Title:
Shingled siding unit
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A shingled siding unit is adapted for mounting to a wall or roof of a building structure. The unit may be a panel assembly or a corner assembly and includes a substrate having outer and inner surfaces, at least one course of side-by-side shingles mounted to the outer surface of the substrate, and spacing strips extending across and secured to the inner surface of the substrate. The spacing strips define a ventilation channel which facilitates drainage or evaporation of moisture between the unit and the exterior surface of a building structure to which it is mounted. A method of using the shingled siding unit is also disclosed.



Inventors:
Marshall, Scott T. (Hollister, CA, US)
Shuford, Thomas D. (Statesville, NC, US)
Application Number:
11/106374
Publication Date:
01/12/2006
Filing Date:
04/13/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04B2/00; E04F13/08
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
GLESSNER, BRIAN E
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
MORGAN, LEWIS & BOCKIUS LLP (SP) (SAN FRANCISCO, CA, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A shingled siding unit adapted for mounting to a wall or roof of a building structure, the shingled siding unit comprising: a substrate having outer and inner surfaces; at least one course of side-by-side shingles extending across and mounted to the outer surface of the substrate; the shingles in a lowermost course on the substrate having lower ends extending below a lower edge of the substrate configured to overlap an upper edge of a similarly formed siding unit mounted in a vertically abutting relation to the siding unit; and spacing strips extending across and secured to the inner surface of the substrate defining a ventilation channel between the spacing strips.

2. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the spacing strips extend substantially vertically along the inner surface of the substrate.

3. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the spacing strips are formed of plywood strips.

4. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the siding unit is substantially planar and the substrate is a panel.

5. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the panel is a plywood sheet.

6. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the siding unit is a corner assembly.

7. The shingled siding unit of claim 6, wherein the substrate includes two interconnected panels.

8. The shingled siding unit of claim 7, wherein the spacing strips are substantially parallel to a joint formed by the intersection of the interconnected panels.

9. The shingled siding unit of claim 8, wherein one of the spacing strips extends along the joint.

10. The shingled siding unit of claim 8, wherein one of the spacing strips extends along a free edge of one of the interconnected panels.

11. The shingled siding unit of claim 9, wherein the one spacing strip extends along and beyond the free edge.

12. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the lowermost course includes a lowermost protruding end shingle on a first side of the substrate and a lowermost recessed end shingle on a second side of the substrate, the lowermost protruding and recessed end shingles being respectively mounted to protrude laterally beyond and to be laterally recessed with respect to the first and second side edges of the substrate by a substantially equal first distance.

13. The shingled siding unit of claim 12, further comprising at least two courses mounted to the outer surface of the substrate, with an upper course vertically overlapped over a portion of the lowermost course, the upper course including an upper recessed end shingle on the first side of the substrate and an upper protruding end shingle on the second side of the substrate, the upper recessed and protruding end shingles being respectively mounted to be laterally recessed and to protrude laterally beyond with respect to the first and second side edges of the substrate by a substantially equal second distance.

14. The shingled siding unit of claim 19, further comprising at least three courses mounted to the outer surface of the substrate, with an uppermost course vertically overlapped over a portion of the upper course, the uppermost course a uppermost protruding end shingle on the first side of the substrate and a uppermost recessed end shingle on the second side of the substrate, the uppermost protruding and recessed end shingles being respectively mounted to protrude laterally beyond and to be laterally recessed with respect to the first and second side edges of the substrate by a substantially equal third distance.

15. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, further comprising a water impervious membrane extending across the substrate and mounted between the shingles and at least one of the substrate and a lower course of the shingles.

16. The shingled siding unit of claim 15, wherein the membrane is provided by a plurality of strips of roofing felt with a first of the strips mounted on the substrate under the lowermost course, a second of the strips overlapping the upper ends of the lowermost course and overlapping the first of the strips.

17. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the lower edge of the substrate includes a beveled surface facing in an outward direction with respect to the panel; and the base is formed with a lower edge having a transverse shoulder and a beveled surface facing in an inward direction with respect to the panel.

18. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the upper and lower edges of the substrate are formed and dimensioned such that when respective upper and lower edges of similarly formed siding units are in the vertically abutting relation, a gravity-driven film of liquid flows freely across the edges.

19. The shingled siding unit of claim 2, wherein one of the edges of the substrate in the vertically abutting relation includes a beveled surface.

20. The shingled siding unit of claim 2, wherein both of the edges of the substrate in the vertically abutting relation include a beveled surface.

21. The shingled siding unit of claim 22, wherein the beveled surfaces have unequal bevel angles.

22. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein each of the edges of the substrate in the vertically abutting relation includes a beveled surface, and the abutting relation is such that portions of the beveled surfaces are separated by a vertical gap.

23. The shingled siding unit of claim 1, wherein the upper and lower edges of the substrate are formed and dimensioned such that when the siding unit and the similarly formed siding unit are mounted in the vertically abutting relation with the similarly formed siding unit elevationally below the siding unit, an uppermost portion of the upper edge of the similarly formed siding unit is elevationally below the lower edge of the siding unit.

24. A shingled building corner adapted for mounting to a wall or roof of a building structure, the shingled building corner comprising: a substrate having outer and inner surfaces formed by two interconnected panels; at least one course of side-by-side shingles extending across and mounted to the outer surface of the substrate; the shingles in a lowermost course on the substrate having lower ends extending below a lower edge of the substrate configured to overlap an upper edge of a similarly formed building corner mounted in a vertically abutting relation to the building corner; and spacing strips extending across and secured to the inner surface of the substrate defining a ventilation channel between the spacing strips.

25. The shingled building corner of claim 24, wherein the lowermost course includes a lowermost protruding end shingle on a first side of the substrate and a lowermost recessed end shingle on a second side of the substrate, the lowermost protruding and recessed end shingles being respectively mounted to protrude laterally beyond and to be laterally recessed with respect to the first and second side edges of the substrate by a substantially equal first distance.

