Title:
Herbicidal compositions containing N-phosphonomethyl glycine and an auxin herbicide
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Herbicidal compositions are provided which cause rapid symptomology while delivering long term control of regrowth of plants. The herbicidal concentrate compositions comprise N-phosphonomethylglycine or a herbicidal derivative thereof, an auxin herbicide or a herbicidal derivative thereof, and at least one surfactant. Also provided is a method for killing or controlling the growth of certain plants by contacting the foliage of the plants with the diluted concentrate composition.



Inventors:
Becher, David Z. (St. Louis, MO, US)
Agbaje, Henry E. (St. Louis, MO, US)
Travers, Jeffrey N. (Chesterfield, MO, US)
Brinker, Ronald J. (Ellisville, MO, US)
Xu, Xiaodong C. (Valley Park, MO, US)
Ottens, Timothy S. (Stanton, MO, US)
Application Number:
11/077279
Publication Date:
01/26/2006
Filing Date:
03/10/2005
Assignee:
Monsanto Technology LLC (St. Louis, MO, US)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
504/128
International Classes:
A01N57/00; A01N57/20
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
BROOKS, KRISTIE LATRICE
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
STINSON LLP (ST LOUIS, MO, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. An aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition comprising: (a) glyphosate or a herbicidal derivative thereof; (b) an auxin herbicide component comprising one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, dichlorprop, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quniclorac and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof; and (c) a surfactant component in solution or stable suspension, emulsion or dispersion, comprising one or more surfactants; wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 32:1 and the composition has a cloud point of at least about 50° C. and a crystallization point not higher than about 0° C.

2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the auxin herbicide component comprises one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, dicamba and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof.

3. The composition of claim 1 wherein the auxin herbicide component comprises 2,4-D or an agriculturally acceptable salt or ester thereof.

4. The composition of claim 1 wherein the auxin herbicide component comprises dicamba or an agriculturally acceptable salt or ester thereof.

5. The composition of claim 1 wherein the glyphosate is present predominantly in the form of the potassium salt thereof.

6. The composition of claim 5 wherein at least about 90 percent by weight of the glyphosate is present in the form of the potassium salt thereof.

7. The composition of claim 1 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 325 grams acid equivalent per liter.

8. The composition of claim 1 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 425 grams acid equivalent per liter.

9. The composition of claim 1 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 525 grams acid equivalent per liter.

10. The composition of claim 1 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 38:1.

11. The composition of claim 1 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 50:1.

12. The composition of claim 1 wherein the surfactant component is present in an amount of at least about 3 wt. % based on the total weight of the composition.

13. The composition of claim 1 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the surfactant component are present in a weight ratio of from about 1.9:1 to about 6:1.

14. The composition of claim 1 wherein the herbicide content consists of glyphosate or a herbicidal derivative thereof and the auxin herbicide component.

15. The composition of claim 1 wherein the composition further comprises an organic solvent, said composition containing not more than 10 weight percent of said organic solvent based on the total weight of the composition.

16. A method of killing or controlling weeds or unwanted vegetation comprising: diluting the composition of claim 1 in an amount of water to form an application mixture; and applying a herbicidally effective amount of the application mixture to foliage of the weeds or unwanted vegetation.

17. The method of claim 16 wherein the weeds or undesired plants comprise a dicot.

18. The method of claim 17 wherein the dicot comprises at least one broadleaf weed.

19. The method of claim 16 wherein the application mixture is applied to foliage of crop plants genetically transformed or selected to tolerate glyphosate and said weeds or said unwanted vegetation growing in close proximity to the crop plants to control the weeds or unwanted vegetation while leaving the crop plants substantially unharmed.

20. The method of claim 19 wherein the weeds or undesired plants comprise a dicot.

21. The method of claim 20 wherein the dicot comprises at least one broadleaf weed.

22. An aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition comprising: (a) glyphosate, predominantly in the form of the potassium salt thereof, in a concentration of at least 65 grams acid equivalent per liter; (b) an auxin herbicide component comprising one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, dichlorprop, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quniclorac and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof; and (c) a first surfactant component in solution or stable suspension, emulsion or dispersion and comprising one or more surfactants selected from the group consisting of: (i) a secondary or tertiary amine having the formula: embedded image wherein R1 is hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are hydrogen or hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; (ii) dialkoxylated quaternary ammonium salt having the formula: embedded image wherein R11 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R12 in each of the x(R12O) and y (R12O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R13 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, R14 hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, x and y are independently an average number from 1 to about 40, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion; (iii) monoalkoxylated quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image wherein R21 and R25 are independently hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R24 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R23 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, x is an average number from 1 to about 60, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion; (iv) quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image wherein R31, R33 and R34 are independently hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R32 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion; (v) ether amines having the formula: embedded image wherein R41 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R42 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 30 carbon atoms; R43 and R44 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, or —(R45O)x4R46, R45 in each of the x4(R45—O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R46 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, and x4 is an average number from 1 to about 50; (vi) amine oxides having the formula: embedded image wherein R51, R52 and R53 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, —(R54O)x5R55, or —R56(OR54)x5OR55, R54 in each of the x5(R54O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R55 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R56 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, x5 is an average number from 1 to about 50, and the total number of carbon atoms in R51, R52 and R53 is at least 8; (vii) dialkoxylated amines having the formula: embedded image wherein R61 is a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 6 to about 30 carbon atoms, R62 in each of the x6 (R62O) and the y6 (R62O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R63 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms and x6 and y6 are independently an average number from 1 to about 40; (viii) aminated alkoxylated alcohols having the formula: embedded image wherein R71 is hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R72 in each of the x7 (R72O) and y7 (R72O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; R73 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 30 carbon atoms; R74 and R75 are each independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, —(R76)n7—(R72O)y7R77, or R74 and R75, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a cyclic or heterocyclic ring; R76 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R77 is hydrogen or a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, n7 is 0 or 1, x7 and y7 are independently an average number from 1 to about 60; (ix) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having the formula: embedded image wherein R81 and R83 are independently a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 4 to about 30 carbon atoms; R82 in each of the m (R82O) and the n (R82O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; and m and n are independently from 1 to about 30; (x) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having the formula: embedded image wherein R91 is a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms; R92 in each of the a (R92O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; and a is from 1 to about 30; and (xi) alkylpolyglycosides having the formula:
[R101—(R104)q-(sug)uOH]v (11) where R101 is hydrogen or C1-8 hydrocarbyl, R104 is hydrogen or C1-4 hydrocarbyl, q is 0 or 1, sug is (i) an open or cyclic structure derived from sugars or (ii) a hydroxyalkyl, polyhydroxyalkyl or poly(hydroxyalkyl)alkyl group, u is an average number from 1 to about 2, and v is an integer from 1 to 3.

23. The composition of claim 22 wherein the first surfactant comprises (i) a secondary or tertiary amine having the formula: embedded image wherein R1 is hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are hydrogen or hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; (ii) monoalkoxylated quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image wherein R21 and R25 are independently hydrogen or hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R24 is hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R23 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, x is an average number from 1 to about 60, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion; (iii) quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image wherein R31, R33 and R34 are independently hydrogen or hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R32 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion; (iv) aminated alkoxylated alcohols having the formula: embedded image wherein R71 is hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R72 in each of the x7 (R72O) and y7 (R72O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; R73 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 30 carbon atoms; R74 and R75 are each independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, —(R76)n7—(R72O)y7R77, or R74 and R75, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a cyclic or heterocyclic ring; R76 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R77 is hydrogen or a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, n7 is 0 or 1, x7 and y7 are independently an average number from 1 to about 60; (v) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having the formula: embedded image wherein R81 and R83 are independently a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 4 to about 30 carbon atoms; R82 in each of the m (R82O) and the n (R82O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; and m and n are independently from 1 to about 30; (vi) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having the formula: embedded image wherein R91 is a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms; R92 in each of the a (R92O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; and a is from 1 to about 30; and (vii) alkylpolyglycosides having the formula:
[R101—(R104)q-(sug)uOH]v (11) where R101 is hydrogen or C1-18 hydrocarbyl, R104 is hydrogen or C1-4 hydrocarbyl, q is 0 or 1, sug is (i) an open or cyclic structure derived from sugars or (ii) a hydroxyalkyl, polyhydroxyalkyl or poly(hydroxyalkyl)alkyl group, u is an average number from 1 to about 2, and v is an integer from 1 to 3.

24. The composition of claim 22 wherein the auxin herbicide component comprises one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, dicamba and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof.

25. The composition of claim 22 wherein the auxin herbicide component comprises 2,4-D or an agriculturally acceptable salt thereof and the surfactant component comprises one or more surfactants selected from the group consisting of: (i) ether amines having the formula: embedded image wherein R41 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R42 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 30 carbon atoms; R43 and R44 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, or —(R45O)x4R46, R45 in each of the x4(R45—O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R46 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, and x4 is an average number from 1 to about 50; (ii) dialkoxylated amines having the formula: embedded image wherein R61 is a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 6 to about 30 carbon atoms, R62 in each of the x6 (R62O) and the y6 (R62O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R63 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms and x6 and y6 are independently an average number from 1 to about 40; and (iii) aminated alkoxylated alcohols having the formula: embedded image wherein R71 is hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R72 in each of the x7 (R72O) and y7 (R72O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; R73 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 30 carbon atoms; R74 and R75 are each independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, —(R76)n7—(R72O)y7R77, or R74 and R75, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a cyclic or heterocyclic ring; R76 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R77 is hydrogen or a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, n7 is 0 or 1, x7 and y7 are independently an average number from 1 to about 60.

26. The composition of claim 25 further comprising a second surfactant component comprising one or more surfactants selected from the group consisting of: (a) a secondary or tertiary amine having the formula: embedded image wherein R1 is hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are hydrogen or hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; (b) dialkoxylated quaternary ammonium salt having the formula: embedded image wherein R11 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R12 in each of the x (R12O) and y (R12O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R13 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, R14 hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, x and y are independently an average number from 1 to about 40, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion; (c) monoalkoxylated quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image wherein R21 and R25 are independently hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R24 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R23 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, x is an average number from 1 to about 60, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion; (d) quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image wherein R31, R33 and R34 are independently hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R32 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion; (e) amine oxides having the formula: embedded image wherein R51, R52 and R53 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, —(R54O)x5R55, or —R56(OR54)x5OR55, R54 in each of the x5 (R54O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R55 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R56 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, x5 is an average number from 1 to about 50, and the total number of carbon atoms in R51, R52 and R53 is at least 8; (f) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having the formula: embedded image wherein R81 and R83 are independently a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 4 to about 30 carbon atoms; R82 in each of the m (R82O) and the n (R82O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; and m and n are independently from 1 to about 30; (g) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having the formula: embedded image wherein R91 is a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms; R92 in each of the a (R92O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; and a is from 1 to about 30; (h) alkylpolyglycosides having the formula:
[R101—(R104)q-(sug)uOH]v (11) where R101 is hydrogen or C1-18 hydrocarbyl, R104 is hydrogen or C1-4 hydrocarbyl, q is 0 or 1, sug is (i) an open or cyclic structure derived from sugars or (ii) a hydroxyalkyl, polyhydroxyalkyl or poly(hydroxyalkyl)alkyl group, u is an average number from 1 to about 2, and v is an integer from 1 to 3; and (i) amines or quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image wherein R111 is linear or branched alkyl or aryl having from about 4 to about 16 carbon atoms, R112 is hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, or —(CH2CH2O)dH, R113 is hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, or —(CH2CH2O)eH wherein the sum of d and e is not more than about 5; R114 is hydrogen or methyl; R116 in each of the c (R116O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; R115 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms; and A- is an agriculturally acceptable anion.

27. The composition of claim 26 wherein the second surfactant component comprises said alkylpolyglycoside.

28. The composition of claim 22 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least about 5:1.

29. The composition of claim 22 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least about 30:1.

30. The composition of claim 22 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least about 60:1.

31. The composition of claim 22 wherein at least about 90 percent by weight of the glyphosate is present in the form of the potassium salt thereof.

32. The composition of claim 22 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 325 grams acid equivalent per liter.

33. The composition of claim 22 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 425 grams acid equivalent per liter.

34. The composition of claim 22 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 525 grams acid equivalent per liter.

35. The composition of claim 22 wherein total surfactant present in the composition is in an amount of at least about 5 wt. % based on the total weight of the composition.

36. The composition of claim 22 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the first surfactant component are present in a weight ratio of from about 1.9:1 to about 6:1.

37. The composition of claim 22 wherein the composition has a cloud point of at least about 50° C.

38. The composition of claim 22 wherein the composition has a crystallization point not higher than about 0° C.

39. The composition of claim 22 wherein the herbicide content consists of glyphosate or a herbicidal derivative thereof and the auxin herbicide component.

40. The composition of claim 22 wherein the composition further comprises an organic solvent, said composition containing not more than 10 weight percent of said organic solvent based on the total weight of the composition.

41. The composition of claim 26 wherein the first surfactant component and the second surfactant component are present in a weight ratio of from about 1:1 to about 6:1.

42. A method of killing or controlling weeds or unwanted vegetation comprising: diluting the composition of claim 22 in an amount of water to form an application mixture; and applying a herbicidally effective amount of the application mixture to foliage of the weeds or unwanted vegetation.

43. The method of claim 42 wherein the weeds or undesired plants comprise a dicot.

44. The method of claim 43 wherein the dicot comprises at least one broadleaf weed.

45. The method of claim 42 wherein the application mixture is applied to foliage of crop plants genetically transformed or selected to tolerate glyphosate and said weeds or said unwanted vegetation growing in close proximity to the crop plants to control the weeds or unwanted vegetation while leaving the crop plants substantially unharmed.

46. The method of claim 45 wherein the weeds or undesired plants comprise a dicot.

47. The method of claim 46 wherein the dicot comprises at least one broadleaf weed.

48. An aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition comprising: (a) glyphosate, predominantly in the form of the isopropylammonium salt thereof, in a concentration of greater than 360 grams acid equivalent per liter; (b) an auxin herbicide component comprising one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, dichlorprop, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quniclorac and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof; and (c) a surfactant component in solution or stable suspension, emulsion or dispersion, comprising one or more surfactants; wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 9.5:1 and the composition has a cloud point of at least about 50° C. and a crystallization point not higher than about 0° C.

49. The composition of claim 48 wherein the auxin herbicide component comprises one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, dicamba and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof.

50. The composition of claim 48 wherein the auxin herbicide component comprises 2,4-D or an agriculturally acceptable salt or ester thereof.

51. The composition of claim 48 wherein at least about 60 percent by weight of the glyphosate is present in the form of the isopropylammonium salt thereof.

52. The composition of claim 48 wherein at least about 75 percent by weight of the glyphosate is present in the form of the isopropylammonium salt thereof.

53. The composition of claim 48 wherein at least about 90 percent by weight of the glyphosate is present in the form of the isopropylammonium salt thereof.

54. The composition of claim 48 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 400 grams acid equivalent per liter.

55. The composition of claim 48 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 440 grams acid equivalent per liter.

56. The composition of claim 48 wherein the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 480 grams acid equivalent per liter.

57. The composition of claim 48 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 10:1.

58. The composition of claim 48 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 15:1.

59. The composition of claim 48 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 20:1.

60. The composition of claim 48 wherein the surfactant component is present in an amount of at least about 5 weight percent based on the total weight of the composition.

61. The composition of claim 48 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the surfactant component are present in a weight ratio of from about 1.9:1 to about 6:1.

62. The composition of claim 48 wherein the herbicide content consists of glyphosate or a herbicidal derivative thereof and the auxin herbicide component.

63. The composition of claim 48 wherein the composition further comprises an organic solvent, said composition containing not more than 10 weight percent of said organic solvent based on the total weight of the composition.

64. A method of killing or controlling weeds or unwanted vegetation comprising: diluting the composition of claim 48 in an amount of water to form an application mixture; and applying a herbicidally effective amount of the application mixture to foliage of the weeds or unwanted vegetation.

65. The method of claim 64 wherein the weeds or undesired plants comprise a dicot.

66. The method of claim 65 wherein the dicot comprises at least one broadleaf weed.

67. The method of claim 64 wherein the application mixture is applied to foliage of crop plants genetically transformed or selected to tolerate glyphosate and said weeds or said unwanted vegetation growing in close proximity to the crop plants to control the weeds or unwanted vegetation while leaving the crop plants substantially unharmed.

