Title:
Refractory tiles and mounting methods
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A tile that has a channel that is sized and shaped to accommodate a bolt with a washer, and that extends from one side of the tile to a location near the center of the tile. The tile can be mounted solely with the bolts and washers, or with other support structures.



Inventors:
Heffernan, John M. (Langhorne, PA, US)
Flynn, Raymond F. (Tampa, FL, US)
Application Number:
10/951144
Publication Date:
05/18/2006
Filing Date:
09/27/2004
Assignee:
Zampell Advanced Refranctories, Inc. (Newburyport, MA, US)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04C2/52
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
EPPES, BRYAN L
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WILMERHALE/BOSTON (BOSTON, MA, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A tile for use on a wall that has boiler tubes oriented along a first direction and that also has outwardly extending bolts that each have a first diameter and that extend away from the wall, the bolts having washers mounted on them, the washers having a second diameter greater than the first diameter, the tile comprising: an inner side for facing the wall; an outer side for facing an incinerator chamber; at least one channel oriented along the first direction at the inner side and extending at least partly along the first direction length of the tile, the channel including: a first portion with an outer region extending inwardly from the inner side and having a width greater than the first diameter and less than the second diameter, and an inner region spaced from the inner side by the outer region and having a width greater than the second diameter, the first portion allowing the tile to move along the first direction relative to a bolt with a washer but not allowing the tile to be removed from the wall in a second direction perpendicular to the wall, and a second portion next to the first portion and having a width greater than the second diameter from the inner side so that the tile can be mounted to the wall in the second direction and the channel is large enough to receive the washer such that the tile can be mounted along the second direction over the bolt and washer and then moved in the first direction so that the bolt and washer are in the first portion of the channel, the second portion being located within the perimeter of the tile and not extending to an end of the tile; the tile further including a first stopping location at the channel and over the second portion where the tile cannot move downwardly along the first direction relative to the wall when the tile is mounted over the bolt, thereby allowing the tile to hang on the wall with the bolts and without further support.

2. The tile of claim 1, wherein the stopping location includes a passage that allows the washer to be accessed from a top of the tile for adjustment.

3. The tile of claim 1, further comprising a second channel with a portion with an outer region extending inwardly from the inner side and having a width greater than the first diameter and less than the second diameter, and an inner region spaced from the inner side by the outer region and having a width greater than the second diameter, the first portion allowing the tile to move along the first direction relative to a bolt with a washer but not allowing the tile to be removed from the wall in a second direction perpendicular to the wall.

4. The tile of claim 3, wherein the stopping location is between the first channel and the second channel.

5. The tile of claim 1, wherein the tile is mounted to the wall mechanically solely with the bolts and washers.

6. The tile of claim 5, wherein there are two and only two bolts and washers per tile.

7. The tile of claim 1, further comprising mortar between the tile and the wall.

8. The tile of claim 1, further comprising a material provided in a pourable form between the tile and the wall.

9. A wall of tiles covering a wall with boiler tubes and including at least first, second, third, and fourth tiles arranged in a two-dimensional array of tiles that all have the same configuration, each tile including a channel including means for supporting the tile with two and only two bolts mounted to the wall and washers on the bolts such that can each supporting means supports the tile without a separate bracket or bracket tile.

10. The wall of tiles of claim 9, wherein the tiles are arranged so that each has a gap along two orthogonal axes relative to adjacent tiles, the gap being sufficient to provide an expansion material between the tiles.

11. The wall of tiles of claim 9, wherein the means for supporting includes a portion of the tile extending across the channel over a point where the bolts are located when the tile is mounted on the wall so that the bolts are in contact with that portion to prevent downward vertical movement of the tile relative to the bolt.

12. The wall of tiles of claim 9, wherein each tile has means for allowing access to the washers from the top of a first tile when there is no other tile mounted over the first tile.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a refractory tile for a wall, and to a method and apparatus for mounting such a tile.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

In some incinerators, boiler tubes are used to carry feedwater to produce energy from the heat of the incinerator. The heat turns the water in the tubes to steam, which is directed to a turbine for generating power. To protect the tubes from the high temperatures and corrosive atmosphere, the walls and boiler tubes can be covered with protective tiles, which can be made of silicon carbide (SiC).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Embodiments of the present invention include a tile that has a channel that is sized and shaped to accommodate a bolt with a washer, and that extends from one side of the tile to a location inside the perimeter of the tile, e.g., near the center of the tile. The tile can be mounted solely with the bolts and washers, or with other support structures. The tile can be made of any suitable material, including ceramic, such as SiC. Other embodiments include a tile system where each of a number of tiles in a square, with at least two tiles to a side, are substantially identical and each is supported on the wall by just one or more bolts and washers. Other embodiments will be evident from the following description, drawings, and claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a partial cross-sectional, partial plan view of a tile mounted against a wall with boiler tubes.

FIGS. 2-4 are elevational, top, and bottom views of the tile shown in FIG. 1.

FIGS. 5-7 are cross-sectional views of the tile shown in FIG. 2.

FIG. 8 is a side view showing a lap joint.

FIG. 9 is an elevational view of an array of tiles.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Referring to FIG. 1, a refractory tile 10 is shown with an inner side mounted to a wall 12 that includes boiler tubes 14a-14c. The tubes are preferably mounted with a vertical orientation, and are spaced apart in the wall to define regions 16a, 16b between the tubes. While three tubes are shown, and three tubes correspond to the width of a tile, the tile could cover one or more tubes. There could be many more than three tubes in total, and the tiles could be arranged in a two-dimensional array. While the terms vertical and horizontal are used here to describe movement with respect to a vertical wall, these terms are meant to be non-limiting and used for reference as relative terms. The tile can be made of silicon carbide or any other suitable material.

