Title:
GOLF CLUB TIP INSERT
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention provides an insert for a golf club shaft that stiffens and strengthens the tip of the shaft and reduces oscillations in the shaft during the swing of the club and dampens vibrations due to impact with the golf ball and/or the ground. In preferred embodiments, the insert comprises a rod portion that increases stiffness and foam and adhesive portions that dampen vibration.



Inventors:
Butler Jr., Joseph H. (Knoxville, TN, US)
Twigg, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN, US)
Application Number:
11/460735
Publication Date:
02/01/2007
Filing Date:
07/28/2006
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
473/318
International Classes:
A63B53/12; A63B53/10
View Patent Images:
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20070093307System and device for golf swing practising and gamingApril, 2007Van Onlangs et al.
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20090267748Sports boxOctober, 2009Bailey



Primary Examiner:
BLAU, STEPHEN LUTHER
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LUEDEKA NEELY GROUP, P.C. (KNOXVILLE, TN, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A golf club comprising: a substantially cylindrical shaft having a proximal shaft end, a distal shaft end, and a distal hollow region disposed adjacent the distal shaft end; a club head having a hosel for receiving the distal shaft end, the hosel having an exit point and having an overlap region wherein the hosel and the distal hollow region of the shaft overlap each other; and a shaft insert disposed within the distal hollow region of the shaft, the shaft insert comprising: a rod portion having an outer rod surface, a distal rod end and a proximal rod end; and one or more spacers for substantially centering the rod portion within the distal hollow region of the shaft.

2. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is hollow.

3. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is cylindrical.

4. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is tapered from the proximal rod end to the distal rod end.

5. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is formed from an isotropic homogenous material.

6. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the rod portion is formed from a material selected from the group consisting of steel, aluminum titanium, fiberglass and graphite composite.

7. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert has a length of about 2 to 15 inches.

8. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert are formed of a resilient polymeric foam material.

9. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert are adhesively bonded to the rod portion.

10. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert comprise compliant adhesive material disposed between the outer rod surface and an inner surface of the distal hollow region of the shaft.

11. The golf club of claim 10 wherein the compliant adhesive material is selected from the group consisting of rubber cement, silicon caulk and latex caulk.

12. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert comprise one or more strips of compliant material disposed between the outer rod surface and an inner surface of the distal hollow region of the shaft.

13. The golf club of claim 12 wherein the one or more strips comprise a plurality of strips spaced apart radially about the outer rod surface of the rod portion and disposed substantially parallel to an axial centerline of the rod portion.

14. The golf club of claim 12 wherein each of the one or more strips forms a helix about the outer rod surface of the rod portion.

15. The golf club of claim 12 wherein one or more of the one or more strips are segmented about the outer rod surface of the rod portion.

16. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert are formed as an integral part of the outer rod surface Of the rod portion.

17. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the distal rod end of the rod portion of the shaft insert is disposed adjacent the distal shaft end.

18. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the distal rod end of the rod portion of the shaft insert is disposed within the overlap region of the hosel.

19. The golf club of claim 1 wherein the exit point of the hosel is disposed relative to the rod portion between the distal rod end and the proximal rod end.

20. A golf club comprising: a shaft having proximal and distal ends and comprising a plurality of tubular sections each having an inner surface of a diameter different from the other tubular sections, the tubular sections including a first tubular section having a first inner diameter and a second tubular section having a second inner diameter which is less than the first inner diameter, the second tubular section disposed closer than the first tubular section to distal end of the shaft; a shaft insert disposed at least partially within the first and second tubular sections of the shaft, the shaft insert comprising: a rod portion having an outer rod surface with an outer rod diameter, a distal rod end, a proximal rod end, a distal rod region disposed adjacent the distal rod end and a proximal rod region disposed adjacent the proximal rod end: a tubular resilient portion disposed between the outer rod surface of the proximal rod region and the inner surface of the first tubular section of the shaft; and one or more spacers disposed between the outer surface of the distal rod region and the inner surface of the second tubular section of the shaft.

21. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is hollow.

22. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is cylindrical.

23. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is tapered along its length from the proximal rod end to the distal rod end.

24. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is composed of an isotropic homogenous material.

25. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert is formed from a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, fiberglass, graphite composite.

26. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the rod portion of the shaft insert has a length of between about 2 inches and about 15 inches.

27. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the tubular resilient portion of the shaft insert is composed of a polymeric foam material.

28. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the tubular resilient portion of the shaft insert is bonded to the rod portion of the shaft insert by an adhesive.

29. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the tubular resilient portion of the shaft insert is bonded to the inner surface of the second tubular section of the shaft by an adhesive.

30. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the tubular resilient portion of the shaft insert has a length of between about 1 inch and about 4 inches.

31. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert are formed of a resilient polymeric foam material.

32. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert are adhesively bonded to the rod portion.

33. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert comprise compliant adhesive material selected from the group consisting of rubber cement, silicon caulk and latex caulk.

34. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert comprise a plurality of compliant strips spaced apart radially about the outer rod surface and disposed substantially parallel to an axial centerline of the rod portion.

35. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert comprise a plurality of compliant strips, wherein each of the one or more compliant strips forms a helix about the outer rod surface.

36. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the one or more spacers of the shaft insert are formed as an integral part of the outer rod surface.

37. The golf club of claim 20 wherein the distal rod end of the rod portion of the shaft insert is disposed adjacent the distal shaft end of the shaft.

38. A shaft insert for a golf club, wherein the golf club has a substantially cylindrical shaft with a proximal shaft end disposed adjacent a grip of the golf club, a distal shaft end disposed adjacent a club head of the golf club, and a distal hollow section disposed adjacent the distal shaft end, the distal hollow section defined by an inner shaft diameter, the shaft insert comprising: a rod portion configured to be inserted into the distal hollow section of the shaft, the rod portion having an outer rod diameter which is less than the inner shaft diameter; and means for substantially centering the rod portion within the distal hollow section of the shaft when the rod portion is inserted therein.

39. A method for installing a shaft insert in a substantially cylindrical hollow shaft of a golf club, the shaft having a proximal shaft end, a distal shaft end and a distal hollow region disposed adjacent the distal shaft end, the shaft insert having a proximal insert end and a distal insert end, the method comprising the steps of: (a) swabbing an adhesive material inside the distal hollow region of the shaft; (b) inserting the distal insert end into the proximal shaft end; (c) pushing the shaft insert toward the distal shaft end until the distal insert end is adjacent the distal shaft end; (d) removing any excess adhesive material that exits the distal shaft end; and (e) curing the adhesive material within the shaft.

40. The method of claim 39 wherein the shaft insert is hollow along the length of the shaft insert between the proximal insert end and the distal insert end, the method further comprising removing any adhesive material that may have migrated into the hollow region of the shaft insert, thereby ensuring that an open airway passage exists from the proximal shaft end to the distal shaft end.

Description:

This application claims priority to provisional patent application Nos. 60/762,181 filed Jan. 25, 2006, and 60/703,496 filed Jul. 28, 2005, both titled GOLF CLUB TIP INSERT.

FIELD

This invention relates to the field of golf equipment. More particularly, this invention relates to a tip insert for a golf club shaft.

BACKGROUND

When a golf club strikes a golf ball, a considerable amount of impact force is transferred from the club head to the tip of the shaft. Immediately prior to ball impact during the downswing, the shaft has a tendency to oscillate up and down. If the stiffness of the tip of the shaft is not sufficient, oscillations of as much as ±1.5 inches at the toe of the club head can occur which will severely impact shot accuracy. Wedges are particularly prone to faulty hits due to toe up/down oscillations.

The swing of the club and the impact with the ball can also induce high frequency vibration modes in the shaft. When the club face impacts the ball at an off-center position, high frequency vibrations can be induced at the grip of the club. Such vibrations are not only uncomfortable to the golfer, but they can also have a detrimental effect on the desired transfer of force from the club head to the ball.

