Title:
Modular building construction employing concrete mold assembly
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A modular building construction where each module consists of self-contained molds to allow concrete to form within the walls of each module as well as between the modules when two or more modules are placed together. The structural load capacities of the modules are transmitted directly into the concrete within the wall without bearing directly on the module below. The forming structure for the modules can be fabricated either using wood or metal construction. The exterior and interior wall finishes are the resulting structure of the molds. Since the molds are self-contained the walls can consist of, either drywall, rigid insulation, thin brick or siding just to name a few. The interior forming structure can extend into the concrete footing or above or to adjacent modules to structurally secure the modules together. The modules can be built with a flooring structure as well as ceiling. The interior walls as well as the floor and ceiling also function as wall supporting braces. The exterior walls have many different forming molds to accommodate many different construction situations. Some forming structures are formed with a thermal break between the exterior and interior forming structure. The thermal break allows the wall to also be used as a heating or cooling distribution system. Different types of connectors are described allowing for the connectors to be hidden. Several methods are shown how the electrical distribution can be provided within a concrete wall by using the forming structure within the mold. A ribbed concrete mold can be formed for a poured-in-place wall as well as for a floor and roof system. Temporary floor bracing can be used when pouring the flooring system, or only just the concrete beams can be poured and the floor can be poured later. The flooring system can be used as concrete wall or as a roof structure.



Inventors:
Leblang, Dennis William (Indio, CA, US)
Application Number:
10/988030
Publication Date:
03/01/2007
Filing Date:
11/12/2004
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/79.1, 52/79.2
International Classes:
E04H1/00; E04H3/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
A, PHI DIEU TRAN
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Dennis LeBlang (Palm Desert, CA, US)
Claims:
1. A building construction consisting of plural individual modules, each module is characterized by cavity walls comprising a self-contained mold for receiving concrete therein.

2. The construction according to claim 1 in which said walls are constructed of wood studs.

3. The construction according to claim 1 in which said walls are constructed of metal studs.

4. The construction according to claim 1 in which selected ones of said walls include an interior and an exterior finish.

5. The construction according to claim 1 in which selected ones of said walls extend downward whereby to enable formation of a continuous concrete footing when concrete is introduced into said one of said walls.

6. The construction according to claim 1 in which said structure includes a roof portion capable of receiving concrete introduced therein.

7. The construction according to claim 1 in which steel reinforcing means are introduced into said walls prior to introduction of concrete into said wall.

8. The construction according to claim 1 in which composite board forms the exterior finish of said walls.

9. The construction according to claim 1 in which a pair of modules are disposed separated by an air space, ceiling and floor joists span the full length of one of said modules and are connected by with solid bridging between each joist.

10. The construction according to claim 1 in which the exterior of the module wall is left with drywall, studs, ceiling joists, blocking, and floor joists.

11. The construction according to claim 1 in which the interior walls add additional bracing support to the exterior wall of the module.

12. The construction according to claim 9 in which floor and ceiling joists overlap the studs allowing concrete to flow under the joists whereby to form a solid concrete base so as to permanently rest upon the modules.

13. The construction according to claim 1 in which rigid insulation at the interior of the wall provides a thermal break between two separate chambers for installing concrete on either side of the thermal break.

14. The construction according to claim 13 in which the separate chambers are filled with two different materials on either side of the wall, one side having sand within one chamber and having gravel within the other chamber whereby the wall is provided with mass and gravel likewise provides mass, stabilizes said wall and rigidifies said wall.

15. The construction according to claim 14 which included a radiant heating system is provided with said wall capable of heating said gravel stones.

16. The construction according to claim 14 in which a cooling coil is provided within said wall capable of cooling said gravel stones.

17. The construction according to claim 14 in which said radiant heating system includes a source of hot water.

18. The construction according to claim 14 in which said gravel functions as a storage system for a solar heating system.

19. The construction according to claim 1 in which wire mesh is installed on one side of said mold and a textured concrete finish is applied to said wire mesh.

20. The construction according to claim 1 in which said walls are formed of hat channels.

21. The construction according to claim 1 in which said hat channels comprise a forming structure.

22. The construction according to claim 1 in which wire mesh is installed on one side of said mold and concrete is inserted into the mold, through the wire mesh and then formed to a desired finish.

23. The construction according to claim 1 in which said wall structure has smaller vertical C channels and horizontal hat channels.

24. The construction according to claim 23 in which the small vertical C channel is located at the flange of the vertical C channel creating a hollow chamber for electrical wiring.

25. The construction according to claim 1 in which a vertical open passage is connected to a horizontal open passage within the concrete wall created by the forming structure members within the all and conned by a hole between two open passages so as to accommodate utility distribution within the wall.

26. The construction according to claim 21 in which said electrical wiring is connected to the horizontal hat channel.

27. The construction according to claim 21 in which said electrical wiring is passed through the horizontal and vertical hat channels.

28. The construction according to claim 21 in which said forming structure criss-cross each other forming a rigid frame.

29. The construction according to claim 1 in which the floor and wall are connected to form a wall brace support to the walls of the module.

30. The construction according to claim 1 in which the ceiling and wall are connected to form a wall brace support to the walls of the module.

31. The construction according to claim 1 where the structural load capacity of the module floor and ceiling joists are transmitted directly onto the concrete within the wall without bearing directly on the module below.

32. The construction according to claim 20 in which the open cavity of the hat channel when placed against the composite board provides access for utility distribution within a concrete wall.

33. The construction according to claim 20 in which the flanges of the hat channels hold the composite board to the forming structure without using fasteners.

34. The construction according to claim 20 in which the C portion of the hat channels is an access for utility distribution.

35. The construction according to claim 20 in which the forming structures have holes.

36. The construction according to claim 1 in which the forming structure of said walls extend above, below or adjacent to a wall mold whereby to connect the forming structure to the wall to an adjacent module and are embedded with the concrete wall.

37. The construction according to claim 13 in which the wall is double sided, where the forming structure is a mirror image on both sides of the rigid insulation in the middle of the wall.

38. The construction according to claim 1 in which the horizontal bracing channel braces the rigid insulation in securing the wall.

39. The construction according to claim 3 in which the flanges of the H channels support the outer surface of the wall.

40. The construction according to claim 1 in which the foam spacers are added to the interior of the wall resulting in a ribbed concrete structure.

41. The construction according to claim 40 in which said interior foam spacer when installed less than full height will have concrete beams criss-crossing the ribbed concrete structure.

42. The construction according to claim 1 in which a connector secures the finished rigid boards.

43. The construction according to claim 42 in which an H connector wraps the edges of the composite board of the surface of the wall mold and the connector is secured to said forming structure of the mold.

44. The construction according to claim 42 in which one end of a connector is partially embedded in the composite board of the wall mold and the other end of the connector has a lip that penetrates through the hole in the forming structure of the mold.

45. The construction according to claim 14 in which the wall mold plus the filled material within the wall forms a concrete beam.

46. The construction according to claim 1 in which control joints are secured to the forming structure of the mold.

47. The construction according to claim 1 in which an expansion joint is secured to the forming structure of the mold.

48. The construction according to claim 47 in which two C channels span the full width of the forming structure are separated by caulk.

49. The construction according to claim 4 in which the exterior finish includes siding.

50. The construction according to claim 49 in which a vapor barrier is behind the siding.

51. The construction according to claim 4 were brick is installed as part of the exterior finish.

52. The construction according to claim 1 in which the corners of the interior forming structure has metal angle corners.

53. The construction according to claim 1 in which a U channel support the floor and ceiling joists when attached to the interior forming structure.

54. The construction according to claim 1 in which a C channel provides load bearing support when attached to the interior forming structure.

55. The construction according to claim 53 in which the U channel is a decorative accent strip.

56. The construction according to claim 54 in which the C channel is a decorative accent strip.

57. The construction according to claim 1 in which a removable wall form is attached to the forming structure of the mold and removed upon the curing of the concrete.

58. The construction according to claim 57 in which wall ties connect to the interior structure of the wall mold through the removable form.

59. The construction according to claim 1 in which a ribbed shaped interior forming mold comprising a composite board, an array of metal framing members and interior foam spacers capable of receiving concrete therein.

60. The construction according to claim 59 in which metal framing is used to support the composite board and the interior foam spacers.

61. The construction according to claim 59 in which steel reinforcing is installed in the mold.

62. The construction according to claim 59 in which the interior foam spacers are tapered.

63. The construction according to claim 59 in which the concrete within the mold is be poured to only the height of the beams and cured.

64. The construction according to claim 63 in which additional steel reinforcing is added to the beam prior to curing.

65. The construction according to claim 63 in which additional concrete is installed over the beams after the concrete beams have cured.

66. The construction according to claim 63 in which additional utilities are installed above the interior foam spacers.

67. The construction according to claim 59 in which the interior foam spacers are less than full length of the beams allowing installation of crossing beams to be installed.

68. The construction according to claim 59 in which temporary scaffolding can be installed.

69. The construction according to claim 59 in which includes a roof portion.

70. The construction according to claim 59 in which includes a floor portion.

71. The construction according to claim 69 in which the soffit, fascia and gutter is installed as an integral part of the roof portion.

72. The construction according to claim 69 in which the horizontal beam connects the wall to the roof portion.

73. The construction according to claim 69 in which additional hat channels are embedded in the roof portion prior to the curing of said concrete creating an air space under the roof shingles.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention is directed to a modular building construction involving the assembly of panelized and modular building units manufactured off site and installed on site, said units employing on site molded concrete juncture means, said units consisting of walled one, or a combination of walls, floor and ceiling section modules assembled and unified on site.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART

The building has been constructed by the assembly of off site manufactured floor, wall and ceiling components brought to a building site and individually installed and unified at a construction site as a unified structure. The finished materials are exposed to the inside of the structure, for example, typically drywall is installed on the walls and ceiling. The floor of the unit is usually finished in carpet, ceramic or vinyl tile with the under layer of the floor being either concrete or wood sub floor finished. However, conventionally is brought to the construction site unfinished on the interior with an exterior sheathing, such as plywood or insulation, forming a structural system of wood joists or metal light gauge metal channels. After the floor, walls and ceilings are installed, lightweight concrete is poured over the plywood subfloor as sometimes required by National Building Codes.