Extending away from wall 12 at regions 16a and 16b are bolts 18a and 18b with washers 20a and 20b. While referred to here as washers, these components can have a variety of configurations, including an internal screw thread or no internal thread. The bolts can have threads or ridges or be smooth, and can have circular or other cross-sections. What is desirable, however, is for the combination of the bolt and the washer to have some mating connection, which can be just frictional, such that the washer can be moved relative to the bolt with some application of force or by turning, but such that the connection is preferably not too loose, such that the tile would fall off the bolts by moving in a direction perpendicular to the wall.

Bolts 18a and 18b have a first diameter, and washers 20a and 20b have a second diameter greater than the first diameter. As used here, the term diameter is used broadly to refer to a width or diagonal if the bolt and washer do not have a circular outer diameter. Bolts 18a and 18b extend through outer channel regions 22a and 22b, which have a width that is greater than the first diameter but less than the second diameter at this location. The tile also has inner channel regions 24a and 24b that have a width that is wider than the second diameter. This means that once the tile is mounted on the wall with the bolt and washer in this location, the tile will not come off when moved in a direction perpendicular to the wall.

The inner side of the tile can have curves that conform to the shape of the tubes, although the tile could have a flat inner side or some other configuration. The outer side 26 of the tile faces the incinerator and is substantially planar with no openings or channels, although it could have configurations. A mortar could be used on the wall with the tiles mounted up against the mortar. The tiles are each preferably spaced from the wall when mounted by a sufficient distance to allow a material, such as a silicon carbide castable to be poured behind the tiles. This castable hardens in a manner similar to a cement, but is in a pourable form to fill gaps better than a mortar.

Referring to FIG. 2, tile 10 is shown as a generally rectangular tile with a height greater than its width, although it could have other orientations, such as be square, or have a greater width than height, or even have other configurations. Different sizes and shapes of tile could be used and combined to cover the wall. Tile 10 has vertical channels 30 and 32. FIGS. 2-7 show one embodiment of the arrangement of channels.

Referring also to FIG. 5, channel 30 (or 32) has an outer channel portion 42 with a width greater than that of a bolt and less than that of a washer, and an inner channel portion 44 with a width greater than the diameter of the washer to prevent the tile from being moved in a direction perpendicular to and away from the wall when the washer and bolt are in this part of the channel.

Referring also to FIG. 6, in another region of the channel, the tile has an opening 38 that is wider than the diameter of the washer, and thus allows the tile to be moved in a direction perpendicular to the wall, toward and way from the wall, when the washer and bolt are in this region.

Referring to FIG. 7, in regions 34 and 36 (FIG. 2) of the tile, the channel is effectively closed off by having a solid portion 46 in place of an outer channel portion, thereby leaving the inner portion 44 of the channel. This region of the tile prevents movement of the tile in a direction parallel to the wall in at least one direction vertically because portion 46 blocks movement of the tile relative to the bolt and allows the tile to hang on the bolt.

As indicated by FIGS. 2, 5, 6, and 7, the tile is mounted to the wall by aligning regions 38 and 40 with the bolts and washers on the wall and moving the tile in a direction generally perpendicular to the wall so that the bolt and washer extend into region 38 of the tile. The tile can then be moved downwardly relative to the wall until the bolts are at approximately locations 50 and 52 where the tile thus hangs on the wall. The space provided by the channel above regions 34 and 36 and portion 44 of the channel as shown in FIG. 7 allows a tool to be inserted in the channel from the top of the tile to extend downwardly to move the washer to a desired location along the bolt. This movement can be provided with a manually operated or power tool.

Referring to FIGS. 3, 4, and 8, the bottom and top sides of the tiles are preferably designed to have a lap joint, such that the furnace side of the tile has a step down at the lower side of the tile, and the boiler side of the tile has a step up at the top as shown in FIG. 8. The steps are a little less than one-half the thickness of the tile to allow them to mate with each other. The lateral sides are shown as being planar, but they could have other configurations, such as a Z-shaped joint to help prevent gas from passing from one side to the other.

Referring to FIG. 9, the tiles can be mounted on the wall with no additional brackets or other supporting mechanical mechanisms (although there could be mortar or other bonding material between the tiles and the wall, and expansion material between adjacent tiles). While other supports can be provided, such as additional brackets, the tile can be fully supported to the wall with substantial downward vertical movement and horizontal movement restricted solely with the one or more bolts and washers. In this particular embodiment, the tile has two and only two bolts and washers per tile. Because the tile only requires the bolts and washers to support the tile, each of the tiles 60, 62, 64, and 66 in a two-dimensional array of at least two in the horizontal direction and two in the vertical direction can be substantially identical and can avoid the need of additional brackets or supports. While shown as an array with two tiles to a side, the array could be two by three, three by three, three by four, or any higher numbers.

The system described here thus has each tile individually supported in the horizontal and vertical directions relative to a horizontal wall. The tiles can preferably be mounted so that there is a gap in both in the horizontal and vertical directions to adjacent tiles to allow an expansion material to be provided between each of the tiles in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In systems that use different types of tiles, such as support tiles and other tiles that are not individually supported but that use support tiles for their support, the tiles abut one another and would typically not have the expansion material in the vertical direction between every tile.

By using one type of tile, the process can be simplified. In addition, with a limited number of bolts per tile, such as two as described here, the amount of bolts on the wall can be reduced.

Having described certain embodiments, it should be apparent that other modifications can be made without departing from the scope of the inventions as defined by the appended claims. For example, while this description of the tile has been for use with an incinerator, the tile and mounting method can be used in any high temperature and/or corrosive environment, such as a furnace or a gasification system. While certain dimensions have been cited for an exemplary embodiment, other dimensions can be used for these components. For example, the tile can be in the range of 1 inch to 24 inches square.