26. The shingled building corner of claim 24, wherein the spacing strips extend substantially vertically along the inner surface of the substrate.

27. The shingled building corner of claim 26, wherein the spacing strips are substantially parallel to a joint formed by the intersection of the interconnected panels.

28. The shingled building corner of claim 24, wherein the spacing strips are formed of plywood strips.

29. The shingled building corner of claim 24, wherein one of the spacing strips extends along the joint.

30. The shingled building corner of claim 24, wherein one of the spacing strips extends along a free edge of one of the interconnected panels.

31. The shingled building corner of claim 30, wherein the one spacing strip extends along and beyond the free edge.

32. The shingled building corner of claim 24, wherein the upper and lower edges of the substrate are formed and dimensioned such that when respective upper and lower edges of similarly formed building corners are in the vertically abutting relation, a gravity-driven film of liquid flows freely across the edges.

33. The shingled building corner of claim 24, wherein each of the edges of the substrate in the vertically abutting relation includes a beveled surface, and the abutting relation is such that portions of beveled surfaces are separated by a vertical gap.

34. The shingled building corner of claim 24, wherein the upper and lower edges of the substrate are formed and dimensioned such that when the siding unit and the similarly formed siding unit are mounted in the vertically abutting relation with the similarly formed siding unit elevationally below the siding unit, an uppermost portion of the upper edge of the similarly formed siding unit is elevationally below the lower edge of the siding unit.

35. A building structure having planar structural surfaces, comprising: a plurality of the shingle siding units of claim 1 mounted to the planar structural surfaces with a plurality of nails, the nails having a ringed shank.

36. The building structure of claim 35, wherein the nails have a head diameter greater than ⅜ inch.

37. The building structure of claim 35, wherein the nails have a head diameter greater than or equal to ½ inch.

38. The building structure of claim 35, wherein the nails have a blunt tip.

39. The building structure of claim 35, wherein the planar structural surfaces are walls.

40. A building structure at least partially enveloped in a housewrap product, the building structure comprising a plurality of shingled siding units of claim 1.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/561,941, filed Apr. 13, 2004, entitled SHINGLED SIDING UNIT, which application is incorporated herein in its entirety by this reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates, in general, to shingled siding units, and more particularly to panel assemblies and corner assemblies that are useful to form the exterior surface of a building structure, and to methods for their use.

2. Description of Related Art

Shingles are frequently used for walls or roofs of structures. Wood shingles are attractive and they require little maintenance. Producing a shingled wall or roof by nailing individual shingles to sheathing is expensive because it consumes a great deal of time and because many shingles are often broken during shipping and installation.

To reduce the cost of shingled structures and still preserve the advantages of shingles, prefabricated panels having shingles mounted on a backing or base sheet have been made. Various problems are associated with known prefabricated shingled panels. Generally, the panels must be mounted in a tight-fitting configuration side-to-side and top-to-bottom, not only to simulate the random shingled appearance of a hand shingled wall, but also to prevent leakage between adjacent panels.

Furthermore, one side of prior shingled panels is generally trimmed along a straight line in order to cooperate with known shingled corners. Disadvantageously, the resulting joint between the panels and the corners is substantially linear and fails to interweave the shingles of the panel with the shingles of the corner. Not only does the linear joint prevent a random shingled appearance, the linear joint is limited in terms of water-resistance and relies instead on the caulking or other sealing means, between the panel and the corner.

What is needed is improved shingled siding units which overcome the above and other disadvantages of known shingled panels.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In summary, one aspect of the present invention is directed to a shingled siding unit adapted for mounting to a wall or roof of a building structure including a substrate having outer and inner surfaces, at least one course of side-by-side shingles extending across and mounted to the outer surface of the substrate. The shingles in a lowermost course on the substrate may have lower ends that extend below a lower edge of the substrate configured to overlap an upper edge of a similarly formed siding unit mounted in a vertically abutting relation to the siding unit. The unit further includes spacing strips extending across and secured to the inner surface of the substrate defining at least one ventilation channel between the spacing strips.

Preferably, the spacing strips extend substantially vertically along the inner surface of the substrate. The spacing strips may be formed of plywood strips. The siding unit may be substantially planar and may be a plywood panel. Alternatively, the shingled siding unit may be a corner assembly and may include two interconnected panels. The spacing strips may be substantially parallel to a joint formed by the intersection of the interconnected panels. One of the spacing strips may extend along the joint. One of the spacing strips may extend along, or along and beyond, a free edge of one of the interconnected panels.

In one embodiment, the lowermost course may include a lowermost protruding end shingle on a first side of the substrate and a lowermost recessed end shingle on a second side of the substrate, the lowermost protruding and recessed end shingles being respectively mounted to protrude laterally beyond and to be laterally recessed with respect to the first and second side edges of the substrate by a substantially equal first distance. The shingled siding unit may include at least two courses mounted to the outer surface of the substrate, with an upper course vertically overlapped over a portion of the lowermost course. The upper course may include an upper recessed end shingle on the first side of the substrate and an upper protruding end shingle on the second side of the substrate, the upper recessed and protruding end shingles being respectively mounted to be laterally recessed and to protrude laterally beyond with respect to the first and second side edges of the substrate by a substantially equal second distance. The shingled siding unit may include at least three courses mounted to the outer surface of the substrate, with an uppermost course vertically overlapped over a portion of the upper course. The uppermost course may include a uppermost protruding end shingle on the first side of the substrate and a uppermost recessed end shingle on the second side of the substrate, the uppermost protruding and recessed end shingles being respectively mounted to protrude laterally beyond and to be laterally recessed with respect to the first and second side edges of the substrate by a substantially equal third distance.

The shingled siding unit may include a water impervious membrane extending across the substrate and mounted between the shingles and at least one of the substrate and a lower course of the shingles. The membrane may be provided by a plurality of strips of roofing felt with a first of the strips mounted on the substrate under the lowermost course. A second of the strips may overlap the upper ends of the lowermost course and overlapping the first of the strips. The lower edge of the substrate may include a beveled surface facing in an outward direction with respect to the panel, and the base may be formed with a lower edge having a transverse shoulder and a beveled surface facing in an inward direction with respect to the panel.

