Title:
Upholstery with spring elements or springs distributed over the area of the upholstery
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention relates to an upholstery with spring elements (6) or springs (5) distributed over the area of the upholstery, which spring elements (6) or springs (5) are enclosed in chambers (K) with walls of non-woven fabric, with covering layers (31, 32) that span the face sides of the spring elements (6) or springs (5), with stabilising connections (7) between the adjacent chambers (K) on the one hand and between the chambers (K) and the covering layers (31, 32) on the other hand, wherein the non-woven fabric that forms the walls of the chambers (K) and parts of the connections (7) consists of at least one layer of non-woven web (1, 2) that extends between the chambers (K) parallel to the covering layers (31, 32) while forming the connection sections (15, 25) and that is provided with deep-drawn and/or moulded pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) for forming walls of the chambers (K) or parts of the same. (FIG. 1)



Inventors:
Zschoch, Diana (Chemnitz, DE)
Application Number:
11/189557
Publication Date:
02/01/2007
Filing Date:
07/26/2005
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
5/720
International Classes:
A47C23/00; A47C23/04; A47C27/04; A47C27/06
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
SANTOS, ROBERT G
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Brooks Kushman (Southfield, MI, US)
Claims:
1. Upholstery with spring elements (6) or springs (5) distributed over the area of the upholstery, which spring elements (6) or springs (5) are enclosed and guided separately or in groups in chambers (K) with walls made of non-woven fabric, with upper and lower covering layers (31, 32) that extend over the area of the upholstery and that span the face sides of the spring elements (6) or springs (5), and with stabilising connections (7) between adjacent chambers (K) on the one hand and between the chambers (K) and the covering layers (31, 32) on the other hand, wherein the non-woven fabric that forms the walls of the chambers (K) and parts of the connection (7) consists of at least one layer of non-woven web (1, 2) that extends between the chambers (K) parallel to the covering layers (31, 32) while forming connection sections (15, 25) and that is provided with deep-drawn and/or moulded pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) for forming walls of the chamber (K) or parts of the same and wherein the connection sections (15, 25) and/or the head sections of the pockets (11 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) of the layer of non-woven web (1; 2) are fixed to one of the covering layers (31, 32) to an intermediate layer or to connection sections (25, 26) of an additional layer of non-woven web (2; 1) by means of connections (7).

2. Upholstery according to claim 1, characterised in that the pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) have a different depth depending on the area.

3. Upholstery according to claim 1, characterised in that for the shaping of the chamber walls and the connections between the chambers (K), two adjacent layers of non-woven web (1, 2) are provided whose pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) are aligned so that they are opposing and whose connection sections (15; 25) are connected to one another via an intermediate layer (4).

4. Upholstery according to claim 1, characterised in that for the shaping of the chamber walls and the connections (15, 25) between the chambers (K), two adjacent layers of non-woven web (1, 2) are provided whose pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) are aligned so that they are opposing and whose connection sections (15; 25) are directly connected to one another and in that in the chambers (e.g., K1, K6, K7) that form between the pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) of the two layers of non-woven web (1, 2), elastic filling elements (6) or springs (5) formed in one piece are arranged.

5. Upholstery according to claim 1, characterised in that two adjacent layers of non-woven web (1, 2) are provided for the formation of the chamber walls and the connections (15, 25) between the chambers (K), whose pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) are aligned so that they are opposing one another and whose connection sections (15; 25) are connected to one another via fixed links (8, 81, 82).

6. Upholstery according to claim 1, characterised in that the fixed links (8) are thread-shaped or wire-shaped flexible elements (81) that hold the connection sections (15; 25) of the two layers of non-woven web (1, 2) to one another via connections (77).

7. Upholstery according to claim 1, characterised in that the fixed links (82) are tube-shaped textile or flexible elements, whose longitudinal axes extend parallel to at least one row of springs (5) or elastic filling elements (6) and in that the tube-shaped elements of the fixed links (82) are fixed in place in the area of one of their opposing surface lines via a sewn or glued connection (78), to the upper and lower layer of non-woven web (1; 2).

