.00 0.03843.391536.9−49.229148.643−0.133770.485220.48070.2971
−130.00 0.06643.06917.01−44.419151.622−0.118950.475700.48150.3012
−120.00 0.11042.74567.05−39.597154.636−0.104550.467280.48290.3055
−110.00 0.17842.41362.20−34.759157.687−0.090510.459850.48480.3099
−100.00 0.27842.08238.26−29.899160.772−0.076810.453320.48730.3145
−90.00 0.42341.75160.98−25.011163.890−0.063400.447590.49030.3192
−80.00 0.62641.41111.45−20.090167.042−0.050270.442610.49380.3241
−70.00 0.90741.0878.895−15.133170.225−0.037390.438290.49760.3292
−60.00 1.28540.7456.999−10.134173.438−0.024730.434580.50190.3344
−50.00 1.78640.4041.955−5.091176.679−0.012270.431430.50650.3399
−40.00 2.43840.0631.4140.000179.9460.000000.428780.51140.3456
−30.00 3.27339.7123.8935.142183.2380.012100.426590.51650.3515
−20.00 4.32739.3618.43610.337186.5520.024040.424830.52190.3576
−10.00 5.63839.0114.41615.587189.8870.035830.423450.52750.3640
 0.007.25138.6611.41020.896193.2400.047490.422420.53340.3706
 5.008.18438.4810.19423.573194.9220.053280.422030.53640.3740
10.009.21138.309.132926.266196.6080.059030.421710.53940.3774
15.0010.33738.128.203128.974198.2980.064750.421470.54260.3810
20.0011.56937.937.386331.698199.9910.070450.421300.54570.3845
25.0012.91437.756.666634.438201.6860.076120.421190.54890.3882
30.0014.37837.566.030937.194203.3840.081760.421150.55220.3919
 31.03b14.69637.525.909037.765203.7350.082920.421150.55280.3927
35.0015.96937.385.467739.967205.0840.087380.421170.55550.3957
40.0017.69337.194.967642.757206.7860.092970.421250.55880.3995
45.0019.55937.004.522445.564208.4900.098540.421380.56220.4035
50.0021.57436.814.125148.389210.1940.104090.421560.56570.4074
55.0023.74636.623.769751.231211.8990.109620.421800.56920.4115
60.0026.08136.423.451254.091213.6050.115130.422080.57280.4157
65.0028.59036.233.164956.970215.3110.120620.422410.57640.4199
70.0031.27936.032.907259.867217.0170.126090.422780.58010.4242
75.0034.15735.832.674762.783218.7210.131540.423190.58390.4286
80.0037.23235.632.464665.719220.4250.136970.423640.58770.4331
85.0040.51335.422.274268.673222.1270.142390.424130.59160.4377
90.0044.00935.222.101571.648223.8270.147800.424650.59560.4424
95.0047.72835.011.944574.643225.5240.153180.425200.59970.4472
Velocity ofViscosity,Thermal Cond,Surface
Temp,*cp/cvSound, ft/slbm/ft · hBtu/h · ft · ° F.Tension,Temp,*
° F.VaporLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVapordyne/cm° F.
−150.00 1.13234976.548.1.9450.01090.09910.0036228.19−150.00
−140.00 1.13044906.556.1.7370.01120.09670.0038127.41−140.00
−130.00 1.12864833.564.1.5640.01150.09430.0039926.64−130.00
−120.00 1.12684757.572.1.4160.01180.09210.0041925.87−120.00
−110.00 1.12514678.579.1.2900.01210.09010.0043925.11−110.00
−100.00 1.12364597.587.1.1820.01240.08810.0045924.35−100.00
−90.00 1.12214514.594.1.0870.01270.08620.0048023.59−90.00
−80.00 1.12084428.601.1.0030.01300.08430.0050222.84−80.00
−70.00 1.11964341.608.0.9300.01330.08260.0052422.10−70.00
−60.00 1.11854252.614.0.8650.01360.08090.0054721.36−60.00
−50.00 1.11774161.620.0.8060.01390.07930.0057120.63−50.00
−40.00 1.11704070.626.0.7540.01430.07770.0059519.90−40.00
−30.00 1.11663977.631.0.7060.01460.07620.0062119.18−30.00
−20.00 1.11633883.637.0.6630.01490.07470.0064718.46−20.00
−10.00 1.11633788.641.0.6230.01530.07330.0067417.75−10.00
0.001.11663693.646.0.5870.01560.07190.0070117.040.00
5.001.11683645.648.0.5700.01580.07120.0071616.695.00
10.001.11713597.650.0.5540.01590.07050.0073016.3410.00
15.001.11753549.651.0.5390.01610.06980.0074516.0015.00
20.001.11803500.653.0.5240.01630.06910.0076015.6520.00
25.001.11853452.655.0.5090.01650.06850.0077515.3125.00
30.001.11913403.656.0.4950.01660.06780.0079014.9630.00
 31.03b1.11933393.656.0.4920.01670.06770.0079314.8931.03
35.001.11983354.657.0.4820.01680.06720.0080614.6235.00
40.001.12063305.659.0.4690.01700.06650.0082214.2840.00
45.001.12153256.660.0.4560.01720.06590.0083813.9445.00
50.001.12253207.661.0.4440.01740.06520.0085413.6150.00
55.001.12363158.661.0.4320.01760.06460.0087113.2755.00
60.001.12483108.662.0.4210.01780.06390.0088812.9460.00
65.001.12613059.662.0.4100.01790.06330.0090512.6165.00
70.001.12763009.663.0.4000.01810.06270.0092312.2870.00
75.001.12912960.663.0.3890.01830.06210.0094111.9575.00
80.001.13082910.663.0.3790.01850.06140.0095911.6380.00
85.001.13262860.663.0.3700.01870.06080.0097711.3085.00
90.001.13462810.663.0.3600.01890.06020.0099610.9890.00
95.001.13672760.662.0.3510.01910.05960.0101510.6695.00

