Title:
Storage heat exchanger, related operating methods and use of the storage heat exchanger
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A storage heat exchanger forms part of a heating system installed inside and/or against buildings and/or premises. Heat being generated and/or produced by regeneration sources, and/or combustion material sources, and/or sources disposed inside and/or against buildings and/or premises, and/or sources located at a distance and/or proximate. In at least one exchanger of the invention, the heat is stored in the heating system by at least one storage medium such as a fluid and or phase-change chemical medium. The heat is absorbed and/or diffused for at least a certain time interval through at least one barrier of heat storage media and/or at least a medium container and/or a medium housing. Such a system is implemented so as to make more economical use of materials and mainly for heat storage, the storage of larger amounts of heat being more economical by decentralization and heat production by regeneration can be put to better use.



Inventors:
Gast, Karl Heinz (Aurachtal, DE)
Application Number:
11/130354
Publication Date:
11/10/2005
Filing Date:
05/16/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
F28D20/00; F28D20/02; (IPC1-7): F28D17/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
DUONG, THO V
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LERNER GREENBERG STEMER LLP (HOLLYWOOD, FL, US)
Claims:
1. A storage heat exchanger for heating systems, the storage heat exchanger comprising: a housing; and a heat storage reservoir disposed in said housing and containing a medium container having walls and at least one storage medium for receiving supplied heat and surrounded by said medium container, and for heat exchange said storage medium being in thermal contact with a further medium or performs heat conduction with said further medium through said walls of said medium container, a boundary of said storage medium, and/or said housing.

2. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 1, further comprising further storing/exchanging units selected from the group consisting of storage heat exchangers and storage media disposed in said housing and containing an exchanging media.

3. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 2, wherein the exchanging media and the storage medium are formed from at least one compound selected from the group consisting of gases, fluids, solid substances, phase change media, and chemical storage substances.

4. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, wherein at least one of said heat storage reserve and said further storing/exchanging units contain spatial formations each with at least one inner space.

5. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 4, wherein said spatial formations are grouped with common and/or separate boundaries resulting in grouped spatial formations.

6. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 5, wherein said grouped spatial formations are combined into packs.

7. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 5, wherein said spatial formations and/or intermediate spaces of said grouped spatial formations contain heat conductors.

8. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 4, wherein at least one of said spatial formations has at least one boundary formed of a thin wall, said thin wall formed of a uniform material or a material mix forming sheets or thin plates, with or without structural reinforcement, and/or a displacement space.

9. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 8, wherein said structural reinforcement contains retaining elements selected from the group consisting of clamping elements and supporting elements.

10. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, wherein said storage heat exchanger is pressure-tolerating including being pressure-adapting or pressure-equalizing.

11. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 10, further comprising at least one compliant element for performing pressure toleration.

12. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, wherein said housing contains a heat insulation layer, said heat insulation layer being transparent, opaque, or partly transparent and opaque and enclosing said heat storage reservoir.

13. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, wherein the storage heat exchanger has fluid run-out prevention.

14. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, further comprising a system selected from the group consisting of a heating system, a booster heating system and combustion spaces, is integrated in the storage heat exchanger so that an exchange of a fluid driven by heat exchange can take place.

15. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, wherein said phase change media have the same and/or different change-of-state temperatures.

16. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 4, wherein at least one of said spatial formations and/or a pack of said spatial formations are filled with said phase change media.

17. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 16, wherein said spatial formations having a same change-of-state temperatures of said phase change media are grouped.

18. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 17, wherein a grouping of said phase change media takes place with change-of-state temperatures with typical average values or maximum values for a function for which they are to be used, including heating or service water, so that a high storage capacity is obtained at typical or maximum temperatures of functions for which they are to be used.

19. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, wherein the heat conduction can be changed in a way allowing insulation or with conduction.

20. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, wherein room air is heated directly by convection and/or thermal radiation from the storage heat exchanger.

21. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, further comprising gas-conducting areas which are flowed through by a media from external components, including controlled ventilation or machines which can be cooled.

22. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, further comprising at least one charging and/or provision-on-standby device for at least two of the media,, the gases, the solid substances and/or the phase change media.

23. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 22, wherein said charging and/or provision-on-standby device performs at least one of the following thermal functions: charging, discharging, maintaining, generating, changing or controlling temperature spaces; mixing or provision on standby at an appropriate temperature or an appropriate volume; and interconnecting, receiving or controlling discharge under closed-loop or open-loop control.

24. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 22, wherein said charging and/or provision on standby device also serves as a provision-on-standby device.

25. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 22, wherein said charging and/or provision-on-standby device is a variable, selectable, heat-exchanging surface area in or on the storage heat exchanger.

26. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 25, wherein said variable, selectable, heat-exchanging surface area is formed by separated segments which are flowed through variably by virtue of at least one relocatable element.

27. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, further comprising at least one exchanging area disposed in said housing and said heat 'storage reservoir is predominately a storing area.

28. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 27, wherein said exchanging area is located inside or outside said storing area or at a bounding wall of the storage heat exchanger or spaced from said storing area.

29. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 27, further comprising a flow-separating and/or heat-insulating partition provided in said exchanging area and said storing area.

30. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 27, further comprising at least one thermostatically controlled connection and said exchanging area can be controlled under closed-loop or open-loop control by said thermostatically controlled connection between areas.

31. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 27, wherein said exchanging area is provided with a solar-absorbing layer and/or at least one facing.

32. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 3, further comprising at least one structure selected from the group consisting of surface-enlarging structures and vortexing structures for intensifying a heat exchange of the storage heat exchanger.

33. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 32, wherein intensification takes place by media conduction, including rotational movement or return movement of the media.

34. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 32, wherein a supplying of the medium takes place tangentially along a geometrical conduction of the medium.

35. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 32, further comprising drivers for performing and intensifying a conduction of the medium.

36. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 35, wherein said drivers are configured in an immersed or suspended manner.

37. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 4, wherein said spatial formations are of a modular construction.

38. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 37, wherein a pack of said spatial formations is set up or stacked in or around or in a vicinity of said heat storage reservoir.

39. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 37, wherein said spatial formations are of a modular construction in a form of tanks which can be joined together from a number of parts and be slotted together or fitted together.

40. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 39, wherein said parts include a cover part, a base part and tubes or channels which can be pushed one into the other and are set up on said base part, and said cover part is placed onto said pushed out tubes or channels.

41. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 39, wherein said parts are pressed together by inwardly directed forces.

42. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 4, wherein said spatial formations have a shape selected from the group consisting of cylinders and spheres.

43. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 4, wherein said spatial formations are grouped with common and/or separate boundaries resulting in grouped spatial formations lying one inside the other or arranged in series against one another.

44. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 7, wherein said heat conductors are selected from the groups consisting of wires, wire fabrics and sheets.

45. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 8, further comprising a stabilizing packet assembly containing retaining elements selected from the group consisting of clamping elements and supporting elements.

46. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 31, wherein said facing is selected from the group consisting of transparent facings and relocatable partitions.

47. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 4, wherein said spatial formations are of a modular construction in a form of tanks which can be combined in groups or tanks which can be joined.

48. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 27, further comprising at least one charging and provision-on-standby device and said exchanging area can be controlled under closed-loop or open-loop control by said charging and provision-on-standby device.

49. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 37, wherein the storage heat exchanger is constructed around said spatial formations or packs of said spatial formations.

50. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 41, further comprising clamping rings for providing said inwardly directed forces.

51. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 50, wherein said clamping rings are steel strips.

52. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 39, wherein said parts are held together by outwardly directed forces.

53. The storage heat exchanger according to claim 52, further comprising: pressing rings providing pressing force adjustment mechanisms, a pressing force adjustments mechanism of at least one of said pressing rings has a closable lead-through and being adjustable by said closable lead-through; and seals disposed between held-together surface areas.

