Title:
Preparation containing conjugated linoleic alcohol
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Compositions comprising at least one conjugated linoleyl alcohol component selected from the group consisting of cis- and trans-isomers of 6,8-octadecadienol, 7,9-octadecadienol, 8,10-octadecadienol, 9, 11-octadecadienol, 10,12-octadecadienol and 11,13-octadecadienol are described along with their use in oral and topical applications for humans and animals.



Inventors:
Zander, Lars (Duesseldorf, DE)
Strube, Albert (Neuss, DE)
Huebner, Norbert (Langenfeld, DE)
Westfechtel, Alfred (Hilden, DE)
Application Number:
10/517891
Publication Date:
05/11/2006
Filing Date:
06/03/2003
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/724
International Classes:
A61K31/045; A23L1/30; A61K8/00; A61K8/30; A61K8/34; A61K8/36; A61K8/37; A61K31/201; A61K31/22; A61P3/04; A61P17/16; A61Q17/04; A61Q19/00; A61Q19/06; C07C33/02
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
GEMBEH, SHIRLEY V
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SERVILLA WHITNEY LLC/BASF (ISELIN, NJ, US)
Claims:
1. 1-9. (canceled)

10. A composition comprising at least one conjugated linoleyl alcohol component selected from the group consisting of cis- and trans-isomers of 6,8-octadecadienol, 7,9-octadecadienol, 8,10-octadecadienol, 9,11-octadecadienol, 10,12-octadecadienol and 11,13-octadecadienol.

11. The composition according to claim 10, wherein the at least one conjugated linoleyl alcohol component comprises an isomer selected from the group consisting of 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienol, 10-trans, 1 2-cis-octadecadienol and mixtures thereof.

12. The composition according to claim 10, wherein the at least one conjugated linoleyl alcohol component is present in an amount of from 0.01 to 15% by weight.

13. The composition according to claim 11, wherein the at least one conjugated linoleyl alcohol component is present in an amount of from 0.01 to 15% by weight.

14. The composition according to claim 10, further comprising an additional component selected from the group consisting of conjugated linoleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof.

15. The composition according to claim 11, further comprising an additional component selected from the group consisting of conjugated linoleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof.

16. The composition according to claim 12, further comprising an additional component selected from the group consisting of conjugated linoleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof.

17. The composition according to claim 10, further comprising a conjugated linoleic acid ester.

18. The composition according to claim 17, wherein the conjugated linoleic acid ester comprises a triglyceride of the formula (I): embedded image wherein R1, R2 and R3 each independently represent a C6-24 fatty acid acyl residue and at least one of R1, R2 and R3 represents a conjugated linoleic acid acyl residue.

19. The composition according to claim 10, further comprising a UV filter.

20. The composition according to claim 11, further comprising a UV filter.

21. A method comprising: (i) providing a composition comprising at least one conjugated linoleyl alcohol component selected from the group consisting of cis- and trans-isomers of 6,8-octadecadienol, 7,9-octadecadienol, 8,10-octadecadienol, 9,11-octadecadienol, 10,12-octadecadienol and 11,13-octadecadienol; and (ii) administering the composition to a human or an animal.

22. The method according to claim 21, wherein the composition is administered orally.

23. The method according to claim 21, wherein the composition is administered topically.

24. The method according to claim 21, wherein the at least one conjugated linoleyl alcohol component comprises an isomer selected from the group consisting of 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienol, 10-trans, 12-cis-octadecadienol and mixtures thereof.

25. The method according to claim 21, wherein the at least one conjugated linoleyl alcohol component is present in an amount of from 0.01 to 15% by weight.

26. The method according to claim 21, wherein the composition further comprises an additional component selected from the group consisting of conjugated linoleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof.

27. The method according to claim 21, wherein the composition further comprises a conjugated linoleic acid ester.

28. The method according to claim 27, wherein the conjugated linoleic acid ester comprises a triglyceride of the formula (I): embedded image wherein R1, R2 and R3 each independently represent a C6-24 fatty acid acyl residue and at least one of R1, R2 and R3 represents a conjugated linoleic acid acyl residue.

29. The method according to claim 21, wherein the composition further comprises a UV filter.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to preparations containing conjugated linoleyl alcohol and to the use of conjugated linoleyl alcohol in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

PRIOR ART

Naturally occurring isomeric octadecadienoic acids—as, for example, in milk, dairy products, oils and fats—containing conjugated double bonds at carbon atoms 9 and 11, 10 and 12 and 11 and 13 are among the essential ingredients of human and animal foods. In recent years, they have been increasingly described in the literature under the name of conjugated linoleic acids (abbreviation: CLAs).

By virtue of their anticarcinogenic and immunostimulating activity, CLAs are being discussed for use as active components in pharmaceutical products. In addition, their use as food supplements is known from International patent application WO 96/06605, which describes a reduction in body fat attributable to CLAs, and from WO 99/47135 which claims CLA preparations with a high content of trans10, cis12-nd cis9,trans11-octadecadienoic acid.

However, the use of pure conjugated linoleic acids in foods and oral pharmaceuticals is hampered by the unpleasant taste and smell of CLAs and by incompatibilities with other food ingredients or auxiliaries. To solve this problem, it is proposed in German patent DE 197 18 245 C1 to use esters of conjugated linoleic acids which, in the form of their triglycerides, do not have an unpleasant taste or smell and which, as precursors, are enzymatically degraded in the body to the free CLAs.

Cosmetic preparations in which CLAs are used in a carrier are said to promote the dermal absorption of conjugated linoleic acids and to provide protection against carcinogenic effects of UV light, above all in sun protection products. According to U.S. Pat. No. 6,019,990, preparations containing a combination of free conjugated linoleic acids and conjugated linoleic acid esters are used for this purpose. However, esterification of the free fatty acids results in a reduction in dermal and transdermal absorption on account of an enlarged molecular structure.

Accordingly, the problem addressed by the present invention was to provide a substitute for conjugated linoleic acid, particularly for use in foods and cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, which would have better organoleptic properties and which would be suitable for dermal and transdermal application. The substance would be easy to produce and to process in various preparations without any incompatibilities.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to preparations containing cis and trans isomers of conjugated linoleyl alcohol selected from the group consisting of 6,8-octadecadienol, 7,9-octadecadienol, 8,10-octadecadienol, 9,11-octadecadienol, 10,12-octadecadienol and 11,13-octadecadienol and to preparations containing the isomers of conjugated linoleyl alcohol in combination with conjugated linoleic acid and/or linoleic acid esters.

The present invention also relates to the use of conjugated linoleyl alcohol as a food additive for human and animal nutrition and for the production of pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations, more particularly sun protection preparations.

It has surprisingly been found that the enzymatic metabolization of conjugated linoleyl alcohol after oral and dermal application is sufficient to produce an effect comparable with the application of conjugated linoleic acid. Compared with the free acid, however, the organoleptic properties of the alcohol are extremely advantageous because neither smell nor taste is evident in foods or cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. This property provides for increased dosages and simpler administration of the preparations, even to children. In cosmetic preparations, combination with perfumes is not problematic by virtue of the very faint odor of conjugated linoleyl alcohol. In contrast to the known methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid, there is no risk of methanol being released in the gastrointestinal tract after the oral application of conjugated linoleyl alcohol in pharmaceutical preparations or foods. In addition, conjugated linoleyl alcohol is far easier to produce than the esters of conjugated linoleic acids.