8. Upholstery with spring elements (6) or springs (5) distributed over the area of the upholstery, which spring elements (6) or springs (5) are guided separately on walls of non-woven web, with upper and lower covering layers (31; 32) that extend over the area of the upholstery and span the face sides of the spring elements (6) or springs (5), with stabilising connections (7) between the elements guiding adjacent springs (5) on the one hand and between the non-woven fabric (1, 2) and the covering layers (31, 32) on the other hand, wherein the non-woven fabric that forms the walls and parts of the connections (7) consists of at least one layer of non-woven web (1, 2) that extends between the walls parallel to the covering layers (31, 32) while forming the connection sections (15, 25) and that is provided for the formation of the guides for the spring elements (6) or springs (5) with deep-drawn and/or form-moulded pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24), wherein the pockets (13) engage in an interior area of the spring elements (6) or springs (5) arranged on the face side and wherein the connection sections (15, 25) and/or the head sections of the pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) of the layer of non-woven fabric (1; 2) are fixed to one of the covering layers (31, 32), to an intermediate layer, to connection sections (15, 25) or to head sections of the pockets (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) of an additional layer of non-woven web (2; 1) by means of connections (7).

9. Upholstery according to claim 8, characterised in that the hollow spaces delimited by the pockets (13) are filled with granulate material or with spring elements of foamed material.

10. Method for producing a non-woven fabric with pockets made of a non-woven web distributed over the area, characterised in that a non-woven web is fed in the working direction, which non-woven web has fibres predominantly aligned parallel to the working direction and a lesser quantity of fibres aligned at right angles to the working direction, in that a row of moving stamps (ST) arranged at a right angle to the working direction forms a row of pockets, step by step, according to the loop-forming principle, in that at least the non-woven web compressions (151) that result between simultaneously formed pockets are fixed to the connection sections (15) at least by means of adhesive-acting, thermosetting materials.

Description:

The invention relates to an upholstery with spring elements or springs distributed over the area of the upholstery, which spring elements or springs are enclosed and guided separately or in groups in chambers with walls made of non-woven fabric, with upper and lower covering layers that extend over the area of the upholstery and that span the face sides of the spring elements or springs, and with stabilising connections between adjacent chambers on the one hand and between the chambers and the covering layers on the other hand.

From DE 195 05 438, a mattress with springs is known, in which mattress a structural layer that is arranged parallel to the upholstery area is studded with spring elements on both sides. The spring elements have a uniform geometric structure. They are spaced at a distance to one another. The areas between the elastic spring elements serve the aeration of the upholstery, on the one hand, and the absorption of the displaced material of the spring elements, on the other hand.

The spring elements or elastic moulded parts are regularly composed of foamed materials, while the supporting structural element that connects the spring elements is preferably a plastic grid.

The spring unit formed in this way is regularly covered by covering layers on both sides, parallel to the upholstered area, so that an upholstery with a closed surface results. If the circumferential area of the lying surface is also covered and fixed in place, we call this a spring mattress.

Detrimental in this arrangement of the upholstery is that the spring elements of foamed material have the desired spring characteristics in a limited height only. High spring elements break away to the sides. The spring characteristic line is unsuitable for the intended purpose. The elasticity reduces to zero under a load. An additional, very crucial problem exists during the reprocessing or recycling of the foamed material.

In light of these disadvantages of foamed material springs, one has predominantly used spiral-shaped springs of steel wire as spring elements until now. These springs have a spring characteristic line which changes only slightly in the useable range, even in the case of larger deformation. One counteracted the disadvantage resulting from the fact that such narrowly adjacent springs need a good lateral guide across the entire useable range of spring by encasing these springs in a practically interlocking manner in chambers of non-woven fabric and connecting the side walls and/or face sides of adjacent chambers to one another.

In this way, one achieved virtually uniform spring characteristics that were virtually uniformly distributed in the level and even in the depth (impression depth in the upholstery). The effort for encasing the springs and fixing the casings at the level of the upholstering causes problems, however.