In modular construction, the walls, floor and ceiling components are brought to the construction site as a single unit. The panelized technique has similar size restrictions, but constructing a modular component under the same limitations is more difficult. The width of all modular construction components are the width of what can be transported via a truck plus not exceeding the height limitations under bridges.

In panelized construction, the finished interior of the building is left exposed with the wood studs or galvanized metal channels. Sheathing is installed on the exterior side of the wall. For the interior panelized walls, the structural system is exposed and no sheathing or interior finish is shipped with the panel.

Modular construction involves the shipment of an entire three-dimensional structure, the interior being finished with dry wall or other material that is specified for that specific project. For the interior panelized walls, the structural system is exposed and no sheathing or interior finish is shipped with the panel since the visible shipped transported unit having the visible finish that is the exterior structure of wood studs or galvanized metal channels. It is noted that the construction industry ships bathroom modulars, portions or sections of housing units, kitchen modulars, hotel room modulars, and jail cell modulars just to name a few.

A building can contain many smaller modules, which will then become a part of a larger unit module. When these various modules are installed at a building site, such modules can be placed adjacent to each other or can have a void between the modules. This void functions as the mold into which concrete can be installed so as to create a greater structural system, stronger than any of its parts. The concrete wall also has a mass and mass reduces sound transmission, for example, between one apartment and another apartment. In addition, concrete is a fire rated material; the thicker the concrete, the greater the fire protection. For example, a 12-inch concrete wall is rated as a 4-hour wall and a six-inch wall will be rated only as a two-hour wall. The thicker the wall, the longer it takes for a fire to penetrate or spread to another area of the building. Concrete forms are installed on both sides of a concrete wall and tied together with a form tie. Reinforcing bars are added between the forms and the forms are sprayed with a release agent prior to pouring concrete between the forms. After the concrete is poured and the concrete has cured enough, the forms are removed. The exposed concrete is the remaining finish of the wall. After the forms are removed, the walls are furred out, that is additional wood or steel furring strips are added inside surface can be installed and dry wall can be added to create an interior finished wall surface.

Another method of building concrete walls is described as an “ICF”, i.e. an “Insulated Concrete Form”. This method involves rigid insulation being used to create the outside surface and ties are used to hold the insulation together creating the mold into which concrete can be poured. Reinforcing bars are added into the insulated concrete form and exterior temporary wall bracing is installed for lateral bracing. In this case, the insulation remains as the exterior finish of the wall. After the wall is poured, the insulation is hollowed out for the electrical wiring, the drywall is glued onto the wall or additional furring strips are added and then the drywall is added to create the interior finished wall surface.

The invention provides a self-contained mold formed by installation of two or more modules spaced apart to allow for concrete to form between the modules. The wall can be formed of metal or wood construction, preferably having an interior finish, which is to be the interior finish of the resulting structure. Reinforcing bars are added into the mold and floors, ceilings and interior walls are installed for wall bracing. In this case the insulation or wallboard, siding or brick remains as the exterior finish of the wall. The electrical distribution is distributed through the interior forming structure of the individual wall.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is an isometric representation of modular building components stacked on top of each other and joined together to form a larger unit or building component.

FIG. 1A is an isometric enlargement of two adjacent modules;

FIG. 2 is a representation of a modular wall section showing two adjacent modules installed adjacent to each other, the modules being illustrated separated with an air space between them. One of the modules is shown separated from the wall mold prior to being installed on the job site.

FIG. 2A is a diagrammatic representation showing the relationship of a single portion of one of the adjacent walls shown in FIG. 2;

FIG. 3 is a plan section taken along line B-B of FIG. 2 showing the mold formed by placing two modules adjacent to one another, but yet separated apart to form the mold for concrete to be installed; wall-forming ties being illustrated as installed between the one module and another module;

FIG. 4 illustrates a wall section of a panelized construction;

FIG. 4A is a diagrammatic representation showing the relationship of a single portion of one of the adjacent walls shown in FIG. 4;

FIG. 5 is an isometric representation of two modules placed adjacent to one another, one of the modules illustrating the various components that make-up the module being coupled to the adjacent module;

FIG. 6 illustrates a wall section showing a pair of modules installed near each other but separated by an air space, one of the modules being a modular wood construction;

FIG. 6A is a diagrammatic representation of a module wall illustrated in FIG. 6, showing the components of the module construction adjacent the wall section illustrated in FIG. 6;

FIG. 7 is a plan view of a concrete mold formed by placing two modules adjacent to one another, but yet separated apart to constitute a mold for concrete to be installed, said view showing the wood studs and the floor and ceiling joists overlapping the wood studs.

FIG. 8 is a sectional view of a panelized wood construction illustrating two separate building module units that are installed near each other, but separated by an air space. One of the building units is illustrated as separated from the from the wall mold prior to being installed at the job site as well as separated by the wall, floor and ceiling building components;

FIG. 8A is a diagrammatic illustration showing the relationship of elements of FIG. 8 of the wall section illustrated in FIG. 8 to the adjacent module;

FIG. 9 illustrates a modification of the panelized wood construction shown in FIG. 8;

FIG. 9A is a diagrammatic illustration showing the relationship of elements of FIG. 9 to the wall section illustrated in FIG. 9 to the adjacent module;

FIG. 10 is an isometric representation of a module having a thin wall of a module building using one of many types of poured-in-place wall construction where only a portion of the wall is filled with concrete and the remainder of the wall interior is left exposed for future electrical installations.

FIG. 11 is a section of the wall construction of FIG. 10 taken along line A-A of FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is a plan view of the wall construction of FIG. 10 taken along line B-B of FIG. 10;

FIG. 13 is an isometric view of the wall construction of FIGS. 10-12 in which the wall is constructed as a double-sided construction;

FIG. 14 is a section of the wall construction of FIG. 13 taken along line A-A of FIG. 13;

FIG. 15 is a plan view taken through line B-B of FIG. 13;

FIG. 16 is an isometric representation of a wall construction using only hat channels as a supporting system.

FIG. 17 is a section of the wall of FIG. 16 taken along line A-A of FIG. 16;

FIG. 18 is a plan section of the wall of FIG. 16 taken along the line B-B of FIG. 16;

FIG. 19 is an isometric representation of a similar wall construction shown in FIGS. 16-18 except here is a double-sided, i.e. a thicker wall with an interior rigid insulation thermal break similar to a precast concrete wall with rigid insulation in the interior;

FIG. 20 is a plan section taken along the line B-B of FIG. 19. The wall construction is built in the same manner, that is, where hat channels are placed on a table the length of the wall;

FIGS. 21-24 show a construction similar to the construction shown in FIGS. 19-20 where horizontal hat channels are spaced between rigid insulation and the open side of the hat channel facing the interior side of the wall;

FIG. 21 is an isometric representation of the construction using hat channels as a supporting system and an electrical distribution system;

FIG. 22 is a wall section taken through line A-A of FIG. 21;

FIG. 23 is a plan section taken through line B-B of FIG. 21;

FIG. 24 is a vertical wall section taken through hat channel 78 of FIG. 21;

FIGS. 25-31 illustrate a wall structure having smaller vertical C channels and horizontal hat channels to create a wall structure;

FIG. 25 is an isometric drawing of the wall construction showing the vertical C-channels extending below the interior structure of the wall form into a concrete footing, which can be installed simultaneously with the concrete within the form:

FIG. 25A is an enlarged isometric showing the vertical electrical distribution with the wall;

FIG. 26 is a wall section taken along taken along line A-A of FIG. 25;

FIG. 27 is a plan section taken along lines B-B of FIG. 25;

FIGS. 28-31 illustrate a wall structure where the interior structure of the mold extends to the outside surface of the wall board or rigid insulation;

FIG. 28 is an isometric representation of the wall construction of FIG. 28;

FIG. 29 is a wall section shown along lines A-A of FIG. 28

FIG. 30 is a plan section taken along lines B-B of FIG. 28

FIG. 31 is an enlarged detail of the end of the U Channel and, instead of an angle added to the flange, the flange is bent 180 degrees and extends beyond the web of the U-Channel;

FIG. 32 is an enlarged detail of the end of the U Channel and shows an angle member attached to the web of the U Channel and being level to the flange of the U channel;

FIG. 33 is an isometric representation of the wall construction where the concrete structure within the wall is a vertical ribbed structure.

FIG. 34 is a wall section taken along lines A-A of FIG. 33 shows the interior rigid insulation not placed the full height of the wall, but shorter at both the top and bottom of the wall so concrete can form a beam at the top and bottom of the wall;

FIG. 35 is a plan section taken along section B-B of FIG. 33 shows holes in the hat channel allowing the concrete to flow more easily around and through the hat channels; additional hat channels being at the bottom of the wall due to increased pressure of the concrete at the bottom of the wall forming structure;

FIGS. 36 and 39 shows a wall construction similar to FIGS. 33 through 35 but instead of concrete being installed when the wall is erected in a vertical position, the concrete is installed in a horizontal position; the construction of the wall system being capable of being used either as a wall system, as a floor system or as a roof system;

FIG. 36 showing metal C channels spaced in an array and a flange of the C channels being attached to the rigid board and to metal C channels creating a rigid frame since they criss-cross each other;

FIG. 37 is similar to FIG. 36 and provides interior foam spacers tapered to be wider at the bottom of the beam;

FIG. 38 is similar to FIG. 37 but adds metal hat channels between two rigid boards below the metal C channels plus a larger C channel with wire mesh embedded in concrete floor;

FIG. 39 is similar to FIG. 38 except the depth of the concrete is deeper; a spacer being installed between the metal C channel and the rigid board below the beam for increased fireproofing;

FIG. 40 shows the flooring system attached to a vertical poured wall system plus a transverse beam criss-crossing the concrete floor beams;

FIGS. 41-45 show various types of connectors used to make the construction easier to build eliminating exposed screw connectors connecting the rigid wallboard to the interior structure of the wall;

FIG. 41 is similar to FIGS. 13 through 15, except an H channel is used in lieu of the hat channel;

FIG. 42 is similar to FIGS. 10 through 12 except H channels are used in lieu of fasteners connecting the rigid insulation;

FIG. 43 substitutes a center groove in the rigid insulation instead of H channels encasing the rigid insulation;

FIGS. 44 and 45 both show connectors embedded within a wallboard and protrude out to become a fastening method to secure said wallboard to the inner structure of the mold;

FIG. 44 has a space between the wallboard and the hat channel. The stem of the connector has a flange added to hold the connector in place. Both connectors have a V carrot at the end of the stem thereof that passes through a hole of the hat channel 86.