The conjugated linoleyl alcohols are also easy to incorporate in various foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations without initiating secondary reactions. On the one hand, they are still sufficiently lipophilic to be readily absorbed both orally and dermally/transdermally; on the other hand, absorption is not reduced because the size of the molecule was not increased by esterification of the substance to be absorbed. The conjugated linoleyl alcohols are readily absorbed by the epidermis and, after metabolization in the dermis, are able optimally to develop their protective effect against UV-light-induced carcinogenesis. The time-dependent metabolization leads to a prolonged effect. Among the cosmetic preparations, therefore, they are particularly suitable for use in preparations against ageing of the skin and in sun protection preparations for reducing UV-induced carcinogenesis. In combination with UV filters, the conjugated linoleyl alcohols lead to a synergistic protective effect.

This long-term effect, which is attributable to the enzymatic metabolization, is a major advantage, even in the case of oral application.

Accordingly, it is opportune to utilize the various metabolizations of the substances in the form of preparations containing mixtures of conjugated linoleyl alcohol and conjugated linoleic acid and/or conjugated linoleic acid esters in order to guarantee an advantageous linoleyl alcohol level in the organism for the effects to develop. Whereas conjugated linoleic acid is rapidly present in the body and, in the form of a “bolus dose”, leads quickly to the effective concentration of active component, the alcohol is metabolized more slowly and contributes towards maintaining the action level. The alcohol in these preparations should generally be present in excess in view of the kinetics—prolonged release of the active component—and the better organoleptic properties of the combinations.

Where conjugated linoleyl alcohol is combined with esters of conjugated linoleic acid, the action level of conjugated linoleic acids is again developed more slowly. However, by virtue of the differences in absorption and enzymatic degradation rates between the alcohol and the esters, the substances in this combination, too, complement one another in developing a uniform and prolonged action level. These mixtures are also distinguished by favorable organoleptic properties.

Accordingly, conjugated linoleyl alcohol and mixtures of conjugated linoleyl alcohol with conjugated linoleic acid and/or conjugated linoleic acid esters are also eminently suitable for use as food supplements and in preparations for reducing body fat and for supporting the buildup of body protein and muscle tissue.

Mixtures of conjugated linoleyl alcohol with conjugated linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid esters may also be used to control the optimal action level.

Conjugated Linoleyl Alcohol

In the context of the invention, conjugated linoleyl alcohols are understood to be the cis and trans isomers of 6,8-octadecadienol, 7,9-octadecadienol, 8,10-octadecadienol, 9,11 -octadecadienol, 10,12-octadecadienol and 11,13-octadecadienol, preferably the main isomers 9,11-octadecadienol and 10,12-octadecadienol and, more particularly, 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienol, 10-trans,12-cis octadecadienol, but also isomer mixtures.

Processes for the production of conjugated linoleyl alcohol are known from International patent applications WO 91/13849 and WO 99/32522.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid

Commensurate with the alcohol according to the invention, the conjugated linoleic acids, which may be used in the form of a mixture with conjugated linoleyl alcohol, are present in the form of cis and trans isomers of 6,8-octadecadienoic acid, 7,9-octadecadienoic acid, 8,10-octadecadienoic acid, 9,11-octadecadienoic acid, 10,12-octadecadienoic acid and 11,13-octadecadienoic acid, preferably the main isomers 9,11-octadecadienoic acid and 10,12-octadecadienoic acid and, more particularly, 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoic acid, 10-trans,12-cis octadecadienoic acid, but also the isomer mixtures which normally accumulate in the production of conjugated linoleic acid.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Esters

In the context of the present invention, conjugated linoleic acid esters are understood to be esters of conjugated linoleic acid with mono- and/or polyhydric, saturated and/or unsaturated alcohols with a chain length of 1 to 22 carbon atoms. Of these esters, synthetic triglycerides corresponding to formula (I): embedded image
in which R1, R2 and R3 independently of one another represent C6-24 fatty acid residues and at least one substituent R1, R2 or R3 represents a conjugated linoleic acid residue, are preferably used.
UV Protection Factors

In the context of the invention, UV protection factors which are used in combination conjugated linoleyl alcohol in dermal preparations are, for example, organic substances (light filters) which are liquid or crystalline at room temperature and which are capable of absorbing ultraviolet or infrared radiation and of releasing the energy absorbed in the form of longer-wave radiation, for example heat. UV-B filters can be oil-soluble or water-soluble. The following are examples of oil-soluble substances:

    • 3-benzylidene camphor or 3-benzylidene norcamphor and derivatives thereof, for example 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor;
    • 4-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, preferably 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester, 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoic acid-2-octyl ester and 4-(dimethylamino)-benzoic acid amyl ester;
    • esters of cinnamic acid, preferably 4-methoxycinnamic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester, 4-methoxycinnamic acid propyl ester, 4-methoxycinnamic acid isoamyl ester, 2-cyano-3,3-phenylcinnamic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester (Octocrylene);
    • esters of salicylic acid, preferably salicylic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester, salicylic acid-4-isopropylbenzyl ester, salicylic acid homomenthyl ester;
    • derivatives of benzophenone, preferably 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-4′-methylbenzophenone, 2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone;
    • esters of benzalmalonic acid, preferably 4-methoxybenzalmalonic acid di-2-ethylhexyl ester;
    • triazine derivatives such as, for example, 2,4,6-trianilino-(p-carbo-2′-ethyl-1′-hexyloxy)-1,3,5-triazine and Octyl Triazone or Dioctyl Butamido Triazone (Uvasorb® HEB);
    • propane-1,3-diones such as, for example, 1-(4-tert.butylphenyl)-3-(4′-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,3-dione;
    • ketotricyclo(5.2.1.0)decane derivatives.

Suitable water-soluble substances are

    • 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid and alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, ammonium, alkylammonium, alkanolammonium and glucammonium salts thereof;
    • sulfonic acid derivatives of benzophenones, preferably 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid and salts thereof;
    • sulfonic acid derivatives of 3-benzylidene camphor such as, for example, 4-(2-oxo-3-bornylidenemethyl)-benzene sulfonic acid and 2-methyl-5-(2-oxo-3-bornylidene)-sulfonic acid and salts thereof.

Typical UV-A filters are, in particular, derivatives of benzoyl methane such as, for example, 1-(4′-tert.butylphenyl)-3-(4′-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,3-dione, 4-tert.butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoyl methane (Parsol 1789), 1-phenyl-3-(4′-isopropylphenyl)-propane-1,3-dione and enamine compounds. The UV-A and UV-B filters may of course also be used in the form of mixtures. Particularly favorable combinations consist of the derivatives of benzoyl methane, for example 4-tert.butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoylmethane (Parsol® 1789) and 2-cyano-3,3-phenylcinnamic acid-2-ethyl hexyl ester (Octocrylene) in combination with esters of cinnamic acid, preferably 4-methoxycinnamic acid-2-ethyl hexyl ester and/or 4-methoxycinnamic acid propyl ester and/or 4-methoxycinnamic acid isoamyl ester. Combinations such as these are advantageously combined with water-soluble filters such as, for example, 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid and alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, ammonium, alkylammonium, alkanolammonium and glucammonium salts thereof.