From DE 40 42 304, a procedure for encasing the compression springs and their mutual connection to adjacent spring casings is described. Chains with chambers for more than one spring are prepared of strips of non-woven fabric or woven fabric. The chambers are separated from one another by seams that are aligned parallel to the axis of the springs.

Adjacent chains are connected to one another mechanically. Slits, parallel to the seams, are provided for the insertion of the springs. In order to allow the springs to be guided exactly, however, the chambers are closed all around in the face areas of the springs. This shortens the slit, which considerably hinders the insertion of the springs into the chambers and the alignment of the same.

An additional problem with the described arrangement of the chambers of non-woven fabric was disclosed in DE 40 40 220. Connecting the chains of jacketed springs to one another in the transverse direction, as well, causes considerable difficulties. Notches in a differentiated design, which are arranged opposite one another along the seams for the purpose of the crossed connection, impair the stable guidance of the individual springs. Additional connections between the face areas of adjacent springs are regularly needed, in the form of manually applied clamps. Such assembly of the mattresses requires a considerable effort that can usually only be profitably executed by hand.

From DE 199 20 130, spring bases for mattresses and furniture for sitting and lying are known. In this case, roughly cylindrical compression springs made of wire are arranged in a lower or middle layer. These compression springs are encased in chambers of non-woven fabric. The non-woven fabric chambers are connected to one another at the sides and on both face sides, consequently forming a flexible, elastic layer of springs. This layer can be covered at the top and bottom with more or less voluminous, elastic and flexible upholstery layers. Within these upholstery layers, there are also layers provided that have pockets shaped to the sides with small dimensions. Granulate material can be introduced into these pockets before the layers are put together. This granulate material supports the shape of the pockets under loads. The flexibility and air permeability of the upholstery covering layer remain the same in this process.

Detrimental in this type of upholstery manufacture is again the extremely high expenditure for manufacturing the casings for the springs and for connecting the casings to one another in the area. The insertion of the springs into the pockets also causes problems. This process can be realised either only manually, or automatically, with an extremely large technical effort.

In DE 93 16 223 U, a spring mattress with zones of different ductility is disclosed. In this case, differently designed springs are used in certain areas of a mattress, facilitating a differentiated hardness of the upholstering. Encasing the coil springs is also extremely burdensome in the solution shown there. An automatic arrangement of the process is not regularly justifiable because of the costs.

In DE 200 00 156 U, a sound and vibration absorber is proposed. This sound absorber consists of a non-woven material. This non-woven material is pressed into a honeycombed structure by stamping elements. In the area of the honeycomb walls, the non-woven fabric is greatly compressed, while it is looser and elastic to some extent in the area of the hollow spaces. In a special embodiment, the non-woven fabric is formed in such a way that the fibres contained therein are aligned at right angles to the basis of the non-woven web. This non-woven web can also be covered with an additional layer of non-woven web on the top and bottom. The lower covering layer should preferably be formed as a vapour diffusion barrier.

Such an arrangement is unsuitable for use on upholsteries. While the stamped non-woven fabric can absorb sound, it cannot uniformly distribute the pressures of a stressing body at different depths in such a way that pressure points on the body are avoided.

From DE 298 03 222 U1, a gas-permeable, deflection-resistant sandwich structure is known in which a honeycombed supporting structure is provided in the central area, which structure is covered on the top and bottom by non-woven fabric top layers and then on the outside by filter cloth. The top layers are connected to the face sides of the supporting structure by means of adhesive. The supporting structure either consists of an open-cell foam core, or has a honeycombed structure of duromeric or thermoplastic material.

Such a structure is suitable for producing stiff structures. It is very stable at a low mass. However, because of the lack of spring characteristics in a large depth range, it is not suitable for upholstery and the like.