*temperatures are on the IPTS-68 scale

b = normal boiling point

c = critical point

TABLE 2B
Refrigerant 600 (n-Butane) Properties of Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor
Pres-Density,Volume,Enthalpy,Entropy,Specific Heat cp,
Temp,*sure,lb/ft3ft3/lbBtu/lbBtu/lb · ° F.Btu/lb · ° F.
° F.psiaLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVapor
100.0051.67934.801.801577.658227.2190.158560.425790.60380.4521
105.0055.87134.591.671180.694228.9090.163920.426400.60800.4571
110.0060.31434.371.551983.752230.5960.169270.427040.61230.4622
115.0065.01534.151.442886.831232.2780.174610.427700.61680.4675
120.0069.98633.931.342989.933233.9540.179930.428390.62130.4729
125.0075.23433.711.251193.057235.6250.185250.429090.62590.4784
130.0080.77033.481.166796.204237.2880.190560.429820.63070.4841
135.0086.60333.251.088999.375238.9450.195860.430560.63560.4900
140.0092.74333.021.0173102.570240.5920.201150.431310.64060.4961
145.0099.19932.780.9511105.790242.2310.206440.432080.64580.5023
150.00105.9832.540.8899109.035243.8590.211720.432860.65120.5088
155.00113.1032.300.8332112.306245.4760.217000.433650.65670.5156
160.00120.5732.050.7807115.604247.0810.222270.434440.66250.5226
165.00128.3931.800.7319118.930248.6720.227540.435240.66850.5298
170.00136.5931.540.6865122.284250.2490.232810.436040.67470.5374
175.00145.1631.280.6443125.668251.8090.238090.436840.68120.5454
180.00154.1231.010.6049129.082253.3510.243360.437630.68800.5537
185.00163.4830.730.5682132.527254.8730.248640.438420.69510.5626
190.00173.2530.460.5339136.006256.3740.253920.439200.70260.5719
195.00183.4530.170.5018139.518257.8510.259210.439960.71060.5817
200.00194.0929.880.4717143.066259.3020.264510.440710.71900.5923
210.00216.7129.270.4170150.277262.1130.275150.442150.73770.6157
220.00241.2328.620.3687157.654264.7830.285850.443470.75940.6433
230.00267.7627.940.3256165.218267.2760.296640.444620.78530.6766
240.00296.4227.200.2871173.001269.5480.307570.445560.81730.7182
250.00327.3426.400.2523181.042271.5330.318680.446190.85870.7726
260.00360.6925.510.2207189.406273.1350.330050.446390.91550.8484
270.00396.6424.500.1915198.197274.2030.341810.445971.00080.9633
280.00435.4323.320.1640207.608274.4580.354210.444591.14901.1632
290.00477.3621.800.1370218.088273.2820.367820.441441.48521.6136
300.00522.9519.410.1068231.321268.4720.384810.43371
 305.62c550.5614.220.0703251.554251.5540.410930.41093
Velocity ofViscosity,Thermal Cond,Surface
Temp,*cp/cvSound, ft/slbm/ft · hBtu/h · ft · ° F.Tension,Temp,*
° F.VaporLiquidVaporLiquidVaporLiquidVapordyne/cm° F.
100.001.13902710.662.0.3420.01940.05900.0103510.34100.00
105.001.14152660.661.0.3330.01960.05840.0105510.03105.00
110.001.14422610.660.0.3250.01980.05780.010759.71110.00
115.001.14702559.659.0.3160.02000.05720.010969.40115.00
120.001.15012509.657.0.3080.02020.05660.011179.09120.00
125.001.15342459.656.0.3010.02040.05600.011388.78125.00
130.001.15702408.654.0.2930.02070.05540.011608.48130.00
