Title:
Architectural capital having an astragal formed thereon
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
An architectural capital has an astragal formed on the capital, the capital configured for use in an architectural column.



Inventors:
Christensen, Jason (Fayette, UT, US)
Christensen, Roland J. (Fayette, UT, US)
Application Number:
11/096336
Publication Date:
10/26/2006
Filing Date:
03/31/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04C3/30
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
WENDELL, MARK R
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FISHMAN STEWART PLLC (BLOOMFIELD HILLS, MI, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A capital, comprising an astragal formed at a base of said capital.

2. The capital of claim 1, further comprising: an abacus; an echinus; and a neck; wherein said astragal is formed at a base of said neck.

3. The capital of claim 1, comprising: a hollow opening in the shape of a cross-section of a column body; said opening configured to allow said column body to extend through said capital until a top surface of said column body is flush with a top surface of said capital.

4. The capital of claim 1, wherein said capital is configured to be fastened to a column body.

5. The capital of claim 4, wherein said column body comprises a filament-wound column body.

6. The capital of claim 4, wherein said column body comprises one of a metal, a polymer, wood, concrete, stone, cement, or fiberglass.

7. A column, comprising: a column body; and a capital having an astragal formed on said capital.

8. The column of claim 7, wherein said column body comprises a filament-wound column body.

9. The column of claim 7, wherein said column body comprises one of a metal, a polymer, wood, concrete, stone, cement, or fiberglass.

10. The column of claim 7, wherein said capital comprises: an abacus; an echinus; and a neck; wherein said astragal is formed at said neck.

11. The column of claim 7, further comprising one of a base, a plinth or a combination thereof.

12. The column of claim 7, wherein said column body comprises a plurality of filament-wound layers.

13. The column of claim 7, wherein said column body further comprises a fiber-reinforced bonding agent.

14. The column of claim 7, wherein said column body comprises an outer surface.

15. The column of claim 14, wherein said outer surface is fluted.

16. The column of claim 7, wherein said astragal comprises one of a bead motif or a bead-and-reel motif.

17. The column of claim 7, wherein said capital comprises: a hollow opening corresponding to the shape of a cross-section of said column body; said opening configured to allow said column body to extend through said capital until a top surface of said column body is flush with a top surface of said capital.

18. A method of making a capital, comprising: inserting a mold material in a capital mold, said capital mold comprising an astragal shape; and curing said mold material.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein said mold material comprises a thermoset polymer.

20. The method of claim 18, wherein said capital mold further comprises an abacus shape, an echinus shape, and a neck shape.

21. The method of claim 18, wherein said capital mold further comprises: a hollow opening associated with a cross-section of said column body; said opening configured to allow said column body to extend through said capital until a top surface of said column body is flush with a top surface of said capital.

22. A method of manufacturing a column, comprising: making a column body; and forming a capital with an astragal formed on said capital.

23. The method of claim 22, further comprising fastening said capital to said column-body.

24. The method of claim 22, wherein said column body comprises a filament-wound column body.

25. The method of claim 22, wherein said column body comprises one of a metal, a polymer, wood, concrete, stone, cement, or fiberglass.

26. The method of claim 22, wherein said capital comprises one of wood, metal, concrete, fiberglass, plaster, a polymer, or a composite.

27. The method of claim 22, wherein said forming a capital comprises inserting a mold material into a capital mold, said capital mold including an astragal shape.

28. The method of claim 27, wherein said mold material comprises a thermoset polymer.

29. The method of claim 27, wherein said capital mold further comprises an abacus shape, an echinus shape, and a neck shape.

30. The method of claim 27, wherein said capital mold further comprises: a hollow opening associated with a cross-section of said column body; said opening configured to allow said column body to extend through said capital until a top surface of said column body is flush with a top surface of said capital.