FIG. 45 is similar to the structure of FIG. 44 and has a space between the wallboard and the hat channel;

FIG. 46 is built using the same wall structure as shown in FIGS. 19 and 20. rigid insulation is in the middle of the wall provides a thermal break between the interior wall and exterior wall but provides separate chambers to install two different materials on either side of the wall gravel, stones and sand being among the materials employed;

FIG. 47 is built using the same wall structure as FIGS. 19 and 20;

FIG. 48 shows the same wall structure as FIGS. 19 and 47; wire mesh is installed over the outer hat channel. The wall is erected vertically, concrete is introduced, and flows through the wire mesh and into the skeleton chamber, excesses being removed by a trowel (not shown);

FIGS. 49 and 50 are similar in the wall construction, show control and expansion joints as decorative elements of the wall design;

FIG. 49 shows a control joint;

FIG. 50 shows an expansion joint attached to a C channel. Two full depth channels are shown back to back to each other with a space between their webs;

FIGS. 51 and 53 are similar to FIGS. 13 and 15 except the exterior rigid insulation is a siding;

FIG. 51 is an enlarged detail showing the siding attached to the wall forming structure such as aluminum siding, vinyl siding, wood siding or an exterior finish surfacing material which can be applied to a building exterior;

FIG. 52 is a wall section similar to FIG. 19 showing siding attached to the wall forming structure;

FIG. 53 is similar to the plan view such as earlier shown and earlier described with reference to the plan view of FIG. 20, showing exterior siding with vertical angles at the corners and the vertical and horizontal hat channels in the wall;

FIGS. 54 through 56 show an exterior finish material of thin brick attached to the wall forming structure and used as part of the mold;

FIG. 54 is an isometric view of the wall construction;

FIG. 55 is a wall section taken through section A-A of FIG. 54;

FIG. 56 is a plan view taken through line B-B of FIG. 54;

FIG. 57 through 59 are similar to the structures shown in FIGS. 54 through FIG. 56 except full width face bricks are used as part of the mold structure in lieu of the thin face bricks;

FIG. 57 is an isometric view of the wall construction;

FIG. 58 is a wall section taken along section line A-A of FIG. 57;

FIG. 59 is a plan view taken along line B-B of FIG. 57;

FIG. 60 shows how to make a corner using the wall structure shown in FIGS. 25 through 27;

FIG. 60A is a plan section of a corner wall panel;

FIG. 61 through FIG. 62 show a vertical wall sections similar to FIG. 26 with horizontal recessed grooves or horizontal projections for use as a structural support system or for architectural wall accents;

FIG. 61 illustrates a recessed U channel, normally called a ledger, to support the C channel floor joists;

FIG. 62 also has a horizontal U channel ledger, however this ledger is secured on the center C channel 88, and also FIG. 62 shows a C channel protruding from the main body of the wall;

FIG. 63 and FIG. 64 show similar looking architectural recessed grooves both showing the FIGURES show the same wall structure as FIG. 53 except here the metal angles have both angle legs exposed;

FIG. 63 is a sectional detail of an architectural groove shown in the elevation of the finished wall at FIG. 65;

FIG. 64 is a sectional detail of the architectural recessed groove shown in the finished wall at FIG. 65;

FIG. 65 is an elevation of a finished wall showing some of the recesses shown in FIGS. 63 and 64; the vertical recess on the left is shown in FIG. 63, the vertical recess on the right in FIG. 64; the recessed groove being shown in FIG. 64;

FIG. 66 is similar to FIG. 62, however the wall section shows how a steel bar joist is secured to the projection previously described in FIG. 62;

FIG. 67 shows a wall similar to FIG. 11, however the right side of the wall uses a conventional concrete form that is removed after the wall is poured;

FIG. 68 shows hat channels 132 as they would be laid out on a table (not shown) material is connected to the metal hat channels; wood or metal siding being shown and edge corner boards are installed at the edge of the panel;

FIG. 69 shows a building panel turned upside down with the exterior finish facing upside down. Metal C channels, where used, as wall studs and a metal base plate being installed at both ends of the C channel;

FIG. 70 illustrating a wall section shown in the opposite direction as FIGS. 68 and 69 with the exterior finish facing down. Metal C channels where used as wall studs and a metal base plate is installed at both ends of the Metal C channel;

FIG. 71 is similar to FIG. 70 except the concrete is poured to the full depth of the metal C channels. The thickness of the panel depending if the panel will be used as a structural element or just as a veneer to a greater structural system;

FIG. 72 illustrates a combination of a forming structure, showing a vertical wall similar to FIG. 34 and roof section detail similar to FIG. 36 showing how to connect a poured-in-place wall section with a precast roof panel;

FIG. 73 similar to FIG. 72 wherein a wall and roof structure is similar to FIG. 34 and where both the wall and roof structure are poured in place at the top of the wall and the ridge of the roof.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The self-contained mold according to the invention is formed by installation of two or more wall panels or the wall of several modular components placed adjacent to one another, however spaced apart to allow for concrete to form between the panels or modules. The wall sections can be composed of metal construction or wood construction with the interior finish, preferably, to be the interior finish of the structure. The structural wood studs or steel studs, as well as the interior finish material, as a part of the structure and are not removed. Both galvanized steel, or wood fire rating capabilities, however, are nothing like the fire rating of concrete. The encasement of the steel studs or wood studs into concrete, increasing the structural capacity, as well as increasing the fire rating of the wall component. The prevention of air around the wall studs decreases the cause for a fire to start. Increasing the size of wood studs increases the strength and decreases the gauge size.

The wall mold also encases the ceiling joist and the floor joists into the concrete. The encasement of the wood joist or steel joist is where the maximum moment occurs, that is, the greatest shear occurs due to the live and dead load weight the joists can carry. The extension of the ends of the joists beyond the width of the wall studs results in the joists being encased in concrete. To create a joist-bearing pocket in a concrete wall using conventional methods, a void has to be created at the location of the joist pocket.

The joist pocket must be larger than the size of the joist or beam entering into the concrete pocket. The void material and then must be removed, then the joist must be installed, mortar added around the joist securely to install the joist within the wall. By installing the joist to bear on the concrete 32 the joist will not move. The wood studs below could shrink, but the joist may not move thus reducing the settlement within the building forming systems considered wall systems and are comprised of wall forming structures. When the floor or ceiling component is attached to a forming wall and part of its wall forming structure to the concrete prior to pouring of the concrete, the floor component and ceiling component also become a part of the flooring structure.

Referring to FIG. 1, the isometric shows modular building components stacked on top of each other and jointed together; FIG. 1A is an enlargement of two adjacent building modular units. The isometric in FIG. 1 shows various modular units 10 that are stacked on top of each other and adjacent to one another, but are separated by a concrete wall 32a or structural/shear wall 38. It should be noted that the taller the building, the greater the wind loads are experienced. All buildings are required to withstand horizontal wind forces. The building structure must be designed for bending, requiring shear walls 38 to be added to the structure.

Another way to reduce bending is to install diagonal bracing between the columns in conventional construction, however by leaving a gap between modular units 10, a concrete wall 32a can be formed, creating a stronger wall and better than using diagonal braced walls. Wood framing 43 or light metal framing 45 have limited structural capabilities as well as fire limitations enforced by building codes. Therefore, either concrete or steel structural integrity must be used as subordinate building material have limited structural capabilities as well as fire limitations enforced by building codes. For example, to build a wood structure more than three stories high or five stories for a metal framing structure would not be permitted by building codes. Therefore, either a concrete or steel structural integrity must be used as subordinate building material.

A cut away section of two adjacent modules 10′ and 10″ is shown in FIG. 1A. The modules 10 are three-dimensional structures consisting of a wall 38, a floor 16 and a ceiling. The modules are built in a manufacturing plant, and finished on the interior, thereby leaving the structural system exposed on the exterior of the module where modules 10′ and 10″ abut one another. Other walls 38 of a modular are finished with an exterior finished material directly from the manufacturing plant. Modules are shipped by truck and hoisted by crane to its specified location within the building. As one module is installed, additional horizontal or vertical steel reinforcement 30 is added between one module 10′ and the other module 10″. The additional steel reinforcing increases the strength of the concrete wall 32a. As module 10′ is installed adjacent to module 10″, molds 12 are created between modules, into which concrete 32 is poured to form a concrete wall 32a. Some modules might have walls 38 that face the exterior, which can be finished with a variety of building materials and built using various wall forming structures 109, which when poured with concrete 32 become part of the concrete wall 32a. The forming structures 109 can extend above, below or adjacent to another mold 12 to become part of and adjacent module. A concrete floor 32b and ceiling joist's 18d are also part of the components of this module 10 that is shipped together as one unit module and are used as wall braces to secure the wall prior to pouring concrete. A building module can also be shipped as molds 12 or panels 36 where the concrete is installed after each panel 36 is installed in place. A module consists of separate floor panels 36a, wall panels 36b, ceiling panels 36c, and even roof panels 36d (not shown), which when installed together will complete a mold 12 of the module and a building. Many different types of molds 12 can be manufactured using wood construction or metal construction to build various types of walls 38. The molds can be finished with many different types of materials including drywall, fiber meshed drywall, concrete board, rigid insulation, decorative wallboard, however all the molds required a rigid board or more commonly known as a composite board. Module 10′ left outside concrete wall 32a is shown in FIG. 25 and Module 10″ right outside concrete wall 32a is shown in FIG. 33. Module 10″ shows a concrete floor 32b and ceiling joists 18d shown in FIG. 2 or FIG. 4. Module 10′ doesn't show a ceiling, but instead shows a concrete floor 32b shown in FIG. 37.

