Title:
Building module and the method of erecting walls of building with the application of the modules
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The building module and method for erecting walls is composed of the supporting construction provided with the carrying ribs (1), placed at the settled distance one from another, to the above supporting construction at the lateral side of it one or two mantles (2) profiled on the outside surface and composed of at least one profile (3) placed simultaneously lengthwise and crosswise the carrying ribs are fixed. On the opposite side of the mantle, the flat mantle (2a) is fixed to the supporting construction, if necessary. On the top and at the bottom of the mantles there are preferably joint ends (8 and 8a) acting jointly which serve to join the adjacent modules whereas at the corners of buildings erected with their application they are provided with overlapping cruciform recesses (9 and 9a) made on the top and at the bottom of them. The carrying ribs have the uniform or segmented construction composed of cubes (1a) and attachments (1b) which are combined in a rigid way with the mantle profiles. In order to fix stable vertical supporting construction, the ports (14) earmarked for introducing threaded fasteners provided with the bolt have been made in the carrying posts (1).



Inventors:
Muszynski, Arkadiusz (Pabianice, PL)
Application Number:
10/481690
Publication Date:
08/03/2006
Filing Date:
06/19/2002
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/284
International Classes:
E04B1/10; E04B2/70; E04B5/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
A, PHI DIEU TRAN
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BROWN & MICHAELS, PC (ITHACA, NY, US)
Claims:
1. (canceled)

2. (canceled)

3. (canceled)

4. (canceled)

5. (canceled)

6. (canceled)

7. (canceled)

8. (canceled)

9. (canceled)

10. (canceled)

11. (canceled)

12. (canceled)

13. (canceled)

14. (canceled)

15. (canceled)

16. (canceled)

17. (canceled)

18. (canceled)

19. (canceled)

20. Building module earmarked for erecting building walls and consisting of the supporting construction, characterised in that to the supporting construction provided with carrying ribs /1/ placed at the settled distance one from another, at the lateral side of the above construction—the mantle /2/ profiled on the outside surface and composed of at least one profile placed simultaneously both lengthwise and crosswise the carrying ribs—is fixed.

21. The module according to the claim 1 and characterised in that mantles /2 and 2a / situated at the corners of walls erected with their application are preferably provided with overlapping cruciform recesses /9 and 9a / made on the top and at the bottom of them.

22. The module according to the claim 2 and characterised in that recesses /9 and 9a / made in mantles /2 and 2a / have a depth equal approximately to ½ of their height.

23. The module according to the claim 1 and characterised with that the mantle /2/ profiled on the outside surface and composed of at least two profiles /3/ is provided with the tongue-groove joint with a stiffening tongue /7/ which is situated at the point of frontal profiles adhesion.

24. The module according to the claim 1 and characterised with that the carrying ribs /1/ have a segmented construction composed of cubes /1a /and attachments /1b I which are combined in a rigid way with profiles /3/ of the mantle /2/.

25. The module according to the claim 5 and characterised in that the carrying ribs /1/ are provided in their central part with vertically made ports /14/ envisaged for introducing of threaded fasteners.

26. The module according to the claim 5 and characterised in that the cubes /1a / and attachments /1b / are combined one with another by means of the frontal tongue-groove joint /13/.

27. The module according to the claim 5 and characterised in that the attachment /16/ in order to combine, has led arms /25/, embracing the cube /1a / from the top and from the bottom.

28. The module according to the claim 1 and characterised in that at the ends of the module, plugs /11/ shaped to fit the inside contour of the module transverse section are fixed in respective holes.

29. The module according to the claim 9 and characterised in that the plug /11/ on its frontal side is provided with a flanged offset /12/ which is shaped to fit the outside contour of a transverse section of the module.

30. The module according to the claim 1 and characterised in that on the top and at the bottom of the mantle /2/ profiled on the outside surface there are, if necessary, suitable joint ends /8/ acting jointly which serve to join the adjacent modules.

31. The module according to the claim 1 and characterised in that the mantle /2/ profiled on the outside surface, is fixed to the supporting construction provided with the carrying ribs /1/ on one of its lateral sides.

32. The module according to the claim 12 and characterised in that mantles /2 and 2a / situated at the corners of walls erected with their application are preferably provided with overlapping cruciform recesses /9 and 9a / made on the top and at the bottom of them.

33. The module according to the claim 13 and characterised in that recesses /9 and 9a / made in mantles /2 and 2a / have a depth equal approximately to ½ of their height.

34. The module according to the claim 12 and characterised with that the mantle /2/ profiled on the outside surface and composed of at least two profiles /3/ is provided with the tongue-groove joint with a stiffening tongue /7/ which is situated at the point of frontal profiles adhesion.

35. The module according to the claim 12 and characterised with that the carrying ribs /1/ have a segmented construction composed of cubes /1a / and attachments /1bI which are combined in a rigid way with profiles /3/ of the mantle /2/.