Besides the soluble substances mentioned, insoluble light-blocking pigments, i.e. finely dispersed metal oxides or salts, may also be used for this purpose. Examples of suitable metal oxides are, in particular, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide and also oxides of iron, zirconium oxide, silicon, manganese, aluminium and cerium and mixtures thereof. Silicates (talcum), barium sulfate and zinc stearate may be used as salts. The oxides and salts are used in the form of the pigments for skin-care and skin-protecting emulsions and decorative cosmetics. The particles should have a mean diameter of less than 100 nm, preferably between 5 and 50 nm and more preferably between 15 and 30 nm. They may be spherical in shape although ellipsoidal particles or other non-spherical particles may also be used. The pigments may also be surface-treated, i.e. hydrophilicized or hydrophobicized. Typical examples are coated titanium dioxides, for example Titandioxid T 805 (Degussa) and Eusolex® T2000 (Merck). Suitable hydrophobic coating materials are, above all, silicones and, among these, especially trialkoxyoctylsilanes or simethicones. So-called micro- or nanopigments are preferably used in sun protection products. Micronized zinc oxide is preferably used.

Commercial Applications

Foods for human or animal nutrition may contain the conjugated linoleyl alcohols in quantities of 0.01 to 15% by weight, preferably in quantities of 0.1 to 10% by weight and more particularly in quantities of 0.3 to 5% by weight, based on the preparation. The conjugated linoleyl alcohols may also be dissolved or dispersed in normal, preferably fat-containing, foods, for example butter, margarine, diet foods, frying oils, edible oils, mayonnaises, salad dressings, cocoa products, sausage and the like.

The conjugated linoleyl alcohols may be used in particular in foods, preferably so-called functional foods, and in pharmaceuticals, particularly as a supporting agent in the treatment of tumours or even for the treatment of people suffering from catabolic conditions.

Orally applied products containing mixtures of conjugated linoleyl alcohol and conjugated linoleic acid contain the constituents in a ratio of normally 99:1 to 1:99, preferably 98:2 to 50:50 and more particularly 95:5 to 60:40. Mixtures of conjugated linoleyl alcohol with conjugated linoleic acid esters are present in the preparations according to the invention in a ratio of 99:1 to 1:99, preferably 98:2 to 40:60 and more particularly 90:10 to 50:50.

Cosmetic and/or Pharmaceutical Preparations

Embodiments of the cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical preparations according to the invention contain 0.01 to 15% by weight, preferably 0.1 to 8% by weight and, more particularly, 0.3 to 5% by weight conjugated linoleyl alcohol, based on the preparation.

The conjugated linoleyl alcohols are intended in particular to be used in sun protection preparations which contain UV filters as additional constituents.

Products according to the invention contain—based on the preparation—

    • (a) 0.01 to 15% by weight conjugated conjugated linoleyl alcohols and
    • (b) 0.1 to 15% by weight sun protection factors.

The sun protection preparations according to the invention preferably contain—based on the preparation—

    • (a) 0.1 to 8% by weight conjugated conjugated linoleyl alcohols and
    • (b) 0.5 to 10% by weight sun protection factors.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the sun protection preparations according to the invention contain—based on the preparation—

    • (a) 0.3 to 5% by weight conjugated conjugated linoleyl alcohols and
    • (b) 1 to 5% by weight sun protection factors.

The conjugated linoleyl alcohols may also be used for the production of cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical preparations such as, for example, hair shampoos, hair lotions, foam baths, shower baths, creams, gels, lotions, alcoholic and aqueous/alcoholic solutions, emulsions, wax/fat compounds, stick preparations, powders or ointments. These preparations may also contain mild surfactants, oil components, emulsifiers, pearlizing waxes, consistency factors, thickeners, superfatting agents, stabilizers, polymers, silicone compounds, fats, waxes, lecithins, phospholipids, biogenic agents, antioxidants, deodorants, antiperspirants, antidandruff agents, film formers, swelling agents, insect repellents, tyrosine inhibitors (depigmenting agents), hydrotropes, solubilizers, preservatives, perfume oils, dyes and the like as further auxiliaries and additives.

Surfactants

Suitable surfactants are anionic, nonionic, cationic and/or amphoteric or zwitterionic surfactants which are normally present in the preparations in quantities of about 1 to 70, preferably 5 to 50 and more particularly 10 to 30% by weight. Typical examples of anionic surfactants are soaps, alkyl benzenesulfonates, alkanesulfonates, olefin sulfonates, alkylether sulfonates, glycerol ether sulfonates, α-methyl ester sulfonates, sulfofatty acids, alkyl sulfates, fatty alcohol ether sulfates, glycerol ether sulfates, fatty acid ether sulfates, hydroxy mixed ether sulfates, monoglyceride (ether) sulfates, fatty acid amide (ether) sulfates, mono- and dialkyl sulfosuccinates, mono- and dialkyl sulfosuccinamates, sulfotriglycerides, amide soaps, ether carboxylic acids and salts thereof, fatty acid isethionates, fatty acid sarcosinates, fatty acid taurides, N-acylamino acids such as, for example, acyl lactylates, acyl tartrates, acyl glutamates and acyl aspartates, alkyl oligoglucoside sulfates, protein fatty acid condensates (particularly wheat-based vegetable products) and alkyl (ether) phosphates. If the anionic surfactants contain polyglycol ether chains, they may have a conventional homolog distribution although they preferably have a narrow-range homolog distribution. Typical examples of nonionic surfactants are fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers, alkylphenol polyglycol ethers, fatty acid polyglycol esters, fatty acid amide polyglycol ethers, fatty amine polyglycol ethers, alkoxylated triglycerides, mixed ethers and mixed formals, optionally partly oxidized alk(en)yl oligoglycosides or glucuronic acid derivatives, fatty acid-N-alkyl glucamides, protein hydrolyzates (particularly wheat-based vegetable products), polyol fatty acid esters, sugar esters, sorbitan esters, polysorbates and amine oxides. If the nonionic surfactants contain polyglycol ether chains, they may have a conventional homolog distribution, although they preferably have a narrow-range homolog distribution. Typical examples of cationic surfactants are quaternary ammonium compounds, for example dimethyl distearyl ammonium chloride, and esterquats, more particularly quaternized fatty acid trialkanolamine ester salts. Typical examples of amphoteric or zwitterionic surfactants are alkylbetaines, alkylamidobetaines, aminopropionates, aminoglycinates, imidazolinium betaines and sulfobetaines. The surfactants mentioned are all known compounds. Typical examples of particularly suitable mild, i.e. particularly dermatologically compatible, surfactants are fatty alcohol polyglycol ether sulfates, monoglyceride sulfates, mono- and/or dialkyl sulfosuccinates, fatty acid isethionates, fatty acid sarcosinates, fatty acid taurides, fatty acid glutamates, α-olefin sulfonates, ether carboxylic acids, alkyl oligoglucosides, fatty acid glucamides, alkylamidobetaines, amphoacetals and/or protein fatty acid condensates, preferably based on wheat proteins.