In FIG. 2, the modular wall section shows two adjacent modules 10 installed. The floor 16 is constructed using an array of metal floor joists 18b with a rim joist 18a extending the full length of the module and are secured to the end of the floor joists 18b. Rigid insulation 20 or floor decking 22, then is attached to the floor joists 18b and are secured to the end of the floor joists 18b.

Metal wall studs 24 are attached to the rim joists 18a. Drywall 26 and a ceiling rim joist 18c are attached to the wall studs 24, concrete then is poured over the floor decking 22 to the outer flange 34 of the metal stud 24a thereby encasing the metal stud 24a in concrete 32 to the level of the concrete floor 32b. The interior walls (not shown) are installed over the floor 16 and electrical, plumbing and heating are installed but not shown as a part of this FIG. 2. An array of ceiling joists 18d are installed with or without drywall 26 attached and secured to the ceiling joists 18d.

The interior of the mold 12 therefore is left with drywall 26, metal studs 24a, concrete 32 and ceiling rim joists 18c. Before installing the module 10, additional reinforcing steel 30 can be added depending on the structural requirements of the concrete wall 32a for additional story modules. Half of mold 12 is complete when the module 10 has been installed. The two modules 10 are shown separated with an air space 14 there between which then completes mold 12 between modules.

FIG. 3 is a plan section along line B-B taken along FIG. 2 and illustrating a concrete mold 32a (wall forming mold) formed by placing two modules adjacent one to the other. After the modules 10 are secured to the modules 10 below, wall forming ties 40 are installed between the modules 10. There are various forming ties 40 available for attaching the wall ties 40 for attaching the wall-forming ties to the modules for connecting one module to another without penetrating the formed wall. The metal wall tie 40a is a channel that is shaped to conform to the flange 34 and tip of the metal wall stud 24 or can be a channel having a web 23 and a pair of two bent ends. The web of either shaped channel covers the distance required for the thickness of the concrete wall 32a. The wall-forming tie 40 slides down between the outer flanges 34 of the metal wall stud 24 of one module 10 to the outer flanges of the adjacent module. Since the metal wall tie 40 has a continuous channel-like shape, the ties can be installed as one long channel or in shorter pieces versus a long channel.

FIG. 4 appears identical to FIG. 2, however in this case, the individual floor, wall and ceiling panels are manufactured at a manufacturing plant, then are trucked to the building site and installed thereat. The flooring panels 36a are manufactured using light-gauge metal joists 18b and steel reinforcing 30 is installed parallel to the rim joist 18a. Concrete 32 then is poured over the floor decking 22 and into a temporary form 93 that becomes a concrete beam 32a in floor panel 36a. The wall panel 36b is manufactured using metal wall studs connected to a bottom base plate 27. A vapor barrier 25 in the form of an ultra thin layer of plastic is placed between the flange 34 of the metal wall stud and the drywall interior surface of the completed wall panel 36b. The ceiling wall panel 36c has ceiling joists 18d attached to a rim joist 18c and drywall 26 can be attached to the ceiling joists. The panels 36 are then loaded onto a truck and delivered to the job site.

The floor 16, wall panels 36b and ceiling panels 36c then are hoisted into position to their designated location within the building structure forming half of mold 12. The interior of the mold 12 is left with a vapor barrier 25, in the form of a ultra thin layer of plastic (not shown), and drywall 26 or rigid insulation 20 is attached to the metal wall studs 24, concrete 32 and the rim joists 18c from the ceiling panel 36c. Before the adjacent wall panel 36b is installed and additional reinforcing steel can be added depending upon the structural requirements of the concrete wall 32a for additional building height.

FIG. 5 shows two modules 10 and 10′ placed adjacent to one another. The two modules 10 and 10′ are built exactly the same, however one of the modules 10 is a clear depiction of two adjacent modular units. The concrete wall 32a including the concrete floor 32b is broken, thereby exposing the view of the adjacent module 10′. The exposed module 10 shows the array of metal joists 18a of the floor. Attached to the metal studs 24a is the ceiling joists 18d and the rim joist 18c as well as the backside of the drywall 26. In order to reduce the water penetration, a vapor barrier 25 is installed between the metal wall studs 24a and the drywall 26. The floor assembly is exposed to the inside of the molds 12, and drywall 26. The exposed area in the concrete wall 32a is the concrete beam 40 that is part of the concrete floor 32b structure. The top of the wall structure below is at the base of the molds 10 and 10′ along with any exposed steel reinforcing bars 30 protruding from the wall below.

Referring to FIGS. 6 and 7, the modular wall section shown in FIG. 6 also shows two modules 10″ and 10′″ installed near each other, but separated by an air space 14. One of modules 10″ is shown closely separated from the wall mold 12′ prior to being installed at the job site and is shown in FIG. 6A. The floor 16 is constructed using an array of wood floor joists 18f, which span the full width of the module and are connected with solid bridging 58 between each joist. The joist's 18f are set on top of a structural bridge frame 17 below the floor 16, which also includes a sill plate 60 that is attached to the structural steel bridge frame 17. Wood plywood decking 62 is attached to the array of floor joists 56. The wall construction consists of an array of wood studs 64 with blocking 66 near the bottom and top of the wood studs 64. A concrete floor 32b is added for fire resistance over the plywood subfloor, but is optional depending on local building requirements. Other interior walls (not shown) are installed over the floor 16 and the electrical plumbing and heating also are installed with or without the drywall attached and secured to the plywood 62, wall studs 64 and ceiling joists 70. In addition, the interior walls add additional bracing support to the exterior walls of the module. The exterior of the module wall therefore is left with drywall 26, wood studs 64, blocking 60, 66, 72, floor joists 18f and ceiling joists 70. Before installing the module 10″, additional reinforcing steel can be added depending upon the structural requirements of the concrete wall 32a for additional story modules. Half of the forming mold 12′ is complete when the module 10″ is installed.

FIG. 7 is a plan view of a concrete mold formed by placing two modules adjacent to each other. The wood studs 64 and the floor and ceiling joists 56 and 70 overlap the wood studs 64. The overlapping of the joists allows concrete 32 to flow under the joists 56 and 70 and therefore have a solid concrete base which permanently to rest upon after the modules 10″and 10′″ are secured to the wall below and wall forming ties 40 installed between one module 10″ and another module 10′″. There are various types of forming ties available to attach one module to another module.

FIG. 8 shows a panelized modular sections illustrating two separate buildings installed near each other, but are separated by an air space 14 between one of the building units 10″ and 10′″ as shown separated from the wall mold 12′. The wall, floor and ceiling building components are shown in FIG. 8A prior to being installed at the job site. Since panel construction does not require a structural beam for transport to the job site, the construction is different from the heretofore described building units. The floor panel 36a is constructed using an array of wood floor joists 56, plywood decking 62, concrete 32 and blocking 72 between the floor joists 56 and floor panel 36a. The wall panel 36b consists of an array of wood studs 64 with blocking 72 attached to the wood studs and drywall 26. One half of mold 12′ is completed when the array of ceiling joists 70 are installed and secured to the wood studs 64 with blocking 72 between the ceiling joists 70 and connected to floor panels 36a. Before installing additional panels 36, additional reinforcing steel can be added depending upon the structural requirements needed for the concrete wall 32a to accommodate additional building stories above. After the utilities have been installed, a concrete floor 32b need be added over the plywood subfloor 62. An array of ceiling joists 18h are installed and secured to the wood studs 64 with blocking 72 between the ceiling joists 18h and floor joists 18a. Before installing the module, additional reinforcing steel 30 can be added depending upon the structural requirements of the wall 38 for additional story modules. Half of a forming mold 12′ is complete when the module has been installed. After the utilities have been installed, a concrete topping is added over the plywood sub floor, but is optional depending upon local building code requirements.

FIG. 9 is a very similar construction as the construction shown in FIG. 8. However, joist hangers 18i are used to support the floor 56 and ceiling joists 70. Another difference is that the floor and ceiling joists do not extend into the concrete wall 32a, but instead anchor bolt 56 extends into the concrete wall 32a. The floor panel 36a is constructed using an array of wood floor joists 56, which span the full width of the building module. A joist hanger 18i is attached to the rim joist 54 of the floor panel 36a. Plywood decking 22 is attached to the array of floor joists 56. The floor panel 36a is complete. The wall panel 36b consists of an array of wood studs 64 with blocking 72 near the bottom and top of the wood studs 64 with drywall 26. Ceiling panel 36c consists of an array of ceiling joists 70 are attached to a rim joist 54. Joist hangers 18i and bolt assemblies 82 are used to secure the joists 56 and 70. The interior of the mold 12′ therefore is left with drywall 26, wood studs 64, and the blocking 72 between the ceiling joists 70 and floor joists 56. Before installing the module 10″, additional reinforcing steel can be added depending upon the structural requirements of the concrete wall 32a for additional story modules 10″ and 10′″. Half of a forming mold 12′ is complete when the module 10″ has been installed. After the utilities have been installed, a concrete floor 16b is added for fire resistance over the plywood decking 22, but is optional depending on local building requirements.

A building can be built using many different types of poured-in-place wall constructions. Not all walls of a module abut one another as earlier disclosed, some are exterior walls which can be built using many different types of construction methods as shown in FIGS. 10 through 35. These walls also remain as part of the module.

FIGS. 10 through 12 show a thin concrete wall 32a where only a portion of the concrete wall 32a is filled with concrete 32 and the remainder of the wall interior is left exposed for future electrical installations.

In FIG. 10 the metal C channels 88 are placed in an array on a table and then, a horizontal bracing channel 46 is installed through the holes 90 formed in the web of the C channels 88. Rigid insulation 20 is placed between the web 35 of the C channels 88 and snug to the horizontal bracing channel 46. A hat channel 86 then is attached to the flange 34 of the C channel 88 perpendicular to the C channels. The drywall 26 then is attached to the hat channels 86. When tilting the wall structure 85 vertically into place, the space 14 created by the rigid insulation 20 between the C channels 88 and the outer drywall 26 or rigid insulation 20 is the area where concrete 32 is installed. Increasing the number of horizontal bracing channels 46 near the bottom of the wall structure 85 gives additional strength thereat where the greatest pressure will occur. Concrete 32 or other material is placed within the mold 12. By using this method of construction there is no need to either turn over the wall structure 85 to secure the opposite side insulation or install the insulation after the wall structure 85 is erected. Even though the insulation is set in loose between the C channels 88, when the wall structure 85 is placed vertically and concrete is installed through the top of the mold 12, the concrete 32 will press against the horizontal bracing channel 46 securing the rigid insulation 20. The hat channel 86, attached to the flange 34 of the C channel 88, provides for horizontal stability and ease of flow of concrete 32 within the mold 12.