135.001.16092357.652.0.2850.02090.05480.011828.18135.00
140.001.16502307.650.0.2780.02110.05420.012057.88140.00
145.001.16952256.647.0.2710.02140.05360.012287.58145.00
150.001.17442205.645.0.2640.02160.05300.012517.28150.00
155.001.17962154.642.0.2570.02190.05240.012756.99155.00
160.001.18532103.639.0.2500.02210.05190.013006.70160.00
165.001.19152052.635.0.2430.02240.05130.013256.41165.00
170.001.19822001.632.0.2370.02270.05070.013506.12170.00
175.001.20551949.628.0.2300.02290.05010.013765.84175.00
180.001.21351898.624.0.2240.02320.04960.014035.56180.00
185.001.22221846.619.0.2180.02350.04900.014305.28185.00
190.001.23181794.615.0.2120.02380.04840.014585.01190.00
195.001.24241742.610.0.2060.02410.04790.014864.74195.00
200.001.25401690.604.0.2000.02440.04730.015164.47200.00
210.001.28141585.593.0.1880.02510.04620.015773.94210.00
220.001.31581480.579.0.1770.02580.04510.016413.43220.00
230.001.35991372.565.0.1650.02660.04400.017102.93230.00
240.001.41831263.548.0.1540.02740.04300.017842.45240.00
250.001.49881152.529.0.1430.02840.04190.018661.99250.00
260.001.61571038.509.0.1320.02950.04080.019621.55260.00
270.001.8000918.485.0.1210.03080.03960.020821.14270.00
280.002.1306792.459.0.1090.03250.03870.022560.75280.00
290.002.8921655.428.0.0960.03480.03840.025710.40290.00
300.000.0790.03920.11300.00
 305.62c0.0.0.00305.62

The performance index of Cycle No. 1 (cycle 20): Q@THQ Mech. Input
is 6.514. The per unit available energy of Cycle No. 2 (cycle 30) is 0.2006. The product of these performances, the net mechanical energy output per unit of mechanical energy per input is 6.514×0.2006=1.307. Thus, the system will sustain its own operation plus produce mechanical energy for other uses by extracting energy from the ambient environment.

The following is a list of reference numerals:

LIST FOR REFERENCE NUMERALS
(Part No.)(Description)
10preferred embodiment of the present invention
20refrigeration/heat pump cycle
30power cycle
40compressor
50heat exchanger
60expansion valve
70evaporator
80engine
90condenser
100pump
110pressure
120enthalpy
130pressure
140enthalpy

All measurements disclosed herein are at standard temperature and pressure, at sea level on Earth, unless indicated otherwise. All materials used or intended to be used in a human being are biocompatible, unless indicated otherwise.

It will be understood that each of the elements described above, or two or more together may also find a useful application in other types of methods differing from the type described above. Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can, by applying current knowledge, readily adapt it for various applications without omitting features that, from the standpoint of prior art, fairly constitute essential characteristics of the generic or specific aspects of this invention set forth in the appended claims. The foregoing embodiments are presented by way of example only; the scope of the present invention is to be limited only by the following claims.