68. The method of claim 67 wherein the weeds or undesired plants comprise a dicot.

69. The method of claim 68 wherein the dicot comprises at least one broadleaf weed.

70. A method of killing or controlling weeds or unwanted plants comprising: diluting an aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition in an amount of water to form an application mixture; and applying a herbicidally effective amount of the application mixture to foliage of the weeds or unwanted plants, wherein the weeds or unwanted plants comprise Commelina and the aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition comprises: (a) glyphosate or a herbicidal derivative thereof; (b) an auxin herbicide component comprising one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, dichlorprop, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quniclorac and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof; and (c) a surfactant component in solution or stable suspension, emulsion or dispersion, comprising one or more surfactants.

71. The method of claim 70 wherein the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least about 5:1.

Description:

REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/552,065, filed Mar. 10, 2004, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND

The present invention relates generally to herbicidal compositions or formulations, and to methods of using such compositions to kill or control the growth and proliferation of unwanted plants. In particular, the present invention relates to herbicidal compositions, as well as their methods of use, which comprise N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate), or a herbicidal derivative thereof, and an auxin herbicide, or a herbicidal derivative thereof, optionally with one or more suitable surfactants. Such compositions cause early visual symptoms of treatment and/or enhanced effectiveness or control when applied to the foliage of plants.

Glyphosate is well known in the art as an effective post-emergent foliar-applied herbicide. In its acid form, glyphosate has a structure represented by the formula: embedded image
and is relatively insoluble in water (1.16% by weight at 25° C.). For this reason it is typically formulated as a water-soluble salt.

Among the water soluble salts of glyphosate is the potassium salt, having a structure represented by the formula: embedded image

in the ionic form predominantly present in aqueous solution at a pH of about 4. Glyphosate potassium salt has a molecular weight of 207. This salt is disclosed, for example, by Franz in U.S. Pat. No. 4,405,531, as one of the “alkali metal” salts of glyphosate useful as herbicides, with potassium being specifically disclosed as one of the alkali metals, along with lithium, sodium, cesium and rubidium. Example C discloses the preparation of the monopotassium salt by reacting the specified amounts of glyphosate acid and potassium carbonate in an aqueous medium.

Herbicidal compositions comprising the herbicide N-phosphonomethyl-glycine or derivatives thereof (“glyphosate”), are useful for suppressing the growth of, or killing, unwanted plants such as grasses, weeds and the like. Glyphosate typically is applied to the foliage of the target plant. After application the glyphosate is absorbed by the foliar tissue of the plant and translocated throughout the plant. Glyphosate noncompetitively blocks an important biochemical pathway which is common to virtually all plants, but which is absent in animals. Although glyphosate is very effective in killing or controlling the growth of unwanted plants, the uptake (i.e., absorption) of glyphosate by the plant foliar tissue and translocation of glyphosate throughout the plant is relatively slow. Visual symptoms that a plant has been treated with glyphosate may not appear until one week or more after treatment.

There is a continuing need for herbicidal compositions which exhibit long-term control of unwanted plants and exhibit early visual symptoms of treatment. These compositions would be well suited to applications in cooler temperatures wherein the early visual symptoms may be readily seen while the long-term control would improve as temperatures increase.

As will be clear from the disclosure that follows, these and other benefits are provided by the present invention.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides herbicidal compositions comprising glyphosate or a herbicidal derivative thereof, an auxin herbicide or a herbicidal derivative thereof, and at least one surfactant. The present invention also provides methods for killing or controlling the growth of plants by contacting the foliage of the plants with the diluted concentrate composition.

One embodiment of the present invention is directed to an aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition comprising glyphosate or a herbicidal derivative thereof, an auxin comprising one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, dichlorprop, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quniclorac and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof and a surfactant component in solution or stable suspension, emulsion or dispersion, comprising one or more surfactants. The glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the auxin herbicide (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 32:1 and the composition has a cloud point of at least about 50° C. and a crystallization point not higher than about 0° C.

Another embodiment of the present invention is directed to an aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition comprising glyphosate, predominantly in the form of the potassium salt thereof in a concentration of at least 65 grams acid equivalent per liter, and an auxin herbicide comprising one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, dichlorprop, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quniclorac and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof. The herbicidal concentrate composition further comprises a first surfactant component in solution or stable suspension, emulsion or dispersion comprising one or more surfactants selected from the group consisting of secondary or tertiary amines, dialkoxylated quaternary ammonium salts, monoalkoxylated quaternary ammonium salts, quaternary ammonium salts, ether amines, amine oxides, dialkoxylated amines, aminated alkoxylated alcohols, alkyl alkoxylated phosphates and alkylpolyglycosides.

Yet another embodiment of the present invention is directed to an aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition comprising glyphosate, predominantly in the form of the isopropylammonium salt thereof in a concentration of greater than 360 grams acid equivalent per liter, an auxin herbicide component comprising one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, dichlorprop, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quniclorac and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof, and a surfactant component in solution or stable suspension, emulsion or dispersion, comprising one or more surfactants. The glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) and the auxin herbicide component (acid equivalent basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 9.5:1 and the composition has a cloud point of at least about 50° C. and a crystallization point not higher than about 0° C.

Another embodiment of the present invention is directed to a method of killing or controlling weeds or unwanted plants comprising diluting an aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition in an amount of water to form an application mixture and applying a herbicidally effective amount of the application mixture to foliage of the weeds or unwanted plants, wherein the weeds or unwanted plants comprise Commelina and the aqueous herbicidal concentrate composition comprises glyphosate or a herbicidal derivative thereof, an auxin herbicide component comprising one or more auxin herbicides selected from the group consisting of 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, dichlorprop, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quniclorac and agriculturally acceptable salts or esters thereof, and a surfactant component in solution or stable suspension, emulsion or dispersion, comprising one or more surfactants.

Other objects and features of the present invention will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

According to the present invention, herbicidal compositions containing glyphosate or a derivative thereof, an auxin herbicide or a derivative thereof, and a suitable surfactant, are provided that are advantageous for a number of reasons, including early visual symptoms of plant treatment, rapid uptake by the target plant, and control of a broad spectrum of plant species, as well as enhanced, more consistent control of unwanted plants. Although use of reduced application rates is not preferred, in at least some embodiments, lower application rates may be used without a significant loss of effectiveness of plant control.

Among the various aspects of the present invention is an aqueous herbicidal composition of N-phosphonomethyl glycine (glyphosate), predominantly in the form of the potassium salt thereof, and an auxin herbicide. The word “predominantly” in the above context means that at least about 50%, preferably at least about 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 or about 95%, by weight of the glyphosate, expressed as a.e., is present as the potassium salt. Other salts of glyphosate which can make up the balance of the glyphosate component are agriculturally acceptable salts including the isopropylamine, di-ammonium, ammonium, sodium, monoethanolamine, n-propylamine, methylamine, ethylamine, hexamethylenediamine, dimethylamine or trimethylsulfonium salts. The second salt ion should be chosen so as not to adversely affect the viscosity, cloud point, non-crystallization and other stability properties of the composition.

Another aspect of the present invention is an aqueous herbicidal composition of N-phosphonomethyl glycine (glyphosate), predominantly in the form of the isopropylamine salt thereof, and an auxin herbicide. Other salts of glyphosate which can make up the balance of the glyphosate component are agriculturally acceptable salts including the di-ammonium, ammonium, sodium, potassium, monoethanolamine, n-propylamine, methylamine, ethylamine, hexamethylenediamine, dimethylamine or trimethylsulfonium salts.

The auxin herbicide is selected from the group consisting of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (2,4-DB), dichloroprop, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB), mecoprop, dicamba, picloram, quinclorac, agriculturally acceptable salts or esters of any of these herbicides, and mixtures thereof. In one embodiment, preferably, the auxin herbicide is selected from the group consisting of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), dicamba, salts or esters thereof, and mixtures thereof. Generally, the primary action of auxin herbicides appears to involve cell wall plasticity and nucleic acid metabolism. 2,4-D is thought to acidify the cell wall by stimulating the activity of a membrane-bound ATPase-driven proton pump. The reduction in apoplasmic pH induces cell elongation by increasing the activity of certain enzymes responsible for cell wall loosening. Low concentrations of 2,4-D are reported to stimulate RNA polymerase, resulting in subsequent increases in RNA, DNA, and protein biosynthesis. Abnormal increases in these processes presumably lead to uncontrolled cell division and growth, which results in vascular tissue destruction. In contrast, high concentrations of 2,4-D and other auxin-type herbicides inhibit cell division and growth, usually in meristematic regions that accumulate photosynthate assimilates and herbicide from the phloem.

In another embodiment, preferably, the auxin herbicide is at least 1% soluble by weight in water at pH 6. The auxin herbicide can be present in the composition in the form of its acid, an agriculturally acceptable salt (e.g., isopropylamine, di-ammonium, ammonium, sodium, monoethanolamine, n-propylamine, methylamine, ethylamine, hexamethylenediamine, dimethylamine or trimethylsulfonium), or an agriculturally acceptable ester (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, octyl, ethoxyethyl, butoxyethyl or methoxypropyl). The salt or ester ion of the auxin herbicide should be chosen to not affect the viscosity, cloud point, non-crystallization and other stability properties of the composition.

In another aspect of the present invention, the glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions may contain 5 g a.e./L (grams acid equivalent per liter) to 600 g glyphosate a.e./L, preferably from 65 to about 600, from about 75 to about 600, from about 100 to about 600, from about 150 to about 600, from about 200 to about 600, from about 250 to about 600, from about 300 to about 600, from about 350 to about 600, from about 400 to about 600, from about 450 to about 600, or from about 480 to about 600 g glyphosate a.e./L. In this context, generally, the weight ratio of the glyphosate (acid equivalent basis) to the auxin herbicide (acid equivalent basis) varies depending on the activity of the auxin herbicide which is generally determined using the standard use rates. A person skilled in the art would know that a higher standard use rate indicates a lower activity and thus more of the auxin herbicide should be used to achieve acceptable results. With this relationship in mind, in one embodiment, typically, the weight ratio of glyphosate to 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, MCPA, or MCPB is about 10:1 to about 100:1. In another embodiment, typically, the weight ratio of glyphosate to mecoprop is about 10:1 to about 50:1. In yet another embodiment, typically, the weight ratio of glyphosate to dicamba, or picloram is about 20:1 to about 200:1. In a further embodiment, preferably, the weight ratio of glyphosate to 2,4-D is about 20:1 to about 100:1; more preferably, about 20:1 to about 50:1; particularly, about 25:1 to about 50:1. In yet a further embodiment, preferably, the weight ratio of glyphosate to dicamba is about 40:1 to about 200:1; more preferably, about 40:1 to about 100:1; particularly, about 50:1 to about 100:1.

In another embodiment of the invention, the glyphosate in the glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions is present in an amount of at least about 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300, 325, 350, 375, 400, 425, 450, 475, 480, 500, 525, 550, 575, 580 or 600 g a.e./L.

In another embodiment, the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in compositions of the invention in a weight ratio of at least 33:1, 34:1, 35:1, 36:1, 37:1, 38:1, 39:1, 40:1, 45:1, 50:1, 55:1, 60:1, 65:1, 70:1, 75:1, 80:1, 85:1, 90:1, 95:1, 100:1, 110:1, 120:1, 130:1, 140:1, 150:1, 160:1, 170:1, 180:1, 190:1 or 200:1. In another embodiment, the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in a weight ratio of from about 40:1 to about 200:1, from about 50:1 to about 200:1, from about 60:1 to about 200:1, from about 50:1 to about 150:1, from about 50:1 to about 100:1 or from 32:1 to about 50:1.

In another embodiment, the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in compositions of the invention in a weight ratio of at least about 5:1, 6:1, 7:1, 8:1, 9:1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1, 25:1, 30:1, 35:1, 40:1, 45:1, 50:1, 55:1, 60:1, 65:1, 70:1, 75:1, 80:1, 85:1, 90:1, 95:1, 100:1, 110:1, 120:1, 130:1, 140:1, 150:1, 160:1, 170:1, 180:1, 190:1 or 200:1. Preferably, the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least 65 g a.e./L. In one embodiment, the glyphosate concentration is between 360 and 445 g a.e./L, and the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in a weight ratio of about 5:1 to about 50:1, about 5:1 to about 40:1, or about 8:1 to about 36:1. In a second embodiment, the glyphosate concentration is between 445 and 480 g a.e./L, and the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in a weight ratio of about 41:1, 42:1, 43:1, 44:1, 45:1, 46:1, 47:1, 48:1, 49:1, 50:1, 51:1, 52:1, 53:1, 54:1, 55:1, 56:1, 57:1, 58:1, 59:1, 60:1, 61:1, 62:1, 63:1, 64:1, or 65:1. In a third embodiment, the glyphosate concentration is between 360 and 525 g a.e./L, and the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in a weight ratio of about 8:1 to about 80:1 or about 25:1 to about 56:1. In a fourth embodiment, the glyphosate concentration is at least 480 g a.e./L, and the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in a weight ratio of about 25:1 to about 80:1, about 50:1 to about 80:1, about 63:1 to about 80:1, or about 25:1 to about 52:1.

The selection of application rates that are herbicidally effective for a composition of the invention is within the skill of the ordinary agricultural scientist. Those of skill in the art will likewise recognize that individual plant conditions, weather and growing conditions, as well as the specific active ingredients and their weight ratio in the composition, will influence the degree of herbicidal effectiveness achieved in practicing this invention. Typical application rates of the glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions of the present invention can be determined from the label of each commercially available herbicide for a particular weed species. In general, the application rate of glyphosate is about 340 grams per acre. A person skilled in the art would understand that when the weed growth is heavy or dense or where weeds are growing in an undisturbed area, a higher application rate may be necessary to achieve acceptable weed control. In addition, for difficult-to-control weeds, a higher application rate may be necessary for adequate weed control.

The potassium glyphosate and auxin herbicide composition of the present invention is useful in controlling a variety of broadleaf weeds. These weeds include Velvetleaf, Redroot Pigweed, Pigweed Species, Tall Waterhemp, Giant Ragweed, Indian Mustard, Sicklepod, Lambsquarters, Wild Poinsettia, Common Mallow, Hemp Sesbania, Prickly Sida, Wild Mustard, Morningglory (Brazil), Morningglory, Ivyleaf Morninglory, Pitted Morningglory, Buckwheat, Cutleaf Evening Primrose, Curly Dock, Common Chickweed, Common Dayflower and Tropical Spiderwort.

Also provided by the present invention is a method of killing or controlling weeds or unwanted vegetation comprising diluting with a suitable volume of water a herbicidally effective amount of a composition as provided herein to form an application mixture, and applying the application mixture to foliage of the weeds or unwanted vegetation. If desired, the user can mix one or more adjuvants with a composition of the invention and the water of dilution when preparing the application composition. Such adjuvants can include additional surfactant and/or an inorganic salt such as ammonium sulfate with the aim of further enhancing herbicidal efficacy. However, under most conditions a herbicidal method of use of the present invention gives acceptable efficacy in the absence of such adjuvants.

In a particular contemplated method of use of a composition of the invention, the composition, following dilution in water, is applied to foliage of crop plants genetically transformed or selected to tolerate glyphosate, and simultaneously to foliage of weeds or undesired plants growing in close proximity to such crop plants. This method of use results in control of the weeds or undesired plants while leaving the crop plants substantially unharmed. Crop plants genetically transformed or selected to tolerate glyphosate include those whose seeds are sold by Monsanto Company or under license from Monsanto Company bearing the Roundup Ready®. These include varieties of wheat, turfgrass, and corn.

Plant treatment compositions can be prepared simply by diluting a concentrate composition of the invention in water. Application of plant treatment compositions to foliage is preferably accomplished by spraying, using any conventional means for spraying liquids, such as spray nozzles, atomizers or the like. Compositions of the invention can be used in precision farming techniques, in which apparatus is employed to vary the amount of pesticide applied to different parts of a field, depending on variables such as the particular plant species present, soil composition, etc. In one embodiment of such techniques, a global positioning system operated with the spraying apparatus can be used to apply the desired amount of the composition to different parts of a field.

A plant treatment composition is preferably dilute enough to be readily sprayed using standard agricultural spray equipment. Useful spray volumes for the present invention can range from about 10 to about 1000 liters per hectare (I/ha) or higher, by spray application.

High Load

In a further embodiment, the glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions may contain about 300 to about 600 g a.e./L of glyphosate, predominantly in the form of the potassium salt thereof. For these compositions, the balance of the glyphosate component is made up of agriculturally acceptable salts including the isopropylamine, monoethanolamine, n-propylamine, methylamine, ethylamine, ammonium, diammonium, hexamethylenediamine, dimethylamine or trimethylsulfonium salts. In another embodiment, preferably, the glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions may contain about 450 to about 600 g a.e./L of glyphosate, predominantly in the form of the potassium salt thereof. In general, as the concentration of glyphosate is increased in the composition, the concentration of the auxin herbicide may be decreased to achieve acceptable weed control. Typically, for potassium glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions containing about 450 to about 600 g a.e./L of glyphosate, the weight ratio of the glyphosate to the auxin herbicide is about 25:1 to about 100:1. In particular, for potassium glyphosate and 2,4-D compositions containing about 540 to about 600 g a.e./L of glyphosate, the weight ratio of the glyphosate to 2,4-D is about 25:1 to about 50:1.