Oil Components

Suitable oil components are, for example, Guerbet alcohols based on fatty alcohols containing 6 to 18 and preferably 8 to 10 carbon atoms, esters of linear C6-22 fatty acids with linear or branched C6-22 fatty alcohols or esters of branched C6-13 carboxylic acids with linear or branched C6-22 fatty alcohols such as, for example, myristyl myristate, myristyl palmitate, myristyl stearate, myristyl isostearate, myristyl oleate, myristyl behenate, myristyl erucate, cetyl myristate, cetyl palmitate, cetyl stearate, cetyl isostearate, cetyl oleate, cetyl behenate, cetyl erucate, stearyl myristate, stearyl palmitate, stearyl stearate, stearyl isostearate, stearyl oleate, stearyl behenate, stearyl erucate, isostearyl myristate, isostearyl palmitate, isostearyl stearate, isostearyl isostearate, isostearyl oleate, isostearyl behenate, isostearyl oleate, oleyl myristate, oleyl palmitate, oleyl stearate, oleyl isostearate, oleyl oleate, oleyl behenate, oleyl erucate, behenyl myristate, behenyl palmitate, behenyl stearate, behenyl isostearate, behenyl oleate, behenyl behenate, behenyl erucate, erucyl myristate, erucyl palmitate, erucyl stearate, erucyl isostearate, erucyl oleate, erucyl behenate and erucyl erucate. Also suitable are esters of linear C6-22 fatty acids with branched alcohols, more particularly 2-ethyl hexanol, esters of C18-38 alkylhydroxycarboxylic acids with linear or branched C6-22 fatty alcohols, more especially Dioctyl Malate, esters of linear and/or branched fatty acids with polyhydric alcohols (for example propylene glycol, dimer diol or trimer triol) and/or Guerbet alcohols, triglycerides based on C6-10 fatty acids, liquid mono-, di-and triglyceride mixtures based on C6-18 fatty acids, esters of C6-22 fatty alcohols and/or Guerbet alcohols with aromatic carboxylic acids, more particularly benzoic acid, esters of C2-12 dicarboxylic acids with linear or branched alcohols containing 1 to 22 carbon atoms or polyols containing 2 to 10 carbon atoms and 2 to 6 hydroxyl groups, vegetable oils, branched primary alcohols, substituted cyclohexanes, linear and branched C6-22 fatty alcohol carbonates such as, for example, Dicaprylyl Carbonate (Cetiol® CC), Guerbet carbonates based on fatty alcohols containing 6 to 18 and preferably 8 to 10 carbon atoms, esters of benzoic acid with linear and/or branched C6-22 alcohols (for example Finsolv® TN), linear or branched, symmetrical or nonsymmetrical dialkyl ethers containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms per alkyl group such as, for example, Dicaprylyl Ether (Cetiol® OE), ring opening products of epoxidized fatty acid esters with polyols, silicone oils (cyclomethicone, silicon methicone types, etc.) and/or aliphatic or naphthenic hydrocarbons, for example squalane, squalene or dialkyl cyclohexanes.

Emulsifiers

Suitable emulsifiers are, for example, nonionic surfactants from at least one of the following groups:

    • products of the addition of 2 to 30 mol ethylene oxide and/or 0 to 5 mol propylene oxide onto linear C8-22 fatty alcohols, onto C12-22 fatty acids, onto alkyl phenols containing 8 to 15 carbon atoms in the alkyl group and alkylamines containing 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the alkyl group;
    • alkyl and/or alkenyl oligoglycosides containing 8 to 22 carbon atoms in the alkyl group and ethoxylated analogs thereof;
    • products of the addition of 1 to 15 mol ethylene oxide onto castor oil and/or hydrogenated castor oil;
    • products of the addition of 15 to 60 mol ethylene oxide onto castor oil and/or hydrogenated castor oil;
    • partial esters of glycerol and/or sorbitan with unsaturated, linear or saturated, branched fatty acids containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms and/or hydroxycarboxylic acids containing 3 to 18 carbon atoms and addition products thereof with 1 to 30 mol ethylene oxide;
    • partial esters of polyglycerol (average degree of self-condensation 2 to 8), polyethylene glycol (molecular weight 400 to 5000), trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol, sugar alcohols (for example sorbitol), alkyl glucosides (for example methyl glucoside, butyl glucoside, lauryl glucoside) and polyglucosides (for example cellulose) with saturated and/or unsaturated, linear or branched fatty acids containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms and/or hydroxycarboxylic acids containing 3 to 18 carbon atoms and addition products thereof with 1 to 30 mol ethylene oxide;
    • mixed esters of pentaerythritol, fatty acids, citric acid and fatty alcohol and/or mixed esters of fatty acids containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms, methyl glucose and polyols, preferably glycerol or polyglycerol,
    • mono-, di- and trialkyl phosphates and mono-, di- and/or tri-PEG-alkyl phosphates and salts thereof,
    • wool wax alcohols,
    • polysiloxane/polyalkyl/polyether copolymers and corresponding derivatives,
    • block copolymers, for example Polyethylene glycol-30 Dipolyhydroxystearate;
    • polymer emulsifiers, for example Pemulen types (TR-1, TR-2) of Goodrich;
    • polyalkylene glycols and
    • glycerol carbonate.
      Ethylene Oxide Addition Products

The addition products of ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide onto fatty alcohols, fatty acids, alkylphenols or onto castor oil are known commercially available products. They are homolog mixtures of which the average degree of alkoxylation corresponds to the ratio between the quantities of ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide and substrate with which the addition reaction is carried out. C12/18 fatty acid monoesters and diesters of addition products of ethylene oxide onto glycerol are known as lipid layer enhancers for cosmetic formulations.

Alkyl and/or Alkenyl Oligoglycosides

Alkyl and/or alkenyl oligoglycosides, their production and their use are known from the prior art. They are produced in particular by reacting glucose or oligosaccharides with primary alcohols containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms. So far as the glycoside unit is concerned, both monoglycosides in which a cyclic sugar unit is attached to the fatty alcohol by a glycoside bond and oligomeric glycosides with a degree of oligomerization of preferably up to about 8 are suitable. The degree of oligomerization is a statistical mean value on which the homolog distribution typical of such technical products is based.

Partial Glycerides

Typical examples of suitable partial glycerides are hydroxystearic acid monoglyceride, hydroxystearic acid diglyceride, isostearic acid monoglyceride, isostearic acid diglyceride, oleic acid monoglyceride, oleic acid diglyceride, ricinoleic acid monoglyceride, ricinoleic acid diglyceride, linoleic acid monoglyceride, linoleic acid diglyceride, linolenic acid monoglyceride, linolenic acid diglyceride, erucic acid monoglyceride, erucic acid diglyceride, tartaric acid monoglyceride, tartaric acid diglyceride, citric acid monoglyceride, citric acid diglyceride, malic acid monoglyceride, malic acid diglyceride and technical mixtures thereof which may still contain small quantities of triglyceride from the production process. Addition products of 1 to 30 and preferably 5 to 10 mol ethylene oxide onto the partial glycerides mentioned are also suitable.