36. The module according to the claim 16 and characterised in that the carrying ribs /1/ are provided in their central part with vertically made ports /14/ envisaged for introducing of threaded fasteners.

37. The module according to the claim 16 and characterised in that the cubes /1a / and attachments /1b / are combined one with another by means of the frontal tongue-groove joint /13/.

38. The module according to the claim 16 and characterised in that the attachment /16/ in order to combine, has led arms /25/, embracing the cube /1a / from the top and from the bottom.

39. The module according to the claim 1 and characterised in that it is provided with mantles /2/ profiled on outside surfaces and fixed to the supporting construction with carrying ribs /I/ on both its lateral sides.

40. The module according to the claim 20 and characterised in that mantles /2 and 2a / situated at the corners of walls erected with their application are preferably provided with overlapping cruciform recesses /9 and 9a / made on the top and at the bottom of them.

41. The module according to the claim 21 and characterised in that recesses /9 and 9a / made in mantles /2 and 2a / have a depth equal approximately to ½ of their height.

42. The module according to the claim 20 and characterised with that the mantle /2/ profiled on the outside surface and composed of at least two profiles /3/ is provided with the tongue-groove joint with a stiffening tongue /7/ which is situated at the point of frontal profiles adhesion.

43. The module according to the claim 20 and characterised with that the carrying ribs /1/ have a segmented construction composed of cubes /1a / and attachments /1b I which are combined in a rigid way with profiles /3/ of the mantle /2/.

44. The module according to the claim 24 and characterised in that the carrying ribs /1/ are provided in their central part with vertically made ports /14/ envisaged for introducing of threaded fasteners.

45. The module according to the claim 24 and characterised in that the cubes /1a / and attachments /1b / are combined one with another by means of the frontal tongue-groove joint /13/.

46. The module according to claim 24 and characterised in that the attachment /16/ in order to combine, has led arms /25/, embracing the cube /1a / from the top and from the bottom.

47. The module according to the claim 1 and characterised in that the mantle /2/ profiled on outside surface is fixed to the supporting construction provided with carrying ribs /1/ on one of its lateral sides, whereas the flat mantle /2a/ is fixed to the opposite lateral side of supporting construction, which is situated simultaneously lengthwise and crosswise in relation to the carrying ribs.

48. The module according to the claim 28 and characterised in that mantles /2 and 2a / situated at the corners of walls erected with their application are preferably provided with overlapping cruciform recesses /9 and 9a / made on the top and at the bottom of them.

49. The module according to the claim 29 and characterised in that recesses /9 and 9a / made in mantles /2 and 2a / have a depth equal approximately to ½ of their height.

50. The module according to the claim 28 and characterised with that the mantle /2/ profiled on the outside surface and composed of at least two profiles /3/ is provided with the tongue-groove joint with a stiffening tongue /7/ which is situated at the point of frontal profiles adhesion.

51. The module according to the claim 28 and characterised with that the carrying ribs /1/ have a segmented construction composed of cubes /1a / and attachments /1b I which are combined in a rigid way with profiles /3/ of the mantle /2/.

52. The module according to the claim 28 and characterised in that the carrying ribs /1/ are provided in their central part with vertically made ports /14/ envisaged for introducing of threaded fasteners.

53. The module according to the claim 28 and characterised in that the cubes /1a / and attachments /1b / are combined one with another by means of the frontal tongue-groove joint /13/.

54. The module according to claim 28 and characterised in that the attachment /16/ in order to combine, has led arms /25/, embracing the cube /1a / from the top and from the bottom.

55. The module according to the claim 28 and characterised in that on the top and at the bottom of it, the flat mantle /2a/ is provided with joint ends /8a/ acting jointly which serve to join the adjacent modules.

56. The method of erecting building walls with the application of building modules which are composed of the supporting constructions provided with the carrying ribs, to one side or both lateral sides of which the mantles are fixed and characterised in that the first wall module is placed on the ground-sill and then band elastic seals /23/ are put on the mantle 12 I ends; next—the successive modules are laid with a simultaneous positioning of the carrying ribs /1/ which are to meet each other; in the end—into the contact point, preferably glue is introduced in order to fix stable vertical supporting construction on the top of which the carrying beam is laid; in the case of erecting corner walls—the modules situated at the corners are laid alternately in a cruciform way and they are fastened on the top and at the bottom one to another with recesses /9 and 9a / that were made in them beforehand.

57. The method according to the claim 37 and characterised in that in order to fix stable vertical supporting construction, the successive modules laid on another are joined with the preceding threaded fasteners which are passed through vertical ports /14/ made beforehand in the carrying ribs /1/.

58. The method according to the claim 37 and characterised in that the modules before the assembly are filled with the thermo insulation material.

59. The method according to the claim 37 and characterised in that the modules during the process of assembly are filled with the thermo insulation material.