In one embodiment, the upper and lower edges of the substrate may be formed and dimensioned such that when respective upper and lower edges of similarly formed siding units are in the vertically abutting relation, a gravity-driven film of liquid flows freely across the edges. One of the edges of the substrate in the vertically abutting relation may include a beveled surface. Both of the edges of the substrate in the vertically abutting relation may include a beveled surface. The beveled surfaces may have unequal bevel angles. Each of the edges of the substrate in the vertically abutting relation may include a beveled surface, and the abutting relation may be such that portions of the beveled surfaces are separated by a vertical gap. The upper and lower edges of the substrate may be formed and dimensioned such that when the siding unit and the similarly formed siding unit are mounted in the vertically abutting relation with the similarly formed siding unit elevationally below the siding unit, an uppermost portion of the upper edge of the similarly formed siding unit is elevationally below the lower edge of the siding unit.

Another aspect of the present invention is directed to a shingled corner assembly adapted for mounting to a wall or roof of a building structure, the shingled siding unit includes a substrate having inner and outer surfaces formed by two interconnected panels and at least one course of side-by-side shingles extending across and mounted to the outer surface of the substrate. The shingles in a lowermost course on the substrate may have lower ends that extend below a lower edge of the substrate being configured to overlap an upper edge of a similarly formed lower corner assembly mounted in a vertically abutting relation to the corner assembly. The corner assembly further includes spacing strips extending across and secured to the inner surface of the substrate defining at least one ventilation channel between the spacing strips.

Preferably, the spacing strips extend substantially vertically along the inner surface of the substrate. Preferably, the spacing strips may be substantially parallel to a joint formed by the intersection of the interconnected panels. Preferably, the spacing strips may be formed of plywood strips. One of the spacing strips may extend along the joint. Another of the spacing strips may along, or along and beyond, a free edge of one of the interconnected panels. The lowermost course may include a lowermost protruding end shingle on a first side of the substrate and a lowermost recessed end shingle on a second side of the substrate, the lowermost protruding and recessed end shingles being respectively mounted to protrude laterally beyond and to be laterally recessed with respect to the first and second side edges of the substrate by a substantially equal first distance.

An object of the present invention is to provide a prefabricated shingled siding unit configured to reduce the accumulation of moisture and water vapor between the shingled siding unit and the building structure to which it is installed.

A further object of the present invention is to provide cooperating panel and corner assemblies that facilitate the construction of wall and roofs having a random shingled appearance and enhanced weather resistance.

The shingled siding units of the present invention have other features and advantages which will be apparent from or are set forth in more detail in the accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and form a part of this specification, and the following Detailed Description of the Invention, which together serve to explain the principles of the present invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 and 1A are a front perspective views of shingled siding units in the form of panel assemblies constructed in accordance with the present invention.

FIGS. 2 and 2A are rear perspective views of the panel assemblies of FIG. 1 and FIG. 1A, respectively.

FIGS. 3 and 3A are front perspective views of shingled siding units in the form of corner assemblies constructed in accordance with the present invention.

FIGS. 4 and 4A are rear perspective views of the corner assembly of FIG. 3 FIG. 3, respectively.

FIG. 5 is a side perspective view of the corner assembly of FIG. 3.

FIG. 6 is an end elevational view of the corner assembly of FIG. 3 showing the relationship between two vertically adjacent corner assemblies.

FIG. 7 is an enlarged end elevational view of the corner assembly of FIG. 3 corresponding to area 7-7 of FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view of the lower corner assembly of FIG. 6 taken along line 8-8 of FIG. 6.

FIG. 9 is a front perspective view of a modified shingled corner unit similar to that shown in FIG. 3.

FIG. 10A-FIG. 10E are side views illustrating the relationship between two vertically adjacent siding units according to an aspect of the invention.

FIG. 11 is a side view of a ringed shank nail.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Reference will now be made in detail to preferred embodiments of the invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. While the invention will be described in conjunction with the preferred embodiments, it will be understood that they are not intended to limit the invention to those embodiments. On the contrary, the invention is intended to cover alternatives, modifications and equivalents, which may be included within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Turning now to the drawings, wherein like components are designated by like reference numerals throughout the various figures, attention is directed to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, which figures illustrate a shingled siding unit in the form of a panel assembly, generally designated 30, constructed in accordance with the present invention. In some aspects, the shingled panel assembly is similar to that disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 4,731,970 to Marshall et al., the entire content of which is incorporated herein by this reference. Further attention is directed to FIG. 3 through FIG. 5, which figures illustrate a shingled siding unit in the form of a corner assembly, generally designated 31, also constructed in accordance with the present invention. While for illustration purposes these figures show preferred embodiments having three courses of shingles, other preferred embodiments have a single course of shingles, as are shown in FIGS. 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A and 5A. Further embodiments have two, or four, or more than four courses of shingles.

The shingled siding units of the present invention may be configured to reduce accumulation of moisture and water vapor behind the inner surface thereof when the unit is installed on a building structure. First, the shingled siding units are provided with spacing means that define ventilation channels between the unit and the building structure, which ventilation channels facilitate the drainage or evaporation of moisture between an installed unit and the exterior surface of the building structure. In particular, the ventilation channels define drainage paths that allow any liquid condensation, which may form between the unit and the building structure, to run down the ventilation channel under the force of gravity. Ventilation channels also provide a circulation path through which circulating air may further remove moisture by evaporation.

Also, as described in detail below, the portion of the ventilation channel formed by the shingled siding units optionally has reduced or eliminated ledge-like protuberances formed by jutting edges of the vertically adjacent siding units. With such obstructions within the ventilation channel reduced or eliminated, liquid condensate formed on the siding unit's substrate can freely run down to earth along the substrate surface. Specifically, as an option, embodiments may have upper and lower edges of the substrate which are formed and dimensioned such that when respective upper and lower edges of similarly formed siding units are in a vertically abutting relation, a gravity-driven film of liquid flows freely and unobstructed across the edges. Otherwise, obstructed by ledge-like protuberances due to less advantageous abutment, liquid can stagnate or pool on the protuberances and subsequently and/or accumulate within the crevices formed by the abutting edges of vertically oriented panels.