The object of the invention under consideration is to form an upholstery with spring elements or springs with virtually equal spring characteristics in a large depth range (impression depth of the upholstery) distributed over the area in such a way that the manufacture of the chambers for the spring elements or springs and their connection to one another can be rationalised and possibly automated. At the same time, the insertion of the spring elements or springs should be simplified.

This object is solved in a simple manner by the upholstery according to Claim 1. The layer of non-woven web, which has deep-drawn or stamped chambers or pockets and which is spread over the area of the upholstery, has chambers that are easy to load with springs or spring elements and simultaneously creates a defined, stable positioning of the upholstery chambers. Burdensome assembly work is kept to a minimum. The introduction of the elastic spring elements or springs can be mechanized with simple means or even automated, depending on the type of these springs or spring elements.

In accordance with Claim 2, it is possible to generate different resiliencies in different areas by forming pockets with different depths, while using uniform spring elements or springs. By restricting the spring elements, it is also possible to activate the resilience only after a restricted range of play has been overcome.

With thicker upholsteries, it is advisable, according to Claim 3, to provide two adjacent layers of non-woven web, whose pockets are adjusted to be opposite one another. In the process, the pockets of two non-woven webs form chambers on both sides of an intermediate layer, for two similar or different spring elements or springs.

With the embodiment according to Claim 4, it is possible to use springs that are high with a flat spring characteristic line. In areas of the upholstery that are pressed in to different depths, virtually uniform supporting forces work on the resting body.

The embodiment according to Claim 5 makes it possible to reduce the depth of the pockets in the layers of non-woven web while it is still possible to insert springs or spring elements of a large height, without it being necessary to accept disadvantages regarding the positioning of the springs under a load.

The use of the fixed links according to Claim 6 allows a lower upholstery mass. Application seems to be advisable, however, only when the upholstery is positioned as a whole in a stable frame.

The fixed links according to Claim 7, on the other hand, also ensure a certain stability along the rows of springs. There are fewer requirements placed on the stability of a frame.

The upholstery according to the independent Claim 8 avoids enclosing the spring elements or springs with non-woven fabric. The pockets grip into the face-side openings of the spring elements or springs, for the purpose of guiding the same. This facilitates a restricted depth of the pockets and makes it easier to assemble the springs in the upholstery.

Filling the hollow spaces according to Claim 9 stabilises the pockets and therefore the position of the springs in the upholstery.

The method for the production of a non-woven fabric with pockets distributed over the area according to Claim 10 has the advantage that the fibres needed for the pockets can be pulled out of the area of the fed non-woven web. In this way, the walls of the chambers are sufficiently stable and the depth of the pockets is practically unlimited, allowing for the remaining upholstery thicknesses.

In the following, the invention is explained in more detail on the basis of several examples. In the accompanying drawings, the following are shown:

FIG. 1 a cross-section through an upholstery formed according to the invention with two shaped layers of non-woven web,

FIG. 2 a second form of an upholstery with a single formed layer of non-woven web,

FIG. 3 an upholstery according to the invention with two shaped layers of non-woven web and different elastic spring elements and springs,

FIG. 4 an upholstery material with layers of non-woven web formed in a dome-shape and with dome-shaped springs,

FIG. 5 an upholstery material similar to FIG. 4 with dome-shaped spring elements,

FIG. 6 an upholstery material with two layers of non-woven web formed in a dome-shape, whose connection sections are directly connected to one another and whose hollow space is filled with a ball-shaped spring element,

FIG. 7 an upholstery similar to FIG. 6 with a ball-shaped or barrel-shaped spring,

FIG. 8 an embodiment similar to FIG. 8 with two crown-shaped springs,

FIG. 9 an upholstery with two roughly elliptically shaped layers of non-woven web with ball-shaped and spherical elastic filling elements,

FIG. 10 an embodiment corresponding to FIG. 9 with two ball-shaped spring elements,

FIG. 11 an upholstery material with different spring elements and form elements that can be shifted wit respect to one another,

FIG. 12 an upholstery material with two layers of non-woven web with a flat shape, which are held by means of wire-shaped fixed links,

FIG. 13 an upholstery similar to FIG. 12 with fixed links of a hose-shaped flexible material,

FIG. 14 a schematic depiction of the assembly process for an upholstery material according to FIG. 12,

FIG. 15 a preferred shaping device, in cross-section, using a divided stamp,

FIG. 16 a simplified top view of the device according to FIG. 15,

FIG. 17 an upholstery material with layers of non-woven web pocketed out in a dome-shape, that engage in the interior of helical springs for positioning and

FIG. 18 an upholstery with an upper and lower frame, in a perspective, simplified depiction.