31. The method of claim 22, further comprising forming one of a base or a plinth.

32. The method of claim 22, further comprising adding a surface to said column body.

33. A method of stacking a plurality of columns, comprising: forming a capital for each column of said plurality of columns; forming a column body for each column of said plurality of columns; forming an astragal on each capital; and stacking said column bodies.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein each of said column bodies comprises a filament-wound column body.

35. The method of claim 33, wherein each of said column bodies comprise a taper forming a smaller top end and a larger bottom end; wherein said column bodies are stacked by inserting a smaller top end of a first column body in a larger bottom end of a second column body.

Description:

BACKGROUND

Columns have long been used in architecture for structural support, aesthetic qualities, and artistic purposes. A column body, base, plinth and capital form a complete column. The capital, base and plinth may be separately formed and assembled with the column body during the work of erecting a building. The complete assembly must be adequate to take the vertical load forces that may be applied. The capital forms the crowning member of the column and projects on each side as it rises to where its square top meets with the building or other load. An astragal, a semicircular molding surrounding the column body, is also used in the top portion of columns to provide an aesthetically pleasing transition from the column body to the capital.

Architecturally correct columns that include the above-mentioned components take on a number of different forms. Many columns are made from wood, steel, concrete, molded polymers, or filament-wound composite structures. In these columns, the astragal is either bonded directly onto the shaft or formed as part of the column body, such as by a mold. Unfortunately, these techniques do not allow columns to be efficiently stacked and/or stored because the astragal forms part of the column. Further, forming the astragal as part of the column adds extra operations in the manufacturing process, requires more material and expensive silicon molds, and increases the amount of laborers needed for production.

SUMMARY

In one of many possible embodiments, an architectural capital includes an astragal formed at a base of the capital. In another embodiment, the capital is configured to be fastened to the top of a column body.

A second exemplary embodiment provides a method of making an architectural capital having an astragal formed on the capital.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings illustrate various embodiments of the present apparatus and methods and are a part of the specification. The illustrated embodiments are merely examples and do not limit the scope of the apparatus and methods.

FIG. 1A is a side elevation view illustrating a capital having an astragal formed thereon, according to one exemplary embodiment.

FIG. 1B is a top-view of a capital, according to one exemplary embodiment.

FIG. 1C is a side elevation view illustrating a capital having an astragal formed thereon, according to one exemplary embodiment.

FIG. 2 is a side elevation view illustrating a column with a capital having an astragal formed thereon, according to one exemplary embodiment

FIG. 3 is a side-view illustrating a filament wound column body, according to one exemplary embodiment.

FIG. 4 is a top-view illustrating a cross-section of a column body, according to one exemplary embodiment.

Throughout the drawings, identical reference numbers designate similar, but not necessarily identical, elements.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

An exemplary system and method for implementing an architectural capital is disclosed herein. More specifically, a capital is disclosed that includes an astragal formed as part of the capital. Numerous specific details are set forth for purposes of explanation and to provide a thorough understanding of the present system and method for implementing the capital.

It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art, that the present products and methods may be practiced without these specific details. Reference in the specification to “one embodiment” or “an embodiment” means that a particular feature, structure, or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment. The appearance of the phrase “in one embodiment” in various places in the specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment.

Referring now to FIGS. 1A-1C, there is shown an exemplary architectural capital (110) with an astragal (120) formed thereon. The capital (110) can be of any design, but generally follows any of the Greco-Roman architectural orders. The capital (110) comprises a square abacus (160) at the top of the capital (110), an echinus (170) underneath the abacus (160), a round neck (180) underneath the echinus (170), and an astragal (120) encircling the base of the neck (180). The echinus (170) provides a decorative interface between the neck (180) and the abacus (160), and thus may include any number of designs, shapes, or moldings desired. Generally, the echinus (170) is convex, as in the Doric order; concave, as in the bell of the Corinthian order; or bracketed out, as in the Ionic order. The abacus (160) provides a decorative interface with the building or other load directly above the capital (110). The abacus (160) is generally square in shape, having a width slightly larger than the diameter of the top of the echinus (170), and it may also include moldings or other shapes and designs as desired. The neck (180) is round and substantially devoid of any taper. The astragal (120) is generally a small, substantially semicircular molding encircling the capital (110) at the base of the neck (180), and is often decorated with beads or a bead-and-reel motif. Nevertheless, the astragal (120) may contain any other decorative motif desired.