Due to these configurations, the shingled siding units of the present invention are particularly suited for covering the exterior sheathing of building structures that have been covered with a housewrap product because the ventilation channels preserve a drainage plane function of housewrap in the context of use with close fitting siding. In turn, this may reduce moisture damage to the siding because moisture from the interior of the building can condense and drain along the housewrap to earth, and not soak through the siding to ambient air.

Housewrap products, such as those sold under the trademark TYVEC by E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company of Wilmington, Del., is permeable to water vapor and impermeable to liquid water. Accordingly, housewrap serves as a triple function weather barrier in that it reduces the flow of air in to and out from a building, stops liquid water from entering a building, and acts as a vertical drainage plane for liquid films or droplets. The ventilation channels of the present invention preserve the functionality of housewrap from being reduced because the channels allow any moisture and/or condensation, which may form between the housewrapped sheathing of the building structure and the inner surface of the shingled siding unit, to readily escape despite the tight-fitting configuration of the shingled siding units when installed on a building structure. In particular, liquid condensate may freely flow along the housewrap vertical drainage plane despite siding. Without such ventilation channels, in contrast, a tight-fitting configuration of shingles or shingled siding units may inhibit the drainage plane function of housewrap by obstructing the plane. Accordingly, the shingled siding units of the present invention are particularly suited to reduce the occurrence of water damage on the building structure or the unit.

As noted above, the shingled siding unit of the present invention is particularly suited for installing on housewrapped exterior sheathing of building structures including, but not limited to garages, houses, hotels and the like. One will also appreciate that the shingled siding unit of the present invention is equally suited for use in covering interior walls in such a manner to simulate the random shingled appearance of a hand shingled wall.

Turning first to the shingled siding unit shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, panel assembly 30 includes a sheet-like base or substrate 32 that is preferably made of plywood, particleboard or other material that is weather resistant. For the purpose of convenience the positions of the various members will be described herein with the panel assembly assumed to be in a vertical or at least inclined orientation. Panel assembly 30 may be used for wall or roofing, although it is particularly well suited for use as exterior siding, however, one will appreciate that the panel assembly may also be used as exterior sheathing provided that the base is sufficiently sized and dimensioned for such purpose.

In the illustrated embodiment, panel assembly 30 has three courses of shingles attached to base 32. Again, however, one will appreciate that the same teaching provides for one, two, three, four, or more than four courses. It is preferred that the panel assembly be constructed with wooden, and most preferably with cedar shingles, but it will be understood that many of the advantages of the panel assembly of the present invention will accrue if the shingles are formed with synthetic or non-wooden materials.

In the illustrated three-course embodiment, the bottom or lowermost course 33 of shingles consists of shingles 34 that may have random or uniform widths. Lowermost course 33 of shingles is mounted on base 32 so that the butt or thicker, lower ends 35 protrude beyond a bottom edge 36 of base 32 so as to permit overlapping with the top course of shingles in a next lower, similarly-formed panel assembly (not shown). For this purpose lowermost shingles 34 may extend beyond base 32 by about one and one-half inches. The upper portions or upper thin ends of shingles 34 are secured to the base 32 with suitable fasteners, such as galvanized eighteen gauge staples 37. Preferably, upper staples 37 are driven through the upper narrow portion of the shingles from the front or shingled side of panel assembly 30.

To insure waterproof construction, a first, lower water-resistant membrane strip 38 is placed on base 32 beneath the bottom course of shingles 33. Strip 38 advantageously may be provided by conventional fiberglass-based roofing felt. Membrane strip 38 is positioned so that its upper edge lies below the upper ends of shingles 34, and the lower edge of membrane strip 38 extends beyond bottom edge 36 of the base. Membrane strip 38, however, extends beyond bottom edge 36 of the base a lesser distance than which the lower ends of shingles 34 extend beyond the base.

Membrane 38 is positioned on base 32 before the lowermost course of shingles 34 are attached to it, and the positions of upper staples 37 preferably are such that they hold both shingles 34 and membrane 38 in place, that is, the upper staples pass through the shingles and roofing felt and into base 32. Membrane strip 38 is provided with one or more transversely extending openings 39 which expose base 32 through them. The openings 39 are filled with an adhesive, for example, a first adhesive bead 40, so that shingles 34 are glued directly to the base 32 by a bead of adhesive material that extends over substantially the entire width dimension of each shingle.

In order to further secure shingles 34 to the base, the shingles preferably are secured by second, lower fasteners such as lower staples 41 driven through the backside of panel assembly 30 and into the butt or lower thick ends of the shingles. Back-stapling of the panel assemblies is preferably accomplished after all the courses have been secured by upper staples 37 and adhesive beads, and such back-stapling greatly augments upper staples 37, which only pass through a relatively narrow section of the shingles. In this manner shingles 34 are held to base 32 both by their upper portion, through upper staples 37, and their lower portion, through the wood-to-wood adhesive as well as by lower staples 41, thereby being fastened to base 32 with great stability.

The shingled siding units of the present invention can be formed with a single course of shingles; or the units may be formed with two, three, four or more courses. In some preferred embodiments, the panel assembly has at least three courses of shingles. Other preferred embodiments constructed under the same teachings, however, have a single course. Practical circumstances that may favor single course embodiments are described below.

In embodiments having at least three courses, a middle course 42 of shingles is composed of middle shingles 43 which overlap shingles 34 of the lowermost course of shingles. Beneath the middle course of shingles 43 and overlapping upper ends of lower shingles 34 is a second, middle water-resistant membrane strip 44 which extends from a distance just short of the upper end of middle shingles 43 to a distance short of the bottom end of shingles 43. Middle membrane 44 overlaps the upper portion of each lower shingle in first course 33 as well as the respective lower staples 37, as well as the upper edge of lower membrane strip 44. Thusly, water running off of the middle course onto the lower course of shingles will drain from the panel assembly without coming into contact directly with base 32 or the lower staples securing shingles 34 to the base.