In another embodiment, the glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions may contain about 360 to about 600 g a.e./L of glyphosate, predominantly in the form of the isopropylamine salt thereof. For these compositions, the balance of the glyphosate component is made up of agriculturally acceptable salts including the monoethanolamine, n-propylamine, methylamine, ethylamine, ammonium, diammonium, potassium, hexamethylenediamine, dimethylamine or trimethylsulfonium salts. In another embodiment, preferably, the glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions may contain about 360 to about 450 g a.e./L of glyphosate, predominantly in the form of the isopropylamine salt thereof. In general, as the concentration of glyphosate is increased in the composition, the concentration of the auxin herbicide may be decreased to achieve acceptable weed control. Typically, for isopropylamine glyphosate and auxin herbicide compositions containing about 360 to about 450 g a.e./L of glyphosate, the weight ratio of the glyphosate to the auxin herbicide is about 10:1 to about 20:1. In one embodiment, the glyphosate is present in an amount of at least about 370, 380, 390, 400, 410, 420, 430, 440, 450, 475, 480, 500, 525, 550, 575, 580 or 600 g a.e./L, and the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 9.5:1, 9.6:1, 9.7:1, 9.8:1, 9.9:1, 10:1, 11:1, 12:1, 13:1, 14:1, 15:1, 16:1, 17:1, 18:1, 19:1, or 20:1. In a second embodiment, the glyphosate is present in an amount of from about 400 to about 600, from about 420 to about 600, from about 430 to about 600, from about 440 to about 600, from about 450 to about 600, or from about 480 to about 600 g a.e./L, and the glyphosate (a.e. basis) and auxin herbicide component (a.e. basis) are present in a weight ratio of at least 9.5:1, 9.6:1, 9.7:1, 9.8:1, 9.9:1, 10:1, 11:1, 12:1, 13:1, 14:1, 15:1, 16:1, 17:1, 18:1, 19:1, or 20:1.

Surfactants

Surfactants and cosurfactants effective in formulating glyphosate, such as potassium or isopropylamine glyphosate, with auxin herbicides include cationic, nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants and cosurfactants as described below and mixtures thereof, wherein the surfactant component is present in an amount of at least about 5 wt. % based on the total weight of the composition.

Cationic surfactants and cosurfactants effective in such glyphosate formulations include:

    • (a) a secondary or tertiary amine having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R1 is hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are hydrogen or hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms. In this context, preferred R1, R2, and R3 hydrocarbyl groups are linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl groups. Preferably, R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are independently hydrogen or a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms. More preferably, R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or alkenyl group having from about 12 to about 22 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are independently hydrogen, methyl or ethyl. In one embodiment of the amine of formula (1), R1 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 12 to about 22 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are independently linear or branched hydroxyalkyl groups having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms.
    • (b) dialkoxylated quaternary ammonium salt having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R11 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R12 in each of the x (R12O) and y (R12O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R13 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, R14 hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, x and y are independently an average number from 1 to about 40, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion. In this context, preferred R11 and R14 hydrocarbyl groups are linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl groups. Preferably, R11 and R14 are independently a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from 1 to about 25 carbon atoms, R12 in each of the x (R12O) and y (R12O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R13 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl, and the sum of x and y is an average number from about 2 to about 30. More preferably, R11 and R14 are independently a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 22 carbon atoms, R12 in each of the x (R12O) and y (R12O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R13 is hydrogen or methyl, and the sum of x and y is an average number from about 2 to about 20. Even more preferably, R11 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms and R14 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 22 carbon atoms, R12 in each of the x (R12O) and y (R12O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R13 is hydrogen or methyl, and x is an average number from about 2 to about 20. Most preferably, R11 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms and R14 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms, R12 in each of the x (R12O) and y (R12O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R13 is hydrogen or methyl, and x is an average number from about 2 to about 15, or R11 and R14 are independently a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms, R12 in each of the x (R12O) and y (R12O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R13 is hydrogen or methyl, and x is an average number from about 5 to about 15. Preferred dialkoxylated quaternary ammonium surfactants include Ethoquad™ C12 (a PEG 2 coco methyl ammonium chloride from Akzo Nobel), PEG 5 coco methyl ammonium chloride, PEG 5 tallow methyl ammonium chloride, PEG 5 ditallow ammonium bromide, and PEG 10 ditallow ammonium bromide.
    • (c) monoalkoxylated quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R21 and R25 are independently hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R24 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R23 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, x2 is an average number from 1 to about 60, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion. In this context, preferred R21, R24, and R25 hydrocarbyl groups are linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl groups. Preferably, R21, R24 and R25 are independently a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from 1 to about 25 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R23 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl, and x2 is an average number from 1 to about 40. More preferably, R21, R24 and R25 are independently a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 22 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R23 is hydrogen or methyl, and x2 is an average number from 1 to about 30. Even more preferably, R21 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R23 is hydrogen or methyl, R24 and R25 are independently a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 22 carbon atoms, and x2 is an average number from 1 to about 30. Even more preferably, R21 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R23 is hydrogen or methyl, R24 and R25 are independently a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms, and x2 is an average number from about 5 to about 25. Most preferably, R21 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 16 to about 22 carbon atoms, R22 in each of the x2 (R22O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R23 is hydrogen or methyl, R24 and R25 are independently a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 3 carbon atoms, and x2 is an average number from about 5 to about 25. Preferred monoalkoxylated quaternary ammonium surfactants include PEG 7 C18 dimethyl ammonium chloride and PEG 22 C18 dimethyl ammonium chloride.
    • (d) quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R31, R33 and R34 are independently hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R32 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, and Xis an agriculturally acceptable anion. In this context, preferred R31, R32, R33, and R34 hydrocarbyl groups are linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl groups. Preferably, R31 is a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms, and R32, R33 and R34 are independently a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms. More preferably, R31 is a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms, and R32, R33 and R34 are independently a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms. Even more preferably, R31 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 16 carbon atoms, and R32, R33 and R34 are independently a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms. Most preferably, R31 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 14 carbon atoms, and R32, R33 and R34 are methyl. Preferred commercially available quaternary ammonium surfactants include Arquad™ C-50 (a dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride from Akzo Nobel) and Arquad™ T-50 (a tallow trimethyl ammonium chloride from Akzo Nobel).
    • (e) ether amines having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R41 is hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R42 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 30 carbon atoms; R43 and R44 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, or —(R45O)x4R46, R45 in each of the x4(R45—O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R46 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, and x4 is an average number from 1 to about 50. In this context, preferred R41, R42, R43, and R44 hydrocarbyl (hydrocarbylene) groups are linear or branched alkyl (alkylene), linear or branched alkenyl (alkenylene), linear or branched alkynyl (alkynylene), aryl (arylene), or aralkyl (aralkylene) groups. Preferably, R41 is a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from 8 to about 25 carbon atoms, R42 is a linear or branched alkylene or alkenylene group having from 2 to about 30 carbon atoms, R43 and R44 are independently hydrogen, a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, or —(R45O)x4R46, R45 in each of the x4 (R45O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R46 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl, and x4 is an average number from 1 to about 30. More preferably, R41 is a linear or branched alkyl or alkenyl group having from 8 to about 22 carbon atoms, R42 is a linear or branched alkylene or alkenylene group having from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, R43 and R44 are independently hydrogen, a linear or branched alkyl or alkenyl group having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms, or —(R45O)x4R46, R45 in each of the x4 (R45O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R46 is hydrogen or methyl, and x4is an average number from 1 to about 15. Most preferably, R41 is a linear or branched alkyl or alkenyl group having from 8 to about 18 carbon atoms, R42 is ethylene or propylene, R3 and R4 are independently hydrogen, methyl, or —(R45O)x4R46, R45 in each of the x4 (R45O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R46 is hydrogen, and x4 is an average number from 1 to about 5.
    • (f) amine oxides having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R51, R52 and R53 are independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl, —(R54O)x5R55, or —R56(OR54)x5OR55, R54 in each of the x5 (R54O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R55 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, R56 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, x5 is an average number from 1 to about 50, and the total number of carbon atoms in R51, R52 and R53 is at least 8. In this context, preferred R51, R52, R53, and R56 hydrocarbyl (hydrocarbylene) groups are linear or branched alkyl (alkylene), linear or branched alkenyl (alkenylene), linear or branched alkynyl (alkynylene), aryl (arylene), or aralkyl (aralkylene) groups. Preferably, R51 and R52 are independently hydrogen, a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, or —(R54O)x5R55, R53 is a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms, R54 in each of the x5 (R54O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; R55 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl, and x5is an average number from 1 to about 30. More preferably, R51 and R52 are independently hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms, and R53 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms; or R51 and R52 are independently —(R54O)x5R55, R53 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms, R54 in each of the x5 (R54O) groups is ethylene or propylene, R55 is hydrogen or methyl, and x5 is an average number from 1 to about 10. Most preferably, R51 and R52 are independently methyl, and R53 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms; or R51 and R52 are independently —(R54O)x5R55, R53 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms, R54 in each of the x5 (R54O) groups is ethylene or propylene, R55 is hydrogen, and x5 is an average number from 1 to about 5. Commercially available amine oxide surfactants include Chemoxide L70.
    • (g) dialkoxylated amines having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R61 is a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 6 to about 30 carbon atoms, R62 in each of the x6 (R62O) and the y6 (R62O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R63 is hydrogen, or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms and x6 and y6 are independently an average number from 1 to about 40. Preferably, R61 is a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms, R62 in each of the x6 (R62O) and the y6 (R62O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R63 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl, and x6 and y6 are independently an average number from 1 to about 20. More preferably, R61 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 25 carbon atoms, R62 in each of the x6 (R62O) and the y6 (R62O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R63 is hydrogen or methyl, and x and y are independently an average number from 1 to about 10. Even more preferably, R61 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 22 carbon atoms, R62 in each of the x6 (R62O) and the y6 (R62O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R63 is hydrogen or methyl, and x6 and y6 are independently an average number from 1 to about 5. Preferred commercially available dialkoxylated amines include Trymeen™ 6617 (from Cognis), Ethomeen™ C/12, C/15, C/20, C/25, T/12, T/15, T/20 and T/25 (from Akzo Nobel), and Genamin™ T-200 DG and T-200 NF (from Clariant).
    • (h) aminated alkoxylated alcohols having the following chemical structure: embedded image
      wherein R71 is hydrogen or hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R72 in each of the x7 (R72O) and y7 (R72O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; R73 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 30 carbon atoms; R74 and R75 are each independently hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms, —(R76)n7—(R72O)y7R77, or R74 and R75, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a cyclic or heterocyclic ring; R76 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 1 to about 30 carbon atoms; R77 is hydrogen or a linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to about 4 carbon atoms, n7 is 0 or 1, x7 and y7 are independently an average number from 1 to about 60. In this context, preferred R71, R73, R74, R75, and R76 hydrocarbyl (hydrocarbylene) groups are linear or branched alkyl (alkylene), linear or branched alkenyl (alkenylene), linear or branched alkynyl (alkynylene), aryl (arylene), or aralkyl (aralkylene) groups. Preferably, R71 is a linear or branched alkyl or linear or branched alkenyl group having from about 8 to about 25 carbon atoms, R72 in each of the x7 (R72O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene, R73 is a linear or branched alkylene group having from 2 to about 20 carbon atoms, R74 and R75 are each independently hydrogen or a linear or branched alkyl group having from 1 to about 6 carbon atoms, and x7 is an average number from 1 to about 30. More preferably, R71 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 12 to about 22 carbon atoms, R72 in each of the x7 (R72O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R73 is a linear or branched alkylene group having from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, R74 and R75 are each independently hydrogen, methyl, or tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl, and x7 is an average number from about 2 to about 30. Even more preferably, R71 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 12 to about 18 carbon atoms, R72 in each of the x7 (R72O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R73 is ethylene or propylene, R74 and R75 are each independently hydrogen, methyl or tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl, and x7 is an average number from about 4 to about 20. Most preferably, R71 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 12 to about 18 carbon atoms, R72 in each of the x7 (R72O) groups is independently ethylene or propylene, R73 is ethylene, R74 and R75 are methyl, and x7 is an average number from about 4 to about 20. Preferred monoalkoxylated amines include PEG 13 or 18 C14-15 ether propylamines and PEG 7, 10, 15 or 20 C16-18 ether propylamines (from Tomah) and PEG 13 or 18 C14-15 ether dimethyl propylamines and PEG 10, 15 or 20 or 25 C16-18 ether dimethyl propylamines (from Tomah) and Surfonic™ AGM-550 from Huntsman.

Preferred anionic surfactants effective in forming potassium glyphosate formulations include:

    • (i) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R81 and R83 are independently a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 4 to about 30 carbon atoms; R82 in each of the m (R82O) and the n (R82O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; and m and n are independently from 1 to about 30.
    • (j) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R91 is a linear or branched alkyl, linear or branched alkenyl, linear or branched alkynyl, aryl, or aralkyl group having from about 8 to about 30 carbon atoms; R92 in each of the a (R92O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; and a is from 1 to about 30. Representative alkyl alkoxylated phosphates include oleth-10 phosphate, oleth-20 phosphate and oleth-25 phosphate.

In addition, nonionic surfactants or cosurfactants effective in such glyphosate formulations include:

    • (k) alkylpolyglycoside surfactants having the formula:
      [R101—(R104)q-(sug)uOH]v (11)
      where R101 is hydrogen or C1-18 hydrocarbyl, R104 is hydrogen or C1-4 hydrocarbyl, q is 0 or 1, sug is (i) an open or cyclic structure derived from sugars, such as, for example, glucose or sucrose (referred to herein as a sugar unit), or (ii) a hydroxyalkyl, polyhydroxyalkyl or poly(hydroxyalkyl)alkyl group, u is an average number from 1 to about 2, and v is an integer from 1 to 3. This group includes several commercial surfactants collectively known in the art or referred to herein as “alkyl polyglucosides” or “APGs”. Suitable examples are sold by Henkel as Agrimul™ PG-2069, Agrimul™ PG-2076 and Agrimul™ PG-2067.
    • (l) polysiloxane surfactants having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R1 is —CnH2nO(CH2CH2O)m(CH2CH(CH3)O)qX, n is 0 to 6, a is 0 to about 100, b is 0 to about 10, m is 0 to about 30, q is 0 to about 30, X is hydrogen or a C1-20 hydrocarbyl or C2-6 acyl group, and R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10 groups are independently substituted or unsubstituted C1-20 hydrocarbyl or nitrogen containing groups. Generally, in preferred embodiments, n is 0 to 6, a is 1 to about 30, b is 0 to about 10, m is 0 to about 30, q is 0 to about 3, X is hydrogen or a C1-6 hydrocarbyl or C2-6 acyl group, and R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10 groups are independently substituted or unsubstituted C1-4 hydrocarbyl or nitrogen containing groups. In one preferred embodiment, the polysiloxane is a polyoxyethylene heptamethyl trisiloxane wherein R1 is —CnH2nO(CH2CH2O)m(CH2CH(CH3)O)qX, n is 3 or 4, a is 1, b is 0, m is 1 to about 30, q is 0, X is hydrogen or a methyl, ethyl or acetyl group, and R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, R10 groups are independently substituted or unsubstituted C1-4 hydrocarbyl or nitrogen containing groups. In another preferred embodiment, a is 1 to 5, b is 0 to 10, n is 3 or 4, m is 1 to about 30, q is 0, X is hydrogen or a methyl, ethyl or acetyl group, and R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, and R10 are methyl groups. In another preferred embodiment, a is 1 to 5, b is 0 to 10, n is 3 or 4, m is 4 to 12, q is 0, X is hydrogen or a methyl or acetyl group, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, Rg, and R10 are methyl groups. In a more preferred embodiment, a is 1, b is 0, n is 3 or 4, m is 1 to about 30, b is 0, X is hydrogen or a methyl, ethyl or acetyl group, and R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, and R10 are methyl groups. In a further preferred embodiment, a is 1, b is 0, n is 3, m is 8, b is 0, X is methyl and R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8, R9, and R10 are methyl groups. Trisiloxanes of the above formula are generally described in product literature of Crompton Corporation and in U.S. Pat. No. 3,505,377. Several of such trisiloxanes are ethoxylated organosilicone wetting agents available from Crompton Corporation as Silwet® silicone glycol copolymers. Both liquid organosilicones and dry organosilicones can be used in the surfactant composition; both are included within the scope of the invention. More preferred trisiloxanes are those sold commercially in the United States or elsewhere by Crompton Corporation as Silwet® L-77, Silwet® 408 and Silwet® 800, by Dow-Corning as Sylgard® 309, by Exacto, Inc., as Qwikwet® 100, and by Goldschmidt as Breakthru S-240. In the most preferred polyoxyethylene heptamethyl trisiloxanes, R2 is hydrogen.