The present exemplary capital is a decorative piece configured to be fastened to the top of a column body, as shown in FIGS. 1B and 1C. The capital (110) includes a hollow opening (190) in the shape of a cross-section of a column body (130) and sufficiently large to allow the column body (130) to extend through the capital (110) such that the top surface (135) of the column body (130) is flush with the top surface (165) of the capital (110). This allows any compressive load to be transferred and substantially supported by the column body (130). The capital (110) can be fastened to the column body (130) by any means known to those of skill in the art, such as by an adhesive or mechanical fastener. In one exemplary embodiment, shown in FIG. 1C, the column body (130) is tapered at the top such that the capital (110) slides over the column body (130) until the width of the column body (130) prevents the capital from sliding down further.

The capital (110) is made by including the astragal on the capital rather than as part of the column body (130). In one embodiment the capital is made by including the shape of the astragal in a capital mold. The capital mold is filled with a mold material, such as polyurethane, polyester, fiberglass, concrete, plaster, or other moldable material that cures into a stable shape. After the mold material has cured, the mold is released, yielding a capital having an astragal formed at the base of the neck. In another embodiment, the capital is made by shaping the capital material to include an astragal. The capital material may include, but is not limited to, steel, aluminum and other metals; wood; concrete; glass fiber reinforced concrete; glass fiber reinforced gypsum; fiberglass; filament wound composites; marble, granite and other cast and pre-cast stone; synthetic stone; marble/resin composites and combinations thereof, or other materials known to those of skill in the art.

Referring now to FIG. 2, there is shown an exemplary architecturally correct column (200) having a capital (210) with an astragal (220) formed thereon. The column (200) includes a column body (230) and a capital (210). The column (200) may also include a base (240) and a plinth (250). The column body (230) provides axial load bearing support for structures directly above the column (200). While the present exemplary embodiment is described in the context of an architecturally correct column, the present system and method may be associated with a column having any number of cross-sectional profiles.

According to one exemplary embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2, the column body (230) is a one-piece, unitary, elongate, cylindrical member having an outer surface (232). Suitable materials for the column body include steel, aluminum and other metals; wood; polyurethane, polyester and other polymers; gypsum, lime, Portland, plaster and other cements; concrete; glass fiber reinforced concrete; glass fiber reinforced gypsum; fiberglass; filament wound composites; marble, granite and other cast and pre-cast stone; synthetic stone; marble/resin composites; and combinations thereof. According to the present system and method, the column body (230) may be tubular (having a lumen passing therethrough) or substantially continuous.

In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. 3, the column body (330) is constructed of filament-wound composite material (310). The composite material (310) generally comprises a fiber-reinforced bonding agent. Composite materials offer the unique ability to mix and match fibers and matrix materials to develop a new material with new desired properties. The fiber of the composite material (310) can comprise steel, aluminum, ceramics, carbon, graphite, aramids, fiberglass or other fibers known to those of skill in the art, or combinations thereof. The bonding agent of the composite material (310) can comprise a resin matrix surrounding each fiber strand. The resin matrix holds the structure together and allows the fibers to be formed into various shapes. The matrix is generally a polymer such as polyester, epoxy or vinyl ester, but it could also be a metal or ceramic matrix. The matrix is also used to transfer loads from one fiber to another. In one exemplary embodiment, the composite material (310) comprises an electrical-grade glass fiber impregnated with a polyester resin system.