Description:

The abject-matter of the invention is the building module and the method of erecting walls of buildings with the application of modules shape of which approximates the worked tree trunk.

Commonly known are building constructions erected with the application of logs, most often these of soft-wood that after cutting down, due to a moisture content, require the long-lasting seasoning. Walls of the construction are erected from logs by. means of placing one log on another and their joining by tenoning technique; in the case of erecting corner walls—the logs provided with recesses previously made on their ends (most often on one side , half-way their thickness) are attached one to another in a cruciform way. Buildings of this type are erected from dry logs and that is why, in order to speed up the process of drying, it is known that logs are subject to longitudinal sawing to obtain narrower elements, which are then dried in the industrial chambers and joined again by gluing.

According to the international patent claim No W 0997/39204, the building module used for erecting walls, namely—flat constructions of walls, is known. This module is provided with two parallel wall sections in a form of planes, external surfaces of which constitute at the same time the external surface of the wall under construction. The timber core of the module joints both parts of the wall and contains at least one section running longwise the module which—when the next building module is attached—vertically comes between wall sections of the next module in order to form together with it a pin junction, which overtakes forces that act crosswise. Both in this one and the other known (e.g. from the European description EP-0214088 and EP-0744507) similar construction solutions referring to modules, vertical forces in principal are transferred by appropriately matched—in respect of strength factor—plate sections of walls which constitute at the same time the external surfaces of the wall under construction. Obtaining any new outfit of walls requires the application of additional finishing materials. According to the Polish patent claim P.336370 the building module earmarked for erecting skeletons of building walls is also known; this module is provided with equally spaced carrying posts joined together in a rigid way with the application of distance plates. In such a solution vertical forces of the formed construction are transferred by posts joined together by means of tenoning.

The purpose of the invention is to work out a lightweight construction of a building module which will be able to substitute traditionally used timber logs.

In accordance with the invention, the module is provided with the mantle profiled on the outside surface which is composed of at least one profile placed simultaneously lengthwise and crosswise the carrying ribs; this mantle is fixed to the module on the lateral side of its supporting construction provided with the carrying ribs placed at the settled distance one from another. The module is provided with the one mantle profiled on its outside surface or two such mantles which are fixed to the supporting construction on both its lateral sides. In the case when there is only one mantle profiled on its outside surface, the flat mantle is fixed to the opposite lateral side of the supporting construction, if necessary. On the top and at the bottom of the mantles there are suitable joint ends which act jointly and serve to join the adjacent modules; on the other hand—at the corners of walls erected with the application of such modules—preferable the mantles have on the top and at the bottom overlapping cruciform recesses. At the ends of the module, plugs shaped to fit the inside contour of the module transverse section are fixed in respective holes. The carrying ribs constitute the uniform or segmented construction composed of cubes and attachments, which are combined in a rigid way with profiles of the mantle. The attachments are combined with the cubes by means of preferably frontal tongue-groove joint or they have arms embracing the cubes on the top and at the bottom which are led to combine the above. The carrying ribs are provided in their central parts with vertical ports made for threaded fasteners.

The method of erecting building walls with the application of the presented modules consists in it that the first wall module is placed on the ground-sill and then the band elastic seals are put on the mantle ends; next—the successive modules are placed one on another with a simultaneous positioning of the carrying ribs which are to meet together equally ; in order to fix stable vertical supporting construction, the glue is introduced into the contact point of the modules and/or they are fastened together by means of the threaded fasteners through the ports made in them; on the top of such a supporting construction, the carrying beam is laid; in the case of erecting corner walls, if necessary, the modules situated at the corners are laid alternately in a cruciform way and they are fastened together on the top and at the bottom with recesses that were made in them beforehand. Before the assembly or during the assembly the modules are filled with thermo insulation material.

Lightweight and simple construction of the module makes it possible to erect economical, stable and properly thermally insulated buildings with the application of various building materials.

The object-matter of the invention is presented in the examples of making shown in the respective figures where:

FIG. 1 presents the first example of making of the building module from a top perspective view,

FIG. 2—module from the FIG. 1 in a transverse section across the carrying rib of the supporting construction,

FIG. 3—module from the FIG. 1 in a side view,

FIG. 4—module from the FIG. 1 in a top view or from below,

FIG. 5—the second example of building module making from a top perspective view,

FIG. 6—module from the FIG. 5 in a transverse section across the carrying rib of the supporting construction,

FIG. 7—module from the FIG. 5 in a side view,

FIG. 8—module from the FIG. 5 in a top view or from below,

FIG. 9—the third example of building module making from a top perspective view on the side of the external wall,

FIG. 10—module from the FIG. 9 from a top perspective view on the side of the inside wall,

FIG. 11—module from the FIG. 9 in a transverse section across the carrying rib,

FIG. 12—module from the FIG. 9 in a top view or from below,

FIG. 13—the fourth example of building module making from a top perspective view on the side of the external wall,