Additionally, it has been found that the addition of a C4 to C16 alkyl or aryl amine compound, or the corresponding quaternary ammonium compound, greatly enhances the compatibility of certain glyphosate salts (e.g., potassium or isopropylamine) with surfactants that otherwise exhibit low or marginal compatibility at a given glyphosate loading. Suitable alkyl or aryl amine compounds may also contain 0 to about 5 EO groups. Preferred alkylamine compounds include C6 to C12 alkylamines having 0 to 2 EO groups. Similarly, etheramine compounds having 4 to 12 carbons and 0 to about 5 EO groups, as well as the corresponding quaternary ammonium compounds, also enhance the compatibility of such formulations. In one embodiment, the compounds which enhance the compatibility of such surfactants include:

    • (m) amines or quaternary ammonium salts having the formula: embedded image
      wherein R111 is linear or branched alkyl or aryl having from about 4 to about 16 carbon atoms, R112 is hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, or —(CH2CH2O)dH, R113 is hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, or —(CH2CH2O)eH wherein the sum of d and e is not more than about 5; R114 is hydrogen or methyl; R116 in each of the c (R116O) groups is independently C2-C4 alkylene; R115 is hydrocarbylene or substituted hydrocarbylene having from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms; and A- is an agriculturally acceptable anion.

In aqueous concentrated formulations of the present invention, the ratio (by weight) of the glyphosate a.e. to the surfactant is typically in the range of from about 1:1 to about 20:1, preferably from about 2:1 to about 10:1, more preferably from about 2:1 to about 8:1, still more preferably from about 2:1 to about 6:1, still more preferably from about 3:1 to about 6:1, and still more preferably about 4.5:1 to 6:1.

In another embodiment, preferably, the surfactant of the compositions of the invention comprises a first surfactant component which includes one or more surfactants selected from the group consisting of:

(a) ether amines having formula (5) described above in paragraph (e);

(b) dialkoxylated amines having formula (7) described above in paragraph (g); and

(c) aminated alkoxylated alcohols having formula (8) described above in paragraph (h). The most preferred surfactants are those which provide a cloud point greater than about 60° C. in a composition having a glyphosate loading of at least about 480 g a.e./l.

In a further embodiment, preferably, the surfactant of the compositions of the invention comprises a first surfactant component as described in detail above and additionally a second surfactant component which includes one or more surfactant(s) selected from the group consisting of:

(a) secondary or tertiary amines having formula (1) described above in paragraph (a);

(b) dialkoxylated quaternary ammonium salts having formula (2) described above in paragraph (b);

(c) monoalkoxylated quaternary ammonium salts having formula (3) described above in paragraph (c);

(d) quaternary ammonium salts having formula (4) described above in paragraph (d);

(e) amine oxides having formula (6) described above in paragraph (e);

(f) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having formula (9) described above in paragraph (i);

(g) alkyl alkoxylated phosphates having formula (10) described above in paragraph (j);

(h) alkylpolyglycosides having formula (11) described above in paragraph (k); and

(i) amines or quaternary ammonium salts having formulae (12)-(15) described above in paragraph (l).

In yet another embodiment, more preferably, the second surfactant component is selected from the group consisting of:

(a) alkylpolyglycosides having formula (11) described above in paragraph (k); and

(b) amines or quaternary ammonium salts having formulae (12)-(15) described above in paragraph (l).

In an embodiment of the invention, the density of the formulation of the invention is preferably at least 1.210 grams/liter, more preferably at least about 1.215, 1.220, 1.225, 1.230, 1.235, 1.240, 1.245, 1.250, 1.255, 1.260, 1.265, 1.270, 1.275, 1.280, 1.285, 1.290, 1.295, 1.300, 1.305, 1.310, 1.315, 1.320, 1.325, 1.330, 1.335, 1.340, 1.345, 1.350, 1.355, 1.360, 1.365, 1.370, 1.375, 1.380, 1.385, 1.390, 1.395, 1.400, 1.405, 1.410, 1.415, 1.420, 1.425, 1.430, 1.435, 1.440, 1.445, or 1.450 grams/liter.

As further discussed herein, other additives, adjuvants, or ingredients may be introduced into the formulations of the present invention to improve certain properties of the resulting formulations. Although the formulations of the present invention generally show good overall stability and viscosity properties without the addition of any further additives, the addition of a solubilizer (also commonly referred to as a cloud point enhancer or stabilizer) can significantly improve the properties of the formulations of the present invention. Suitable solubilizers for use with the novel formulations of the present invention include, for example, cocoamine (Armeen C), dimethylcocoamine (Arquad DMCD), cocoammonium chloride (Arquad C), PEG 2 cocoamine (Ethomeen C12), PEG 5 tallowamine (Ethomeen T15), and PEG 5 cocoamine (Ethomeen C15), all of which are manufactured by Akzo Nobel (California). Additional excipient ingredients may include conventional formulation additives such as dyes, thickeners, crystallization inhibitors, antifreeze agents (e.g., glycols, such as ethylene glycol, or polyethylene glycols such as polyethylene glycol 200, 400, 600, 1500, 4000 or 6000), foam moderating agents (e.g., Antifoam™ or Y-14088 Antifoam™, both available from Crompton Corporation), antidrift agents, compatibilizing agents, antioxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid and sodium sulfite, in order for example to prevent the formation of a nitrosamine), other co-solvents (e.g., N-methylpyrrolidone, DMSO, DMF, propylene carbonate, or ethylene glycol), or some other agent added to lessen or overcome antagonism associated with hard water (e.g., ammonium sulfate, EDTA or a polymeric water conditioner, such as a polyacrylic acid).

Other components such as solvents and organic acids may be added to enhance concentrate stability. These additives generally function to increase solubility or dispersability of the surfactants in the aqueous carrier thus enabling the formulation of robust concentrates exhibiting enhanced thermal and pH stability, reduced viscosity, and high glyphosate loading. Non-limiting examples of water soluble solvents include acetates, C1-6 alkanols, C1-6 diols, C1-6 alkyl ethers of alkylene glycols and polyalkylene glycols, and mixtures thereof. The alkanol can be selected from methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, the various positional isomers of butanol, pentanol, and hexanol, and mixtures thereof. It may also be possible to utilize in addition to, or in place of, said alkanols, the diols such as methylene, ethylene, diethylene, propylene, dipropylene, and butylene glycols, and mixtures thereof, and including polyalkylene glycols. These components are generally employed in dispersion-effective or solubilizing effective amounts. Suitable organic acids include, among others, acetic, dichloroacetic, citric, malic, oxalic, salicylic and tartaric. Effective concentrations of organic acids are generally between about 0.1 wt % and 5 wt %.

Although additional herbicides can be included in the compositions of the invention other than the glyphosate and auxin herbicides, it is preferred that the glyphosate and the auxin herbicides are the only herbicides in the composition.

DEFINITIONS

The terms “hydrocarbon” and “hydrocarbyl” as used herein describe organic compounds or radicals consisting exclusively of the elements carbon and hydrogen. These moieties include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, and aryl moieties. These moieties also include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, and aryl moieties substituted with other aliphatic or cyclic hydrocarbon groups, such as alkaryl, alkenaryl and alkynaryl. Unless otherwise indicated, these moieties preferably comprise 1 to 30 carbon atoms.

The term “hydrocarbylene” as used herein describes radicals joined at two ends thereof to other radicals in an organic compound, and which consist exclusively of the elements carbon and hydrogen. These moieties include alkylene, alkenylene, alkynylene, and arylene moieties. These moieties also include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, and aryl moieties substituted with other aliphatic or cyclic hydrocarbon groups, such as alkaryl, alkenaryl and alkynaryl. Unless otherwise indicated, these moieties preferably comprise 1 to 30 carbon atoms.

The “substituted hydrocarbyl” moieties described herein are hydrocarbyl moieties which are substituted with at least one atom other than carbon, including moieties in which a carbon chain atom is substituted with a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phosphorous, boron, sulfur, or a halogen atom. These substituents include halogen, heterocyclo, alkoxy, alkenoxy, alkynoxy, aryloxy, hydroxy, protected hydroxy, ketal, acyl, acyloxy, nitro, amino, amido, cyano, thiol, acetal, sulfoxide, ester, thioester, ether, thioether, hydroxyalkyl, urea, guanidine, amidine, phosphate, amine oxide, and quaternary ammonium salt.

The “substituted hydrocarbylene” moieties described herein are hydrocarbylene moieties which are substituted with at least one atom other than carbon, including moieties in which a carbon chain atom is substituted with a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phosphorous, boron, sulfur, or a halogen atom. These substituents include halogen, heterocyclo, alkoxy, alkenoxy, alkynoxy, aryloxy, hydroxy, protected hydroxy, ketal, acyl, acyloxy, nitro, amino, amido, cyano, thiol, acetal, sulfoxide, ester, thioester, ether, thioether, hydroxyalkyl, urea, guanidine, amidine, phosphate, amine oxide, and quaternary ammonium salt.

Unless otherwise indicated, the alkyl groups described herein are preferably lower alkyl containing from one to 18 carbon atoms in the principal chain and up to 30 carbon atoms. They may be straight or branched chain or cyclic and include methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, hexyl, 2-ethylhexyl, and the like.

Unless otherwise indicated, the alkenyl groups described herein are preferably lower alkenyl containing from two to 18 carbon atoms in the principal chain and up to 30 carbon atoms. They may be straight or branched chain or cyclic and include ethenyl, propenyl, isopropenyl, butenyl, isobutenyl, hexenyl, and the like.

Unless otherwise indicated, the alkynyl groups described herein are preferably lower alkynyl containing from two to 18 carbon atoms in the principal chain and up to 30 carbon atoms. They may be straight or branched chain and include ethynyl, propynyl, butynyl, isobutynyl, hexynyl, and the like.

The terms “aryl” as used herein alone or as part of another group denote optionally substituted homocyclic aromatic groups, preferably monocyclic or bicyclic groups containing from 6 to 12 carbons in the ring portion, such as phenyl, biphenyl, naphthyl, substituted phenyl, substituted biphenyl or substituted naphthyl. Phenyl and substituted phenyl are the more preferred aryl.

The term “aralkyl” as used herein denotes a group containing both alkyl and aryl structures such as benzyl.

As used herein, the alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl and aralkyl groups can be substituted with at least one atom other than carbon, including moieties in which a carbon chain atom is substituted with a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phosphorous, boron, sulfur, or a halogen atom. These substituents include hydroxy, nitro, amino, amido, nitro, cyano, sulfoxide, thiol, thioester, thioether, ester and ether, or any other substituent which can increase the compatibility of the surfactant and/or its efficacy enhancement in the potassium glyphosate formulation without adversely affecting the storage stability of the formulation.

The terms “halogen” or “halo” as used herein alone or as part of another group refer to chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and iodine. Fluorine substituents are often preferred in surfactant compounds.

Unless otherwise indicated, the term “hydroxyalkyl” includes alkyl groups substituted with at least one hydroxy group, and includes bis(hydroxyalkyl)alkyl, tris(hydroxyalkyl)alkyl and poly(hydroxyalkyl)alkyl groups. Preferred hydroxyalkyl groups include hydroxymethyl (—CH2OH), and hydroxyethyl (—C2H4OH), bis(hydroxymethyl)methyl (—CH(CH2OH)2), and tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl (—C(CH2OH)3).

The term “cyclic” as used herein alone or as part of another group denotes a group having at least one closed ring, and includes alicyclic, aromatic (arene) and heterocyclic groups.

The terms “heterocyclo” or “heterocyclic” as used herein alone or as part of another group denote optionally substituted, fully saturated or unsaturated, monocyclic or bicyclic, aromatic or nonaromatic groups having at least one heteroatom in at least one ring, and preferably 5 or 6 atoms in each ring. The heterocyclo group preferably has 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, 1 or 2 sulfur atoms, and/or 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms in the ring, and may be bonded to the remainder of the molecule through a carbon or heteroatom. Exemplary heterocyclo include heteroaromatics such as furyl, thienyl, pyridyl, oxazolyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, or isoquinolinyl and the like, and non-aromatic heterocyclics such as tetrahydrofuryl, tetrahydrothienyl, piperidinyl, pyrrolidino, etc. Exemplary substituents include one or more of the following groups: hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, keto, hydroxy, protected hydroxy, acyl, acyloxy, alkoxy, alkenoxy, alkynoxy, aryloxy, halogen, amido, amino, nitro, cyano, thiol, thioester, thioether, ketal, acetal, ester and ether.

The term “heteroaromatic” as used herein alone or as part of another group denote optionally substituted aromatic groups having at least one heteroatom in at least one ring, and preferably 5 or 6 atoms in each ring. The heteroaromatic group preferably has 1 or 2 oxygen atoms, 1 or 2 sulfur atoms, and/or 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms in the ring, and may be bonded to the remainder of the molecule through a carbon or heteroatom. Exemplary heteroaromatics include furyl, thienyl, pyridyl, oxazolyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, or isoquinolinyl and the like. Exemplary substituents include one or more of the following groups: hydrocarbyl, substituted hydrocarbyl, keto, hydroxy, protected hydroxy, acyl, acyloxy, alkoxy, alkenoxy, alkynoxy, aryloxy, halogen, amido, amino, nitro, cyano, thiol, thioether, thioester, ketal, acetal, ester and ether.

The term “acyl,” as used herein alone or as part of another group, denotes the moiety formed by removal of the hydroxyl group from the group —COOH of an organic carboxylic acid, e.g., RC(O)—, wherein R is R1, R1O—, R1R2N—, or R1S—, R1 is hydrocarbyl, heterosubstituted hydrocarbyl, or heterocyclo and R2 is hydrogen, hydrocarbyl or substituted hydrocarbyl.

The term “acyloxy,” as used herein alone or as part of another group, denotes an acyl group as described above bonded through an oxygen linkage (—O—), e.g., RC(O)O— wherein R is as defined in connection with the term “acyl.”

The term “pesticide” includes chemicals and microbial agents used as active ingredients of products for control of crop and lawn pests and diseases, animal ectoparasites, and other pests in public health. The term also includes plant growth regulators, pest repellants, synergists, herbicide safeners (which reduce the phytotoxicity of herbicides to crop plants) and preservatives, the delivery of which to the target may expose dermal and especially ocular tissue to the pesticide. Such exposure can arise by drift of the pesticide from the delivery means to the person performing the application of the pesticide or being present in the vicinity of an application.

When a maximum or minimum “average number” is recited herein with reference to a structural feature such as oxyethylene units or glucoside units, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the integer number of such units in individual molecules in a surfactant preparation typically varies over a range that can include integer numbers greater than the maximum or smaller than the minimum “average number”. The presence in a composition of individual surfactant molecules having an integer number of such units outside the stated range in “average number” does not remove the composition from the scope of the present invention, so long as the “average number” is within the stated range and other requirements are met.

By “storage-stable,” in the context of an aqueous concentrate composition of glyphosate salt further containing a surfactant and auxin herbicide, is meant not exhibiting phase separation on exposure to temperatures up to about 50° C., and preferably not forming crystals of glyphosate or salt thereof on exposure to a temperature of about 0° C. for a period of up to about 7 days (i.e., the composition must have a crystallization point of 0° C. or lower). For aqueous solution concentrates, high temperature storage stability is often indicated by a cloud point of about 50° C. or more. Cloud point of a composition is normally determined by heating the composition until the solution becomes cloudy, and then allowing the composition to cool, with agitation, while its temperature is continuously monitored. A temperature reading taken when the solution clears is a measure of cloud point. A cloud point of 50° C. or more is normally considered acceptable for most commercial purposes for a glyphosate SL formulation. Ideally the cloud point should be 60° C. or more, and the composition should withstand temperatures as low as about −10° C., preferably as low as about −20° C., more preferably as low as about −30° C., for up to about 7 days without phase separation (i.e., without separation of frozen water or solid insoluble surfactant from the composition) and without crystal growth(even in the presence of seed crystals of the glyphosate salt).