Sorbitan Esters

Suitable sorbitan esters are sorbitan monoisostearate, sorbitan sesquiisostearate, sorbitan diisostearate, sorbitan triisostearate, sorbitan monooleate, sorbitan sesquioleate, sorbitan dioleate, sorbitan trioleate, sorbitan monoerucate, sorbitan sesquierucate, sorbitan dierucate, sorbitan trierucate, sorbitan monoricinoleate, sorbitan sesquiricinoleate, sorbitan diricinoleate, sorbitan triricinoleate, sorbitan monohydroxystearate, sorbitan sesquihydroxystearate, sorbitan dihydroxystearate, sorbitan trihydroxystearate, sorbitan monotartrate, sorbitan sesquitartrate, sorbitan ditartrate, sorbitan tritartrate, sorbitan monocitrate, sorbitan sesquicitrate, sorbitan dicitrate, sorbitan tricitrate, sorbitan monomaleate, sorbitan sesquimaleate, sorbitan dimaleate, sorbitan trimaleate and technical mixtures thereof. Addition products of 1 to 30 and preferably 5 to 10 mol ethylene oxide onto the sorbitan esters mentioned are also suitable.

Polyglycerol Esters

Typical examples of suitable polyglycerol esters are Polyglyceryl-2 Dipolyhydroxystearate (Dehymuls® PGPH), Polyglycerin-3-Diisostearate (Lameform® TGI), Polyglyceryl-4 Isostearate (Isolan® GI 34), Polyglyceryl-3 Oleate, Diisostearoyl Polyglyceryl-3 Diisostearate (Isolan® PDI), Polyglyceryl-3 Methylglucose Distearate (Tego Care® 450), Polyglyceryl-3 Beeswax (Cera Bellina®), Polyglyceryl-4 Caprate (Polyglycerol Caprate T2010/90), Polyglyceryl-3 Cetyl Ether (Chimexane® NL), Polyglyceryl-3 Distearate (Cremophor® GS 32) and Polyglyceryl Polyricinoleate (Admul® WOL 1403), Polyglyceryl Dimerate Isostearate and mixtures thereof. Examples of other suitable polyolesters are the mono-, di- and triesters of trimethylolpropane or pentaerythritol with lauric acid, cocofatty acid, tallow fatty acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, behenic acid and the like optionally reacted with 1 to 30 mol ethylene oxide.

Anionic Emulsifiers

Typical anionic emulsifiers are aliphatic fatty acids containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms such as, for example, palmitic acid, stearic acid or behenic acid and dicarboxylic acids containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms such as, for example, azelaic acid or sebacic acid.

Amphoteric and Cationic Emulsifiers

Other suitable emulsifiers are zwitterionic surfactants. Zwitterionic surfactants are surface-active compounds which contain at least one quaternary ammonium group and at least one carboxylate and one sulfonate group in the molecule. Particularly suitable zwitterionic surfactants are the so-called betaines, such as the N-alkyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium glycinates, for example cocoalkyl dimethyl ammonium glycinate, N-acylaminopropyl-N,N-dimethyl ammonium glycinates, for example cocoacylaminopropyl dimethyl ammonium glycinate, and 2-alkyl-3-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxyethyl imidazolines containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl or acyl group and cocoacylaminoethyl hydroxyethyl carboxymethyl glycinate. The fatty acid amide derivative known under the CTFA name of Cocamidopropyl Betaine is particularly preferred. Ampholytic surfactants are also suitable emulsifiers. Ampholytic surfactants are surface-active compounds which, in addition to a C8/18 alkyl or acyl group, contain at least one free amino group and at least one —COOH— or —SO3H— group in the molecule and which are capable of forming inner salts. Examples of suitable ampholytic surfactants are N-alkyl glycines, N-alkyl propionic acids, N-alkylaminobutyric acids, N-alkyliminodipropionic acids, N-hydroxyethyl-N-alkylamidopropyl glycines, N-alkyl taurines, N-alkyl sarcosines, 2-alkylaminopropionic acids and alkylaminoacetic acids containing around 8 to 18 carbon atoms in the alkyl group.

Particularly preferred ampholytic surfactants are N-coco-alkylaminopropionate, cocoacylaminoethyl aminopropionate and C12/18 acyl sarcosine. Finally, cationic surfactants are also suitable emulsifiers, those of the esterquat type, preferably methyl-quaternized difatty acid triethanolamine ester salts, being particularly preferred.

Fats and Waxes

Typical examples of fats are glycerides, i.e. solid or liquid, vegetable or animal products which consist essentially of mixed glycerol esters of higher fatty acids. Suitable waxes are inter alia natural waxes such as, for example, candelilla wax, carnauba wax, Japan wax, espartograss wax, cork wax, guaruma wax, rice oil wax, sugar cane wax, ouricury wax, montan wax, beeswax, shellac wax, spermaceti, lanolin (wool wax), uropygial fat, ceresine, ozocerite (earth wax), petrolatum, paraffin waxes and microwaxes; chemically modified waxes (hard waxes) such as, for example, montan ester waxes, sasol waxes, hydrogenated jojoba waxes and synthetic waxes such as, for example, polyalkylene waxes and polyethylene glycol waxes. Besides the fats, other suitable additives are fat-like substances, such as lecithins and phospholipids. Lecithins are known among experts as glycerophospholipids which are formed from fatty acids, glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline by esterification. Accordingly, lecithins are also frequently referred to by experts as phosphatidyl cholines (PCs). Examples of natural lecithins are the kephalins which are also known as phosphatidic acids and which are derivatives of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoric acids. By contrast, phospholipids are generally understood to be mono- and preferably diesters of phosphoric acid with glycerol (glycerophosphates) which are normally classed as fats. Sphingosines and sphingolipids are also suitable.

Pearlizing Waxes

Suitable pearlizing waxes are, for example, alkylene glycol esters, especially ethylene glycol distearate; fatty acid alkanolamides, especially cocofatty acid diethanolamide; partial glycerides, especially stearic acid monoglyceride; esters of polybasic, optionally hydroxysubstituted carboxylic acids with fatty alcohols containing 6 to 22 carbon atoms, especially long-chain esters of tartaric acid; fatty compounds, such as for example fatty alcohols, fatty ketones, fatty aldehydes, fatty ethers and fatty carbonates which contain in all at least 24 carbon atoms, especially laurone and distearylether; fatty acids, such as stearic acid, hydroxystearic acid or behenic acid, ring opening products of olefin epoxides containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms with fatty alcohols containing 12 to 22 carbon atoms and/or polyols containing 2 to 15 carbon atoms and 2 to 10 hydroxyl groups and mixtures thereof.