What is needed, therefore, is means for stiffening the tip section of the club shaft and dampening shaft vibration, while also providing additional strength to the tip section of the golf club shaft.

SUMMARY

These and other needs are met by a golf club having a substantially cylindrical shaft with a proximal shaft end, a distal shaft end, and a distal hollow region disposed adjacent the distal shaft end. The golf club includes a club head having a hosel for receiving the distal shaft end. The hosel has an exit point and an overlap region wherein the hosel and the distal hollow region of the shaft overlap each other. A shaft insert is disposed within the distal hollow region of the shaft. The shaft insert includes a rod portion and one or more spacers for substantially centering the rod portion within the distal hollow region of the shaft.

In some preferred embodiments, the rod portion is formed from aluminum, titanium, fiberglass or graphite composite, and the one or more spacers are formed of a resilient polymeric foam material or flowable adhesive surrounding the rod portion. The spacers of the shaft insert may comprise one or more strips of compliant material disposed between an outer surface of the rod portion and an inner surface of the distal hollow region of the shaft. The strips may be spaced apart radially about the outer surface of the rod portion and disposed substantially parallel to an axial centerline of the rod portion and may be continuous or segmented, or the strips may be in the shape of a helix wrapping around the rod portion or continuous around the circumference of the insert tube.

Preferably, a distal end of the rod portion of the shaft insert is disposed adjacent the distal shaft end or within the overlap region of the hosel. In some preferred embodiments, shaft insert is positioned so that the exit point of the hosel falls between the distal and proximal ends of the rod portion of the shaft insert.

In one embodiment, the invention provides a golf club having a shaft and a shaft insert. The shaft has proximal and distal ends between which are a plurality of tubular sections each having an inner surface with a diameter that is different from the other tubular sections. The tubular sections of the shaft include a first tubular section having a first inner diameter and a second tubular section having a second inner diameter which is less than the first inner diameter. The second tubular section is disposed closer to distal end of the shaft than is the first tubular section. The shaft insert is disposed at least partially within the first and second tubular sections of the shaft. The shaft insert includes a rod portion, a tubular resilient portion and one or more spacers. The rod portion has an outer rod surface with an outer rod diameter, a distal rod end, a proximal rod end, a distal rod region disposed adjacent the distal rod end and a proximal rod region disposed adjacent the proximal rod end. The tubular resilient portion is disposed between the outer rod surface of the proximal rod region and the inner surface of the first tubular section of the shaft. The one or more spacers of the shaft insert are disposed between the outer surface of the distal rod region and the inner surface of the second tubular section of the shaft.

In another embodiment, the invention provides a shaft insert for a golf club, wherein the golf club has a substantially cylindrical shaft with a proximal shaft end disposed adjacent a grip of the golf club, a distal shaft end disposed adjacent a club head of the golf club, and a distal hollow section disposed adjacent the distal shaft end. The distal hollow section of the shaft is defined by an inner shaft diameter. The shaft insert includes a rod portion that is configured to be inserted into the distal hollow section of the shaft. The shaft insert also includes means for substantially centering the rod portion within the distal hollow section of the shaft when the rod portion is inserted therein.

In another aspect, the invention provides a method for installing a shaft insert in a substantially cylindrical hollow shaft of a golf club, where the shaft has a proximal shaft end, a distal shaft end and a distal hollow region disposed adjacent the distal shaft end. The shaft insert has a proximal insert end and a distal insert end. The method includes the steps of: (a) swabbing an adhesive material inside the distal hollow region of the shaft; (b) inserting the distal insert end into the proximal shaft end; (c) pushing the shaft insert toward the distal shaft end until the distal insert end is adjacent the distal shaft end; (d) removing any excess adhesive material that exits the distal shaft end; and (e) curing the adhesive material within the shaft.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Further advantages of the invention are apparent by reference to the detailed description in conjunction with the figures, wherein elements are not to scale so as to more clearly show the details, wherein like reference numbers indicate like elements throughout the several views, and wherein:

