Title:
Use of a phosphate mixture for the production of concentrated solutions and brine for the food industry
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention relates to a novel phosphate mixture, which is characterised by the excellent solubility thereof in water and in aqueous solutions containing salt (brine). The novel phosphate mixture is characterised in that it is made of the following components: 1) 60-85 wt. % of a clear-soluble potassium tripolyphosphate having a P2O5 content of 46.0 wt. %-47.0 wt. %, preferably 46.4 46.8 wt. %, especially 46.4 wt % and a K2O/P2O5 Mol ratio of 1.70 1.78, preferably 1.73 1.75 and especially 1.74, 2) 15-39 wt. % of sodium polyphosphate NPP, 3.) 1-5 wt. % XH2PO4, whereby X═Na and is K, whereby the mixture has a pH-value of between 8-10, preferably 8.5 9.5 and has an opacity in water and brine of <5 TE/F.



Inventors:
Braun, Peter (Schwetzingen, DE)
Fischer-nagele, Ulrike (Schwetzingen, DE)
Application Number:
10/499682
Publication Date:
09/28/2006
Filing Date:
12/14/2002
Primary Class:
International Classes:
A23B4/027; A23B4/24; A23L3/358; A23L13/40; A23L13/70; A23L17/00; A23L27/40
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
YOO, HONG THI
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VENABLE LLP (WASHINGTON, DC, US)
Claims:
1. The use of a phosphate mixture composed of: a.) 60 to 85 weight % of a clear soluble potassiumpolyphosphate with a P2O5 content of 46.0 weight % to 47.0 weight % and a K2O/P2O5 mole ratio of 1.7 to 1.78, b.) 15 to 39 weight % sodiumpolyphosphate, c.) 1 to 5 weight % XH2PO4 and/or X2H4P2O7, with X═Na and/or K, wherein the mixture has a pH value of 8 to 10, preferably 8.5 to 9.5 and cloudiness in water and brines of <5 TE/F, for use in the production of phosphate-containing brines in the food industry.

2. The method for producing phosphate-containing brines, composed of 60 to 85 weight % of a clear soluble potassiumpolyphosphate with a P2O5 content of 46.0 weight % to 47.0 weight %, preferably 46.4-46.8 weight %, in particular 46.4 weight % and a K2O/P2O5 mole ratio of 1.74 to 1.78, preferably 1.73 to 1.75 and in particular 1.74, further composed of 15 to 39 weight % sodiumpolyphosphate and 1 to 5 weight % XH2PO4 and/or X2H4P2O7, with X═Na and/or K, characterized in that potassiumphosphate salts or potassiumoxide and P2O5 are mixed at the desired potassium:phosphorus ratio, that the mixture is heated to the melting temperature and is kept at this temperature until a balanced reaction forms, that the mixture is then drained, finely ground and mixed at the specified ratio with correspondingly ground powders of sodium polyphosphate, XH2PO4 and/or X2H4P2O7, with X═Na and/or K.

Description:

The subject matter of the present invention is a novel phosphate mixture, characterized by its excellent solubility in water and aqueous solutions containing salt (brines).

Phosphate salts have been used for a long time in the food industry. A great many special uses for phosphates in the food industry, for example their use for the processing of meat, fish, beverages and milk products, are described in the article “Phosphates in food” by Ricardo Molins, CRC Press, 1991. Phosphates represent so-called functional food additives, meaning their use depends on the area of application and is specifically directed toward diverse problem definitions. Responsible for such a wide use spectrum of the phosphates are their properties, which include:

A buffering effect (for the pH adjustment as well as the pH stabilization);

The capacity to form complexes on multi-valent cations and thus indirectly connected the function as anti-oxidant (through bonding of pro-oxidative cations) and as anti-microbial substance, as well as for influencing the consistency;

The function as polyanion in an interaction with different protein fractions of individual food items;

The capacity for souring (for pH adjustment in beverages and as souring component in leavening agents).

The respective function depends on the structure and/or the condensation degree, the pH value and the cation of the salt.

The chemical terms used for the individual phosphates in this invention are as follows:

  • STPP or NTPP sodiumtripolyphosphate
  • KTTP potassiumtripolyphosphate
  • TKPP tetrapotassiumdiphosphate
  • TNPP tetrasodiumdiphosphate
  • NPP sodiumpolyphosphate
  • KPP potassiumpolyphosphate
  • MNP monosodiumphosphate
  • DNP disodiumphosphate
  • TNP trisodiummonophosphate
  • MKP monopotassiumphosphate
  • DKP dipotassiumphosphate

According to the present invention, KTPP, TKPP, NPP, MNP and/or MKP are used as phosphate salts.