FIG. 14—module from the FIG. 13 in a transverse section across the carrying rib,

FIG. 15—module from the FIG. 13 in a side view on the side of the external wall,

FIG. 16—module from the FIG. 13 in a side view on the side of the inside wall,

FIG. 17—module from FIG. 13 in a top view or from below,

FIG. 18—the fifth example of building module making from a top perspective view,

FIG. 19—module from the FIG. 18 in a transverse section across the carrying rib,

FIG. 20—module from the FIG. 18 in a side view,

FIG. 21—module from the FIG. 18 in a top view or from below,

FIG. 22—the sixth example of building module making from a top perspective view on the side of the external wall,

FIG. 23—module from the FIG. 22 from a top perspective view on the side of the inside wall,

FIG. 24—the module from the FIG. 22 in a transverse section across the carrying rib,

FIG. 25—module from the FIG. 22 in a top view or from below,

FIG. 26—the seventh example of building module making from a top perspective view,

FIG. 27—module from the FIG. 26 in a transverse section across the carrying rib,

FIG. 28—the plug closing the module port outlet in a perspective view from the inner side,

FIG. 29—the plug of the module in a perspective view from the external side,

FIG. 30—the same plug in a side view,

FIG. 31—the eight example of building module making from a top perspective view,

FIG. 32—module from the FIG. 31 in a side view,

FIG. 33—module from the FIG. 31 in a top view or from below,

FIG. 34—module from the FIG. 31 in a transverse section across the carrying rib,

FIG. 35—the corner fragment of the wall composed of the modules from the FIG. 5 in a top perspective view from the side of external wall,

FIG. 36—the corner fragment of the wall from the FIG. 35 in a side view,

FIG. 37—fragment of the wall from the FIG. 35 in a top view,

FIG. 38—the corner fragment of the wall composed of the modules from the FIG. 1 in a top perspective view from the side of inside wall,

FIG. 39—the corner fragment of the wall from the FIG. 38 in a side view,

FIG. 40—the same corner fragment of the wall in a top view,

FIG. 41—the ninth example of building module making in a top perspective view,

FIG. 42—module from the FIG. 41 in a transverse section across the terminal carrying rib of the supporting construction,

FIG. 43—module from the FIG. 41 in a transverse section across the remaining carrying ribs of the supporting construction,

FIG. 44—the upper profile of the mantle of the module from the FIG. 41 in a transverse section,

FIG. 45—the lower profile of the mantle of the module from the FIG. 41 in a transverse section,

FIG. 46—the attachment to the carrying rib in a side view,

FIG. 47—the same attachment from the FIG. 46 in a top view,

FIG. 48—the cube of the carrying rib in a vertical section,

FIG. 49—the same cube from the FIG. 48 in a top view,

FIG. 50—the tenth example of building module making from a top perspective view,

FIG. 51—module from the FIG. 50 in a transverse section across the carrying rib,

FIG. 52—the eleventh example of building module making from a top perspective view from the external side of the wall,

FIG. 53—module from the FIG. 52 in a transverse section across the carrying rib,

FIG. 54—decomposed threading set for modules joining in a side view,

FIG. 55—fragment of the wall formed with the application of two modules from the FIG. 41 in a vertical transverse section,

FIG. 56—fragment of the wall from the FIG. 55 in a longitudinal section across the central section of the carrying rib,

FIG. 57—the layer set of two modules presented in the FIG. 50 in a vertical transverse section,

FIG. 58—corner fragments of building walls in a top view,

FIG. 59—the twelfth example of building module making in a vertical transverse section across the carrying rib, and

FIG. 60—module in a partial longitudinal section along the A-A line in accordance with the FIG. 59.

The building module according to the invention is composed of the supporting construction that is formed of the carrying ribs 1 placed at such a distance one from another which is determined by the stiffness of the construction itself. To the supporting construction on one or both its lateral sides, which form at the same time external or inner side of the constructed wall, there is attached the mantle 2 profiled on the outside surface and made of one or a few profiles 3 placed simultaneously lengthwise and crosswise the carrying ribs. The ribs have preferably a form of a rectangular prism, which is situated horizontally. Its height is at the same time equal to the thickness of the rib, which measured longwise the module amounts to a few centimetres.

The supporting construction with the ribs in a form of rectangular cubes can be reinforced with e.g. longitudinal fasteners 4. With the purpose to additionally increase stiffness and stability of the walls, the ribs can be provided with acting jointly tenons 5 and mortises 6 earmarked for layer vertical joining of adjacent modules and situated on the opposite frontal sides of the ribs. The tenons are fixed in a permanent way or they constitute separate units in a form of dowels with a circular section, which are stuck into the adequately fitted mortises on both frontal sections of these ribs. Moreover, tenon joints enable precise positioning of the modules one in relation to another in the course of erecting building walls what ensures that the ribs are combined longwise the entire frontal surfaces adhering one to each other.