Middle shingles 43 and middle membrane strip 44 are also fastened to base 32 with upper and lower staples in the same manner as discussed above. It is noted that the staples which secure the butt ends of middle shingles 43 also pass through the upper ends of lower shingles 34 to assist further in securing these shingles. A second bead of adhesive may also be used to further secure the middle course of shingles 43 to the upper surface of lower course shingles 34.

In the illustrated embodiment, panel assembly 30 also includes a third, uppermost or top course 45 of shingles 46. The upper ends of each shingle 46 are positioned closely adjacent to an upper edge 47 of the base. Shingles 46, as well as a third or top water-impervious membrane 48, are also secured to the base with upper and lower staples in the same manner discussed above. The upper edge of top membrane strip 48 underlies the upper portion of each shingle 46. The lower edge of membrane strip 48 extends to a position covering the upper staples holding middle shingles 43 to the base but short of the lower ends of the upper course of shingles 46. A third bead of adhesive may also be used to provide a wood-to-wood bond between upper shingles 46 and middle shingles 43.

While one embodiment described above has three courses of shingles, other embodiments have a single course, as is shown in FIG. 1A. Under particular circumstances of use, a single course embodiment may be preferable to multiple course embodiments.

For example, while a three-course unit offers users a potential time saving over a single course when applied by multiple workers, a single course unit is easier to handle and maneuver on a construction jobsite and is substantially easier to apply by a single worker. In windy conditions, a multiple course unit may be difficult to control and may even be dangerous. As well, single course embodiments may be preferable in view of construction economics and jobsite timing in that there is no need to schedule finish work on exposed nails or other fasteners that attach single course units to a building. There is no finish work to be done because attachment nails or other fasteners of one single course unit are simply covered upon subsequent attachment of another unit above. In contrast, using three course units will lead to fastening nails being exposed because secure attachment requires nails in the upper, lower, and middle portions of the unit. Such nail or fastener exposure is an unattractive esthetic needing finish work, which may require sub-contracting and scheduling another tradesman. Thus, depending on many factors such as weather, number of workers and their skill and experience, single course units may be most preferable.

Turning now to the corner assembly shown in FIG. 3 through FIG. 5, corner assembly 31 is constructed in a manner similar to panel assembly 30 discussed above, and the same reference numerals are used to designate corresponding parts. As is the case with the siding units described above, while a three-course embodiment of a corner assembly is shown for illustration purposes, other embodiments of a corner assembly constructed according to the same principles have a single course of shingles as shown in FIG. 3A.

In particular, corner assembly 31 includes a substrate or base 32 having a plurality of shingles arranged in courses. Unlike prior shingled corners, the shingles of corner assembly 31 are configured to cooperate and interweave with the shingles of adjacently installed panel assemblies and/or with other corner assemblies, as will become apparent below. In the illustrated three course embodiment, corner assembly 31 includes a lowermost course 33, a middle course, 42 and an upper course 45.

The base of the corner assembly is formed of a pair of interconnected panels 49 and 50 that are arranged in a predetermined angle with respect to one another. The panels may be made of plywood, particleboard, or other suitable material. In the illustrated embodiment panel 49 and 50 form a right angle, however, one will appreciate that the panels may also be arranged in an oblique angle, including both acute or obtuse angles. Preferably, panels 49 and 50 are fastened together in a well-known manner, for example, with fastening means including, but not limited to, nails, staples, adhesive or the like.

As the width of corner assembly 31 is significantly shorter than panel assembly 30, fewer shingles are required to cover the outer surface of the corner assembly. In the illustrated embodiment, each course only includes two shingles; one attached to each of panels 49 and 50. One will appreciate that the widths of the panels and/or of the shingles may vary and that each course may be formed of one, two, three or more shingles. Preferably, the shingles of corner assembly 31 are arranged in a “Boston weave”, that is, each course of shingles is off-set in a different direction, as most clearly shown in FIG. 3. The Boston-weave configuration provides a finished shingled-corner that enhances weather-resistance in a well-known manner. Preferably, suitable fasteners such as corner staples51 and/or other suitable fastening means are employed to join abutting corner shingles together.

In embodiments having multiple shingle courses, one will appreciate from FIG. 1 and FIG. 3 that as siding units are mounted on a building moving laterally out from a first corner unit towards a second corner, most circumstances will require that the siding units be cut vertically near to the second corner. This is the case because, in most circumstances, a building dimension is not an integer multiple of the widths of siding units plus two corner units. Once such a straight vertical cut is made across the multiple courses of a siding unit to accommodate for the final non-integer length, the unit may be mated with a corner assembly having non-staggered courses, like the corner assembly in FIG. 9 and unlike the staggered courses of the corner assembly in FIG. 3. With multiple course embodiments, therefore, some corners have shingle edges in a straight line over the multiple courses.

Advantageously, siding unit embodiments having a single shingle course offer a staggered appearance at every corner because, in contrast to the multi-course embodiments, each course of shingles is individually cut near the second corner mentioned above. The lateral extent of each course being individually selectable, not grouped, a staggered appearance can be maintained along all corners with either single course corner units or multi-course corner units having staggered shingles. In the case that the builder or developer prefer a more random-like staggering of shingle courses, single course corner units in combination with single course siding units are preferred over single course siding units in combination with multi-course corner units.