Herbicidal effectiveness is one of the biological effects that can be enhanced through this invention. “Herbicidal effectiveness,” as used herein, refers to any observable measure of control of plant growth, which can include one or more of the actions of (1) killing, (2) inhibiting growth, reproduction or proliferation, and (3) removing, destroying, or otherwise diminishing the occurrence and activity of plants. The herbicidal effectiveness data set forth herein report “control” as a percentage following a standard procedure in the art which reflects a visual assessment of plant mortality and growth reduction by comparison with untreated plants, made by technicians specially trained to make and record such observations. In all cases, a single technician makes all assessments of percent control within any one experiment or trial. Such measurements are relied upon and regularly reported by Monsanto Company in the course of its herbicide business.

EXAMPLES

The spray compositions of the following examples contain an exogenous chemical, such as glyphosate salt as indicated, in addition to the excipient ingredients listed. The amount of exogenous chemical was selected to provide the desired rate in grams per hectare (g/ha) when applied in a spray volume of 93 l/ha. Several exogenous chemical rates were applied for each composition. Thus, except where otherwise indicated, when spray compositions were tested, the concentration of exogenous chemical varied in direct proportion to exogenous chemical rate, but the concentration of excipient ingredients was held constant across different exogenous chemical rates.

In the following Examples illustrative of the invention, greenhouse and field tests were conducted to evaluate the relative herbicidal effectiveness of glyphosate compositions. Standard compositions included for comparative purposes include the following:

  • STD1: 725 g/l of glyphosate potassium salt in aqueous solution with no added surfactant.
  • STD2: 50% by weight of glyphosate IPA salt in aqueous solution together with a surfactant. This formulation is sold by Monsanto Company under the ROUNDUP ULTRAMAX®.
  • STD3: 570 g/l of glyphosate IPA salt in an aqueous solution with no added surfactant.

Various excipients were used in compositions of the examples. They may be identified as follows.

Cationic Surfactants:

CIS1WitcamineEthoxylated (10.5) tallowamine
TAM 105
CIS23151 blend55% Ethoxylated (10.5) tallowamine
and 45% Ethoxylated (2) cocoamine
CIS3Surfonic T-15PEG 15 tallow amine
CIS4Witcamine 302PEG 2 cocoamine
CIS5Witcamine 305PEG 5 cocoamine
CIS6FormulationC12-14 alkoxylated (1 PO) propylamine
E1 of Reissue(5EO) ethoxylate
Patent No.
RE 37,866
CIS7Armeen Ccoco (C12-C18 unsaturated) primary
amine
CIS8Ethoquad T25tallow ethoxylate (15EO) quaternary
ammonium chloride
CIS9MON 0818polyoxyethylene tallowamine
CIS10C18NMe(EO)7.5H
CIS117164 blend54% 4.5E0 tallowamine ethoxylate,
23% 10EO tallowamine ethoxylate,
and 23% dipropylene glycol
CIS12Witcamine TAM 454.5EO tallowamine ethoxylate
CIS13Arquad T-50PGtallowtrimethylammonium chloride in
propylene glycol
CIS14Arquad SV-60PGsoyaalkyltrimethyl ammonium
chloride
CIS15Tomah E-17-5poly(5)oxyethylene isodecyl
oxypropylamine

Nonionic Surfactants:

NIS1Hetoxol CS20C16-18 alcohol ethoxylate (20EO)
NIS2Agrimul PG 2067Alkylpolyglucoside (Cognis)
NIS3C16-18 alcohol ethoxylate (20EO)
NIS4Witconol IS 100PEG 10EO iso C18 alcohol
NIS5Silwet L-77silicone-polyether copolymer
NIS6Brij 56stearyl alcohol ethoxylate (10EO)
NIS7ADMOX SC1485myristyl dimethyl amine oxide
NIS820EO linear C16-18 alcohol ethoxylate
NIS9Emulgin Lcetereth propoxylate (2PO) ethoxylate (9EO)
NIS10alkoxylated alcohol
NIS11alkoxylated alcohol

Other Components:

OTH1Di-ammonium Oxalate
OTH2Propylene Glycol
OTH3Oxalic Acid
OTH4Sodium Sulfite
OTH5Agnique DF6889Silicone dispersion
antifoam
OTH6octyl amine
OTH7tetrahydrofuryl alcohol
OTH8Isopar Lparaffinic oil
OTH9dipropylene glycol
OTH10diethylene glycol
OTH11NaCl
OTH12KOH
OTH13glycerin
OTH14phosphoric acid
OTH15dimethyl amine
OTH16N-decyl amine
OTH17diethyl amine
OTH18isopropyl alcohol

The following greenhouse testing procedure was used for evaluating compositions of the Examples to determine herbicidal effectiveness, except where otherwise indicated.

Seeds of the plant species indicated were planted in 88 mm square pots in a soil mix which was previously sterilized and prefertilized with a 14-14-14 NPK slow release fertilizer at a rate of 3.6 kg/m3. The pots were placed in a greenhouse with sub-irrigation. About one week after emergence, seedlings were thinned as needed, including removal of any unhealthy or abnormal plants, to create a uniform series of test pots.

The plants were maintained for the duration of the test in the greenhouse where they received a minimum of 14 hours of light per day. If natural light was insufficient to achieve the daily requirement, artificial light with an intensity of approximately 475 microeinsteins was used to make up the difference. Exposure temperatures were not precisely controlled but averaged about 29° C. during the day and about 21° C. during the night. Plants were sub-irrigated throughout the test to ensure adequate soil moisture levels.

Pots were assigned to different treatments in a fully randomized experimental design with 6 replications. A set of pots was left untreated as a reference against which the effects of a treatment could later be evaluated.

Application of glyphosate compositions was made by spraying with a track sprayer fitted with a 9501E tapered flat fan spray tip calibrated to deliver a spray volume of 93 liters per hectare (l/ha) at a pressure of 165 kilopascals (kPa). After treatment, pots were returned to the greenhouse until ready for evaluation.

Treatments were made using dilute aqueous compositions. These could be prepared as spray compositions directly from their ingredients, or by dilution with water of preformulated concentrate compositions.

For evaluation of herbicidal effectiveness, all plants in the test were examined by a single practiced technician, who recorded percent control, a visual measurement of the effectiveness of each treatment by comparison with untreated plants. Control of 0% indicates no effect, and control of 100% indicates that all of the plants are completely dead. The reported % control values represent the average for all replicates of each treatment.

Example 1

The effect of glyphosate, 2,4-D, combinations of 2,4-D and glyphosate and combinations of all of the above with oxalic acid on velvetleaf was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, reported in g a.e./liter, and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 1a. The 806DOT, 806E7S, 806F4Q and 806G3B formulations contained 62 grams acid equivalent per liter. Formulations 806A2D, 806B9H, 806C5Z, 806F4Q and 806G3B contained the IPA salt of 2,4-D measured in grams acid equivalent per liter.

TABLE 1a
Comp.Gly.2,4-DCmpnt. 2wt %Cmpnt. 3wt %Cmpnt. 4wt %
806A2D60.0
806B9H60.0CIS60.75NIS21.0
806C5Z60.0CIS60.75NIS21.0OTH30.30
806D0TKCIS60.75NIS21.0
806E7SKCIS60.75NIS21.0OTH30.30
806F4QK 2.0CIS60.75NIS21.00.75
806G3BK 2.0CIS60.75NIS21.0OTH30.30
765K4SKCIS59.0 NIS44.0CIS71.0 

The compositions of Table 1a and comparative compositions STD1 and STD2, were applied to velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti, ABUTH) plants. Results, averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 1b.

TABLE 1b
Glyphosate
Application
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)ABUTH % inhibition
806A2D100, 200, 300, 40059.2, 75.8, 77.5, 80.0
806B9H100, 200, 300, 40066.7, 75.0, 80.0, 80.0
806C5Z100, 200, 300, 40075.0, 78.3, 80.0, 82.5
806D0T100, 200, 300, 40024.2, 59.2, 85.0, 88.3
806E7S100, 200, 300, 40077.5, 87.5, 96.0, 98.0
806F4Q100, 200, 300, 40025.0, 75.0, 80.8, 86.7
806G3B100, 200, 300, 40068.3, 89.2, 95.5, 97.3
765K4S100, 200, 300, 40016.7, 63.3, 85.0, 90.0
STD1100, 200, 300, 4000.0, 1.7, 44.2, 77.5
STD2100, 200, 300, 40013.3, 81.7, 90.0, 95.0

The order of efficacy for ABUTH % inhibition was 806E7S>806G3B>806C5Z>806B9H>806A2D>STD2>806F4Q>806D0T>765K4S>STD1.

Example 2

The effect of combinations of potassium glyphosate and 2,4-D with or without oxalic acid on velvetleaf was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, reported in g a.e./liter, and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 2a. The 820A9T, 820C1Z, 820D6Q, 820E3F, 820F0G and 820H7D formulations contained 62 grams acid equivalent per liter. Formulation 820B4H contained the IPA salt of 2,4-D measured in grams acid equivalent per liter.

TABLE 2a
Comp.Gly.2,4-DCmpnt. 2wt %Cmpnt. 4wt %Cmpnt. 4wt %
820A9TKCIS60.75NIS21.00
820B4H60.0 CIS60.75NIS21.00
820C1ZK2.0CIS60.75NIS21.00OTH30.30
820D6QK2.0CIS60.75NIS21.00
820E3FK6.0CIS60.75NIS21.00OTH30.30
820F0GK6.0CIS60.75NIS21.00
820G5JK4.0CIS60.75NIS21.00OTH30.60
820H7DK6.0CIS60.75NIS21.00OTH30.60

The compositions of Table 2a and comparative compositions STD1 and STD2 were applied to velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti, ABUTH) plants. Results at 4 days after treatment (4DAT) and 14 days after treatment (14DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 2b.

TABLE 2b
GlyphosateABUTH % inhibitionABUTH % inhibition
Comp.Application Rate (g a.e./ha)(4DAT)(14DAT)
820A9T150, 250, 400, 8005.0, 5.0, 10.0, 10.040.8, 75.0, 84.2, 93.8
820B4H150, 250, 400, 80020.0, 25.0, 35.0, 40.066.7, 76.7, 80.8, 81.7
820C1Z150, 250, 400, 8005.0, 5.0, 5.0, 10.079.2, 85.0, 95.0, 99.2
820D6Q150, 250, 400, 8005.0, 5.0, 5.0, 10.025.8, 76.7, 85.0, 91.7
820E3F150, 250, 400, 8005.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.078.3, 80.8, 90.5, 97.3
820F0G150, 250, 400, 8005.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.022.5, 65.0, 83.3, 94.8
820G5J150, 250, 400, 80010.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.079.2, 85.0, 93.8, 100.0
820H7D150, 250, 400, 80010.0,15.0, 20.0, 25.079.2, 85.0, 96.2, 99.3
STDI150, 250, 400, 8000.0, 5.0, 5.0, 5.00.0, 26.7, 70.8, 84.2
STD2150, 250, 400, 8005.0, 5.0, 10.0, 10.070.0, 85.0, 90.0, 98.7

The order of efficacy for ABUTH % inhibition was 820H7D>820C1Z>820G5J>820E3F>STD2>820B4H>820A9T>765K4S>820D6Q>820F0G>STD1.

Example 3

The effect of tank mixtures of NH4-oxalate with glyphosate package premix formulations of RT Master™ and Field Master™ on velvetleaf and barnyardgrass was tested. Aqueous tank mix compositions were prepared containing Roundup® UltraMax, RT Master™ and Field Master™ along with NH4-oxalate at three glyphosate a.e.:oxalate ratios (2:1, 10:1 and 30:1) these compositions and excipient ingredients are shown in Table 3a.

TABLE 3a
Glyphosate2,4-DGly:Oxalic
Composition(g a.e./L)(g a.e./L)Acid Ratio
UltraMax 21445 2:1
UltraMax 10144510:1
UltraMax 30144530:1
RT Master 2136038.6 2:1
RT Master 10136038.610:1
RT Master 30136038.630:1
Field Master 2168 2:1
Field Master 1016810:1
Field Master 3016830:1

The compositions of Table 3a and comparative compositions STD1, STD2, RT Master™ and Field Master™ were applied to velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti, ABUTH) and Japanese millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentae, ECHCF) plants. Results at 5 days after treatment (5DAT) and 16 days after treatment (16DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 3b.

TABLE 3b
GlyphosateABUTHABUTHECHCFECHCF
App. Rate% inhibition% inhibition% inhibition% inhibition
Composition(g a.e./ha)(5DAT)(16DAT)(5DAT)(16DAT)
UltraMax 2175, 100,0.0, 0.0,78.3, 88.3,0.0, 0.0,61.7, 80.8,
2000.097.50.094.8
UltraMax 10175, 100,0.0, 0.0,70.8, 85.8,0.0, 0.0,61.7, 79.2,
2000.097.80.097.5
UltraMax 30175, 100,0.0, 0.0,65.8, 80.8,0.0, 0.0,55.0, 80.8,
2000.096.00.092.8
RT Master 2175, 100,0.0, 2.5,75.0, 83.3,0.0, 0.0,65.0, 85.0,
2005.094.70.096.2
RT Master 10175, 100,0.0, 3.3,66.7, 77.5,0.0, 0.0,63.3, 82.5,
2005.091.70.094.8
RT Master 30175, 100,0.0, 4.2,54.2, 75.8,0.0, 0.0,60.0, 80.8,
2005.090.00.093.5
Field Master 2175, 100,3.3, 13.3,76.7, 88.3,0.0, 7.5,48.3, 60.0,
20032.590.516.761.7
Field Master75, 100,2.5, 10.8,65.0, 76.7,0.0, 4.2,35.0, 52.5,
10120026.780.011.754.2
Field Master75, 100,1.7, 6.7,48.3, 74.2,0.0, 1.7,20.8, 47.5,
30120016.779.29.250.0
RT Master ™75, 100,2.5, 4.2,47.5, 61.7,0.0, 0.0,55.0, 78.3,
2005.077.50.091.2
Field Master ™75, 100,4.2, 16.7,40.8, 54.2,0.0, 8.3,27.5, 49.2,
20048.384.823.350.0
STD175, 100,0.0, 0.0,6.7, 45.8,0.0, 0.0,3.3, 30.0,
2000.064.20.049.2
STD275, 100,0.0, 0.0,40.8, 75.8,0.0, 0.0,58.3, 77.5,
2000.086.30.091.5

The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for the ABUTH % inhibition of UltraMax 21>Field Master 21>UltraMax 101>RT Master 21>UltraMax 301>RT Master 101>Field Master 101>RT Master 301>STD2>Field Master 301>RT Master>Field Master>STD1. The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for ECHF % inhibition was RT Master 21>RT Master 101>UltraMax 101>UltraMax 21>RT Master 301>UltraMax 301>STD 3>RT Master>Field Master 21>Field Master 101>Field Master>Field Master 301>STD1. The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for both ABUTH and ECHCF combined was UltraMax 21>RT Master 21>UltraMax 101>RT Master 101>Ultramax 301>RT Master 301>STD2>Field Master 21>RT Master>Field master 101>Field Master 301>Field Master>STD1.

Example 4

The effect of tank mixtures of NH4-oxalate with glyphosate premix formulations of Roundup™ RTU and Fallow Master® on velvetleaf and barnyardgrass was tested. Aqueous tank mix compositions were prepared containing Roundup™ UltraMax, Roundup® RTU and Fallow Master® along with NH4-oxalate at three glyphosate a.e.:oxalate ratios (2:1, 10:1 and 30:1) these compositions and excipient ingredients are shown in Table 4a.

TABLE 4a
Component 2Gly:Oxalic Acid
CompositionGly.(g a.e./L)Ratio
UltraMax 21445 gae/L 2:1
UltraMax 101445 gae/L10:1
UltraMax 301445 gae/L30:1
RTU 21 1.9 wt % ae(diquat) 2:1
RTU 101 1.9 wt % ae(diquat)10:1
RTU 301 1.9 wt % ae(diquat)30:1
Fallow Master ® 21197 gae/L46 (dicamba) 2:1
Fallow Master 101197 gae/L46 (dicamba)10:1
Fallow Master 301197 gae/L46 (dicamba)30:1

The compositions of Table 4a and comparative compositions Roundup® RTU, Fallow Master®, STD1 and STD2 were applied to velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti, ABUTH) and Japanese millet (Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentae, ECHCF) plants. Results at 14 days after treatment (14DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 4b.