In addition, the horizontal bracing channel 46 holds the middle rigid insulation 20 from bending when any concrete or other material is installed from the top of the mold 12 into the wall forming structure 109. The exposed portion of the C channels 88 act as furring strips normally required when a masonry or concrete wall 32a is finished on the interior as well as allowing electric or other items are installed prior to installation of the final drywall 26.

In FIG. 11, the wall is built placing the insulation 20 on a table (not shown) with the H channels 84 between the joints of one insulation sheet and another. The hat channels 86 are then installed to the H channels 84 and the flange 21 of the C channels 88. Next, U channels 46 are installed through the holes 90 in the web 23 of the C channels 88. Another C channel 88′ is installed on the other side of the interior insulation 20 through another set Of holes 90 in the web 23 of the C channels 88. A hat channel 86 is installed at the other flange of the C channel 88 and then the outer sheathing is connected to the hat channel 86. Again, after the wall 38 is installed vertically, concrete 32 then is installed on both sides other side of the interior insulation through another set of holes 90 in the web 23 of the C channel 88. A hat channel 86 is installed at the other flange 21′ of the C channel 88 and then the outer sheathing is connected to the hat channel 86. Again, after the wall 38 is installed vertically, concrete 32 then is installed on both sides of the interior insulation 20, creating a concrete wall 32a with a finished surface on both sides of the wall 38.

FIG. 12 is the plan section shown through B-B of FIG. 10. The plan section clearly shows the holes 90 in the hat channel 86 allowing the concrete 32 to flow into the mold 12 and around the hat channel 86.

FIGS. 13 through 15 are similar in construction to FIGS. 10-12 except here the wall forming structure 109 is constructed as a double-sided construction. Again the C channels 88 are placed in an array on a table and then horizontal bracing channels 46 are installed through rear holes 47 in the web 35 the C channel 88, however another horizontal bracing channel 46 is installed through the front hole 49 of the C channel web 35. The two horizontal bracing channels 46 secure both sides of the rigid insulation 20 in the middle of the C channel 88. A hat channel 86 is installed on the flange 34 of the C channel 88 and rigid insulation 20 is attached to hat channel 86. The wall forming structure 109 is then turned over and another set of hat channels 86 and rigid insulation 20 (wallboard 78) is installed to the hat channel 86. The completed wall forming structure 109 allows concrete 32 to be installed on both sides of the interior rigid insulation 20 creating two molds 12.

FIGS. 16 through 18 show a simple self-contained wall system using only, hat channels 86 as its supporting system. Furring hat channels 89 typically have been used as a non-combustible spacer to fur out or make a masonry or concrete wall 32a level in order to install drywall 26 or other materials, but never as a supporting structure for a wall 38. FIG. 16 is an isometric representation of a wall construction while FIG. 17 is a wall section taken along lines A-A of FIG. 16 and FIG. 18 is a plan section taken along lines B-B of FIG. 16. The wall 38 is manufactured by placing furring hat channels 89 on a table, the length of the wall (not shown). Rigid insulation 20 is then placed over the furring hat channel 89 and a hat channel 86 is placed over the insulation 20 going in the opposite direction. The insulation 20 is secured by connecting the two hat channels 86 and 89 therefore locking the insulation 20 between the hat channels 86 and 89. Another hat channel 86 going in the opposite direction is connected to the second hat channel 86 creating a criss-crossing structure. Finally an outer rigid board 81 or finish material can be installed over the third hat channel. The self-contained mold 12 is then erected and moved to the jobsite where concrete 32 or other interior material can be added between the interior structures of the form. The first hat channel 89 acts as a furring strip where electrical or other items can be installed prior to the drywall 26 (shown in phantom representation being installed). Also what is important here is the process for manufacturing this wall would not require the assembly to be flipped over to secure the rigid insulation 20 in the main self-contained wall 38. In addition, the insulation creates a thermal break between the concrete 32 and the interior furring hat channels 89. Criss-crossing the hat channels 86 allows for easy flow of the interior concrete 32. Also, holes 90 can be added to the hat channels again for easy flow of the concrete as well as for creating a more solid wall 38. Reinforced wire mesh 99 (not shown) can be added between the criss-crossing hat channels 86 for a more structural load bearing capacity of the wall.

FIGS. 19 and 20 are similar in construction to FIGS. 16 to 18 except here the wall 38 is constructed as a double-sided construction or thicker concrete wall 38 with an interior rigid insulation 20 thermal break similar to a precast concrete wall with rigid insulation in the interior. FIG. 19 is an isometric drawing of the wall construction while FIG. 20 is a plan section taken along line B-B of FIG. 19. The wall construction is built in the same manner, that is, hat channels 86 are placed on a table (not shown) the length of the wall 38. Rigid insulation 20 is then placed over the hat channels 86 and another hat channel 86 is placed over the insulation 20 going in the opposite direction. The insulation 20 is secured by connecting the two hat channels 86 on either side of the rigid insulation 20 therefore locking the insulation 20 between the hat channels 86. Another hat channel 86 going in the opposite direction is connected to the second hat channel 86 creating a criss-crossing structure and the outer rigid board 81 is installed. The wall 38 is turned over and a fourth hat channel 86 is installed in the opposite direction. Rigid insulation 20 or drywall 26 is then installed over the fourth hat channel 86 creating two chambers to install concrete 32 for thicker stronger concrete wall 32a.

FIGS. 21 through 24, is similar to FIGS. 16-18; FIG. 21 is an isometric representation of the wall construction; FIG. 22 is wall section taken along lines A-A of FIG. 21 and FIG. 23 is a plan section taken along lines B-B of FIG. 21 and FIG. 24 is a vertical section taken through vertical hat channel 78. The FIGS. 21 through 24 differs from FIGS. 16-18 except here insulation bracing channels 83 are spaced between rigid insulation 20 and the open side of the insulation bracing channels 83 faces the interior side of the wall 38. The flanges 34 of the insulation bracing channels 83 overlap the rigid insulation 20 and secure the rigid insulation 20 against the vertical hat channel 78. Because of the insulation-bracing channel 83, the wall is built differently. The insulation bracing channels are 83 placed horizontally and faced down so that the open interior side is facing the table. The rigid insulation 20 is spaced between the insulation bracing channels 83 so that the flanges 34 of the insulation bracing channels 83 overlaps the rigid insulation 20. A vertical hat channel 78 is placed criss-cross over the insulation bracing channels 83 so that the interior side is facing the insulation bracing channels 83. The vertical hat channel 78 is attached to the insulation-bracing channel 83 a hat channel 86 is attached to the vertical hat channel 78 thereby securing rigid insulation 20. Hat channel 86 is installed parallel to the insulation-bracing channel 83 and rigid board 81 is then attached to hat channel 86. Concrete 32 is then poured into the criss-crossed structure between the rigid insulation 20 and rigid board 81 after the wall 38 is erected vertically. The hat channel 86 and the outer rigid board 81 can be eliminated should the wall configuration be poured in a horizontal position and erected vertically after the concrete 32 has been cured like the precast wall to be shown in FIG. 37. A hole 90 is shown connecting the insulation bracing channel 83 and the vertical hat channel 78 allowing electrical wiring to pass through the wall 38 in both a horizontal and vertical direction. In FIG. 24, shows the insulation-bracing channel 83 securing the rigid insulation 20 and the vertical hat channel 78. The hole 90 functions as a passage between the insulation bracing channel 83 and the vertical hat channel 78.

FIG. 25 through 27 uses smaller vertical C channels 88 and horizontal hat channels 86 to create a wall forming structure. FIG. 25 is an isometric representation of the wall construction while FIG. 26 is a wall section taken along line A-A of FIG. 25 and FIG. 27 is a plan section taken along line B-B of FIG. 25. FIG. 25A is an enlarged detail showing a vertical small C channel 88′ for establishing electrical access. Horizontal hat channels 86 are placed on a table (not shown) the length of the wall 38. Channels 88, on the right wall of the isometric, are placed perpendicular to the hat channels 86 and attached to the flange 34 of the C channel and a rigid board 81 is attached to the hat channel 86. The wall 38 is then turned over and a horizontal hat channel 86 is installed on the other flange 34 of the C channel 88 and rigid board 81 is attached to the hat channel 86. Channels 88, on the left wall of the isometric, are placed with the web 35 parallel to the hat channels 86. The hat channel 86 are connected to the lip 34′ of the flange 34 of the C channel 88 and the opposite hat channel 86 is connect to the web 35 of the C channel. The left wall also shows rigid insulation 20 can be installed between the two hat channels 86. The horizontal hat channels 86 increase the structural integrity of the wall 38 as well as allowing the concrete 32 to flow easily around the C channels 88. By increasing the number of hat channels 86 at the bottom of the wall 38, reduces the pressure exerted by the concrete against the rigid boards 81 or rigid insulation 20. Also by reversing the hat channel 86′ so that the open cavity of the hat channel 86′ faces the rigid board 81 a space is created for electrical wiring to be installed within the wall structure 38. The hat channel 86′ has the same function as the insulation bracing channel 83 as shown in FIG. 24. The isometric drawing of FIG. 25 shows the web 35 of the ceiling rim joist 18c is attached to the flange 34 of the vertical C channel 88 for supporting the ceiling joists 18d, which is further described in FIG. 61. FIG. 25 and FIG. 26 shows the vertical C channel 88 extending below the mold 12 so a concrete footing can be installed simultaneously with the concrete wall 32a. By pouring the concrete at the footing, the concrete in the footing secures the wall forming structure prior to additional concrete poured in the wall 38. FIG. 25A is an enlargement of vertical C channel 88 and a smaller vertical C channel 88′. The smaller vertical C channel 88′ is located at the flange 34 of the vertical C channel 88 creating a hollow chamber for electrical wiring to be installed and connected to the horizontal hat channel 86′.