Turning now to the interwoven shingle configuration shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 3 for the instance of a three-course embodiment, the staggered placement of the shingles provides a weather-resistant structure that simulates the random shingled appearance of a hand-shingled wall. A first, left end shingle 52 of the lowermost course has a recessed left edge 53 that is laterally recessed or inset so that first shingle 52 does not extend to the left side edge 54 of the base. A second, right end shingle 55 of the lowermost course has a right edge 56 that extends or protrudes laterally beyond right side edge 57 of the base. In the second course of shingles 43, the end shingles are reversed in their inset and extension with respect to the side edges of the base. Thus, a third, left end shingle 58 of the middle course extends or protrudes laterally beyond left side edge 54 of the base while a fourth, right end shingle 59 is recessed with respect to edge 57 of the base. Similarly, the shingles in the top course of shingles are again reversed so that a fifth, left end shingle 60 is laterally recessed while a sixth, right end shingle 61 extends laterally beyond the respective side edges of base 32. These principles of interweaving, explained here in the instance of three courses, apply equally across single course and multiple course embodiments.

Preferably, the distance to which the end shingles in any course are laterally inset is substantially equal to the distance to which the opposite end shingle of the course extends beyond or protrudes from the base. This structure allows side-by-side shingled siding units, panel assemblies and/or corner assemblies, to mate with each other when placed in abutting relation so that a protruding lower-right end shingle, corresponding to second shingle 55, on a laterally adjacent panel assembly (not shown) will overlap left side edge 54 of the base and abut against left edge 53 of the first, lower-left end shingle 52. Similarly, the inset edge of a middle recessed end shingle, corresponding to third shingle 59, in an adjacent panel assembly will receive the protruding edge of the fourth, middle-protruding shingle 58 in the second course. In the third course, the edge of an upper right protruding shingle, corresponding to sixth shingle 61, will extend beyond right side edge 54 of the base and protrude into abutting relation with the edge of the fifth, upper recessed shingle 60. This provides overlapping of the shingles in laterally adjacent panel assemblies, thus producing a weather-resistant joint as well as an aesthetically pleasing joint. When assembled in side-by-side relation, the shingled siding units of the present invention make it very difficult to visually determine the location of the vertical joints between adjacent units.

One will appreciate that, in order to facilitate installation of adjacent panel assemblies, the lower and middle recessed shingles 52 and 59 may be relatively thick shingles so as to space the respective overlapping protruding shingles 58 and 61 in the course above farther from base 32 than would be the case if all shingles had the same thickness, as is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,731,970. Thus, respective protruding shingles 58 and 61 are spaced from the base slightly more so that the height dimension between the lower ends of the protruding shingles and the base is somewhat larger than what would otherwise be the case. This permits the protruding shingles of the lower courses (e.g., shingles 55 and 58) of adjacent panel assemblies to readily slide underneath the protruding shingles of the respective upper courses (e.g., shingles 58 and 61, respectively).

To facilitate vertical stacking and positioning of adjacent shingled siding units, upper and lower edges 36, 47 of the base preferably are constructed to provide a shiplap joint between top-to-bottom abutting adjacent shingled siding units that is easy to assemble and is particularly resistant to water penetration between the shingled siding units from the ambient environment.

For example, and as shown in FIG. 7, the top edge of each panel of base 32 is formed as an upwardly facing top shoulder 47, which is generally perpendicular to the surfaces of sheet-like panels of base 32. Extending away from shoulder 47 is an outwardly facing beveled surface 62 that slopes from the interior face of each panel toward the shingled face of the shingled building unit. The bottom edge of base 32 is formed with a similar shoulder 36 and beveled construction, except that it has a bevel 63 in the reverse direction, namely, an inwardly facing direction. Thus, bottom edge 36 of each base has a beveled surface 63 which runs from the unshingled inner face of base 32 toward the shoulder 36.

When installing the shingled siding units of the present invention on a building structure, the siding units are preferably installed by mounting a row of lower panel assemblies 30 and/or corner assemblies 31 to the building structure (shown in phantom in FIG. 6) and thereafter mounting a row of higher panel and corner assemblies. For example, a lower corner assembly 31a is mounted to the building structure before the upper corner assembly 31b is mounted thereto. With lower corner assembly 31a in place, upper corner assembly 31b slides into position so that its lower shoulder 36b abuts the top end of uppermost shingles 46a in the uppermost or top course of the lower corner assembly. The beveled faces 62b and 63a are in surface-to-surface contact resulting with a rabbeted joint so that the edge of one board overlaps the one next to it in a flush joint, thus forming a shiplapped joint that is inherently moisture resistant.

Referring again to the example of FIG. 7, one will appreciate that the shiplapped joint is moisture resistant, especially in the instance of moisture in the ambient environment outside of the shingles. With respect to condensation within ventilation channel 68, however, the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 7 has a small shelf-like channel protuberance 70 due to the thickness of uppermost shingle 46a. Such a shelf-like protuberance may cause stagnation or pooling of a liquid condensate film falling under gravity within the channel such that the condensate accumulates along the protuberance.

As an option, a range of embodiments are further configured such that upper and lower edges of the substrate are formed and dimensioned to allow gravity-driven liquid to flows freely across the edges from one upper panel downward to another lower panel. In some embodiments in the range, when a siding unit and another, similarly formed siding unit are mounted in a vertically abutting relation with the similarly formed siding unit elevationally below the siding unit, an uppermost portion of the upper edge of the similarly formed siding unit is elevationally below the lower edge of the siding unit. This configuration avoids, or under practical conditions of material warp and manufacturing non-uniformity at least reduces, forming small shelf-like channel protuberance along joints. As such, these configurations enable a gravity-driven film of liquid to flow freely across the edges of vertically abutted siding or corner units. In other embodiments in the range, each of the edges of the substrate in the vertically abutting relation optionally includes a beveled surface, and the abutting relation is such that portions of beveled surfaces are separated by a vertical gap.

FIG. 10A-FIG. 10E show embodiments that in different ways enable a gravity-driven film of liquid in the ventilation channel to flow freely along the substrate and across abutments towards earth. The figures are schematic in nature, omitting some details as well as exaggerating others for the sake of clarity. Moreover, one will appreciate immediately that the embodiments in the figures are exemplary and many other alternatives are possible in accord with the principles of the invention.