TABLE 4b
GlyphosateABUTH %ECHCF %
Application Rateinhibitioninhibition
Composition(g a.e./ha)(14DAT)(14DAT)
UltraMax 2175, 100, 20051.7, 80.0, 90.067.5, 68.3, 75.8
UltraMax75, 100, 20051.7, 76.7, 85.864.2, 68.3, 73.3
101
UltraMax75, 100, 20046.7, 67.5, 85.060.0, 68.3, 71.7
301
RTU 2175, 100, 20023.3, 27.5, 38.31.7, 6.7, 56.7
RTU 10175, 100, 2005.0, 10.0, 38.30.8, 7.5, 50.0
RTU 30175, 100, 2004.2, 10.0, 32.54.2, 17.5, 63.3
Fallow75, 100, 20068.3, 78.3, 87.565.0, 67.5, 89.7
Master ® 21
Fallow75, 100, 20066.7, 81.7, 85.065.8, 67.5, 90.0
Master 101
Fallow75, 100, 20066.7, 78.3, 85.865.0, 70.8, 91.8
Master 301
Roundup75, 100, 2005.8, 16.7, 35.05.8, 21.7, 61.7
RTU
Fallow75, 100, 20060.0, 70.0, 84.264.2, 66.7, 81.7
Master
STD175, 100, 2003.3, 7.5, 31.720.8, 40.8, 59.2
STD275, 100, 20010.8, 40.0, 76.764.2, 65.0, 72.5

The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for the ABUTH % inhibition was FallowMaster 21>FallowMaster 101>FallowMaster 301>UltraMax 21>UltraMax 101>FallowMaster>UltraMax 301>STD2>RTU 21>Roundup RTU>RTU 101>STU 301>STD1. The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for ECHF % inhibition was FallowMaster 301>FallowMaster 101>FallowMaster 21>FallowMaster>UltraMax 21>UltraMax 101>STD 3>UltraMax 301>STD1>Roundup RTU>RTU 301>RTU 21>RTU 101. The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for both ABUTH and ECHCF combined was FallowMaster 301>FallowMaster 101>FallowMaster 21>UltraMax 21>FallowMaster>UltraMax 101>UltraMax 301>STD2>STD1>RTU 21>Roundup RTU>RTU 301>RTU 101.

Example 5

The effect of combinations of potassium glyphosate and 2,4-D and isopropylamine glyphosate on pitted morningglory (IPOLA) and cocklebur (XANST) was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing 360 g a.e./L potassium glyphosate salt, amounts of 2,4-D are reported in wt % a.e. and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 5a.

TABLE 5a
Comp.Gly.2,4-DCmpnt. 2wt %Cmpnt. 3wt %
100B2TK1.60CIS69.2
085A9KK1.60CIS69.1
501A0XK1.66CIS29.2
501B4SK1.82CIS29.1
047B7ZK3.13CIS69.2OTH62.16
059A3DK3.13CIS29.2OTH62.20

The compositions of Table 5a and comparative composition RT Master™ were applied to pitted morningglory (IPOLA) and cocklebur (XANST) plants. Results at 10 days after treatment (10DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 5b.

TABLE 5b
GlyphosateXANST %IPOLA %
Application Rateinhibitioninhibition
Composition(g a.e./ha)(10DAT)(10DAT)
100B2T100, 200, 300, 40038.8, 68.8, 73.8,60.0, 76.3,
70.081.3, 93.8
085A9K100, 200, 300, 40042.5, 65.0, 83.8,60.0, 77.5,
83.8 78.8, 83.8
501A0X100, 200, 300, 40056.3, 71.3, 82.5,65.0, 78.8,
91.382.5, 85.0
501B4S100, 200, 300, 40058.8, 65.0, 76.3,62.5, 83.8,
85.080.0, 91.3
047B7Z100, 200, 300, 40058.8, 73.8, 87.5,86.3, 86.3,
97.590.0, 93.8
059A3D100, 200, 300, 40070.8, 79.5, 88.0,72.5, 88.8,
90.087.5, 97.5
RT Master ™100, 200, 300, 40053.8, 69.5, 78.5,75.0, 83.8,
83.392.5, 88.8

The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for the XANST % inhibition was 059A3D>047B7Z>501A0X>501B4S>RT Master™>085A9K>100B2T. The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for IPOLA % inhibition was 047B7Z>059A3D>RT Master™>501B4S>100B2T>501A0X>085A9K. The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for both XANST and IPOLA combined was 059A3D>047B7Z>RT Master™>501A0X>501B4S>085A9K>100B2T.

Example 6

The effect of combinations of potassium glyphosate and 2,4-D and isopropylamine glyphosate on pitted morningglory (IPOLA) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing 480 g a.e./L potassium glyphosate salt, 2,4-D reported in wt % a.e, and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 6a.

TABLE 6a
Comp.Gly.2,4-DCmpnt. 2wt %
506A2TK0.72CIS27.25
506B9ZK0.71CIS27.25
510A4HK0.60CIS67.60
510B8VK0.60CIS67.60
508A1BK0.72CIS27.60
508B0GK0.72CIS27.60
503B5PK0.66CIS69.10
504A3LK0.65CIS69.10
504B21K0.74CIS29.10
505A6SK0.72CIS29.10

The compositions of Table 6a and comparative compositions RT Master™ and STD2 were applied to pitted morningglory (IPOLA). Results at 5 days after treatment (5DAT) and 12 days after treatment (12DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 6b.

TABLE 6b
IPOLAIPOLAIPOLAXANST
Glyphosate% inhibition% inhibition% inhibition% inhibition
Comp.App. Rate (g a.e./ha)(5DAT)(11DAT)(12DAT)(11DAT)
506A2T100, 200, 40030.0, 67.5,25.0, 72.5,30.0, 75.0,60.0, 71.3,
75.081.790.086.3
506B9Z100, 200, 40033.8, 47.5,66.3, 72.5,33.8, 71.3,65.0, 77.5,
80.086.790.081.3
510A4H100, 200, 40061.3, 58.8,22.5, 72.5,58.8, 73.8,55.0, 77.5,
85.080.092.578.8
510B8V100, 200, 40041.3, 65.0,30.0, 67.5,45.0, 77.5,45.0, 60.0,
78.883.490.592.5
508A1B100, 200, 40035.0, 77.5,56.3, 78.8,42.5, 85.0,60.0, 63.8,
80.086.790.095.7
508B0G100, 200, 4002.5, 70.0,57.5, 73.8,2.5, 80.0,61.3, 78.8,
75.078.490.095.0
503B5P100, 200, 40030.0, 52.5,41.3, 67.5,42.5, 70.0,55.0, 75.0,
75.086.090.082.5
504A3L100, 200, 40031.3, 71.3,56.3, 67.5,28.8, 78.8,57.5, 76.3,
80.090.091.388.8
504B2I100, 200, 40026.3, 43.8,47.5, 78.8,41.3, 63.8,61.3, 78.8,
73.890.082.591.3
505A6S100, 200, 40028.8, 62.5,58.8, 71.3,35.0, 75.0,63.8, 76.3,
80.088.488.881.3
RT100, 200, 40072.5, 85.0,63.8, 87.5,77.5, 96.3,70.0, 76.3,
Master85.093.498.092.0
STD2100, 200, 40036.3, 36.3,23.8, 62.5,23.8, 50.0,45.0, 70.0,
41.378.467.597.5

The order of efficacy averaged across application rates for the IPOLA % inhibition averaged over both 5 and 12 days after treatment was RT Master>510A4H>508A1B>510B8V>504A3L>505A6S>506A2T>503B5P>506B9Z>504B2I>508B0G>STD2. The order of efficacy for the XANST % inhibition was RT Master>508A1B>504B2I>506B9Z>504A3L>505A6S>506A2T>508B0G>503B5P>STD2>510A4H>510B8V.

Example 7

The effect of 128A5X and composition 139H2K on zebrina pendula (ZEBPE) plants to determine the appropriate rates for commercial control was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the indicated amount of glyphosate salt measured in g a.e./L and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 7a.

TABLE 7a
Comp.Gly.2,4-DCmpnt. 1wt %
139H2KIPANIS50.05
(570)
128A5XMEACIS69.6
(480)

The compositions of Table 7a and comparative composition 128A5X were applied to Zebrina pendula (ZEBPE). Results at 29 days after treatment (29DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 7b.

TABLE 7b
Glyphosate ApplicationZEBPE
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)% inhibition (29DAT)
139H2K1000, 2000, 3000, 4000,53.3, 72.7, 87.0, 84.3, 91.7,
5000, 6000, 7000, 800090.0, 89.3, 93.3
128A5X1000, 2000, 3000, 4000,43.3, 45.0, 41.7, 48.3, 72.7,
5000, 6000, 7000, 800079.0, 81.7, 85.0

From the data, application rates of 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 g a.e./ha were used for the next set of experiments on Zebrina pendula (ZEBPE).

Example 8

The effect of glyphosate compositions on Zebrina pendula (ZEBPE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in g a.e./L and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 8a.

TABLE 8a
Comp.Gly.Cmpnt 1wt %Cmpnt 2wt %Cmpnt 3wt %Cmpnt 4/5wt %
553I3ZIPACIS89.6NIS66.4NIS71.0OTH7/1.5/1.0
(360)OTH8
239K5XKCIS159.2
(480)
128A5XMEACIS69.6
(480)

The compositions of Table 8a and comparative composition 128A5X were applied to Zebrina pendula (ZEBPE). Results at 28 days after treatment (28DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 8b.

TABLE 8b
Glyphosate ApplicationZEBPE
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)% inhibition (28DAT)
553I3Z2000, 3000, 4000, 500073.8, 89.5, 88.0, 91.3
239K5X2000, 3000, 4000, 500067.5, 82.8, 86.0, 86.0
128A5X2000, 3000, 4000, 500082.0, 86.3, 86.5, 88.5

The most active composition was 128A5X.

Example 9

The effect of glyphosate compositions on Zebrina pendula (ZEBPE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 9a.

TABLE 9a
Comp.Gly.Cmpt 1wt %Cmpt 2wt %Cmpt 3wt %Cmpt 4wt %
128A5XMEACIS69.6
(38.2)
128B1TMEACIS69.6OTH3.82
(38.2)3
318A9HKCIS17.4NIS94.9OTH6.5
(36.9)9
318B2VKCIS17.4NIS94.9OTH6.5OTH33.7
(36.9)9
265A4CK (31)CIS10126
g/L
265B0EK (31)CIS10126OTH3.1
g/L3
683A7TAmmCIS19.5NIS811.60TH0.4OTH0.1
(68)418

The compositions of Table 9a and comparative composition 128A5X were applied to Zebrina pendula (ZEBPE). Results at 27 days after treatment (27DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 9b.

TABLE 9b
Glyphosate ApplicationZEBPE
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)% inhibition (27DAT)
128M1T2000, 3500, 5000, 650070.5, 82.8, 84.3, 91.3
318A9H2000, 3500, 5000, 650073.0, 75.0, 82.8, 92.3
318B2V2000, 3500, 5000, 650078.3, 79.3, 83.8, 88.5
265A4C2000, 3500, 5000, 650081.8, 85.5, 84.3, 93.5
265B0E2000, 3500, 5000, 650067.5, 75.0, 75.5, 77.5
683A7T2000, 3500, 5000, 650076.3, 83.8, 84.0, 90.8
128A5X2000, 3500, 5000, 650073.5, 82.5, 84.3, 87.0

The most active composition was 265A4C. 265B0E showed lower rates of control with added oxalic acid. There were compatibility problems between oxalic acid and the other ingredients in 265B0E and 318B2V.

Example 10

The effect of glyphosate compositions on commelina benghalensis (COMBE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 10a.

TABLE 10a
Comp.Gly.Cmpt 1wt %Cmpt 2wt %Cmpt 3wt %Cmpt 4/5wt %
128A5XMEACIS9.6
(38.2)11
633F3JAmmCIS39.5NIS311.6OTH0.4OTH0.1
(68)1718
483H8QAmmCIS5.7NIS1 8.0OTH18.3OTH4/0.4/
(68)11OTH50.1
050A6BK (30)CIS0.8
12

The compositions of Table 10a and comparative composition 128A5X were applied to commelina (COMBE). Results at 33 days after treatment (33DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 10b.

TABLE 10b
Glyphosate Application
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)COMBE % inhibition (33DAT)
128A5X600, 800, 1000, 120034.0, 50.0, 58.0, 63.0
633F3J600, 800, 1000, 120029.0, 59.0, 62.0, 59.0
483H8Q600, 800, 1000, 120027.0, 48.0, 52.0, 56.0
050A6B600, 800, 1000, 120054.0, 65.0, 68.0, 72.0

The most active composition was 050A6B.

Example 11

The effect of glyphosate compositions on commelina benghalensis (COMBE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 11a.

TABLE 11a
Comp.Gly.Cmpt 1wt %Cmpt 2wt %Cmpt 3wt %Cmpt 4/5wt %
128A5XMEACIS9.6
(38.2)6
483H8QAmmCIS5.7NIS18.0OTH18.3OTH4/0.4/
(68)11OTH50.1
633F3JAmmCIS9.5NIS311.6OTH40.4OTH50.1
(68)11
634T9PAmmCIS111.0NIS813.4OTH40.4OTH50.1
(65)
765K45KCIS59.0NIS44.0CIS71.0
(36.3)

The compositions of Table 11a and comparative composition 128A5X were applied to commelina (COMBE). Results at 20 days after treatment (20DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 11b.

TABLE 11b
Glyphosate Application
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)COMBE % inhibition (20DAT)
128A5X800, 1100, 1400, 170060.0, 75.0, 65.0, 83.8
483H8Q800, 1100, 1400, 170026.3, 61.3, 53.8, 72.5
633F3J800, 1100, 1400, 170035.0, 61.3, 72.5, 72.5
634T9P800, 1100, 1400, 170041.3, 70.0, 80.0, 81.3
765K4S800, 1100, 1400, 170052.5, 75.0, 74.3, 79.5

The most active composition was 128A5X.

Example 12

The effect of glyphosate compositions on commelina benghalensis (COMBE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 12a.

TABLE 12a
Comp.Gly.Cmpt 1wt %Cmpt 2wt %Cmpt 3wt %Cmpt 4/5wt %
128A5XMEACIS69.6
(38.2)
553I3ZIPACIS89.6NIS66.4NIS71.0OTH7/OTH81.5/
(360)1.0
483H8QAmmCIS5.7NIS18.0OTH18.3OTH4/0.4/
(68)11OTH50.1
633F3JAmmCIS39.5NIS311.6OTH40.4OTH50.1
(68)
634T9PAmmCIS111.0NIS813.4OTH40.4OTH50.1
(65)
765K4SKCIS59.0NIS44.0CIS71.0
(36.3)
239K5XKCIS9.2
(480)15

The compositions of Table 12a were applied to commelina (COMBE). Results at 22 days after treatment (22DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 12b.

TABLE 12b
Glyphosate Application
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)COMBE % inhibition (22DAT)
128A5X800, 1100, 1400, 170072.5, 73.3, 83.8, 80.8
553I3Z800, 1100, 1400, 170075.5, 75.8, 87.2, 88.3
483H8Q800, 1100, 1400, 170070.0, 75.8, 79.2, 84.2
633F3J800, 1100, 1400, 170069.2, 74.2, 74.7, 71.7
634T9P800, 1100, 1400, 170070.8, 74.2, 79.5, 80.0
765K4S800, 1100, 1400, 170075.0, 70.0, 75.3, 79.2
239K5X800, 1100, 1400, 170070.5, 77.5, 83.3, 80.0

Formulation 553I3Z was the most effective composition for commelina.

Example 13

The effect of glyphosate compositions on commelina benghalensis (COMBE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 13a.

TABLE 13a
Comp.Gly.Cmpt 1wt %Cmpt 2wt %Cmpt 3wt %Cmpt 4/5wt %
128A5XMEACIS69.6
(38.2)
481Z7YKcarfent0.18
(35.5)razone
633F3JAmmCIS39.5NIS311.6OTH40.4OTH50.1
(68)
634T9PAmmCIS111.0NIS813.4OTH40.4OTH50.1
(65)
765K4SKCIS59.0NIS4 4.0CIS71.0
(36.3)
239K5XKCIS159.2
(480)

The compositions of Table 13a and RT Master were applied to commelina (COMBE). Results at 20 days after treatment (20DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 13b.

TABLE 13b
Glyphosate Application
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)COMBE % inhibition (20DAT)
128A5X600, 700, 800, 900, 100062.5, 69.2, 63.3, 70.5, 68.8
481Z7Y600, 700, 800, 900, 100079.7, 91.3, 91.7, 90.5, 97.2
633F3J600, 700, 800, 900, 100049.2, 64.2, 55.8, 61.7, 65.0
634T9P600, 700, 800, 900, 100057.5, 70.5, 55.0, 68.5, 68.3
765K4S600, 700, 800, 900, 100064.2, 69.2, 69.2, 77.5, 71.7
239K5X600, 700, 800, 900, 100065.8, 66.3, 61.7, 81.3, 69.2
RT Master600, 700, 800, 900, 100080.0, 89.2, 91.3, 89.3, 95.8

The most active compositions in this example were RT Master and 481Z7Y. These results indicate that a second active ingredient (2,4-D or carfentrazone) increases the activity of the composition against commelina.