In addition to the direct admixture of phosphates in the form of a dry substance (powdered form) in the food industry, liquid forms are used for a number of application cases, so-called phosphate solutions or phosphate brines, for example in the area of meat processing (e.g. the production of pickled items for cooking), as well as for treating seafood products (fish filet, crustaceans, types of mollusks, etc.). Phosphates must have the following critical properties to be able to use them effectively and with high functionality:

  • 1.) They must have a pH value (aqueous solution) of 8 to 10.
  • 2.) They must be highly water soluble.
  • 3.) They must have high solubility in salt-containing solutions (brines).
  • 4.) The prepared solutions must be clear and free of residues, meaning there should be no precipitations and no excess solutes.
  • 5.) As functional component of the food item with additive, it should contain a certain share of sodium and/or potassium diphosphates and/or triphosphates.
    A person skilled in the art of the food industry understands brines to be solutions in which high concentrations of cooking salt (NaCl) are dissolved up to the point of saturation. A series of commercially available phosphates and phosphate mixtures for the meat and fish industry meet individual properties that are required, but not all of them.
    Thus, it is the object of the present invention to find a phosphate mixture that meets all of the above-stated requirements.

The novel phosphate mixture is characterized in that it comprises the following components:

  • 1.) 60 to 85 weight % of a clear soluble potassiumtripolyphosphate with a P2O5 content of 46.0 weight % to 47.0 weight %, preferably 46.4-46.8 weight % and in particular 46.4 weight %, as well as a K2O/P2O5 mole ratio of 1.74 to 1.78, preferably 1.73 to 1.75, and in particular 1.74.
  • 2.) 15 to 39 weight % sodiumpolyphosphate NPP
  • 3.) 1 to 5 weight % XaH2PO4 and/or X2H4P2O7, with X═Na and K,
    wherein the mixture has a pH value of 8 to 10, preferably 8.5 to 9.5, and shows clouding in water and brines of <5TE/F.
    The clouding is measured with standard measuring devices for this technical area.

Essential to the invention is the use of a so-called clear soluble potassium polyphosphate which is extracted from a melt having a P2O5 content of 46.0 to 47.0%, preferably 46.4 to 46.8 and especially preferred 46.4% and stoichiometrically consists of a mixture of potassium phosphate and tetrapotassiumdiphosphate at a ratio of approximately 3:1. The melt is produced by mixing corresponding amounts of potassiumphosphates, in particular tripotassiumphosphate with P2O5 and heating it to the melting temperature and leaving it at this temperature until the reaction balance is adjusted. A mixture is thus formed which contains only small amounts of orthophosphates and diphosphates in addition to potassiumphosphate and tetrapotassiumdiphosphate, as well as the harder to dissolve potassiummetaphosphates which are responsible for the cloudiness of the polyphosphate solution outside of this narrow range; see phase diagram by J. R. van Wazer, Phosphorous and its compounds, Vol. VI, page 608.

In Tables 1 and 2, the recipe for producing the mixture according to the invention are listed, taking into account that the desired pH value of the mixture according to the invention can be adjusted with the aid of Na/K orthophosphates (Table 1), as well as with Na/K diphosphates (Table 2).

TABLE 1
Example for producing the mixture according to the invention by
using N/K orthophosphates for the pH value adjustment.
min.max.typical
orthophosphate1%5% 1-2%
(MxH3−xPO4)
X = 0-3
M = Na, K
clear soluble KTPP60%85%70%
(potassiumtripolyphosphate)
sodiumpolyphosphate15%39%28-30%
with P2O5 content of
60-71.5%
P2O5 content475550
pH value810 9
clouding (6% solution)<5 TE/F

TABLE 2
Example for producing the mixture according to the invention by
using Na/K diphosphates for the pH value adjustment.
min.max.typical
disodiumphosphate1%5% 1-2%
(MxH4−xP2O7)
M = Na and x = [4, 3, 2]
and/or
M = K and x = 4
clear soluble KTPP60%85%70%
(potassiumtripolyphosphate)
sodiumpolyphosphate15%39%28-30%
with P2O5 content of
60-71.5%
P2O5 content475550
pH value810 9
clouding (6% solution)<5 TE/F

The main components (sodiumpolyphosphate and potassiumtripolyphosphate) of the mixture according to the invention by themselves show a high solubility limit in water (>50%) (see Table 3).

TABLE 3
Solubility limit (in g phosphate mixture per 100 g solution) of the
mixture according to the invention as compared to phosphate
mixtures based on the prior art:
g phosphate/100 g solution
Type of phosphate[% m/m]
mixture according to the invention50
pentapotassiumtriphosphate (KTPP)64
very cloudy!
clear soluble KTPP>50
pentasodiumtriphosphate (NTPP)14
tetrapotassiumdiphosphate (TKPP)65
NTPP/TNPP - 90:10 blend17
NTPP/polyphosphate 80:20 blend16
sodiumpolyphosphate>50

Furthermore, individual main components of the mixture according to the invention have good solubility properties even in brines (see Table 4; Example 1).