In another exemplary embodiment the column body (230) of FIG. 2 includes a plurality of filament-wound layers to provide increased strength and durability. Additional layers may use different winding patterns having different fiber orientations, different fibers, different bonding agents, or a combination thereof. For example, FIG. 4 depicts the cross-sectional pattern of a column body (430) having an inner circumferential layer (414) followed by a series of internal, low angle or axial angle helical layers (412), followed by an external circumferential layer (410). The internal and external circumferential layers contain a low angle helical layer that provides stiffness to resist or support and axial compression.

Referring again to the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 2, the column body also includes an outer surface material (232). The outer surface may be part of the column body, such as with stone or wood column bodies. The outer surface may also comprise an additional layer covering the column body (230), usually a filament wound column body. Suitable surface materials include thermoset polymers, fiberglass, a cement, plaster, synthetic wood, metals, formica, fabrics and other surface coverings known to those of skill in the art. Generally, the surface (232) may either be smooth, as shown in FIG. 2, or fluted. The surface (232) is not limited to these embodiments, but may contain any other design or shape desirable. The column (200) may also be tapered, such as in accordance with Greco-Roman architectural orders. The specific proportions and degrees of taper may vary, depending on the style of column (200) desired. In one exemplary embodiment, a lower third of the column body (230) is characterized by an absence of substantial taper, while the majority of the tapering occurs in the upper half of the column body (230).

The column (200) may also include a base (240) and/or plinth (250). The decorative base (240) the column (200) helps to define the order or style of the column (200). The base (240), along with the capital (210) and the column body (230), gives the column (200) its own distinctive character. The base (240) is typically round with various designs and moldings. The base (240) rests on the plinth (250), generally a square or rectangular block or slab with short legs (252). The plinth (250) provides an interface between the base (240) and the ground or floor, and can be designed to raise the column body (230) off the ground to allow air to circulate in the interior of the column (200). The base (240) and plinth (250) can be molded in one piece or may constitute separate pieces, but generally are formed independent of the column body (230).

According to one exemplary embodiment, the column (200) may be made by forming and assembling the above-mentioned components of the column (210). More specifically, according to one exemplary embodiment, the column body (230) is made by first drawing a fiber or bundle of fibers from a creel and directing it into a resin wet dip or drum bath system where the fibers are impregnated with the resin matrix. Upon exit from the resin bath system, the fibers are wound by filament winding equipment onto a mandrel having desired dimensions. Winding patterns that may be used include, but are not limited to, hoop, helical and polar windings, or combinations thereof. These windings can also be followed or preceded by circumferential windings. After completion of the filament winding process, the composite structure is then cured by removing it from the filament-winding machine and placing into an oven while remaining on the mandrel. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the filament-wound column body. The structure of the filament-wound composite walls provides sufficient strength such that no additional, reinforcing core material is needed, although core material may be used if desired. The exterior surface of the filament-wound column body is then finished or filled with a decorative, paintable surface. When desired, the capital (210), a base (240), and a plinth (250) may be fastened to the column body (230) by any means known to those of skill in the art.

By forming the astragal as part of the capital, the neck does not require a custom radius in order to fit the astragal, and there is less neck build-up on the column. It also allows column bodies to be stacked on each other since there is no astragal on the column bodies that inhibits stacking. The column bodies can be stacked when they each include a taper that forms a smaller top end and a larger bottom end. These column bodies can be stacked by inserting a smaller top end of a column body in a larger bottom end of another column body.

The present exemplary apparatus and method form the astragal as part of the capital rather than as part of the column body, thereby providing several advantages. For example, the present system and method expedite the column manufacturing process by eliminating the extra step of making a separate astragal and bonding it to the column body. Further, the present system and method decrease the amount of materials and molds used in formation, resulting in increased cost savings. The present apparatus and method also use fewer laborers for the manufacturing process.

The preceding description is presented only to illustrate and describe embodiments of the present invention. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to any precise form disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. It is intended that the scope of the system and method be defined by the following claims.