Example 14

The effect of glyphosate compositions on commelina benghalensis (COMBE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 14a, as well as those shown in Table 13a.

TABLE 14a
Comp.Gly.Cmpt 1wt %Cmpt 2wt %Cmpt 3wt %Cmpt 4/5wt %
483H8QAmmCIS5.7NIS18.0OTH18.3OTH4/0.4/0.1
(68)11OTH5
770X1CKCIS57.0NIS104.0CIS43.0
(36.7)
772N5DKCIS57.0NIS113.0CIS43.0
(36.7)
780Y4OK (40)CIS68.0NIS23.0OTH31.0OTH21.0
822B9TK2,4-D1.0CIS66.0NIS22.5
(30.5)
822C6UIPA2,4-D1.8CIS68.0NIS23.0
(36)

The compositions of Tables 13a and 14a and RT Master were applied to commelina (COMBE). Results at 10 days after treatment (10DAT), 24 days after treatment (24DAT) and 41 days after treatment (41DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 14b.

TABLE 14b
Glyphosate
ApplicationCOMBECOMBECOMBE
Rate% inhibition% inhibition% inhibition
Composition(g a.e./ha)(10DAT)(24DAT)(41DAT)
128A5X800, 1100,1.5, 1.7, 5.2,41.7, 46.7,77.2, 96.7,
1400, 1700,6.0, 6.053.3, 44.2,94.5, 93.0,
200055.092.0
481Z7Y800, 1100,84.2, 92.5,80.8, 89.3,15.0, 26.5,
1400, 1700,92.5, 93.3,91.7, 91.8,35.0, 75.5,
200096.192.762.6
633F3J800, 1100,3.0, 1.7, 2.3,20.0, 22.5,51.2, 74.2,
1400, 1700,2.3, 5.235.0, 34.2,74.7, 77.7,
200045.089.7
634T9P800, 1100,1.5, 1.7, 5,18.3, 21.7,50, 91.7, 94.2,
1400, 1700,4.3, 7.335.8, 33.3,82.3, 94.6
200047.9
765K4S800, 1100,3.7, 3.0, 1.3,17.5, 38.3,62.5, 90.5,
1400, 1700,3.0, 6.130.0, 35.0,95.0, 96.0,
200043.997.2
483H8Q800, 1100,3.7, 1.7, 4.5,26.7, 19.2,51.7, 73.0,
1400, 1700,1.2, 4.331.7, 24.2,89.5, 90.5,
200031.996.0
770X1C800, 1100,0.5, 2.3, 2.8,21.7, 24.2,55.8, 81.7,
1400, 1700,3.7, 7.137.5, 35.0,90.5, 99.2,
200044.9100.6
772N5D800, 1100,2.2, 1.7, 1.5,29.2, 50.8,73.5, 86.8,
1400, 1700,3.8, 3.836.7, 39.2,92.5, 95.5,
200049.296.8
780Y4O800, 1100,2.0, 3.0, 1.7,18.3, 31.7,54.2, 88.3,
1400, 1700,3.7, 5.045.8, 35.0,96.3, 90.8,
200044.295.8
822B9T800, 1100,34.2, 39.2,70.8, 81.7,98.3, 97.8,
1400, 1700,36.7, 39.2,79.7, 80.3,100.0, 100.0,
200040.084.7100.0
822C6U800,1100,39.2, 42.5,78.7, 85.0,100.0, 100.0,
1400, 1700,40.8, 41.7,80.0, 91.8,100.0, 100.0,
200042.196.5100.0
RT Master800, 1100,40.0, 41.7,77.7, 86.7,100.0, 99.7,
1400, 1700,41.7, 39.2,90.7, 90.0,100.0, 100.0,
200038.391.5100.0

In this experiment, the compositions that were most effective, particularly against commelina regrowth, were 822B9T, 822C6U and RT Master, which all contains 2,4-D as a second active ingredient.

Example 15

The effect of glyphosate compositions on commelina benghalensis (COMBE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 15a.

TABLE 15a
Comp.Gly.Cmpt 1wt %Cmpt 2wt %Cmpt 3wt %Cmpt 4/5wt %
128A5XMEACIS69.6
(38.2)
822B9TK2,4-D1.0CIS66.0NIS22.5
(30.5)
822C6UIPA2,4-D1.8CIS68.0NIS23.0
(36)

The compositions of Table 15a, Ultra Blazer, Cobra and RT Master were applied to commelina (COMBE). Results at 7 days after treatment (7DAT) and 24 days after treatment (24DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 15b.

TABLE 15b
GlyphosateCOMBECOMBE
Application Rate% inhibition% inhibition
Composition(g a.e./ha)(7DAT)(24DAT)
128A5X100, 200, 300, 4000.2, 0.2,29.2, 30.8, 28.3, 33.3
0.5, 3.7
822B9T100, 200, 300, 40042.5, 40.0,49.2, 56.7, 72.5, 74.2
43.3, 43.3
822C6U100, 200, 300, 40040.8, 44.2,63.3, 76.7, 79.2, 83.3
45.0, 46.7
Ultra Blazer18, 35, 70, 140,0.0, 1.7,10.0, 10.0, 10.8, 15.0,
280, 4204.3, 4.3,41.7, 45.0
6.7, 8.3
Cobra9, 18, 35, 70, 140,7.5, 8.3,33.3, 46.7, 41.7, 42.5,
21013.3, 13.3,44.2, 47.5
20.0, 21.7
RT Master100, 200, 30042.5, 41.7,73.3, 78.3, 82.5
49.2

This experiment shows that mixtures of glyphosate and 2,4-D, such as 822B9T, 822C6U and RT Master are more efficacious against commelina than single ingredient formulations.

Example 16

The effect of glyphosate compositions on commelina benghalensis (COMBE) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 16a.

TABLE 16a
Cmpnt.wtCmpnt.Cmpnt.
Comp.Gly.2,4-D1%2wt %3wt %
085Z5FIPACIS97.5
(30.5)
714V9JIPA2,4-DB3.3
(30.4)

The compositions of Table 16a, Assure II and RT Master were applied to commelina (COMBE). Results at 7 days after treatment (7DAT) and 31 days after treatment (31DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 16b.

TABLE 16b
GlyphosateCOMBECOMBE
Com-Application% inhibition% inhibition
positionRate (g a.e./ha)(7DAT)(31DAT)
085Z5F300, 400, 500,6.0, 5.0, 5.0, 8.0,9.0, 22.0, 24.0, 36.0,
600, 700, 800,9.0, 11.0, 12.0, 16.0,46.0, 51.0, 53.0, 57.0,
900, 1000,24.0, 26.056.0, 49.0
1100, 1200
714V9J300, 400, 500,41.0, 44.0, 46.0,2.0, 20.0, 23.0, 59.0,
600, 700, 800,50.0, 53.0, 53.0,54.0, 79.0, 80.0, 78.0,
900, 1000,53.0, 58.0, 60.0,74.0, 85.0
1100, 120062.0
Assure5, 10, 20, 30,9.0, 10.0, 15.0, 12.0,5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 5.0,
II40, 80, 16015.0, 13.0, 19.00.0, 0.0
RT300, 400, 500,63.0, 61.0, 70.0,18.0, 24.0, 64.0, 85.0,
Master600, 700, 800,66.0, 68.0, 74.0,72.0, 94.0, 100.0,
900, 1000,77.0, 80.0, 80.0,95.0, 96.0, 100.0
1100, 120080.0

Both 714V9J and RT Master were effective against commelina in this experiment, however, RT Master was the most efficacious.

Example 17

The effect of glyphosate compositions on morningglory (IPOSS) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 17a.

TABLE 17a
Cmpnt.wtCmpnt.Cmpnt.
Comp.Gly.2,4-D1%2wt %3wt %
085Z5FIPACIS97.5
(30.5)
714V9J(30.4)2,4-DB3.3

The compositions of Table 17a and RT Master were applied to morningglory (IPOSS). Results at 7 days after treatment (7DAT) and 15 days after treatment (15DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 17b.

TABLE 17b
GlyphosateIPOSSIPOSS
Com-Application Rate% inhibition% inhibition
position(g a.e./ha)(7DAT)(15DAT)
085Z5F100, 150, 200,12.0, 50.0, 43.0,8.0, 53.0, 58.0, 63.0,
250, 300, 350,50.0, 48.0, 48.0,76.6, 76.0, 79.0, 81.2,
400, 450, 500,51.0, 50.0, 49.0,82.8, 80.6, 84.2, 83.2,
550, 600, 650, 700,52.0, 59.0, 54.0,84.2
60.0
714V9J100, 150, 200,17.0, 31.0, 43.0,8.0, 20.0, 23.0, 27.0,
250, 300, 350,39.0, 78.0, 77.0,30.0, 26.0, 29.0, 34.0,
400, 450, 500,66.0, 77.0, 66.0,30.0, 29.0, 30.0, 33.0,
550, 600, 650, 70077.0, 76.0, 75.0,34.0
82.0, 77.0, 78.0
RT100, 150, 200,54.0, 62.0, 66.0,42.0, 68.0, 96.0, 97.0,
Master250, 300, 350,70.0, 70.0, 75.0,96.0, 100.0, 100.0,
400, 450, 500,76.0, 79.0, 80.0,100.0, 100.0, 100.0,
550, 600, 650, 70084.0, 80.0, 83.0,100.0, 100.0, 100.0
81.0

RT Master was the most effective composition for controlling morningglory at 7 and 15 days after treatment.

Example 18

The effect of glyphosate compositions on morningglory (IPOSS) plants was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing the listed amount of glyphosate salt in wt % and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 18a.

TABLE 18a
Cmpnt.wtCmpnt.Cmpnt.
Comp.Gly.2,4-D1%2wt %3wt %
085Z5FIPACIS97.5
(30.5)
714V9J(30.4)2,4-DB3.3

The compositions of Table 18a, Pursuit and RT Master were applied to morningglory (IPOSS). Results at 14 days after treatment (14DAT), averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 18b.

TABLE 18b
Glyphosate ApplicationIPOSS %
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)inhibition (14DAT)
085Z5F100, 125, 150, 175, 200,7.0, 11.0, 32.0, 44.0, 53.0,
225, 250, 275, 300, 325,53.0, 55.0, 61.0, 61.0, 61.0,
350, 375, 40063.0, 68.0, 76.0
714V9J100, 125, 150, 175, 200,6.0, 29.0, 36.0, 31.0, 51.0,
225, 250, 275, 300, 325,49.0, 68.0, 74.0, 66.0, 80.0,
350, 375, 40077.0, 74.0, 79.0
Pursuit4, 8, 16, 35, 70, 1050.0, 6.0, 36.0, 41.0, 77.0, 80.0
RT Master100, 125, 150, 175, 200,47.0, 53.0, 66.0, 69.0, 82.0,
225, 250, 275, 300, 325,75.0, 89.0, 90.0, 78.0, 89.0,
350, 375, 40082.0, 89.0, 94.0

RT Master was the most efficacious composition at the application levels of the experiment.

Example 19

Aqueous compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, IPA 2,4-D salt and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 19a. The formulations were prepared by mixing the 40.5% w/w a.e. aqueous solution of IPA 2,4-D to a concentration in w/w% as indicated by [2,4-D] in Table 19a, surfactant(s), glycol followed by addition of 47.8 (47.4)% w/w a.e. aqueous solution of potassium glyphosate to a concentration in w/w % as indicated by [gly] in Table 19a and then taking the total volume to 100% with water. Formulations were tested for cloud point and for density.

TABLE 19a
Comp.[Gly][2,4-D]Cmpt. 1wt %Cmpt. 2wt %Cmpt. 3wt %Cloud pt. ° C.
612A7G37.20.76CIS64.72NIS24.59OTH24.0172
613A9L37.31.08CIS64.74NIS24.60OTH23.9952
638A1J36.50.73CIS64.63CIS144.5787
638B4T36.80.75CIS66.19CIS143.0572
639A5Z36.60.75CIS66.95CIS142.3067
639B3X37.10.76CIS63.95NIS24.57CIS140.7852
640B7Q36.60.73CIS69.1455
641A9V36.70.74CIS66.95CIS132.3068
641B8D37.30.76CIS64.73NIS23.25OTH105.0057
645A7S36.60.71CIS138.91>85
645B2B35.80.65CIS68.09OTH25.5156
645C1I34.70.72CIS68.70OTH26.0160
646A8K36.60.72CIS64.58CIS134.57OTH21.43>85
646B3Z34.80.69CIS64.35CIS134.35OTH21.67>85
654B9U35.80.64CIS67.97OTH25.5156
656A1T36.60.74CIS66.08CIS133.07OTH22.9671
656B8Y36.60.73CIS67.33CIS131.83OTH24.1854
656C3G36.60.73CIS67.31CIS131.83OTH23.1770
665A2T34.30.69CIS68.53OTH26.0170
665B3O34.20.68CIS68.55OTH25.0073
667B6Z34.20.68CIS68.54OTH24.9979
668A5V34.20.69CIS68.56OTH106.0271
669B2O36.60.74CIS67.33CIS131.83OTH103.1758
669C9X36.60.73CIS67.31CIS131.83OTH22.1860
670A4F36.60.74CIS67.31CIS131.83OTH102.1861
670B9G36.60.73CIS67.32CIS131.82OTH21.1762
670C6L36.60.74CIS67.33CIS131.83OTH101.1963
682A0M36.60.73CIS66.86CIS132.29OTH20.7171
682B5V36.60.72CIS66.85CIS132.2969
682C7P36.60.73CIS66.10CIS133.0577
684A4O36.60.73CIS66.53CIS132.61OTH20.4073
694A9Y36.6CIS613.8
695A2D36.6CIS68.12CIS134.07
697A3U36.60.71CIS66.86CIS142.2970
697B5Y36.60.71CIS66.85CIS142.29OTH21.4872
697C2T36.60.71CIS66.11CIS143.0576
698A8R36.60.72CIS66.09CIS143.05OTH23.9774
312A6E36.60.74CIS64.57NIS24.59OTH24.0172
313A1V36.61.05CIS64.59NIS24.59OTH23.9952
316A5G36.20.72CIS64.53NIS24.53OTH104.0066
316B7Y36.20.72CIS64.53NIS24.53OTH103.0061
317A0J36.20.72CIS64.53NIS24.53OTH102.0257
318A4B35.80.72CIS64.47NIS24.50OTH104.0271
338A2W36.60.73CIS64.57CIS144.5887
338B4F36.70.74CIS66.09CIS143.0472
339A3Q36.60.74CIS66.84CIS142.2967
339B9P36.60.74CIS63.83CIS140.77NIS24.5752
341A7H36.60.73CIS66.84CIS132.2968
341B5Z36.60.74CIS64.57NIS23.24OTH105.0057
346B6T36.60.73CIS66.10NIS23.05OTH104.9955
346C8X35.80.72CIS64.48CIS140.74NIS23.7258
351A9M35.80.73CIS64.49NIS24.50OTH105.0074
351B2V35.80.72CIS65.96NIS22.99OTH105.0262
352A6G35.80.72CIS63.73CIS130.75NIS24.5063
352B4N36.60.74CIS64.48CIS44.49OTH105.01>90
352C5Z36.60.73CIS66.73CIS42.24OTH105.0180
355A9K36.61.46CIS64.58CIS44.59OTH104.9973
328D3J34.30.69CIS68.60OTH105.9972
331H1K35.90.72CIS64.48NIS24.50OTH104.9974
074A2E35.40.67CIS26.1160
074B9O36.30.51CIS25.9762
075A3Q36.20.54CIS27.5566
077C5Y39.90.15CIS26.7861
078A8U38.80.33CIS66.11OTH180.2860
083A6B24.31.99CIS28.9464
083B0V27.81.47CIS26.1057
084A6G41.20.17CIS25.6760
084B4R39.80.24CIS26.6462
084C2W36.20.57CIS67.2563
085A8128.31.59CIS69.0961
085B3S38.90.29CIS66.7961
085C6H39.20.25CIS66.6060
096A5F39.30.25CIS66.6361
098B2X36.40.57CIS66.0560
100A6T28.21.62CIS29.2577
100B5G28.71.60CIS69.2367
501A8V28.71.66CIS29.1866
503A3S36.10.64CIS29.0964
503C5A35.80.65CIS69.3060
505A4R36.10.72CIS29.0560
505C7P35.90.75CIS27.4061
506B1V36.30.71CIS27.2760
508B2M36.10.72CIS27.5360
508E9C35.90.66CIS27.7058
509B0K36.00.62CIS27.5361
510B7L36.20.59CIS67.5961
548B1Z28.41.59CIS29.1256
564B0Y28.31.66CIS69.13OTH31.0264
569B2W28.62.49CIS67.23OTH61.4764
580B6G28.33.09CIS67.60OTH62.55OTH132.2765
581A8J28.43.21CIS66.87OTH62.58OTH132.2761
581B3E27.93.15CIS63.88OTH64.81OTH135.14>90
405A8N28.82.69CIS69.61OTH61.4965
406B7V28.83.08CIS69.22OTH61.6557

Additional aqueous compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, 2,4-D acid and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 19b. The formulations were prepared by mixing the 98% w/w a.e. aqueous solution of 2,4-D acid to a concentration in w/w% as indicated by [2,4-D] in Table 19b, surfactant(s), glycol followed by addition of 47.8 (47.4)% w/w a.e. aqueous solution of potassium glyphosate to a concentration in w/w % as indicated by [gly] in Table 19b and then taking the total volume to 100% with water. Formulations were tested for cloud point and for density.