Consistency Factors and Thickeners

The consistency factors mainly used are fatty alcohols or hydroxyfatty alcohols containing 12 to 22 and preferably 16 to 18 carbon atoms and also partial glycerides, fatty acids or hydroxyfatty acids. A combination of these substances with alkyl oligoglucosides and/or fatty acid N-methyl glucamides of the same chain length and/or polyglycerol poly-12-hydroxystearates is preferably used. Suitable thickeners are, for example, Aerosil® types (hydrophilic silicas), polysaccharides, more especially xanthan gum, guar-guar, agar-agar, alginates and tyloses, carboxymethyl cellulose and hydroxyethyl cellulose, also relatively high molecular weight polyethylene glycol monoesters and diesters of fatty acids, polyacrylates (for example Carbopols® and Pemulen types [Goodrich]; Synthalens® [Sigma]; Keltrol types [Kelco]; Sepigel types [Seppic]; Salcare types [Allied Colloids]), polyacrylamides, polymers, polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone. Other consistency factors which have proved to be particularly effective are bentonites, for example Bentone® Gel VS-5PC (Rheox) which is a mixture of cyclopentasiloxane, Disteardimonium Hectorite and propylene carbonate. Other suitable consistency factors are surfactants such as, for example, ethoxylated fatty acid glycerides, esters of fatty acids with polyols, for example pentaerythritol or trimethylol propane, narrow-range fatty alcohol ethoxylates or alkyl oligoglucosides and electrolytes, such as sodium chloride and ammonium chloride.

Superfatting Agents

Superfatting agents may be selected from such substances as, for example, lanolin and lecithin and also polyethoxylated or acylated lanolin and lecithin derivatives, polyol fatty acid esters, monoglycerides and fatty acid alkanolamides, the fatty acid alkanolamides also serving as foam stabilizers.

Stabilizers

Metal salts of fatty acids such as, for example, magnesium, aluminium and/or zinc stearate or ricinoleate may be used as stabilizers.

Polymers

Suitable cationic polymers are, for example, cationic cellulose derivatives such as, for example, the quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose obtainable from Amerchol under the name of Polymer JR 4000, cationic starch, copolymers of diallyl ammonium salts and acrylamides, quaternized vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl imidazole polymers such as, for example, Luviquat® (BASF), condensation products of polyglycols and amines, quaternized collagen polypeptides such as, for example, Lauryidimonium Hydroxypropyl Hydrolyzed Collagen (Lamequat® L, Grünau), quaternized wheat poly-peptides, polyethyleneimine, cationic silicone polymers such as, for example, amodimethicone, copolymers of adipic acid and dimethylamino-hydroxypropyl diethylenetriamine (Cartaretine®, Sandoz), copolymers of acrylic acid with dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (Merquat® 550, Chemviron), polyaminopolyamides and crosslinked water-soluble polymers thereof, cationic chitin derivatives such as, for example, quaternized chitosan, optionally in microcrystalline distribution, condensation products of dihaloalkyls, for example dibromobutane, with bis-dialkylamines, for example bis-dimethylamino-1,3-propane, cationic guar gum such as, for example, Jaguar®CBS, Jaguar®C-17, Jaguar®C-16 of Celanese, quaternized ammonium salt polymers such as, for example, Mirapol® A-15, Mirapol® AD-1, Mirapol® AZ-1 of Miranol.

Suitable anionic, zwitterionic, amphoteric and nonionic polymers are, for example, vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymers, vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl acrylate copolymers, vinyl acetate/butyl maleate/isobornyl acrylate copolymers, methyl vinylether/maleic anhydride copolymers and esters thereof, uncrosslinked and polyol-crosslinked polyacrylic acids, acrylamido-propyl trimethylammonium chloride/acrylate copolymers, octylacrylamide/methyl methacrylate/tert.-butylaminoethyl methacrylate/2-hydroxy-propyl methacrylate copolymers, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymers, vinyl pyrrolidone/dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate/vinyl caprolactam terpolymers and optionally derivatized cellulose ethers and silicones.

Silicone Compounds

Suitable silicone compounds are, for example, dimethyl polysiloxanes, methylphenyl polysiloxanes, cyclic silicones and amino-, fatty acid-, alcohol-, polyether-, epoxy-, fluorine-, glycoside- and/or alkyl-modified silicone compounds which may be both liquid and resin-like at room temperature. Other suitable silicone compounds are simethicones which are mixtures of dimethicones with an average chain length of 200 to 300 dimethylsiloxane units and hydrogenated silicates.

Antioxidants

Besides the primary sun protection factors, secondary sun protection factors of the antioxidant type which interrupt the photochemical reaction chain initiated when UV rays penetrate into the skin may also be used. Typical examples are amino acids (for example glycine, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophane) and derivatives thereof, imidazoles (for example urocanic acid) and derivatives thereof, peptides, such as D,L-carnosine, D-carnosine, L-carnosine and derivatives thereof (for example anserine), carotinoids, carotenes (for example α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and derivatives thereof, chlorogenic acid and derivatives thereof, liponic acid and derivatives thereof (for example dihydroliponic acid), aurothioglucose, propylthiouracil and other thiols (for example thioredoxine, glutathione, cysteine, cystine, cystamine and glycosyl, N-acetyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, amyl, butyl and lauryl, palmitoyl, oleyl, γ-linoleyl, cholesteryl and glyceryl esters thereof) and their salts, dilaurylthiodipropionate, distearylthiodipropionate, thiodipropionic acid and derivatives thereof (esters, ethers, peptides, lipids, nucleotides, nucleosides and salts) and sulfoximine compounds (for example butionine sulfoximines, homocysteine sulfoximine, butionine sulfones, penta-, hexa- and hepta-thionine sulfoximine) in very small compatible dosages (for example pmole to μmole/kg), also (metal) chelators (for example α-hydroxyfatty acids, palmitic acid, phytic acid, lactoferrine), α-hydroxy acids (for example citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid), humic acid, bile acid, bile extracts, bilirubin, biliverdin, EDTA, EGTA and derivatives thereof, unsaturated fatty acids and derivatives thereof (for example γ-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid), folic acid and derivatives thereof, ubiquinone and ubiquinol and derivatives thereof, vitamin C and derivatives thereof (for example ascorbyl palmitate, Mg ascorbyl phosphate, ascorbyl acetate), tocopherols and derivatives (for example vitamin E acetate), vitamin A and derivatives (vitamin A palmitate) and coniferyl benzoate of benzoin resin, rutinic acid and derivatives thereof, α-glycosyl rutin, ferulic acid, furfurylidene glucitol, carnosine, butyl hydroxytoluene, butyl hydroxyanisole, nordihydroguaiac resin acid, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, trihydroxybutyrophenone, uric acid and derivatives thereof, mannose and derivatives thereof, Superoxid-Dismutase, zinc and derivatives thereof (for example ZnO, ZnSO4), selenium and derivatives thereof (for example selenium methionine), stilbenes and derivatives thereof (for example stilbene oxide, trans-stilbene oxide) and derivatives of these active substances suitable for the purposes of the invention (salts, esters, ethers, sugars, nucleotides, nucleosides, peptides and lipids).