The upholstery material according to FIG. 1 consists of two layers of non-woven web 1, 2. These layers of non-woven web 1, 2 are shaped using deep-drawing dies or stamping dies in such a way that they have preferably circular pockets 12, 22 in the basic area, which pockets 12, 22 are uniformly distributed over the area of the upholstery.

The foot sections of the pockets 12, 22 are connected to one another by means of so-called connection sections 15, 25. It is essentially the parts of the non-woven fabric that remain in the level of the flat non-woven web or non-woven fabric put down as starting material.

The pockets 12, 22 of the two layers of non-woven web 1, 2 are usually aligned to each other coaxially, so that the connection sections 15, 25 of two layers of non-woven web 1, 2 can be directly connected to one another by means of the connection 71. Chambers K1, into which springs 5, in the form of cylindrical compression springs with a flat spring characteristic line, are inserted, result from this connection 71.

The head areas of the pockets 12 of the layer of non-woven web 1 are connected to a first, upper covering layer 31 and the head sections of the pockets 22 of the lower layer of non-woven web 2 are connected to the covering layer 32. This is expediently done using a sewn or glued connection 72.

The upholstery according to FIG. 2 consists of only a single shaped layer of non-woven web 2. In the pockets 22 that are even deeper here and in the somewhat reduced pockets 22′, springs 5 of the same design, but with different initial tensions, are inserted, so that an incumbent body is supported with differentiated forces in the different areas.

To ensure a level arrangement of the covering layers 31, 32, preferably the lower covering layer 32 is given a different thickness. In the area of the smaller pockets 22′, the lower covering layer 32′ is reinforced.

The upholstery according to FIG. 3 has pockets 12 that point upwards for retaining elastic filling elements 63. The openings of the pockets 12 that point downwards are closed by an intermediate layer 4. The filling elements 63 in the pockets 12 of the first layer of non-woven web can be introduced in different quantities, so that a supporting effect is not effective, to some extent, until after a larger deformation of the covering layer 31.

A second shaped layer of non-woven web 2 is provided underneath this first layer of non-woven web 1. This has springs 5 according to FIG. 2. The intermediate layer 4 assumes the function of the covering layer 32 here, however. The connection sections 15 of the first layer of non-woven web 1 are connected to one another with the connection sections 25 of the second layer of non-woven web 2 via the intermediate layer 4 by means of connections 74. Each head section of the pockets 12, 22 of the layers of non-woven web 1, 2 is connected to an adjacent covering layer 31, 32.

The depictions in FIGS. 4 to 8 describe upholstery with a small upholstery thickness. In this case, one gets around the difficulties of three-dimensional shaping of non-woven web materials by having only dome-shaped pockets 13, 23 generated on the layers of non-woven web 1, 2.

In the embodiments according to FIGS. 4 and 5, initially the head sections of the two layers of non-woven web 1, 2 are connected to each other. After the insertion of the springs 52 or the spring elements 62, the covering layers 31, 32 are connected to the connection sections 15, 25 at 72.

FIGS. 6 to 8 show a different type of connection. The layers of non-woven web 1, 2 that are shaped into a dome shape are connected directly to their connection sections 15 or 25, respectively, after the springs 53 or elastic spring elements 61 or the springs 53 or 54, respectively, are inserted into the chambers K6, K7, K8. The connection of the head sections of the pockets 13, 23 to their covering layers 31, 32 is regularly done in a subsequent production step.