The mantle 2 is profiled on the outside surface and has a shape of the worked tree trunk; it can have a smooth or any optionally carved surface. The profiles of the average thickness in principal not exceeding 2,5 cm have preferably flat surface undernetah, whereas their outside surface is adequately profiled to fit the outline of this fragment of the mantle which they form.

The ribs are situated in relation to the mantle in such a way that their upper and lower frontal walls are placed approximately at the height of the upper or lower contour line of the mantle or somewhat below or above this height.

The elements of the module can be made of timber both from softwood or hardwood and/or timber derivatives e.g. chipboards, partially—of plastics or metal as well as of any other building materials with suitable strength parameters. They are joined together in a rigid way by gluing and/or by means of commonly known mechanical fastening materials such as e.g. nails, screws or steel-stitches. The mechanical fastening materials including screws and steel-stitches that are used to attach the mantle to the supporting construction are introduced in the course of assembly process from the inner side of the module in order that they are not visible from the outside.

The length of the module can be optional and it can be fitted to the length of the wall or to the length of its fragment in accordance with requirements of the building project. With a view to describe construction of the module, the examples of making present only short modules which can be obtained also from long modules by their cutting across with a saw to fit the requested length. Also thickness and shape can be adjusted in order to meet respective project requirements; this can be achieved by means of constructing mantles from smaller or greater quantity of profiles (even more than five of them), which are fixed to the supporting construction of the adequate size.

The module presented in the first example of making in the FIGS. 1, 2, 3 and 4 is provided with the carrying ribs 1 with a vertical transverse section of a hexagon shape, to the both lateral sides of which convex mantles 2 are preferably fixed by gluing that in their transverse section have a form of arcs on the external side. The mantle is composed of two profiles 3 convexly profiled on the external side that are joined together longwise their adhering frontal edges by means of the tongue-groove joint provided with the separated or its own stiffening tongue 7. The flat inside profiles adhere with their entire surfaces to the rectangular walls of the ribs, ensuring this way an adequate stiffness of the whole construction on their full width.

On the top and at the bottom longwise the entire mantle, profiles are preferably provided with joint ends 8 overlapping each other in the course of the wall assembly. The modules placed one on each other are provided along their full length with expansion gaps situated at the point of their joint ends on their frontal side. Inside the segment, between the mantles and the ribs, free spaces are formed that are filled with thermo insulation material e.g. mineral wool or foamed polystyrene preferably in a form of granulate. On both sides, in the case of longer modules forming corners with the adjoining walls on both sides or on one side at the end, on the top and at the bottom recesses 9 are made in the mantles; such recesses have a width fitted to the width of the same module profiled on the outside surface and joined in a cruciform way when forming wall corners. Close to the above mentioned recesses, the modules can be reinforced with the additional ribs. The total depth of both recesses amounts approximately to ½ of the module mantle height. Such a construction of recesses makes it possible to combine in a rigid way all modules forming corners what ensures an adequate stability of the erected buildings. The supporting construction of the module presented in the second example of making in the FIGS. 5,6,7, and 8 is composed of the carrying ribs 1 having a form of rectangular cubes to which, on both their lateral sides in a central section, rectangular fasteners 4 with chamfered corners are fixed; the chamfered corners form surfaces which are tangential to the inside walls of the profiles 3 and also form on the external side the convexly profiled mantles just like in the first example. Fasteners of the supporting construction adhere with their chamfered corners to the profiles in their central section what increases stiffness of the construction along the full length of the module.

The module presented in the example of malting in the FIGS. 9,10,11 and 12 is provided with the carrying ribs 1, which in a vertical transverse section has a form of a pentagon. On one side, to the angular offset of the ribs (just in the same way like in the first example of making), the convex mantle 2 with recesses 9 is fixed which forms the external side of the constructed building. On the other hand, on the second lateral side, the flat mantle 2a composed of one or more profiles joined frontally preferably by means of the tongue-groove joints is fixed to vertical walls of the ribs.

On the top and at the bottom of this mantle is provided with joint ends 8a overlapping each other in the course of the wall assembly. In the mantle 2a similarly to the mantle 2 on the top and at the bottom of it recesses 9a are made which are readjusted in respect of the dimension to the cruciform joining of the identical modules situated at the corners of the erected walls. The ribs are provided at the bottom or on the top of them with additionally mounted tenons 5 in a form of dowels whereas on the opposite side of the frontal side they have adequately fitted mortise 6. Thanks to the mounting of tenons into mortises all elements are additionally combined and the construction itself becomes much more stiff. The ports 10 made in the ribs longwise the modules make it possible to introduce installation materials e.g. electric cables into the inside of walls.