FIG. 1 depicts a shaft insert positioned relative to a hosel of a golf club head according to a preferred embodiment of the invention and

FIG. 2 depicts a golf club shaft according to a preferred embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 3 depicts a shaft insert according to a preferred embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 4 depicts the shaft insert of FIG. 3 assembled into a golf club shaft according to a preferred embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 5 depicts a shaft insert according to an alternative embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 6 depicts the shaft insert of FIG. 5 assembled into a golf club shaft according to an alternative embodiment of the invention; and

FIG. 7 depicts a perspective view of an alternative embodiment of a shaft insert.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1 depicts a golf club 30 having a shaft 10 comprising shaft sections 12a, 12b and 12c of decreasing size. A club head 32 is attached to the shaft 10 at the end of section 12c. The club head 32 includes a hosel 34 which receives and is rigidly attached to the end of shaft section 12c. Although the club 30 depicted in FIG. 1 has sections with different cross-sectional sizes, it will be appreciated that the invention described herein is also applicable to a golf club having a constant cross-sectional size along the length of the shaft. The invention is also applicable to a club having a tapered cross-sectional size along the length of the shaft. The enlarged section of FIG. 1 depicts a cross-sectional view of a region of the shaft 10 where the end section 12c engages the hosel 34 of the club head 32. The enlarged section of FIG. 1 also depicts a shaft insert 14 provided within a hollow portion of the shaft section 12c. Various aspects of the shaft insert 14 are describe in more detail hereinafter.

FIG. 2 depicts cross sectional views of the golf club shaft 10 of FIG. 1. As shown in FIG. 2, the shaft 10 transitions from the large diameter portion 12a to the medium diameter portion 12b to the small diameter portion 12c. The small diameter portion 12c is also referred to herein as the tip end of the club shaft. In preferred embodiments, the golf club shaft 10 may be steel, graphite composite, or any other sufficiently rigid material.

FIG. 3 depicts cross sectional views of a preferred embodiment of a shaft insert 14 which comprises a foam portion 16 surrounding a rod portion 18. In the preferred embodiment, the rod portion 18 is a hollow cylinder formed from a isotropic homogeneous material, such as aluminum or titanium. The rod portion 18 may also be formed from thermoplastic, fiberglass or graphite composite materials. Thus, it should be appreciated that the invention is not limited to any particular material of the rod portion 18. Although in the preferred embodiment the rod portion 18 is hollow, it could also be solid. Further, the rod portion 18 may take on other shapes besides cylindrical. For example, in alternative embodiments, the cross section of the rod portion 18 is polygonal or star-shaped. It should be further appreciated that the rod portion 18 need not have a consistent diameter throughout its length, as alternative embodiments of the invention implement a tapered rod portion. In preferred embodiments, the length of the rod portion 18 is from about 2 inches to about 15 inches, depending on the configuration of the golf club 30.

In the preferred embodiment, the foam portion 16 is cylindrical and has an outside diameter corresponding to the inside diameter of the portion 12b of the shaft 10. The inside diameter of the foam portion 16 preferably corresponds to the outside diameter of the rod portion 18. In preferred embodiments, the foam portion 16 is a resilient polymeric foam material having high vibration dampening characteristics. It should be appreciated that the invention is not limited to any particular material of the foam portion 16. Although in the preferred embodiment the foam portion 16 is cylindrical, the cross section of its inner and outer surfaces could take on other shapes, such as polygonal. Most preferably, the shape of the inner surface of the foam portion 16 corresponds to the shape of the outer surface of the rod portion 18. In the preferred embodiment, the foam portion 16 is about 1 to 4 inches long.