FIGS. 28 through 32 show a wall structure where the interior structure of the mold extends to the outside surface of the rigid board 81 or rigid insulation 20. FIG. 28 is an isometric representation of the wall construction of the wall structure while FIG. 29 is a wall section taken along line A-A of FIG. 28 and FIG. 30 is a plan section taken along line B-B of FIG. 28. FIG. 31 and FIG. 32 are enlarged details of the end of the U channel 84. FIG. 32 shows an angle 27 attached to the web 35 of the U channel 84. FIG. 31 is similar to FIG. 32 in that instead of adding the angle 27, the flange 34 is longer and is bent 180 degrees to extend beyond the web 35 of the U-channel 84. In both FIGURES, the flange 34 or angle 27 extends beyond the web in both directions creating an H channel 84′. The wall structure 85 is built by placing the H channels 84′on a table (not shown) and installing rigid insulation 20 or drywall 26 between each H channel 84′. By adding the rigid insulation 20 between each H channel 84′ the flanges 34 are exposed to the outside of the wall 38. The modified H channels 84′ have a hole 90 in the middle so that a horizontal bracing channel 46 can be installed there through. When the wall structure 85 is erected vertically, the concrete 32 is poured into the mold 12 interior and presses the rigid insulation 20 against the flanges 34 of the H channel 84′. In addition, the horizontal bridging channel 46 locks the array of H channels 84′ into place and therefore, securing a rigid wall structure 85.

FIGS. 33 through 35 show a concrete wall 38 having a vertical ribbed configuration. FIG. 33 is an isometric view of the wall construction while FIG. 34 is a wall section taken along line A-A of FIG. 33 while FIG. 35 is a plan section along line B-B of FIG. 33. The wall 38 is built first by placing horizontal hat channels on a table of the length of the wall. C channels 88 are placed perpendicular to the hat channels 86 and attached at the flange 34. Next, a rigid interior foam spacer 96 is then placed between an array of C channels 88 approximately the depth of the web 35 of the C channel 88 and less than the distance between the C channels 88. The interior rigid insulation 20 is then attached to the flange 34 of the C channel 88 and the rigid interior foam spacer 96, forming the vertical ribbed configuration of the wall 38. The wall 38 is turned over and a rigid board 81 is installed on a hat channel 86. The holes 90 in the hat channel allow the concrete to flow easier around and through the hat channels 86. Additional hat channels 86 are located at the bottom of the wall 38 due to the increase in pressure of the concrete at the bottom of the wall forming the vertical ribbed configuration of the wall 38. As shown in FIG. 34, a rigid interior foam spacer 96 is not placed at the full height of the wall 38 and is shorter at both the top and bottom of the wall 38 so a concrete beam 32d is formed at the top and bottom of the wall 38.

FIGS. 36 through 39 show a similar wall construction as shown in the FIGS. 33 through 35, however, here, instead of concrete being installed when the wall is erected in a vertical position, the concrete is installed in a horizontal position. The construction of the wall system 37 can be used either as a wall system 37 or as a floor system 37a. The strength of the concrete beam 32d and floor system 37a depends on the depth of the concrete beam 32d and the thickness of the concrete floor 16b plus the amount of steel reinforcing 30 that is added. The C channel 88 intent is to support the concrete beam 32d and/or the floor concrete 16b until the concrete cures plus adds structural strength to the beams 32d. Unlike typical scaffolding systems used to support the installation of concrete floor systems 37a, the scaffold is removed after the concrete 32 has cured. The size of the C channel 88 and thickness of the concrete floor 32b will vary depending on the span of the floor system.37a. Any type of structural beam can be installed within the concrete beam 32d the concrete flooring system 37a.

In FIG. 36, the C channels 88 are spaced in an array and the horizontal bracing channels 46 connect the webs 35 of the C channels 88 creating a rigid frame. A rigid board 81 is the attached to the C channel. Rigid interior foam spacers 96 are placed between the metal C channels 88 to the width of the desired beam and the thickness of interior foam spacers 96 is the height of the desired beam. The depth of the rigid interior foam spacers 96 and the space between the foam spacers 96 determines the structural capacity of the concrete beams 32d in the ribbed concrete structure. Additional steel reinforcing 30 can be added into the mold 12 for added strength. Concrete is then poured into the mold 12 that is around the C channel 88 creating beams and above the C channels 88 creating a structure. The self contained mold 12 can be poured in a factory and then shipped to the job site, or can be built in place ready to be poured at the job site. However, typically, the mold 12 would be delivered to a construction site, set in place and poured in place. When the concrete 32 is cured, the mold 12 can be used as a precast wall or precast floor. Mold 12 can also be used as a poured in place floor, however temporary braces would be required. Due to weight of the concrete, temporary braces (not shown) would be installed until the concrete has cured. The C channels 88 will vary in height and thickness depending on the structural integrity on the span and weight requirements of the floor 16 and the number of temporary braces used to erect the flooring system 37a.

FIG. 37 is similar in construction to FIG. 36, except here the interior foam spacers 96 are tapered to be wider at the bottom of the concrete beam 32d. In this case, the concrete beams 32d are poured to the top of the interior foam spacers 96 and steel reinforcing 30′ is installed into the concrete beam 32d and left to cure. Horizontal hat channels 86 are installed over the C channels 88 (on the right side) and the interior foam spacers 96 for additional structural support. By pouring the concrete beam 32d first, it allows for the concrete 32 to harden and therefore eliminating any temporary shoring that might be required once the mold 12 is installed at the job site. Also, the foam spacer 96 is tapered creating additional friction and strength to support the weight of the concrete floor 32b above. The two-step concrete pour allows more flexibility in construction of the flooring system 37a. The concrete beam 32d in the middle shows an H channel 84′ instead of the C channel 88 shown on the right side. The flange 34 of the H channel 84′ supports the rigid board 81 and the weight of the concrete beam 32d until the concrete has set. A T channel 84″ is shown in the left concrete beam 32d instead of the H channel 84′ and the flanges 34 of the T channel 84″ also support the rigid board 81. The electrical distribution systems described in FIGS. 21 through 26 (not shown in FIG. 37) for the poured-in-place wall can also be applied for a poured-in-place floor as shown in FIG. 36 and 37, or when the concrete has cured the panel would become a precast concrete wall. Many wall constructions however are thinner than a concrete floor 32b and therefore hat channels could be used similar to FIGS. 16-18 or FIGS. 21-23 but not shown this figure.

FIG. 38 is similar to FIG. 37, except hat channels 86 are added between the two layers of drywall 26 below C channels 88. The metal hat channel 86 adds strength either to support a person and the concrete 32 until it cures, the C channels 88 are deeper than the foam spacers 96 and additional reinforcing steel 30 or welded wire mesh 99 is installed and attached to the top flange 34 of the metal C channel 88.

FIG. 39 is similar to FIG. 38, except that the depth of the concrete beams 32d are deeper. A spacer 97 is installed between the metal C channel 88 and the drywall 26 below the beam 32d. The spacer 97 allows the concrete 32 to flow completely around the metal C channel 88 for imparting greater fire resistance to the flooring system 37a.

FIG. 40 shows the flooring system 37a attached to a vertical poured wall system 37. The wall 38 (shown in FIG. 34) and the floor 16 (combination of FIG. 37 and FIG. 38) are similar, however hat channels 86 are installed above the foam spacers 96 and between the drywall 26 below the metal C channels 88. The concrete floor beam 32e is shown perpendicular to the direction of the other concrete beam 32d shown in FIG. 37. The concrete floor beam 32e can be poured simultaneous with the concrete beams 32d as shown here or poured after the concrete beams 32d (shown in FIG. 37), the ones with the (channel installed) have cured. By pouring the wall beam 32e at the time of the concrete floor 32b, a more precise fit between the floor 16 and the wall system 37 can occur. In addition, horizontal concrete floor beams 32e can be installed anywhere a foam spacer 96 void occurs creating additional horizontal beams 32e, is installed between the concrete floor 32b and another wall 38 to assure a continuous structural system.

FIGS. 41 and 45 illustrate all various types of connectors 104 used to make the construction easier to build more and aesthetically pleasing by eliminating any exposed connectors that connects the drywall 26 to the interior structure of the mold. The connector 104 has a lip 108, which can penetrate a hole 90 in the hat channel 86. After the lip 108 penetrates the hole 90, the lip 108 springs over the hole 90 and there secures the connector 104 to the hat channel 86.

FIG. 41 is similar to FIGS. 13 through 15 except an H channel 84′ is used in lieu of the hat channel 86. The wall 38 is built placing the insulation 20′ on a table (not shown) with the H channels 84′ between the ends of each rigid insulation 20′. Even though the rigid insulation 20 is loose between the H channels 84′, the flange 34 of the H channel 84′ secures the rigid insulation 20′ without using a fastener. Next, the C channels 88 are installed in the opposite direction of the H channels 84′ and are secured with connectors 104 (not shown) through the flange 34 of the C channel 88. The remainder of the wall 38 using insulation bracing channels 83, hat channels 86 and the rigid insulation 20 is built the same as FIGS. 13 through 15. Even though the rigid insulation 20 is set in loose between the C channels 88, when the wall 38 is placed vertically and concrete 32 is installed through the top of the concrete will press against the bracing channels 46 securing the rigid insulation 20.

FIG. 42 is similar to FIGS. 10 through 12 except here, H channels 84′ are used in lieu of connectors connecting the rigid insulation 20. The use of H channels 84′ encases the edges of the rigid insulation 20 therefore allowing the wall 38 to be constructed differently. The H channels 84′ are first laid on a table, then rigid insulation 20 is installed between the H channels 84′ securing the rigid insulation 20 and connected to smaller C channel 88′ or hat channel 86. The hat channels 86 are then fastened to the C channels 88 at the flange 34 and rigid insulation 20 is installed between the C channels 88. The horizontal bracing channels 46 are installed through the holes 90 at the web 35 of the C channel 88. The bracing channels 46 hold the rigid insulation 20 in place.