The module presented in the example of making on the FIGS. 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 has the supporting construction composed of the carrying ribs I having a form of rectangular cubes, to which on one lateral side in a central section, a rectangular fastener 4 with chamfered corners is fixed; the chamfered corners form surfaces which are tangential to the inside walls of two profiles forming on the external side the convexly profiled mantle 2 with recesses 9 just like in previous examples of making. This mantle forms the external wall of the erected building walls. On the other hand, the inside walls may be constructed with the application of various building materials e.g. boards and plates including carton-gypsum plates which are fixed preferably to bearers made of strips which additionally join the ribs together and, at the same time, stiffen the construction of walls.

The module presented in the next example of making in the FIGS. 18, 19, 20 and 21 is provided with the carrying ribs 1 having a vertical transverse section in a form of an octagon, on both lateral sides of which the convex mantles 2 are preferably fixed by gluing that in their transverse section have on the external side a shape of arcs.

The mantle is composed of three convex outside profiles 3 joined longwise their adhering edges with frontal tongue-groove joints. On the top and at the bottom these mantles are provided with joint ends 8. On the one frontal side the ribs are provided with dowels 5 whereas on the opposite frontal side they have mortises 6 readjusted to the above.

In the central section the ports 10 are made that are earmarked for leading installation materials.

The module presented in the example of making in the FIGS. 22, 23, 24 and 25 is provided with the carrying ribs 1 having a vertical transverse section in a form of a hexagon.

On the one lateral side the convexly profiled mantle 2 is fixed to the polygonal offset of the ribs and it forms the external side of the wall. Just like in the previous example of making, this mantle is composed of three profiles 3 combined one with another. On the other hand, on the second lateral side the flat mantle 2a combined of one or a few profiles is fixed to the vertically situated walls of the ribs. On the top and at the bottom the mantles are provided with joint ends 8 and 8a and at the end—recesses 9 and 9a made in order to join in a cruciform way the modules situated at the corners.

The next module presented in the example of making in the FIGS. 26 and 27 has the same construction as the module presented in the FIGS. 18, 19, 20 and 21 with the only difference which is that the central profiles of the mantles have flat surfaces on the external sides of them.

The module presented in the example of making in the FIGS. 31, 32, 33 and 34 is provided with the carrying ribs 1 having a form of rectangular cubes, on both lateral sides of which the mantles profiled on the outside surface are fixed; these mantles form uniform profiles. As it has been marked with a broken line in the FIGS. 31 and 34, the mantles can be composed of two profiles combined frontally longwise their central section line.

As it has been presented in the FIGS. 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 and 40, at the corners of erected walls, projecting parts of the modules are provided with ports opened on their frontal sides; outlets of these ports are closed with plugs 11 which are shaped to fit the inside contour line of a transverse section of the module. The plug in its transverse section has a form of a polygon or another figure in the case when in the mantles on their inner side e.g. arched furrows have been made. On its frontal side it can be provided with a flanged offset 12 which is shaped to fit an outside contour line of a transverse section of the module.

The method of erecting building walls from the presented modules consists in that the first wall module is placed on the ground-sill, then—on the joint ends of the mantles—band elastic seals are laid and next—the successive modules are placed one on another with a simultaneous positioning of the carrying ribs which are to meet each other equally; into the contact point of the above, glue is introduced in order to fix stable vertical supporting construction on the top of which the carrying beam is laid; in the case of erecting corner walls—the modules situated at the corners are laid alternately in a cruciform way and attached on the top and at the bottom with recesses 9 and 9a.

Before the assembly or in the course of the assembly of walls, free spaces of the modules are filled with thermo insulation material. In the course of assembly segment ends situated at the wall corners and opened on their frontal side are closed tightly with the plugs. In order to increase stiffness of the module construction of buildings under construction spread on a larger area, the walls erected with the application of the ground-sill and the upper beam can be additionally screwed together by means of e.g. long vertical fasteners. The upper part of the ground-sill is formed in such a way that the carrying ribs of the first module adhere to its upper surface with their entire lower frontal surfaces. The same refers to the upper carrying beam, the base of which is situated directly on the ribs of the last module. Joining of ribs with the application of glue in principal limits the usage of tenon joint accompanied with dowels; dowels of smaller dimensions can be possibly helpful as they facilitate equal placing of the modules in such a way that the ribs in the course of erecting walls adhere to each other with entire frontal surfaces. Irrespective of the above, the joint ends 8 and 8a ease the equal vertical erecting of wall with the application of modules.

The expansion gaps that have been formed between the joint ends of the mantles are closed with the known elastic seals what ensures stability and tightness the building structure independently of the climate conditions.

The modules presented in the next examples of making have such a construction that is fitted to erect walls and establish stable buildings also under the severe climate conditions.