FIG. 4 depicts a preferred embodiment of the shaft insert 14 assembled into the shaft 10. As shown in FIG. 4, the outer surface of the foam portion 16 preferably fits snuggly against the inner surface of the portion 12b of the shaft 10. In the preferred embodiment, the outer diameter of the rod portion 18 is somewhat less than the inner diameter of the tip 12c of the shaft 10. The space between the outer surface of the rod portion 18 and the inner surface of the tip 12c of the shaft is preferably filled with a compliant adhesive 20, such as rubber cement. While the adhesive 20 secures the insert 14 within the shaft 10, it also provides for vibration damping. In some preferred embodiments, an adhesive layer may be used to secure the foam portion 16 to the rod portion 18. Adhesive may also be used to secure the foam portion 16 to the inside surface of the shaft portion 12b.

In the embodiment of FIG. 4, the distal end 14a of the insert 14 substantially coincides with the distal end 12d of the shaft 10. However, it should be appreciated that the lateral position of the shaft insert 14 in the shaft 10 can vary from that shown in FIG. 4, such that the distal end 14a of the insert 14 does not coincide with the distal end 12d of the shaft 10. As shown in FIG. 1, the shaft insert 14 is preferably positioned laterally such that the exit point 34a of the hostel 34 is disposed adjacent a central portion of the insert 14. In this manner, the shaft insert 14 provides increased strength in the club shaft 10 at a critical point on the shaft 10, which point is prone to high stress and potential breakage during impact of the club head 32 with the ball.

It has been determined through impact testing that the shaft insert 14 substantially increases the stiffness of the tip 12c of the shaft, while the foam portion 16 and the adhesive layer 20 considerably dampen vibrations in the shaft 10. Depending on the materials selected for the insert 14, the insert 14 may also be constructed to selectively adjust the weight of the tip 12c of the shaft 10.

An alternative embodiment of the insert 14 is depicted in FIGS. 5 and 6. In this embodiment, spacing between the rod portion 18 and the section 12c of the shaft 10 is maintained by compliant stays or spacers 22. Preferably, the spacers 22 comprise strips of foam or other compliant material that are attached to the outer surface of the rod portion 18 before the rod portion 18 is inserted into the shaft portion 12c. As shown in view D-D of FIG. 5 and view F-F of FIG. 6, the spacers 22 of one embodiment are radially spaced substantially equally about the circumference of the rod portion 18. While the spacers 22 keep the rod portion 18 substantially centered in the shaft portion 12c, the spacers 22 also dampen vibration in the shaft 10 when a golf club head impacts a golf ball.

Although the embodiment of FIGS. 5 and 6 includes three spacers 22 separated by about 120 degrees about the rod portion 18, it will be appreciated that other embodiments may include more spacers 22 radially spaced at smaller angles. In alternative embodiments, a single cylindrical spacer 22 may be used that completely surrounds the circumference of the rod portion 18. In yet other embodiments, the spacer 22 comprises one or more strips of compliant material wrapped in a helical fashion down the length of the rod portion 18. In some embodiments, the one or more strips of compliant material are continuous down the full length of the rod portion 18. In other embodiments, the strips are segmented. Thus, the invention is not limited to any particular number, spacing or shape of the compliant spacers 22.

Preferably, the spacers 22 are attached to the outer surface of the rod portion 18, such as by a thin layer of adhesive disposed between the spacer 22 and rod portion 18. In a preferred embodiment, the adhesive layer is an integral portion of the spacer 22, such as the adhesive provided on foam strips used as window and door seals.

Although foam is a preferred material for the spacers 22, other compliant materials could be used, such as rubber or other elastomeric materials, or materials such as latex or silicon caulk that are applied as a liquid and cure to form compliant spacers 22.

In one alternative embodiment, the compliant spacers 22 are used in combination with the compliant adhesive 20 to keep the rod portion 18 substantially centered in the portion 12c of the shaft and to dampen vibration.