FIG. 43 is similar to FIGS. 10 through 12 and FIG. 41. Instead of the H channels 84′ encasing the rigid insulation 20 on the outer face of the rigid insulation 20, the rigid insulation has a groove 103 to accept the H channel 84′. By supporting the rigid insulation 20 in the middle, no fastener is visible from the outer surface of the rigid insulation 20 or drywall 26. In addition, the rigid insulation 20 is secured because the groove 103 is holding the rigid insulation 20 from any movement. The remainder of the wall 38 is constructed the same as shown in FIGS. 10 through 12.

FIG. 44 details connectors 104 that are embedded within a drywall 26 and protrude outward to become a fastening method to secure the drywall 26 to the wall forming structure 109 of the mold 12. The connector 104 has a lip 108 which can penetrate a hole 90 in the hat channel 86. After the lip 108 penetrates the hole 90, the lip 108 springs over the hole 90 in the hat channel 86 and there secures the connector 104 to the hat channel 86.

FIG. 45 shows connectors 104 embedded within a drywall 26 and protrude out to become a fastening method to secure the drywall 26 to the wall forming structure 109 of the mold 12. The connector 104 has a lip 108 so that has a lip 108 penetrates the hole 90. The stem of the connector 104 has a flange 34 added to hold the connector 104 in place. Both connectors have a V carrot at the end of the stem 47 thereof. The stem of the connector 104 has a flange 34 added to hold the connector in place. The connectors 104 at FIGS. 44 and 45 have a V carrot at the end of the stem thereof added to hold the connector in place. As the V carrot passes through the hole 90 in the hat channel, the end of the V carrot is secured by pressure exerting on the sidewalls of the mold 12.

FIG. 46 is built using the same wall forming structure 109 as FIGS. 19 and 20. The rigid insulation 20 in the middle of the wall 38 provides a thermal break between the interior wall 119 and the exterior wall 120 and provides two separate chambers 123 and 124 for installing two different materials on either side of the wall 38. After the wall 38 is set in place in vertical position, the left side is shown filled with sand and the right side is shown filled with gravel. By installing sand in the wall forming structure 109, the sand gives the wall 38 mass and the sand stabilizes as well as adds strength to the hat channels 86. By installing gravel on the other side again gives the wall mass and also stabilizes the wall assembly, but the gravel allows air to flow within the wall 38. Local materials can be used to give the wall 38 strength and rigidity without having to pour concrete 32 throughout the entire mold 12. The gravel stones could be heated or cooled such as a hot water or cooling coil pipe 76 to create a radiant heating or cooling system within the wall 38 and also act as a storage system for any solar heating system. The gravel stones could be heated or cooled to create a heating or cooling system within the wall 38 and also act a storage system for any solar heating system. A concrete beam 32d also can be poured over the sand (or gravel) and steel reinforcing bars can be installed for additional strength.

FIG. 47 is built using the same wall structure as FIG. 19 and FIG. 20. In lieu of placing a rigid insulation 20 on the right side of mold 12, wire mesh 99 is installed over the hat channel 86. A sprayed concrete finish is applied over the wire mesh 99 and allowed to protrude through the wire mesh 99, thus securing the concrete 32 the wire mesh 99. The concrete will not fill the entire area between the rigid insulation 20 and the reinforcing mesh 99 and therefore, an air space 14 will develop. The concrete is next troweled level and then smoothed to a desired textured finish.

FIG. 48 is built using the same wall structure as FIG. 17. Again a wire mesh 99 is installed over the hat channel 86. After the wall forming structure 109 is installed vertically, concrete 32 is placed between the wire mesh 99 and the middle interior rigid insulation 20. Concrete 32 then is poured from the top of the wall and is allowed to flow through the reinforcing mesh 99 which can be troweled smooth prior to the concrete hardening. The concrete is then troweled and textured to the desired finish.

FIGS. 49 and 50 are similar to FIGS. 25 through 27 in the wall construction; however, the control joints 110 and expansion joints 111 are decorative architectural elements of a concrete wall design. In FIG. 49 a control joint 110 is shown attached to a C channel 88. The control joint 110 is a joint where potentially a wall 38 would have a tendency to crack and the control joint 110 allows that joint to move. The control joint 110 is also used to level the excess concrete evenly over the entire panel 36 surface. The V shaped groove of the control joint 110 could also be an architectural accent strip for design purposes as discussed further in FIGS. 63 through 65. In FIG. 50 two full depth C channels 88 are shown back to back to each other with a space between their webs 35. Metal angles 57 are installed over the reinforcing mesh 99 and aligned with the web 23 of the C channels 88. Caulk 89 then is placed between the C channels 88 to create an expansion joint 111 between panels 36. The back-to-back full depth C channels 88 also could be the end sections between one panel 36 and another prefabricated panel 36. An expansion joint 111 is different from a control joint 110 in that building materials expand and contract due to change of temperature, and an expansion joint 111 is where this is intended to occur.

FIG. 52 through FIG. 53 is similar to FIGS. 13 through 15 except the exterior rigid insulation is wood siding. FIG. 52 is a vertical wall section similar to FIG. 14 and FIG. 53 is similar to the plan view as shown in FIG. 15. FIG. 51 is an enlarged detail showing the horizontal wood siding attached to the wall forming structure 109. Other types or styles of siding materials like aluminum or vinyl siding or other exterior finish surfacing material can be applied to the self contained mold and then remain part of the finish wall construction. In conventional construction as well as other insulated concrete forms, a finish material like siding is installed after the wall is complete, not as part of the form construction. The wall construction can be built using any of the previous wall forming structures 109, however the exterior component of the wall forming structure 109 must be a vertical component in order to attach the horizontal siding 112. After the siding 112 is installed while in a horizontal position on a table (not shown), the wall is placed vertically and the wall is then ready to install concrete 32 into the mold 12. If the siding were installed vertically, the interior support would then have to be a horizontal member. In addition, a vapor barrier 25 can be installed behind the siding 112 in order to prevent any concrete 32 from passing through the siding 112. The wall forming structure 109 supporting the siding 112 can be configured in many ways as previously described. Other systems available today do not have a finish exterior wall surface as part of their construction system. Usually finish materials are applied over their construction in order to create a finish wall product.

The plan view FIG. 53 shows vertical angle 27 connecting the hat channels 86 from a continuous wall shown at a 90-degree angle. By installing the angles 27 at the corners, the corners are reinforced so the concrete 32 does not escape where the insulation 20 or drywall 26 intersect each other.

The previous FIGURES discussed how siding could be used as an exterior forming material. These next several FIGURES show how face bricks are part of a poured in place concrete mold prior to the wall forming structure 109 being filled with concrete. There are several methods discussed. One method is first building the self-contained wall system, then attaching a mesh to the wall forming structure 109. By attaching an adhesive to the mesh or cement type product and then placing the thin bricks onto the mortar, the face bricks become an integral part of the form and remain in place as part of the wall forming structure 109. Another method is to first construct a brick veneer wall and then attach the forming structure to the backside of the face brick wall. In other concrete forming systems brick is not use as a form.

FIG. 54 through FIG. 56 shows an exterior finish material of face brick attached to the exterior of the wall forming structure 109. FIG. 54 is an isometric view of the construction and FIG. 55 is a wall section of FIG. 54 taken through line A-A of FIG. 54 and FIG. 56 is a plan view taken through line B-B of FIG. 54. FIGS. 16 through FIGS. 18 have a similar structure, however, in lieu of insulation 20 as part of the forming system, wire mesh 99 is installed over the exterior side of the wall forming structure 109. An adhesive (not shown) can be installed behind each individual thin brick 128 or cement (not shown) can be installed over the wire mesh 99. The individual thin bricks 128 then are placed into the cement and allowed to dry. After the thin bricks have been secured, the cement is allowed to harden to the back of the thin bricks 128, the mortar 129 can be installed between the thin bricks 128. The thin bricks can be installed after the wall forming structure 109 is installed at the project site (that is when the wall is in a vertical position). Other exterior wall materials such as ceramic tile or stone can be used in lieu of the thin brick 128.

FIGS. 57 through FIG. 59 are similar to FIG. 54 through FIG. 56, except here, full width face bricks 128′ are used as part of the wall forming structure 109. FIG. 57 is an isometric view of the wall construction and FIG. 58 is a vertical section taken along line A-A of FIG. 57 and FIG. 59 is a wall section taken along line B-B of FIG. 57. The wall structure is the same as shown in FIGS. 16 through FIG. 18, except that here, full width face bricks replace the drywall 26. Due to the weight of face brick, a horizontal steel angle 27′ is located at the bottom of the brick wall to support the brick 128′ when shipping the wall. In addition, vertical steel reinforcing 30 is added in the holes of the bricks for additional reinforcement. An additional vertical steel reinforcing is added in the holes 92 of the bricks for additional reinforcement. An additional vertical steel angle 27″ is placed at the rear of the face bricks 128′ and short steel reinforcing bars 30″ are placed between some of the mortar joints 129 for additional support. The steel reinforcing 30, as well as the vertical steel angle 27″, adds temporary support until the concrete 32 can be poured within the wall forming structure 109 of which the face brick 128′ acts as a mold 12 to withhold the concrete 32.

Many different types of wall forming structures have previously described hereinabove, however, all walls are not continuous and require corners. FIG. 60 shows how to make a corner using the wall forming structures shown in FIGS. 25 through 27. When the rigid insulation 20 or drywall 26 (not shown) is required to make a corner 106, the rigid insulation must be secured to the wall forming structure 109. At both the inside corner 106′ and outside corner 106″, a metal angle 27 is installed parallel to the C channels 88 in the wall forming structure 109 and is attached at the horizontal hat channels 86. In order for the wall panels 36b to make a corner, some of the horizontal hat channels 86 are required to extend beyond the individual wall panel 36, so that the adjacent wall panel 36 perpendicular to it can be connected to the vertical C channels 88. This procedure has to be completed when the wall panel 36b is erected vertically and then connected. The shorter wall section is shown in FIG. 60A separated from the corner construction to show how various wall components are connected. When the various wall sections are fastened together, a portion of the rigid insulation 20 will have to be installed after the wall forming structure 109 is erected vertically in order to make the various connections or long screws (not shown) would be required should the rigid insulation 20 remain attached to the C channels 88.