The phosphate types and/or phosphate combinations known so far exhibit individual properties of the aforementioned required properties, but not all of them:

Thus, the KTPP mentioned in Table 3 is highly soluble (64 g/100 g solution) and is also soluble in the presence of cooking salt, but is cloudy.

The sodiumpolyphosphates mentioned in Tables 3 and 4 are also highly soluble, but lack the functional shares of diphosphates and triphosphates listed under requirement 5.

By producing a mixture comprising both main components of the mixture according to the invention and an additional phosphate for the pH adjustment (orthophosphate or di-phosphate), synergic effects are used that increase the solubility in highly concentrated brines.

The synergic effect of the mixture according to the invention and its impact on the solubility in salt-containing solutions are demonstrated with the aid of 3 examples shown in Table 4.

Example 1 and Example 2 show a traditional sequence for the solubility, meaning the phosphate type and/or the phosphate combination is dissolved as the first component in water. Following this, the respective amount of sodium chloride (cooking salt) is dissolved.

In the food industry, e.g. for producing cooked ham, it is standard procedure to first dissolve the phosphate in water and then add the cooking salt. The so-called inverse preparation technique is understood to mean that the cooking salt solution (brine) is first produced and the phosphate is then added.

Example 3 additionally shows the synergic effect of the mixture according to the invention. With this mixture, an “inverse sequence” can be used for the solution, meaning the phosphate is stirred into a salt solution and is soluble—a property that phosphates or phosphate combinations known so far do not have.

Table 4: Synergistic effect of the mixture according to the invention on the solubility and stability in salt-containing aqueous solutions (brines).

EXAMPLE 1

Solubility in Salt-Containing Aqueous Solutions (Brines)

The amount of 5 g phosphate (phosphate mixture) is dissolved by stirring it into 75 g water and the amount of 20 g cooking salt is then added. The brine is analyzed to determine whether it is stable over a longer period of time (16 h), meaning no precipitation (excess solute) occurs.

Analysis of brine stability
of different phosphates/phosphate
mixtures in the
system with 5% phosphate,
20% NaCl and 75% water
phosphate mixture according to the+
invention
pentapotassiumtriphosphate (KTPP)+*)
pentasodiumtriphosphate (NTPP)
tetrapotassiumdiphosphate (TKPP)
NTPP/TNPP - 90:10 blend
sodiumpolyphosphate+

*)Following the preparation, a cloudy solution results with low precipitation (excess solute) after 16 hours.

Evaluation:

+ = stable brine

− = precipitations/excess solutes occur

EXAMPLE 2

Solubility in Salt-Containing Aqueous Solutions (Brines) in a Traditional Sequence

The amount of 8 g phosphate (phosphate mixture) is dissolved by stirring it into 68 g water. Subsequently, the amount of 24 g cooking salt is added and the brine is then analyzed over a longer period of time (16 h) to determine whether it is stable, meaning no precipitations (excess solutes) occur.

Analysis of the brine stability
of various phosphates/phosphate
mixtures in the system containing
8% phosphate, 24% NaCl,
68% water
phosphate mixture according to the+
invention
pentapotassiumtriphosphate (KTPP)− (no stable brine after 16 h)
clear soluble KTPP− (no stable brine after 16 h)
(NTPP)− (not soluble in brines)
tetrapotassiumdiphosphate (TKPP)− (not soluble in brines)
pentasodiumtriphosphate (NTPP)− (not soluble in brines)
tetrasodiumdiphosphate (TNPP)
90:10 blend
sodiumpolyphosphate− (no stable brine after 16 h)

Analysis:

+ = stable brine

− = precipitations/excess solutes occur

EXAMPLE 3

Solubility and Stability of Phosphates in Salt-Containing Aqueous Solutions (Brines) for Inverse Preparation of the Brine.

The amount of 22 g of cooking salt is dissolved by stirring it into 72.5 g water. Subsequently, the amount of 5.5 g phosphate (phosphate mixture) is stirred in. The brine is then analyzed over a longer period of time (16 h) to determine whether it is stable, meaning that no precipitations (excess solutes) occur.

Analysis of brine stability of
different phosphates/phosphate
mixtures in the inverse system
containing 22% NaCl,
72.5% water, 5.5% phosphate
phosphate mixture according to the+
invention
pentapotassiumtriphosphate (KTPP)+*)
clear soluble KTPP
pentasodiumtriphosphate (NTPP)
tetrapotassiumdiphosphate (TKPP)
NTPP/TNPP —90:10 blend
sodiumpolyphosphate (P2O5 = 60%)
sodiumpolyphosphate (P2O5 = 68%)+

*)Following preparation, a cloudy solution is obtained and after 16 h precipitations (excess solutes) occur.

Evaluation:

+ = stable brine

− = precipitations/excess solutes occur