Biogenic Agents

In the context of the invention, biogenic agents are, for example, tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, tocopherol palmitate, ascorbic acid, (deoxy)ribonucleic acid and fragmentation products thereof, β-glucans, retinol, bisabolol, allantoin, phytantriol, panthenol, AHA acids, amino acids, ceramides, pseudoceramides, essential oils, plant extracts and vitamin complexes.

Deodorants and Germ Inhibitors

Cosmetic deodorants counteract, mask or eliminate body odors. Body odors are formed through the action of skin bacteria on apocrine perspiration which results in the formation of unpleasant-smelling degradation products. Accordingly, deodorants contain active principles which act as germ inhibitors, enzyme inhibitors, odor absorbers or odor maskers.

Germ Inhibitors

Basically, suitable germ inhibitors are any substances which act against gram-positive bacteria such as, for example, 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid and salts and esters thereof, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N′-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-urea, 2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxydiphenylether (triclosan), 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol, 2,2′-methylene-bis-(6-bromo-4-chlorophenol), 3-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-phenol, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, 3-(4-chlorophenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol, 3-iodo-2-propinyl butyl carbamate, chlorhexidine, 3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide (TTC), antibacterial perfumes, thymol, thyme oil, eugenol, clove oil, menthol, mint oil, farnesol, phenoxyethanol, glycerol monocaprate, glycerol monocaprylate, glycerol monolaurate (GML), diglycerol monocaprate (DMC), salicylic acid-N-alkylamides such as, for example, salicylic acid-n-octyl amide or salicylic acid-n-decyl amide.

Enzyme Inhibitors

Suitable enzyme inhibitors are, for example, esterase inhibitors. Esterase inhibitors are preferably trialkyl citrates, such as trimethyl citrate, tripropyl citrate, triisopropyl citrate, tributyl citrate and, in particular, triethyl citrate (Hydagen® CAT). Esterase inhibitors inhibit enzyme activity and thus reduce odor formation. Other esterase inhibitors are sterol sulfates or phosphates such as, for example, lanosterol, cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol sulfate or phosphate, dicarboxylic acids and esters thereof, for example glutaric acid, glutaric acid monoethyl ester, glutaric acid diethyl ester, adipic acid, adipic acid monoethyl ester, adipic acid diethyl ester, malonic acid and malonic acid diethyl ester, hydroxycarboxylic acids and esters thereof, for example citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid or tartaric acid diethyl ester, and zinc glycinate.

Odor Absorbers

Suitable odor absorbers are substances which are capable of absorbing and largely retaining the odor-forming compounds. They reduce the partial pressure of the individual components and thus also reduce the rate at which they spread. An important requirement in this regard is that perfumes must remain unimpaired. Odor absorbers are not active against bacteria. They contain, for example, a complex zinc salt of ricinoleic acid or special perfumes of largely neutral odor known to the expert as “fixateurs” such as, for example, extracts of ladanum or styrax or certain abietic acid derivatives as their principal component. Odor maskers are perfumes or perfume oils which, besides their odor-masking function, impart their particular perfume note to the deodorants. Suitable perfume oils are, for example, mixtures of natural and synthetic fragrances. Natural fragrances include the extracts of blossoms, stems and leaves, fruits, fruit peel, roots, woods, herbs and grasses, needles and branches, resins and balsams. Animal raw materials, for example civet and beaver, may also be used. Typical synthetic perfume compounds are products of the ester, ether, aldehyde, ketone, alcohol and hydrocarbon type. Examples of perfume compounds of the ester type are benzyl acetate, p-tert.butyl cyclohexylacetate, linalyl acetate, phenyl ethyl acetate, linalyl benzoate, benzyl formate, allyl cyclohexyl propionate, styrallyl propionate and benzyl salicylate. Ethers include, for example, benzyl ethyl ether while aldehydes include, for example, the linear alkanals containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms, citral, citronellal, citronellyloxyacetaldehyde, cyclamen aldehyde, hydroxycitronellal, lilial and bourgeonal. Examples of suitable ketones are the ionones and methyl cedryl ketone. Suitable alcohols are anethol, citronellol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol and terpineol. The hydrocarbons mainly include the terpenes and balsams. However, it is preferred to use mixtures of different perfume compounds which, together, produce an agreeable fragrance. Other suitable perfume oils are essential oils of relatively low volatility which are mostly used as aroma components. Examples are sage oil, camomile oil, clove oil, lemon balm oil, mint oil, cinnamon leaf oil, lime-blossom oil, juniper berry oil, vetiver oil, olibanum oil, galbanum oil, ladanum oil and lavendin oil. The following are preferably used either individually or in the form of mixtures: bergamot oil, dihydromyrcenol, lilial, lyral, citronellol, phenylethyl alcohol, α-hexylcinnamaldehyde, geraniol, benzyl acetone, cyclamen aldehyde, linalool, Boisambrene Forte, Ambroxan, indole, hedione, sandelice, citrus oil, mandarin oil, orange oil, allylamyl glycolate, cyclovertal, lavendin oil, clary oil, β-damascone, geranium oil bourbon, cyclohexyl salicylate, Vertofix Coeur, Iso-E-Super, Fixolide NP, evernyl, iraldein gamma, phenylacetic acid, geranyl acetate, benzyl acetate, rose oxide, romillat, irotyl and floramat.

Antiperspirants

Antiperspirants reduce perspiration and thus counteract underarm wetness and body odor by influencing the activity of the eccrine sweat glands. Aqueous or water-free antiperspirant formulations typically contain the following ingredients:

    • astringent active principles,
    • oil components,
    • nonionic emulsifiers,
    • co-emulsifiers,
    • consistency factors,
    • auxiliaries in the form of, for example, thickeners or complexing agents and/or
    • non-aqueous solvents such as, for example, ethanol, propylene glycol and/or glycerol.

Suitable astringent active principles of antiperspirants are, above all, salts of aluminium, zirconium or zinc. Suitable antihydrotic agents of this type are, for example, aluminium chloride, aluminium chlorohydrate, aluminium dichlorohydrate, aluminium sesquichlorohydrate and complex compounds thereof, for example with 1,2-propylene glycol, aluminium hydroxyallantoinate, aluminium chloride tartrate, aluminium zirconium trichlorohydrate, aluminium zirconium tetrachlorohydrate, aluminium zirconium pentachlorohydrate and complex compounds thereof, for example with amino acids, such as glycine. Oil-soluble and water-soluble auxiliaries typically encountered in antiperspirants may also be present in relatively small amounts. Oil-soluble auxiliaries such as these include, for example,

    • inflammation-inhibiting, skin-protecting or pleasant-smelling essential oils,
    • synthetic skin-protecting agents and/or
    • oil-soluble perfume oils.

Typical water-soluble additives are, for example, preservatives, water-soluble perfumes, pH adjusters, for example buffer mixtures, water-soluble thickeners, for example water-soluble natural or synthetic polymers such as, for example, xanthan gum, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone or high molecular weight polyethylene oxides.

Film Formers

Standard film formers are, for example, chitosan, microcrystalline chitosan, quaternized chitosan, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, vinyl pyrrolidone/vinyl acetate copolymers, polymers of the acrylic acid series, quaternary cellulose derivatives, collagen, hyaluronic acid and salts thereof and similar compounds.