Conventional poured-in-place concrete walls have accent strips molds on the inside of their standard wall forms to create accents on the concrete wall when these standard wall forms have been removed. Precast concrete also provide accent strips or projections on their walls in the same manner as conventional construction.

FIGS. 61 and 62 show horizontal recessed grooves or horizontal projections in a poured-in-place wall. FIG. 61 and FIG. 62 show a vertical wall section similar to that shown in FIG. 26. FIG. 61 illustrates a vertical wall section similar to that shown in FIG. 26. FIG. 61 shows a U-channel 84 that typically fits over the ends of a floor joist 18b. The U-channel 84 is secured to the horizontal hat channels 86 that are part of the wall forming structure 109. In order to provide proper support, a reverse C channel 84′ is installed directly below the floor joist shown on the left side of the wall section in FIG. 61. When concrete is installed within the wall forming structure 109, the reverse C channel 84′ is filled with concrete 32 giving the floor joist 18b ample structural support. The U channel 84 is shown on the right side of FIG. 61, attached to the horizontal hat channels 86 at the interior of the wall forming structure 109. In this case, however, there is no additional support below. Instead, anchor bolts 50 are installed in the web 35 of the C channel 84 and joist hangers 18i support the floor joists 18b.

FIG. 62 also has a horizontal U channel 84, however, this U channel 84 is secured to the flange 34 at the C channel 88. In this case, the U channel 84 is further back in the wall forming structure 109 and there is sufficient support to achieve a proper bearing for the floor joists 18b. Also, in FIG. 62, a modified C channel 88′ protrudes from the main body of the wall 38, that is the flanges 34 of the modified C channel 88′ is secured to the interior C channel 88. Two steel reinforcing bars 30 are shown passing through the holes 90 in the center C channel 88 and a steel reinforcing stirrup 31 encases the two steel reinforcing 30 as well as two additional steel reinforcing 30 located in the protruding C channel 88′. The protruding U channel 88′, as well as the U channel 84, are used as structural elements for additional building components. Both of these channels could also be used as decorative elements shown in FIG. 65 following.

FIG. 63 and FIG. 64 are similar appearing architectural recessed grooves. Both figures show the same wall forming structure 109 as FIG. 27; however, the groove 103 recess is different. FIG. 63 is similar to FIG. 53 except the groove 103 recess is different. FIG. 63 is similar to FIG. 53 except here the metal angles 27 are turned so that the legs 28 of the angle 27 are exposed. The one leg 28 is flush with the drywall 26 and the other leg 28′ is attached to the horizontal metal hat channels 86 of the wall forming structure 109. Two U channels 84 are used in the middle of the wall with an air space 14 between the webs 35 of the U channels 84. The spacing of the U channels 84 allows the wall to move and, therefore, create an expansion joint 111. Caulking 89 is installed between the U lo channels 84. In FIG. 64, a vertical recess is a U channel 84 connected to the web 35 of the hat channel 86 in the wall structure 109.

FIG. 65 is an elevation of a finished wall showing some of the recess and projection details. The vertical grove 103 is the expansion joint 111 shown in FIG. 63 and the vertical grove 103 on the right is FIG. 64. The horizontal projection on the top is similar to FIG. 62 while the lower grove 103 is similar to FIG. 61.

FIG. 66 is similar to FIG. 62, however the wall section shows how a steel bar joist is secured to the projection of the modified C channel 88′ as previously described in FIG. 62. The bar joist is secured onto the ledge, a heavy steel plate 52 is required to be installed on top of the modified C channel 88′and secured with steel reinforcing 30 welded to the steel plate 52 that the steel bar joist 51 rests on.

FIG. 67 illustrates the wall forming structure used in FIG. 11 except without the horizontal hat channel 86 and the rigid insulation 20 at the outside wall. In lieu of the rigid insulation, a conventional concrete wall form 53 is shown which can be removed after the concrete 32 is installed. A standard concrete wall tie connector 104 could be used to connect the one-half of the wall forming structure 109 of mold 12 of FIG. 11 and the conventional concrete form 53. The incorporating of a removable conventional concrete form 53 on one side of the wall, allows for a concrete wall to be exposed for what-ever the reason might be. In lieu of the rigid insulation, a conventional concrete wall form 53 is shown except without the horizontal hat channel and the rigid insulation at the outside wall. A standard concrete wall tie connector 104 could be used to connect the half of the wall forming structure 109 with the conventional concrete form 53. A standard wall tie connector is broken off from the concrete wall 32a after a conventional concrete form 53 is removed. A concrete wall tie 104′ is shown with its end bent around a horizontal bracing channel 46 thereby securing the wall forming structure 109 to the concrete wall tie 104′ without having to snap or brake off the connector 104′ at the exposed concrete side of the wall 38 where the conventional concrete form 53 was located.

The previous disclosures discussed herein poured-in-place concrete structures as well as different exterior finishes that can be applied to the wall structure. The exterior finishes like wood siding and brick were constructed using the building wall as the structure and then concrete was poured into the wall forming structure 109 after the wall was installed vertically.

FIGS. 68-71 show configurations of exterior molds where the molds are placed horizontally upside down and concrete is filled into the mold. Various exterior molds are built using some of the techniques described earlier, however here the exterior faces of the molds are placed face down and concrete is poured into the molds.

In FIG. 68 metal hat channels 86 are laid out in an array where a final building material is connected to the metal hat channels 84. Wood or metal siding 112 is shown and the edge corner boards 126 are installed at the edge of the panel. A metal channel 84 is used at the corner. Wood furring channels could be used in lieu the metal hat channels 84.

In FIG. 69, the exterior face of the building panel has been turned upside down. After the panel 36 is turned over so the finished exterior building surface now is facing down, another outside corner board 126a is added to complete a corner. The additional corner board 126a increases the thickness concrete, exterior finish facing down; concrete 32 is now poured inside the mold 12″. Many different structures or materials can be added to this mold 12″ to create different configurations. However the result is still the same, that is, a finished building panel 36 where an exterior building material is the mold of the wall 38.

FIG. 70 is a wall section shown in the opposite direction as FIGS. 68 and 69 and the exterior finish is facing down. In this case, metal C channels 88 where used as the wall forming structure 109 and metal base plate 42 has been installed at both ends of the C channel 88. The wood siding 112 and thin face bricks 128 were added to the C channels 88. After the siding and bricks were installed, concrete 32 is poured to flow between the holes 90 into the mold 12″ partially filling the mold and allowing the concrete 32 to flow between the holes 90 in the web 35 of the metal C channels 88.

FIG. 71 is similar to FIG. 70 except the concrete 32 is poured to the full depth of the metal C channels 88. The thickness of the panel 36 depends upon the use of the panel, that is, if the panel will be used as a structural element or just a veneer to a greater structural system.

FIG. 72 is illustrated as one of many wall forming structures, which can be integrated together. FIG. 72 is a detail of a vertical wall and roof section, which shows how to connect a poured-in-place wall 38 shown in FIG. 34 to a roof panel. The roof panel 36d is represented as a precast floor panel 36b such as shown in FIG. 36, however the panel shown as a sloped roof panel 36d, horizontal beam 39 is installed as a sloped roof panel. As a roof panel 36d, the bottom of the beams of the roof section will be notched to conform to the desired angle of the wall 38. When pouring the roof panel 36d the bottom of the beams of the roof section will be notched to conform to the desired angle of the roof, so the roof panel 36d will set flat onto the walls 38. By not installing middle rigid insulation 96 between one beam and another beam (the rigid insulation 20 and concrete beams are shown in FIG. 36) a horizontal beam 39 can be installed parallel to the wall is poured, a reinforcing steel bar 30a can be installed in the concrete 32 after the roof section is erected into place, the concrete beam 32b can be poured securing the panel 36d. The roof precast panel 36d is not just a roof panel. It is a roof panel 36d incorporates the roof, soffit, fascia and gutter all in one panel. The gutter and fascia are formed at the time the roof panel is poured. The soffit is shown as a smaller C channel 88′ connected the metal C channel 88 in FIG. 36. Attached to the smaller C channels 88′ is a soffit board 72′ at the time the roof panel was precast. The soffit could be solid concrete, however, the smaller C channel 88′ reduces the weight of the roof panel. Horizontal hat channels 86″ set into the concrete 32 after the panel has been leveled and ready to begin to dry. A non-flexible roof shingle, like cedar shakes can be installed. The hat channels 86″ have holes 90 (not shown) so air can flow under the roof shingles allowing the concrete roof structure 36d to maintain a lower temperature. If wood furring strips (not shown) are embedded into the concrete 32 in lieu of metal channels 86″ the wood furring strips were installed flush with the top of the concrete, flexible asphalt shingles can be nailed into the wood furring strips. If no furring strips were installed on the roof, the roof surface can be finished with stencil or stamped concrete (not shown) to create a textured roof shingle pattern. Then no roof shingles would be required.

FIG. 73, as shown, is similar in appearance to FIG. 72. However, even though the roof looks similar, the wall forming structure 109 is the same as FIG. 34, except therein the roof is at an angle. In lieu of the rigid board 81 as shown in FIG. 34 a rigid roofing shingle 82 is connected to the hat channel 86 and a vapor barrier 25 (not shown) is installed between the rigid roofing shingle 82 and the hat channel 86. When pouring the roof panel 36d the bottom of the beams of the roof section will be notched to conform to the desired angle of the roof, so the roof panel 36d will set flat onto the walls 38. By not installing middle rigid insulation 96 between one beam and another beam (shown in FIG. 36) a horizontal beam 39 will be installed parallel to the wall 38 and secured by the reinforcing bar 30a at the top of the wall 38. A soffit board 72′ and fascia board 72″ would have to be installed at the eave of the roof panel 36d prior to the mold 12 being filled with concrete 32. The mold 12 can now be poured with concrete 32 from the top of the ridge of the roof filling both the beams shown in FIG. 36 and the horizontal beam 39.

Many variations are contemplated in the structures of the modules and the associated panels, molds, concrete panels, methods, building constructions and modular arrangements