TABLE 19b
Comp.[Gly][2,4-D]Cmpt. 1wt %Cmpt. 2wt %Cmpt. 3wt %Cloud pt. ° C.
447A6T23.22.64CIS128.4458
448A1Z23.62.75CIS59.8364
448C5G24.62.96CIS510.371
451A0125.52.99CIS59.8350
472A2W26.22.04CIS51.72CIS125.1656
473B8K30.42.99CIS58.4261
474A3R28.12.70CIS511.556
489A6H28.22.00CIS49.2859
489B9M29.12.90CIS48.5572
489C5V28.32.97CIS49.0574
489D1Q28.32.95CIS48.9974
009C4N29.83.41CIS118.72OTH64.1569
012A7O27.93.09CIS118.96OTH62.1357
012B2X28.13.10CIS118.85OTH52.5565
013A6K28.33.10CIS119.76OTH62.8366
013B6T28.43.12CIS119.27OTH62.7663
021B0U28.43.14CIS159.17OTH62.7762
026A8V26.02.87CIS68.59CIS72.9664
026B9Y26.72.84CIS29.19CIS72.5465
028A3Q27.12.95CIS610.4CIS71.8353
028B0H27.52.99CIS68.74CIS75.8153
029A4L26.83.08CIS611.1CIS74.7860
029B3V28.03.08CIS29.55CIS75.8158
034A6P28.32.92CIS29.95OTH162.6858
034B7Y27.92.94CIS29.16OTH162.6860
044A1L28.83.08CIS29.00OTH62.3967
044B5T28.13.04CIS29.21OTH62.1966
045A0X38.23.09CIS29.28OTH62.2465
045B8Q28.53.10CIS29.19OTH62.1765
046A2W28.83.10CIS69.13OTH62.24OTH141.1575
047A6F28.13.09CIS69.09OTH61.51OTH141.8762
047B7K28.43.13CIS29.21OTH62.1667
059A0U28.43.13CIS29.21OTH62.1965
066B1V26.42.73CIS67.70CIS74.55OTH148.7060
071A3P32.60.92CIS67.7460
072A5334.60.60CIS27.8460
07209W36.60.51CIS27.6962
073A4G34.60.54CIS25.8960
073B0M36.30.47CIS26.0862
501B2U29.01.70CIS29.2374
501C9H28.71.82CIS29.0764
502A6G33.11.04CIS69.2662
502B1J34.70.78CIS29.2662
502C7K36.20.61CIS29.1061
503B3L36.10.66CIS69.0861
504A8T36.10.65CIS69.0860
504B4P36.10.74CIS29.0961
505B0X36.10.88CIS27.2350
506A4R36.10.30CIS27.2461
508A5J36.10.30CIS27.6260
508C1P36.00.34CIS27.5258
508D2W35.70.31CIS67.5059
509A9I35.80.28CIS27.6760
510A7Z36.30.26CIS67.5361
546A0V28.41.57CIS28.46OTH91.9260
548A2D28.51.57CIS29.23OTH92.2460
549B3X28.51.45CIS29.19OTH92.2266
549C1K28.51.45CIS29.23OTH92.0371
551B8D28.51.47CIS29.22OTH92.1166
553A7U28.21.44CIS29.60OTH92.8758
553B2F28.41.44CIS29.19OTH92.5563
564A6Y28.41.60CIS69.21OTH31.0068

Additional aqueous compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, octyl amine 2,4-D salt and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 19c. The formulations were prepared by mixing an aqueous solution of 2,4-D octyl amine salt to a concentration in w/w % as indicated by [2,4-D] in Table 19b, surfactant(s), glycol followed by addition of 47.8 (47.4)% w/w a.e. aqueous solution of potassium glyphosate to a concentration in w/w % as indicated by [gly] in Table 19b and then taking the total volume to 100% with water. Formulations were tested for cloud point and for density.

TABLE 19c
Comp.[Gly][2,4-D]Cmpt. 1wt %Cmpt. 2wt %Cmpt. 3wt %Cloud pt. ° C.
009A5T31.33.18CIS2 9.95OTH65.1781
009B9Z30.42.94CIS119.33OTH64.7671

Example 20

The effect of glyphosate and combinations of 2,4-D and glyphosate on Roundup® ready soy was tested at 1 day, 3 days and 7 days after treatment. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, reported in wt. % a.e. and excipient ingredients as shown for formulations in Table 19a above. The formulations were compared to RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®. The compositions and comparative compositions RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®, were applied to Roundup® ready soy plants. Results, averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 20a.

TABLE 20a
GlyphosateRR SoyRR SoyRR Soy %
Application Rate% inhibition% inhibitioninhibition
Composition(g a.e./ha)(1DAT)(3DAT)(7DAT)
656A1T841, 1681, 336215.0, 19.2,14.2, 19.2,12.2, 20.0,
25.030.044.2
665A2T841, 1681, 336210.8, 23.3,10.8, 26.7,10.5, 27.5,
2531.748.3
667B6Z841, 1681, 336213.3, 18.3,13.3, 18.3,11.0, 18.3,
21.723.339.2
668A5V841, 1681, 336215.0, 20.8,15.8, 23.3,15.5, 25.0,
21.725.047.5
682A0M841, 1681, 336215.0, 18.3,15.0, 20.8,13.3, 20.8,
29.230.844.2
646A8K841, 1681, 336212.5, 15.0,10.0, 17.5,12.3, 19.2,
20.825.035.0
694A9Y841, 1681, 33624.7, 7.5, 9.55.0, 7.0,5.0, 10.0,
15.815.8
695A2D841, 1681, 33621.0, 3.0, 5.03.0, 3.7,3.0, 3.7,
15.013.3
Weathermax841, 1681, 33621.0, 1.7, 3.01.0, 1.3, 4.30.7, 3.0,
3.7
RT Master841, 1681, 336223.3, 20.0,23.3, 23.3,25.8, 41.7,
17.520.856.7

Example 21

The effect of glyphosate and combinations of 2,4-D and glyphosate on velvetleaf was tested. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, reported in wt. % a.e. and excipient ingredients as shown for the formulations in Table 19a above. The formulations were compared to RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®. The compositions comparative compositions RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®, were applied to velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti, ABUTH) plants. Results, averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 21a.

TABLE 21a
Glyphosate ApplicationABUTH %
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)inhibition (14DAT)
656A1T100, 200, 300, 40014.2, 67.5, 83.8, 87.5
665A2T100, 200, 300, 40036.7, 75.8, 85, 91.7
667B6Z100, 200, 300, 40038.3, 74.2, 84.3, 90.3
668A5V100, 200, 300, 40048.3, 78.3, 87.5, 89.5
682A0M100, 200, 300, 40037.5, 72.5, 83.7, 89.8
646A8K100, 200, 300, 40040.8, 80, 85, 90.3
694A9Y100, 200, 300, 40067.5, 82.5, 90.8, 93.3
695A2D100, 200, 300, 40058.3, 79.2, 88, 90.8
Weathermax100, 200, 300, 40035.8, 73.3, 85.8, 90.8
RT Master100, 200, 300, 40018.3, 70, 80, 89.2

The order of efficacy for ABUTH % inhibition averaged over all application rates was 694A9Y>695A2D>668A5V>646A8K>665A2T>667B6Z>Weathermax>682A0M>RT Master>656A1T.

Example 22

The effect of glyphosate and combinations of 2,4-D and glyphosate on velvetleaf was tested at 16 days after treatment. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, reported in wt. % a.e. and excipient ingredients as shown for formulations in Table 22a. The formulations were compared to RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®. The 681C4J composition in Table 19a, compositions in Table 22a and comparative compositions RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®, were applied to velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti, ABUTH) plants. Results, averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 22b.

TABLE 22a
Comp.[Gly][2,4-D]Cmpt. 1wt %Cmpt. 2wt %Cmpt. 3wt %
937C2V40.0CIS66.65CIS143.34
936D9G36.6CIS613.6
974B3X34.30.69CIS68.60OTH105.99
935A8Z35.90.72CIS64.48NIS26.42OTH104.99
342B6V36.2CIS69.05NIS26.52
346A4F36.6CIS613.7
353A1S36.6CIS69.15CIS44.58

TABLE 22b
Glyphosate ApplicationABUTH %
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)inhibition (16DAT)
937C2V100, 200, 300, 40030.8, 70.8, 80.8, 91.2
936D9G100, 200, 300, 40044.2, 77.5, 85.5, 94.3
974B3X100, 200, 300, 40041.7, 70.8, 87.5, 92.3
935A8Z100, 200, 300, 40031.7, 62.5, 81.3, 89.0
342B6V100, 200, 300, 40045.8, 73.3, 90.0, 92.0
346A4F100, 200, 300, 40041.7, 70.0, 84.7, 91.8
353A1S100, 200, 300, 40043.3, 77.5, 91.7, 98.3
681C4J100, 200, 300, 40038.3, 70.8, 83.2, 89.3
Weathermax100, 200, 300, 40028.3, 72.5, 80.8, 90.0
RT Master100, 200, 300, 40025.0, 65.0, 84.2, 92.2

The order of efficacy for ABUTH % inhibition averaged over all application rates was 353A1S>936D9G>342B6V>974B3X>346A4F>681C4J>937C2V>Weathermax>RT Master>935A8Z.

Example 23

The effect of glyphosate and combinations of 2,4-D and glyphosate on velvetleaf was tested at 15 days after treatment. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, reported in wt. % a.e. and excipient ingredients as shown for formulations in Tables 22a. The formulations were compared to RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®. The 338A2W, 338B4F, 339A3Q, 341A7H, 352C5Z and 355A9K compositions in Table 19a, the 974B3X and 935A8Z compositions in Table 23a and comparative compositions RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®, were applied to velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti, ABUTH) plants. Results, averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 23a.

TABLE 23a
Glyphosate ApplicationABUTH %
CompositionRate (g a.e./ha)inhibition (15DAT)
338A2W100, 200, 300, 40041.7, 74.2, 86.5, 90.5
338B4F100, 200, 300, 40043.3, 74.2, 88.0, 90.2
339A3Q100, 200, 300, 40046.7, 70.8, 89.2, 91.3
341A7H100, 200, 300, 40038.3, 73.3, 87.5, 91.7
352C5Z100, 200, 300, 40050.0, 72.5, 85.8, 90.7
355A9K100, 200, 300, 40045.8, 63.3, 84.7, 89.3
974B3X100, 200, 300, 40052.5, 76.7, 88.8, 94.0
935A8Z100, 200, 300, 40043.3, 65.0, 84.2, 88.2
Weathermax100, 200, 300, 40035.0, 67.5, 82.5, 96.2
RT Master100, 200, 300, 40032.5, 69.2, 84.5, 94.0

The order of efficacy for ABUTH % inhibition averaged over all application rates was 974B3X>352C5Z>339A3Q>338B4F>338A2W>341A7H>355A9K>Weathermax>935A8Z>RT Master.

Example 24

The effect of glyphosate and combinations of 2,4-D and glyphosate on Roundup ready soybean plants was tested at 1 day and 3 days after treatment. Aqueous concentrate compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, reported in wt. % a.e. and excipient ingredients as shown for formulations in Tables 22a. The formulations were compared to RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®. The 681C4J, 342B2H, 342C3A, 346A7C, 353A8Q, 338A2W, 338B4F, 339A3Q, 341A7H, 352C5Z and 355A9K compositions in Table 19a, the 937C2V, 936D9G, 974B3X and 935A8Z compositions in Table 22a and comparative compositions RT Master® and Roundup Weathermax®, were applied to Roundup ready soybean (GLXMG) plants using an AI nozzle. Results, averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 24a.

TABLE 24a
GlyphosateRR SoyRR Soy
Application Rate% injury% injury
Composition(g a.e./ha)(1DAT)(3DAT)
681C4J841, 16812.0, 4.02.8, 6.5
342B2H841, 16812.8, 10.35.0, 13.3
342C3A841, 16811.8, 10.04.8, 11.3
346A7C841, 16816.5, 14.05.0, 14.0
353A8Q841, 16812.3, 10.86.0, 12.8
338A2W841, 168125.0, 26.331.3, 33.8
338B4F841, 168123.8, 23.830.0, 35.0
339A3Q841, 168127.5, 26.330.0, 35.0
341A7H841, 168118.8, 30.021.3, 38.8
352C5Z841, 168125.0, 31.327.5, 36.3
355A9K841, 168121.3, 26.320.0, 31.3
937C2V841, 16812.0, 4.02.3, 6.8
936D9G841, 168114.5, 20.09.3, 22.5
974B3X841, 168128.8, 32.533.8, 38.8
935A8Z841, 168125.0, 23.823.8, 27.5
Weathermax841, 16812.0, 10.02.0, 5.0
RT Master841, 168121.3, 18.822.5, 27.5

The order of efficacy for % control in Roundup ready soybeans averaged over all application rates using an AI nozzle was 974B3X>352C5Z>339A3Q>338A2W>338B4F>341A7H>935A8Z>355A9K>RT Master>936D9G>346A7C>342B2H>353A8Q>342C3A>Weathermax>681C4J>937C2V.

Example 25

The experiment in Example 24 was repeated using an TT nozzle to apply the formulations to the Roundup ready soybean plants. Results, averaged for all replicates of each treatment, are shown in Table 25a.

TABLE 25a
GlyphosateRR SoyRR Soy
Application Rate% injury% injury
Composition(g a.e./ha)(1DAT)(3DAT)
681C4J841, 16811.0, 3.51.0, 2.8
342B2H841, 16812.3, 6.02.0, 6.5
342C3A841, 16813.0, 5.01.5, 5.5
346A7C841, 16812.5, 4.52.3, 5.3
353A8Q841, 16812.0, 6.02.3, 6.8
338A2W841, 168120.0, 26.316.3, 28.8
338B4F841, 168122.5, 26.315.0, 26.3
339A3Q841, 168122.5, 22.520.0, 25.0
341A7H841, 168120.0, 25.015.0, 26.3
352C5Z841, 168126.3, 23.825.0, 30.0
355A9K841, 168128.8, 26.327.5, 31.3
937C2V841, 16811.8, 3.01.3, 3.5
936D9G841, 16813.3, 7.33.3, 12.0
974B3X841, 168120.0, 26.316.3, 28.8
935A8Z841, 168121.3, 26.318.8, 27.5
Weathermax841, 16812.0, 4.52.0, 5.0
RT Master841, 168118.8, 20.022.5, 27.5

The order of efficacy for %control in Roundup ready soybeans averaged over all application rates using a TT nozzle was 355A9K>352C5Z>935A8Z>974B3X>338A2W>338B4F>339A3Q>RT Master>341A7H>936D9G>353A8Q>342B2H>342C3A>346A7C>Weathermax>937C2V>681C4J.

Example 26

Aqueous compositions were prepared containing potassium glyphosate salt, dicamba and excipient ingredients as shown in Table 26a. Formulations were tested for cloud point and for density.

TABLE 26a
[dicaCmpt.Cmpt.Cmpt.Cloud
Comp.[Gly]mba1wt %2wt %3wt %pt.° C.
561A2J39.80.80CIS66.63CIS43.3251
561B5M39.80.79CIS66.40CIS43.5653
561C3A39.80.79CIS65.97CIS43.9856
561D7Y39.80.79CIS65.62CIS44.3358
561E8P39.80.50CIS66.64CIS43.3266