Antidandruff Agents

Suitable antidandruff agents are piroctone olamine (1-hydroxy-4-methyl-6-(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)-2-(1H)-pyridinone monoethanolamine salt), Baypival® (climbazole), Ketoconazol® (4-acetyl-1-{4-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) r-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxylan-c-4-ylmethoxy-phenyl}-piperazine, ketoconazole, elubiol, selenium disulfide, colloidal sulfur, sulfur polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate, sulfur ricinol polyethoxylate, sulfur tar distillate, salicylic acid (or in combination with hexachlorophene), undecylenic acid, monoethanolamide sulfosuccinate Na salt, Lamepon® UD (protein/undecylenic acid condensate), zinc pyrithione, aluminium pyrithione and magnesium pyrithione/dipyrithione magnesium sulfate.

Swelling Agents

Suitable swelling agents for aqueous phases are montmorillonites, clay minerals, Pemulen and alkyl-modified Carbopol types (Goodrich).

Insect Repellents

Suitable insect repellents are N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, pentane-1,2-diol or Ethyl Butylacetylaminopropionate.

Self-Tanning Agents and Depigmenting Agents

A suitable self-tanning agent is dihydroxyacetone. Suitable tyrosine inhibitors which prevent the formation of melanin and are used in depigmenting agents are, for example, arbutin, ferulic acid, koji acid, coumaric acid and ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

Hydrotropes

In addition, hydrotropes, for example ethanol, isopropyl alcohol or polyols, may be used to improve flow behavior. Suitable polyols preferably contain 2 to 15 carbon atoms and at least two hydroxyl groups. The polyols may contain other functional groups, more especially amino groups, or may be modified with nitrogen. Typical examples are

    • glycerol;
    • alkylene glycols such as, for example, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, hexylene glycol and polyethylene glycols with an average molecular weight of 100 to 1000 dalton;
    • technical oligoglycerol mixtures with a degree of self-condensation of 1.5 to 10 such as, for example, technical diglycerol mixtures with a diglycerol content of 40 to 50% by weight;
    • methylol compounds such as, in particular, trimethylol ethane, trimethylol propane, trimethylol butane, pentaerythritol and dipentaerythritol;
    • lower alkyl glucosides, particularly those containing 1 to 8 carbon atoms in the alkyl group, for example methyl and butyl glucoside;
    • sugar alcohols containing 5 to 12 carbon atoms, for example sorbitol or mannitol,
    • sugars containing 5 to 12 carbon atoms, for example glucose or sucrose;
    • amino sugars, for example glucamine;
    • dialcoholamines, such as diethanolamine or 2-aminopropane-1,3-diol.
      Preservatives

Suitable preservatives are, for example, phenoxyethanol, formaldehyde solution, parabens, pentanediol or sorbic acid and the silver complexes known under the name of Surfacine® and the other classes of compounds listed in Appendix 6, Parts A and B of the Kosmetikverordnung (“Cosmetics Directive”).

Perfume Oils and Aromas

Suitable perfume oils are mixtures of natural and synthetic perfumes. Natural perfumes include the extracts of blossoms (lily, lavender, rose, jasmine, neroli, ylang-ylang), stems and leaves (geranium, patchouli, petitgrain), fruits (anise, coriander, caraway, juniper), fruit peel (bergamot, lemon, orange), roots (nutmeg, angelica, celery, cardamom, costus, iris, calmus), woods (pinewood, sandalwood, guaiac wood, cedarwood, rosewood), herbs and grasses (tarragon, lemon grass, sage, thyme), needles and branches (spruce, fir, pine, dwarf pine), resins and balsams (galbanum, elemi, benzoin, myrrh, olibanum, opoponax). Animal raw materials, for example civet and beaver, may also be used. Typical synthetic perfume compounds are products of the ester, ether, aldehyde, ketone, alcohol and hydrocarbon type. Examples of perfume compounds of the ester type are benzyl acetate, phenoxyethyl isobutyrate, p-tert.butyl cyclohexylacetate, linalyl acetate, dimethyl benzyl carbinyl acetate, phenyl ethyl acetate, linalyl benzoate, benzyl formate, ethylmethyl phenyl glycinate, allyl cyclohexyl propionate, styrallyl propionate and benzyl salicylate. Ethers include, for example, benzyl ethyl ether while aldehydes include, for example, the linear alkanals containing 8 to 18 carbon atoms, citral, citronellal, citronellyloxyacetaldehyde, cyclamen aldehyde, hydroxycitronellal, lilial and bourgeonal. Examples of suitable ketones are the ionones, α-isomethylionone and methyl cedryl ketone. Suitable alcohols are anethol, citronellol, eugenol, isoeugenol, geraniol, linalool, phenylethyl alcohol and terpineol. The hydrocarbons mainly include the terpenes and balsams. However, it is preferred to use mixtures of different perfume compounds which, together, produce an agreeable perfume. Other suitable perfume oils are essential oils of relatively low volatility which are mostly used as aroma components. Examples are sage oil, camomile oil, clove oil, melissa oil, mint oil, cinnamon leaf oil, lime-blossom oil, juniper berry oil, vetiver oil, olibanum oil, galbanum oil, ladanum oil and lavendin oil. The following are preferably used either individually or in the form of mixtures: bergamot oil, dihydromyrcenol, lilial, lyral, citronellol, phenylethyl alcohol, a-hexylcinnamaldehyde, geraniol, benzyl acetone, cyclamen aldehyde, linalool, Boisambrene Forte, Ambroxan, indole, hedione, sandelice, citrus oil, mandarin oil, orange oil, allylamyl glycolate, cyclovertal, lavendin oil, clary oil, β-damascone, geranium oil bourbon, cyclohexyl salicylate, Vertofix Coeur, Iso-E-Super, Fixolide NP, evernyl, iraldein gamma, phenylacetic acid, geranyl acetate, benzyl acetate, rose oxide, romillat, irotyl and floramat.

Suitable aromas are, for example, peppermint oil, spearmint oil, aniseed oil, Japanese anise oil, caraway oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, citrus oil, wintergreen oil, clove oil, menthol and the like.

Dyes

Suitable dyes are any of the substances suitable and approved for cosmetic purposes. Examples include cochineal red A (C.I. 16255), patent blue V (C.I. 42051), indigotin (C.I. 73015), chlorophyllin (C.I. 75810), quinoline yellow (C.I. 47005), titanium dioxide (C.I. 77891), indanthrene blue RS (C.I. 69800) and madder lake (C.I. 58000). Luminol may also be present as a luminescent dye. These dyes are normally used in concentrations of 0.001 to 0.1% by weight, based on the mixture as a whole.

EXAMPLES

Preparation of a Conjugated Linoleyl Alcohol

Example 1

100 g linoleyl alcohol are heated for 2 hours at 120° C. with 1 g of 30% sodium methanolate solution. After filtration by suction via Tonsil, a clear yellow product -containing at least 60% by weight of conjugated linoleyl alcohols is obtained.