Different forms of the spring elements 6 or springs 5 can be chosen. In FIG. 6, we see a ball-shaped spring element 61. In FIG. 7, the spring 53 consists of a spherically-shaped coil spring with a large range of spring. In FIG. 8, an intermediate layer 4 is provided between the individual layers of non-woven web 1 and 2. In each of the chambers K8o and K8u, there is a spring 54 formed in a crown shape from wire.

FIGS. 9 and 10 show examples in which the pockets 14, 24 in the head area are shaped to be, for example, semi-circular. Between the head area shaped in this way and the connection sections 15, 25, we find stretched sections that can be aligned in a slightly conical or cylindrical manner. In the roughly elliptically shaped chambers K9 and K10 that result in this process, different elastic spring elements 61, 63 and/or springs 5 can be introduced. In addition to the depicted examples in the form of balls 61 or spheres 63, these can also be springs that are shaped in a manner similar to the spring 53 in FIG. 7.

FIG. 12 shows an additional example of upholstery, in which the shaped layers of non-woven web 1, 2 are anchored to their connection sections 15, 25 on the covering layers 31, 32 at 76. To ensure a satisfactory thickness of the upholstery, filling materials, in the form of elastic spheres 63, are inserted as bulk material with a distancing function In place of spheres of bulk material, moulded bodies 65 can also be used.

As already mentioned above, it is difficult to produce very deep pockets 11 with a uniform wall thickness when shaping layers of non-woven web. To produce upholsteries that allow a very deep impression depth, springs 5 that have correspondingly larger dimensions in the vertical must regularly be used.

To avoid a very deep pocket in the layers of non-woven web 1, 2, flatter, roughly cylindrical pockets 11, 21 are created. These essentially take up only the face side areas of the springs 5, virtually in a form-fit.

In the areas between the upper and lower layer of non-woven web, fixed links 8 and 81 or 82 are arranged between the connection sections 15, 25. These fixed links 8 are connected to the connection sections 15, 25 in such a way that the springs 5 are held in pockets 11, 21 of the two layers of non-woven web 1, 2 with a stipulated, usually low initial tension.

The fixed links 51 can be flexible plastic wires that can be provided with melted-on heads for the purpose of reliably anchoring them to the connection sections 15, 25. As a rule, these wire-shaped fixed links 81 are aligned so that they are perpendicular to the layers of non-woven web. To improve the positioning stability, particularly of the upper layer of non-woven web 1 in the horizontal direction, it is expedient also to provide diagonally arranged fixed links 81.

The assembly of this upholstery is depicted in FIG. 14. In the layers of non-woven web 1 and 2 that are run opposite each other, the waisted springs 51 shown here are initially inserted in the horizontal direction. After the pockets 11 or 21 are swivelled in, the fixed link 81 is introduced, preferably by means of a hollow needle. After the placement of power distributors (e.g., washers) on the connection sections 25 or 15, the ends of the plastic wire are melted into heads in the stipulated position, so that satisfactorily solid cohesion is given between the upper and lower layers of non-woven web 1, 2.

In an additional production step, the covering layers 31 or 32 are then applied and the connections 72 between the head sections of the pockets 11, 21 and the covering layers 31, 32 are produced.

Another form of a fixed link 8 is shown in FIG. 13. This fixed link 82 consists of a flexible hollow body in the form of a tube. On opposite surface lines of the tube, the connection 78 is produced with the connection sections 15 and 25 of the layers of non-woven web. To this end, one can spread this tube over a rail during the assembly and then position this unit between two rows of springs. Once the connection 18 has been made, the guide rail can be removed again, and the fixed link 82 has its original flexibility.

FIG. 17 shows an additional form of the upholstery material. The preferably dome-shaped pocket 13 has such dimensions here that the springs 5 can be reverse-drawn over it on the outside and, in this way, maintain their positioning direction. In this case, the connection sections 15 are located in the level of the front face of the springs 5. The fixed links 81′ are somewhat elongated. The connections can be arranged in slight depressions. To stabilise the pockets, the hollow spaces K17o and K17u that are enclosed by the pockets can be filled with granulate material or with spring elements 63 made of foamed material or non-woven web.