The module presented in the example of making in the FIGS. 41-49 is provided with the carrying ribs 1 with the segmented construction, to the both lateral sides of which convex mantles 2 are preferably fixed by gluing which in their transverse section have on the external side a shape of arcs. The mantle is composed of two convex profiles 3 profiled on the external surface and joined longwise their adhering edges also with a tongue-groove joint provided with the separate or its own stiffening tongue 7. The carrying ribs 1 are composed of cubes 1a, which create the main carrying core in a form of a rectangular prism, and attachments 1b having a shape of a rectangular prism situated horizontally, side walls of which directly adhere to the inside walls of the profiles 3 of the mantle 2 with which they are joined in a rigid way by gluing. Irrespective of joining made with glue, the attachments are preferably on their inner sides additionally attached to the profiles by means of at least two bolts led in a straight line with the mantle in order to reinforce the construction. The attachments have a width measured along the module which is equal to the thickness of the cube, but they can also have larger or smaller width than the above mentioned. In the extreme making the attachments joined together on their lateral sides may establish a uniform strip in a form of the fastener 4 as it has been presented in a general outline shown in the FIGS. 5 and 6; such the fastener additionally stiffens construction of the mantle longwise the full length of the module. The cubes in their central section, longwise their vertical axis, are provided with the ports 14 envisaged for introduction of the set of threaded fasteners composed e.g. of a stud-bolt 16 adequately adjusted to fit the port, a joint 17 in a form of a sleeve with a male- and female thread, a washer 18 as well as a nut 19. The ports can be performed in the carrying ribs both of the segmented as well as the uniform construction as presented in the preceding examples of modules making and they can completely or partially substitute tenon joints. The upper and the lower part of the port is widened in order to form at the lower part—a mortise 20 for a nut 19 and at the upper part—a mortise 21 for a joint 17. Moreover, at the upper part through the full width a recess 22 for a washer 18 has been made. Depending on the type of material used for making fasteners, the bolt with a joint or the joint with a nut may form combined uniform units. The washer is adjusted and mortises are shaped in accordance with dimensions of these units.

The attachment is combined with the cube by means of gluing made on the surface of the frontal joint 13 where one of the rib segments is provided with a tongue and the second one—with a groove shaped preferably in a form of a fin. The segmented construction of the carrying ribs facilitates, from the technological point of view, making mantles from profiles which are fixed to the attachments 1b by gluing ; in this case any usage of large presses with the specialised equipment is not needed to form appropriate reproducible three-dimensional profiles. The attachments are made of materials characterised by high resistance parameters which are appropriate for materials envisaged for supporting constructions.

The mantles themselves accompanied with attachments can be used as facade elements in traditional buildings with flat walls.

At the end of the module, in the upper and lower parts of it, the recesses 9 can be made in the mantles; they have a width fitted to the width of the same module profiled on the outside surface which is joined in a cruciform way in the course of forming corners of the walls.

A part of the rib cubes e.g. the terminal ones, on their opposite frontal sides at the corners can be provided with acting jointly tenons 5 and mortises 6 earmarked for layer vertical joining of the adjacent modules irrespective of the presence of the cubes 1a provided with the ports 14.

In the case of erecting a long wall construction, the modules may be joined together within the same layer on their lateral side with bolts which are passed through the ports 15 of the attachments 1b fixed to the ends of the module. The contact points of joining on the mantle wall are sealed with a commonly known material such as e.g. silicon.

In the process of erecting walls, just opposite the ports of rib cubes 1a, the ground-sill is provided with e.g. threaded units such as a fastener 17 which are introduced into its mortises and screwed on the previously mounted bolts. After the first module has been placed on the ground-sill, which is preferably anchored to the foundation, through the ports 14 the stud-bolts 16 are screwed manually into the joints of the ground-sill. Then, on the threaded upper ends of bolts the next joints are screwed which are introduced into mortises 21. After the washers 18 have been put on cubes, nuts are introduced on the male threads of joints and strongly tightened with a wrench. After seals 23 have been previously put on the upper ends of the mantle, the second building module is laid and joined with the lower one by means of the identical set of the threaded fasteners. Eventually, the upper carrying beam is placed on the modules and also fixed with the threaded fasteners.

The module presented in the example of making in the FIGS. 50 and 51 has the mantle 2 composed of three profiles 3 which are convexly profiled on outside surfaces and all carrying ribs 1 of the same segmented construction as those presented in the preceding example but provided with vertically performed ports.

As it has been presented in the FIGS. 51 and 55, the modules arranged in layers form the expansion gaps between the upper and the lower profiles 3 of the mantles which are then closed with the elastic seals 23. Within the expansion gaps, the outside surface of the upper profile is slightly convex whereas surface of the lower profile is flat. Referring to the width of the seal it can be assumed that within the expansion gaps the profiles have approximately flat surfaces what facilitates selection of suitable elastic seals.

Application of the set of the threaded fasteners enables also precise positioning of the modules arranged in layers one in relation to another what in principle eliminates any necessity of forming joint ends 8 of the mantles within these gaps. Such a method of modules joining makes it possible that bolts 16 overtake vertical forces as well as the remaining horizontal forces acting both in longitudinal and transverse directions.