FIG. 10A shows one embodiment of the forming and dimensioning of the upper and lower substrate, or base, edges. Here, as in other figures, substrate or base 32, lowermost shingle 34a, uppermost shingle 46a beveled surface 62, substrate lower edge 36, and ventilation channel 68 are shown, as well as substrate upper edge 101 and uppermost portion of the substrate upper edge 102. The direction of gravity is also indicated. See the earlier figures for correspondences.

Comparing the embodiment shown in FIG. 7 to that in FIG. 10, one can immediately appreciate that substrate lower edge 36 and upper edge 101 have been formed and dimensioned such that, along the surface of substrates 32 facing ventilation channel 68, a gravity-driven film of liquid would flow freely down a vertical portion of the surface, across the edges, and along beveled surface 62. As FIG. 10A makes clear for this embodiment, the substrate lower edge 36 is not beveled, whereas upper edge 101 includes beveled surface 62. Also, uppermost portion of the substrate upper edge 102 is elevationally below substrate lower edge 36 of the abutted unit. In contrast, the embodiment of FIG. 7 has a protuberance 70, formed by the corresponding uppermost portion of the substrate upper edge being elevationally above the lower edge of the abutted unit.

In forming upper edge 101 to include beveled surface 62 as shown, the thickness of substrate 32 is reduced. Advantageously, a bevel angle may be selected which allows such a thickness reduction to substantially match a minimum thickness of lowermost shingle 46a. Disadvantageously by comparison, not accounting for the small but finite minimum thickness of lowermost shingle 46a in the embodiment of FIG. 7 results in protuberance 70.

In another alternative to forming and dimensioning substrate edges to achieve free-flow of condensates, FIG. 10B1 illustrates that the shingles may include an accommodation cut 103 to mitigate or avoid formation of protuberances 70 of FIG. 7. Comparing FIG. 7 and FIG. 10B 1, the difference is by including cut 103 in shingle 34a, the plane parallel relation of the substrate surfaces facing ventilation channel 68 is preserved and there is no protuberance formed in the embodiment of FIG. 10B I. The same gravity-driven flow would move freely in the embodiment of FIG. 10B 1, flowing across the abutment along surfaces of substrates 32 facing ventilation channel 68. FIG. 10B2 illustrates a similar embodiment in which the cut angles are reversed.

FIG. 10C shows an embodiment where both abutted substrate edges include a beveled surface. In the figure, beveled surfaces 62 have equal bevel angles. As in FIG. 10A and FIG. 10B, a gravity-driven film of liquid would flow freely down the vertical portion of the substrate surface facing the ventilation channel 68, across the edges 36 and 101 and beveled surfaces 62. As well, the embodiment in FIG. 10C has uppermost portion of the substrate upper edge 102 being elevationally below substrate lower edge 36 of the abutted unit.

FIG. 10D shows an embodiment where both abutted substrate edges include a beveled surface. However, in contrast to the embodiment of FIG. 10C, bevel angles in FIG. 10D are unequal. As in FIG. 10A-C, a gravity-driven film of liquid would flow freely. In this instance, however, unequal bevel angles may cause a separation of the liquid flow at separation point 105. Because the separation point overhangs a beveled surface, however, liquid flow would contact the lower panel on beveled surface 62 after a free fall. As in the embodiments in FIG. 10A through FIG. 10C, the uppermost portion of the substrate upper edge 102 is elevationally below substrate lower edge 36 of the abutted unit.

The embodiment in FIG. 10D also includes outside bevel 104 on a side of the substrate facing the shingles. Such a bevel may be advantageous for accounting for the small but finite minimum thickness of shingles, as discussed above. Even if protuberances are eliminated or reduced by forming and dimensioning the substrate edges as shown, such a bevel on the side of the substrate facing the shingles may be advantageous in laying shingles in a relaxed flat position, even as they overlap as shown in the figure.

Finally, FIG. 10E shows an embodiment where both of the vertically abutting edges of the substrate have bevels with unequal bevel angles. Moreover, the bevels on the abutting edges face in opposite directions. Bevel 62 faces toward ventilation channel 68, whereas bevel 63 faces the shingles. Also, the figure shows outward facing bevel surface 63 providing accommodation of the small but finite minimum thickness of shingles. Again, such accommodation may be advantageous in laying shingles in a relaxed flat position, even as they overlap as shown in the figure.

As with the embodiment in FIG. 10D, unequal bevel angles in the embodiment of FIG. 10E may cause a separation of the liquid flow at separation point 105. Because the separation point overhangs a beveled surface, however, reattachment would occur on the beveled surface after a free fall. As was the case with the embodiment in FIG. 10D, the abutting relation of the substrate surfaces is such that portions of the beveled surfaces are separated by a vertical gap.

Turning now to the spacing means, the shingled siding units 30, 31 of the present invention include spacing strips mounted to the inner surface thereof, which strips define ventilation channels through which condensation and any accumulated moisture may escape by drainage or evaporation, even after the shingled siding unit is installed on housewrapped or other sheathing of a building structure.

As most clearly shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 4, a plurality of spacing strips 64, 65 and 66 are provided on the inner surface of substrate 32 in order to space panel assembly 30 and corner assembly 31 from the building structure (shown in phantom in FIG. 8) upon which the panel and/or corner assemblies are installed. In the illustrated embodiment, the spacing strips are formed of plywood, particleboard or other suitable material and are attached to the base by suitable fasteners such as strip staple 67. One will appreciate that other fastening means may be used secure the strips to the substrate including, but not limited to, adhesives and the like.

Preferably, the spacing strips are approximately one-quarter inch thick, approximately ¾ to 2 inches wide, and extend substantially the height of the respective base. One will appreciate that the dimensions of the strips may vary in accordance with the present invention. For example, the thickness of the strips may range from approximately ⅛ to one inch thick, and preferably between approximately ⅜ to ¾ inch thick, to provide a corresponding similarly dimensioned passageway between the panel assembly and the building structure.