In the left spring 5 in FIG. 17, a wire-shaped fixed link 81″ is also drawn in, which connects the crowns of the pockets 13 to one another via power distributors at the connections 79. These fixed links 81″ can connect the upper and lower layers of non-woven web 1, 2 alone or together with fixed links 81′. Likewise, it is conceivable to connect the crowns of the pockets 13 directly to one another by means of an appropriate arrangement of the dimensions of the pockets 13 and/or the springs 5.

One can also use the fixed links 81″ arranged coaxially with spring 5 for inserting the springs 5 with different or even adjustable initial tension.

To ensure satisfactory stability of the upper-most and/or lower layer of non-woven web 1, 2 and/or the upper or lower covering layer 31 in the horizontal direction, it is expedient to assign upper and lower frames Ro, Ru to the upholstery. These frames Ro, Ru are braced together with a diagonally-tensed traction mechanism or fixed links 83 according to FIG. 18 in such a way that a lateral drifting of the upper or lower frame Ro, Ru is prevented.

In FIGS. 15 and 16, the most important components of a device are described, which device can, in particular, produce a layer of non-woven web with the pockets 12, 22 that are suitable for holding springs 5 or 6.

The device depicted in FIG. 15 and in FIG. 16 is particularly intended for such pockets 12, 22 in which springs 5 according to FIGS. 1 through 3 can be inserted. For pockets 13, 23 and, where applicable, 14, 24, as they are used according to FIGS. 4 through 13, simple stamps and moulds can be used.

For shaping very deep pockets, it is necessary to take special steps in order to ensure a satisfactory rigidity of the wall sections and to avoid destroying the non-woven fabric.

The non-woven fabric 1 that is supplied in a web consists predominantly of fibres that are aligned with the length of the web. The length of these fibres is preferably more than 70 mm. An additional but smaller portion of the fibres are aligned at right angles and regularly have shorter fibre staples.

Only single rows of pockets 11, one after the other, are always shaped in the supplied non-woven web, at right angles to the feeding direction of the non-woven fabric, whereby practically no fibres are drawn into the new pockets from the already completely formed sections of the non-woven fabric.

The stamp for producing the pockets is formed in two parts in the embodiment according to FIG. 15. The first part of this stamp ST moves down as soon as the mould M has taken up its working position and the pressure rail D has clamped the non-woven web in the area of the connection sections 15. Once this stamp ST has reached its lowest position, the second stamp ST1 follows and forms the pockets 11 in their final form.

With this mode of operation, the non-woven web that is being fed is subjected to less stress in the area of the pockets. The walls of the pockets 11 become thicker and more solid. By tightening the non-woven web from the feeding direction, more or less billowing non-woven web build-ups 151 form between adjacent pockets. For securing the overall structure of the layer of non-woven web, these non-woven web build-ups 151 are to be fixed in place as closely as possible to the form that they had during the shaping process.

In the preceding example, this is accomplished by means of the application of an adhesive tape B, which is drawn off of a tape store BS and pressed on the non-woven web build-up 151 by the pressing roller BD. That is how it is ensured that the non-woven web that is formed in this way does not deform before the final assembly of the covering layers 31, 32.

The loosening of the stamp ST, ST1 from the pocket 11 can be supported by suction shoes in the lower area of the pocket. In order for it to be possible to move the pockets 11 in the working direction without interference, the back part of the mould M, with respect to the direction of movement, can be moved vertically. It can be brought into a lower idle position MI′, so that the pocket 11 can be moved in the working direction without resistance.

The layer of non-woven web 1 formed with this device can be fixed in place by applying or introducing thermosetting materials, so that dimensionally stable layers of non-woven web 1, 2 are available for the assembly of the upholstery after the completion of the thermosetting process.