In one embodiment depicted in FIG. 7, the spacers 22 are integral to the rod portion 18 of the insert 14. In the example of FIG. 7, the spacers 22 are radial splines formed at the outer surface of the rod portion 18. Such structure may be formed by extrusion or injection molding of a thermoplastic material. If the outer diameter of the rod portion (D in FIG. 7) is slightly greater than the inner diameter of the shaft 10, the tips 40 of the splines 22 may collapse or bend to accommodate a press fit into the shaft 10. This collapsing or bending of the tips 40 make this embodiment of the spacers 22 compliant enough to provide for centering of the insert 14 within the shaft 10 without imparting detrimental stress to the shaft during the press fit installation.

To assemble a golf club 30 including the preferred embodiment of the shaft insert 14 within the shaft 10, an optional compliant adhesive may be used to form the adhesive layer 20 within the shaft 10. The adhesive is preferably swabbed inside the tip of the shaft 10 from the distal end 12d up to the length of the insert 14. The distal end 14a of the insert 14 is then inserted into the proximal (butt) end of the shaft 10 and is gently pushed through the hollow shaft 10 using a long ramrod until the distal end 14a of the insert 14 is substantially flush with the distal (tip) end 12d of the shaft 10. Any adhesive that extrudes from the shaft tip end 12d is cleaned from the exterior surface of the shaft 10 immediately with a rag or other cleaning means. A small implement, such as a pointed rod or skewer, is then used to clean any adhesive that may have migrated inside the hollow portion of the tip insert 14. In the preferred embodiment, it is important to keep a complete airway passage open from the proximal end to the distal end of the shaft 10 before installing a club head 32 on the tip end of the shaft 10. The shaft 10 is then placed on a drying rack until the adhesive cures.

Placing a shaft insert at the tip end of a golf club shaft according to the present invention provides several significant advantages over prior art shaft inserts placed in the grip end or other locations within a shaft. Placement of the shaft insert at the tip end makes the tip stiffer, thereby stabilizing the shaft tip and minimizing oscillations caused by the club head striking a golf ball or shaft responses to downswing load immediately prior to ball impact. In addition to oscillations induced in the shaft by contact of the club head with a golf ball, the resulting impact also causes bending or twisting of the shaft. This bending or twisting causes ovaling of the substantially circular cross section of the tip section of the shaft in conventional golf clubs without tip inserts and in clubs with shaft inserts at the grip end of the shaft. Placement of a shaft insert at the tip end of the shaft minimizes this ovaling by maintaining the substantially circular cross section of the shaft, thereby improving the bending or torsional strength of the shaft. Placement of the shaft insert at the tip end of the shaft also helps attenuate the vibration at its source, the club head, before the vibrations travel up the shaft. This minimizes the occurrence of vibration resonances and standing waves along the length of the shaft. The use of tip inserts also helps to minimize the overall weight of the shaft as compared to inserts placed in the grip end. This is because tip inserts generally have a smaller diameter than inserts placed in the grip section or other portions of the club shaft. A factor important to both golf club manufacturers and golfers is that inserts at the tip end can be used most effectively to shift the center of gravity of the shaft towards the tip. This provides for more effective fine tuning of the club swing weight.

In addition to the aforementioned performance advantages of placing a shaft insert in the tip end of the shaft as opposed to the grip end or other locations within the shaft, placement of certain preferred embodiments of the shaft insert at the tip end also enhances the safety of the golfer. When the tip section of the shaft of a conventional golf club breaks apart from the upper portion of the shaft, the tip section and club head completely detach from the upper shaft and pose a risk to the golfer and other individuals within close proximity, as a heavy flying club head and broken shaft with a jagged edge pose a serious risk of injury to an individual struck by the projectile. If, however, an insert in the tip section is made of certain materials such as fiber composites, the fibers hold the broken sections of the shaft together, allowing a golfer to stop using the broken golf club and avoid injury before the tip section breaks cleanly away from the upper portion of the shaft.

The foregoing description of preferred embodiments for this invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. They are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed. Obvious modifications or variations are possible in light of the above teachings. The embodiments are chosen and described in an effort to provide the best illustrations of the principles of the invention and its practical application, and to thereby enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize the invention in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated.





 
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