The module presented in the example of making in the FIGS. 52 and 53 is also provided with the carrying ribs 1 of the same segmented construction as those presented in the two preceding examples of the modules but on the one side of it the cube 1a of the rib has a flat vertical wall without any groove made in it. At their ends, the mantles can be provided with recesses for joining in a cruciform way the modules situated at the corners. On the one lateral side of the attachment 1b of the rib, the mantle 2 convexly profiled on its outside surface is fixed and it forms the external side of the wall. Just like in the previous example of making, this mantle is composed of three combined profiles 3. On the other hand, to the second lateral side, the flat mantle 2a composed of one or a few elements is fixed to vertically situated walls of the cubes 1a. On the top and at the bottom—the flat mantles are preferably provided with joint ends 8a.

The gaps 24 which have been formed between the attachments of the carrying ribs and the mantles 2 can be used for passing through installation materials. In different versions of making e.g. these with the flat mantles 2a, additional ports 10 can be made in the ribs for this purpose.

The module presented in the last example of making in the FIGS. 59 and 60 differs from the previous examples with this that the attachment 1b of the carrying rib is made of e.g. metal flat which is deformed longwise the inside adhering edges of the profiles 3 of the mantle 2 in such a way, that the formed sides adhere with their outside surfaces to the inside flat surfaces of the profiles. On the top and at the bottom, in order to combine profiles horizontal arms 25 are led; they embrace partially the upper and the lower part of the cube 1b in which suitable rectangular recesses are made in order to obtain equal horizontal frontal surfaces. Through the ports made, the attachment is fastened on one side together with the mantle profiles by means of bolts and on the opposite side—by means of bolts 26 its arms 25 are fixed to the cube. After the assembly of the wall performed with the application of the threaded fasteners, the arms of the attachments are additionally combined with the cubes by pressing their frontal surfaces. The width of attachment is measured longwise the module and it is equal to the thickness of the cube or lower than it is. In a vertical transverse section it has a shape of a polygon with such a quantity of sides which is readjusted to the quantity of the profiles in the mantle. The attachments of such a type are first of all envisaged for construction of modules with larger diameters which have the mantles composed of three or more profiles.

The modules presented in the FIGS. 1, 5, 18, 26, 41, 50 and 59 should be numbered among the basic modules with symmetrical structures that can be then modified together with the remaining modules and respectively form sets of building modules of various dimensions and shapes of external walls complying with the esthetical requirements as well as climate conditions. Taking into consideration material economy as well as quality requirements that are binding in relation to such building materials, the modules provided with the mantles 2 composed of two profiles 3 can be used for erecting walls with a thickness of over 25 cm, which ensure a proper thermal insulation of the erected buildings. The father rise of insulating power can be achieved by means of increasing a diameter of the module. At the diameter exceeding 30 cm—the mantles are preferably composed of three profiles whereas in the case of diameter within the range of 40 cm—four profiles respectively.

The method of erecting building walls with the application of the presented modules consists in that the first layer of the wall modules is laid on the ground-sill; it is then screwed to the ground-sill through the vertical ports situated in the ribs with the application of the set of threaded fasteners and then band elastic seals are put on the upper ends of the mantles; the above operations are repeated with successive layers of modules which are laid one on another and screwed together with a simultaneous positioning of the carrying ribs which are to meet one each other equally; in the end—the carrying beam is placed on the upper part, which through the ports made in it is screwed by means of the threaded fasteners with the last layer of the modules.

In the course of erecting corner walls, the modules provided with recesses 9 and 9a at their ends, are set alternately in a cruciform way and fastened on the top and at the bottom using the above recesses.

The upper part of the ground-sill is formed in such a way that the carrying cubes of the first module adhere with their entire lower frontal surfaces to its upper surface. The same refers to the upper carrying beam, the base of which is situated directly on the cubes of the last module ribs.

Irrespective of the possibility to join modules situated at wall corners in a cruciform way, it is also possible—as it was presented in the FIG. 58—to form corners by chamfering. In the case of constructing rectangular corners, the modules ends are chamfered at an angle α accounting for 45° and then, between the frontal joining surfaces of the modules mantle, a sealing material such as silicon is introduced. This way there is a possibility to easy create corners of walls, both at an acute angle as well as an obtuse angle. In these cases, ends of corner modules are chamfered at an angle accounting preferably for a half dimension of these angles. Such a method of forming corners is possible thanks to the fact that modules are fixed together in a rigid way by means of the threaded fasteners.

The modules according to the invention, are earmarked for the construction of walls of buildings having various assignment, including apartment buildings, bungalows, office buildings, restaurants and premises. Construction of the module enables to a high degree to create any optional forms which have ,at the same time, reproducible shapes in respect of their entire length. Lightweight and economical modules meet quality requirements binding in respect of such building materials; they also make it possible to erect cheap buildings, which are properly thermally insulated, stable and resistant to atmospheric conditions.