It is expedient to add to the non-woven fabric used as starting material fibres that melt at a low temperature, either completely or at their surface. In this case, the shaping process is carried out at appropriate temperatures, so that these fibres or their surface layer melt temporarily. If the non-woven fabric is cooled off after the shaping process, the connections that were made then harden and give the layer of non-woven web the required stability for assembly purposes and for its corresponding function in the upholstery material.

The textile material used for this case of operation can naturally be made of any form of natural fibres, of synthetic fibres or of appropriate mixtures. It is also possible to use recycling material for this non-woven web.

The mentioned connections between the indicated sections 15, 25 of the layers of non-woven web 1, 2 and the covering or intermediate layers can be made in different, known ways.

The use of chain-stitch or overcast seams obviously offers the most reliable type of connection. The advantages of glued connections, on the other hand, lie in the simpler processing technology.

The spring elements 6 used are preferably hollow bodies made of an elastic, flexible material. Spheres or otherwise shaped bulk material of more or less elastic material have less the property of the springs than they do have the property of flexible filling materials, which have more of an absorbing effect in the upholstery as a whole.

The springs 5 were already described in reference to the individual embodiments. All springs 5 have in common the facts that they apply virtually the same supporting forces over a large range of spring, that as far as possible no material or no part of the spring 5 must swerve laterally during the shaping and that good aeration is guaranteed in the area of the springs 5.

In the area of filling elements or closed spring elements, channels for diverting the air should be provided regularly.

LIST OF THE REFERENCE NUMBERS

  • 1 Layer of non-woven web (upper)
  • 11 Pocket (flat)
  • 12 Pocket (deep)
  • 13 Pocket (dome-shaped)
  • 14 Pocket (ellipsoid)
  • 15 Connecting area
  • 151 Non-woven web compression
  • 2 Layer of non-woven web (lower)
  • 21 Pocket (flat)
  • 22 Pocket (deep)
  • 23 Pocket (dome-shaped)
  • 24 Pocket (ellipsoid)
  • 25 Connecting area
  • 3 Covering layer (general)
  • 31 Covering layer (upper)
  • 32, 32′ Covering layer (lower)
  • 33 Upholstery layer (voluminous)
  • 4 Intermediate layer
  • 5 Spring, elastic (general)
  • 51 Spring (waisted)
  • 52 Spring (dome form)
  • 53 Spring (spherical or barrel form)
  • 54 Spring (crown form)
  • 6 Spring element, elastic (general)
  • 61 Spring element (ball form)
  • 62 Spring element (dome form)
  • 63 Spring element (spherical form—bulk material)
  • 64 Spring element (prismatic)
  • 65 Moulded body
  • 7 Connection (general)
  • 71 Connection (layer of non-woven web/layer of non-woven web, foot area)
  • 72 Connection (layer of non-woven web, head area/covering layer)
  • 73 Connection (layer of non-woven web, foot area/covering layer)
  • 74 Connection (layer of non-woven web/intermediate layer/layer of non-woven web)
  • 75 Connection (layer of non-woven web/layer of non-woven web/head area)
  • 76 Connection (spring element/covering layer)
  • 77 Connection (layer of non-woven web/fixed link, wire-shaped)
  • 78 Connection (layer of non-woven web/fixed link, tube-shaped)
  • 79 Connection (layer of non-woven web/fixed link between pockets)
  • 8 Fixed link (general)
  • 81, 81′, 81″ Fixed link, wire-shaped
  • 82 Fixed link, tube-shaped
  • 83 Traction mechanism
  • B Adhesive tape
  • BS Tape store
  • BD Tape pressing roller
  • D Pressure rail
  • K Chamber (general)
  • K1 . . . Kn Chamber (FIG. 1 to FIG. n)
  • K3o Chamber (FIG. 3, upper layer of non-woven web)/example
  • K3u Chamber (FIG. 3, lower layer of non-woven web)/example
  • M Mould, steady
  • M1, M1′ Mould, movable
  • Ro Frame (upper)
  • Ru Frame (lower)
  • S Suction shoe
  • ST Stamp
  • ST1 Stamp, for feeding