The strips may be spaced from the edges of the base or may extend beyond the edges of the base. For example, strips 64 of panel assembly 30 are spaced inward from the side edges of base 32 as shown in FIG. 2, while strips 65 extend along and beyond the side edges of corner assembly 31, as shown in FIG. 3. With reference to FIG. 2, the illustrated panel assembly 30 includes five spacing strips 64 secured to the inner surface of base 32 in predetermined intervals. One will appreciate that two, three, four or more spacing strips may be utilized. The strips on the panel assembly may be spaced from one another according to industry norms, for example, spaced 16 or 19½ inches-on-center.

Advantageously, the spacing strips of the present invention are pre-assembled on the panel and corner assemblies, thus ensuring that the degree of spacing is controlled, consistently reproducible and properly provided. Namely, the shingled building units of the present invention automatically provide ventilation channels for drainage and/or evaporation, requiring no additional work on the part of workers at a job site. Accordingly, the provision of such ventilation channels cannot be neglected or ignored by field workers installing the panels, either by reason of additional labor cost, as the ventilation channels are automatically formed between the shingled siding units and the sheathing to which they are mounted by the workers.

In this regard, adjacent pairs of spacing strips, for example, wide strip 65 and narrow strip 66 clearly shown in FIG. 8, define a ventilation channel 68 therebetween. Channel 68 provides a passageway through which condensation and any accumulated moisture to escape by drainage or evaporation, even after corner assembly 31 is installed on the sheathing of a building structure (shown in phantom in FIG. 8. One will appreciate that adjacent pairs of spacing strips 64 on the inner surface of planar assembly base 32 define similar ventilation channels that provide a similar drainage or evaporation passageway.

Preferably, the spacing strips are substantially vertically oriented thus allowing any water on the interior surface of the panel and corner assemblies to drain down toward the bottom of the building structure for drainage or evaporation. One will appreciate, however, that the strips may be obliquely arranged, provided that the strips form downwardly extending channels. One will appreciate that the venting-channel configuration of the present invention provides a series of approximately one-quarter inch airspace passageways between the shingled siding units, that is, between the external sheathing of the building structure panel and the corner assemblies 30 and 31, which passageways extend continuously from the uppermost row of installed shingled siding unit to the lowermost row of shingled siding units. Such continuous passageways are effective in venting and draining trapped moisture, a leading cause of water damage, material deterioration, from between the shingled siding units and the building structure based on current building practices.

It is understood that the ventilation channels of the present invention may be utilized with or without interwoven shingles. For example, in one embodiment of the present invention shown in FIG. 9, corner assembly 31c is similar to corner assembly 31 described above but includes a straight edge 69 instead of interwoven end shingles. The straight edge configuration allows the corner assembly to be used with similarly straight-edged panels or with panel assemblies that have been trimmed down using a circular saw. In operation and use, corner assembly 31c may be installed in substantially the same manner as corner assembly 31 described above.

Accordingly, the present invention improves upon known shingled siding units with respect to moisture control and combination with housewrap products at least in that the invention provides improved moisture management between a building exterior and the ambient environment. Spacing means, which are secured to a shingled siding unit or corner assembly, establish a ventilation channel in combination with a building structure. The ventilation channel, in turn, improves moisture drainage and evaporation. Evaporation is improved because air can transit the channel. Drainage is improved because the spaced surfaces of the channel allow liquid condensate to flow to earth. Moreover, in combination with housewrap products, the ventilation channel improves drainage further in that the invention preserves the drainage plane functionality of housewrap from being otherwise reduced by large portions of the drainage plane being in contact with shingles or other siding units.

Still further, as an option, the invention improves the free flow of liquid condensate along the ventilation channel by reducing or eliminating shelf-like protuberances that result in stagnation or pooling of liquid. Specifically, the upper edges of siding or corner units are formed and dimensioned such that when similarly formed units are in a vertically abutting relationship a gravity-driven flow of liquid moves freely across the vertically abutted edges.

In another aspect, when attached to planar structural surfaces of a building with ringed shank nails, single and multiple course embodiments of the siding and corner units are resistant to strong winds. A single course embodiment is believed to be remarkably so, and may remain attached to a building even as the building structure fails due to aerodynamic loads.

While various fasteners may be used to secure the building panels and units of the present invention to a building structure, FIG. 11 is a side view of a nail 109 that may be specifically configured for use with the shingled unit of the present invention. In some aspects, nail 109 is similar to ringed shank nails that are presently from Maze Nails of Peru, Ill. Nail 109 includes a shank 110, ribs 111, head 112, and tip 113 as indicated in FIG. 11. In contrast to a standard nail, the nail in FIG. 11 has rings, or ribs formed along the shank portion. Such rings provide a markedly greater resistance to nail extraction. On belief, as such a nail is hammered into material, material flows around the rings partially enveloping them. Thus, as compared to a standard straight shank, there is much greater resistance to extraction.

In contrast to conventional roofing nails, however, nail 109 of FIG. 11 may include a blunted tip as opposed to a pointed tip. With cedar or other relatively brittle woods as material for shingles of the siding and corner units, a pointed tip may be less preferable than a blunt tip because a blunt tip may be less likely to contribute to wood splitting. With other materials such as plastics or composites, however, a pointed tip may be preferred over a blunt tip.

Also in contrast to conventional roofing nails, nail 109 of FIG. 111 may include an enlarged head 112. To enable wind resistance of a shingled siding unit on a planar structural surface such as a wall, head diameters of greater than ⅜ inch are preferred. For comparatively better wind resistance, nail head diameters of greater than or equal to ½ inch are preferred. With such head dimensions, the shingles are less prone to peel from the substrate and siding units are less prone to peel from the building under the action of aerodynamic forces.

For convenience in explanation and accurate definition in the appended claims, the terms “up” or “upper”, “down” or “lower”, “inner” and “outer”, “left” and “right” are used to describe features of the present invention with reference to the positions of such features as displayed in the figures.

The foregoing descriptions of specific embodiments of the present invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. They are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed, and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and its practical application, to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention and various embodiments with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the claims appended hereto and their equivalents.