54. A method for operating a storage heat exchanger containing a housing and a heat storage reservoir having a medium container with walls and at least one storage medium for receiving supplied heat and surrounded by the medium container, and for heat exchange the storage medium being in thermal contact with a further medium or performs heat conduction with the further medium through the walls of the medium container, a boundary of the storage medium, and/or the housing, which comprises the steps of: influencing and maintaining a heat flow or thermal state of the storage heat exchanger by the thermal state being maintained in at least one subarea.

55. The method according to claim 54, which further comprises extending a heat flow by transferring and exchanging between and from media by adding heat-conducting and/or heat-radiating functions.

56. The method according to claim 54, which further comprises selecting the further medium and the storage medium from at least one compound selected from the group consisting of gases, fluids, solid substances, phase change media, and chemical storage substances.

57. The method according to claim 54, which further comprises changing the heat flow by switching to closed-loop control.

58. The method according to claim 57, which further comprises performing the changing step by using charging and/or provision-on-standby devices.

59. The method according to claim 57, which further comprising performing the changing step dependently on media temperatures and/or differential media temperatures.

60. The method according to claim 57, which further comprises temperature-controlling and/or flow-controlling the media under closed-loop and/or open/loop control, by using charging and provision-on-standby devices or speed-controllable flow drives.

61. The method according to claim 57, which further comprises using the heat flow for at least one of the following extended thermal functions: heat production, storage, distribution, recovery, cooling or preheating of sources and sinks close to buildings including underground storage heat exchangers or machines.

62. The method according to claim 57, wherein the heat flow takes place from solar generators with different efficiencies and/or temperature levels.

63. The method according to claim 54, which further comprises performing the heat flow with the media in a fluid form or gas form in a forward and backward flow through a line.

64. The method according to claim 63, which further comprises forming a heat source or sink for the heat flow by exchange with a compliant element, or is in connection with the compliant element.

65. The method according to claim 63, which further comprises using energy stored by one direction of flow including different fluid levels, positive pressure or negative pressure, for a counter-flow.

66. The method according to claim 54, which further comprises extending a natural thermal state by adding temperature spaces, it being possible for a temperature level to be maintained and/or changed.

67. The method according to claim 66, which further comprises maintaining and/or changing the temperature spaces by using heat insulation.

68. The method according to claim 66, which further comprises disposing the temperature spaces further in storing/exchanging units selected from the group consisting of storage heat exchangers and storage media.

69. The method according to claim 66, which further comprises disposing the temperature spaces in a grouped manner.

70. The method according to claim 54, which further comprises extending a thermal state and heat flow by adding external storage capacities and/or heat exchanging surface areas.

71. The method according to claim 66, which further comprises using segments or dishes as the temperature spaces.

72. The method according to claim 70, which further comprises selecting the heat exchanging surface areas from the group consisting of solid masses and fluid masses.

73. A method of operating a heating system, which comprises the steps of: providing the storage heat exchanger according to claim 1 and using the storage heat exchanger in a heating system component selected from the group consisting of heat exchange control devices, storage reservoirs and heat exchange intensifying devices.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This is a continuing application, under 35 U.S.C. § 120, of copending international application No. PCT/EP2003/012800, filed Nov. 15, 2003, which designated the United States; this application also claims the priority, under 35 U.S.C. § 119, of German patent application No. 102 54 728.9, filed Nov. 16, 2002; the prior applications are herewith incorporated by reference in their entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Field of the Invention

The invention relates to a storage heat exchanger in heating systems, it being possible for the thermal energy to be generated and/or produced from regenerative sources and/or sources with combustion fuels and/or sources in or against buildings and/or rooms and/or sources located at a distance and/or proximate.

The general state of the art discloses buffer storage reservoirs in heating systems for storing the heat, which are charged and discharged by circulating the water of the buffer storage reservoir or by internal heat exchangers. For generating heat and for heating rooms, the buffered water or heat exchange media located in the heat exchanger is constantly circulated by circulating pumps and received via further receiving heat exchangers such as heating boilers or solar absorbers and discharged via discharge heat exchangers such as radiators, wall heaters or floor heating systems.

Such a configuration is material-intensive, since independent components are necessary for the functions such as heat generation, heat discharge, heat storage or circulation. Furthermore, the operating energy of such systems can be considerable, since many circulating pumps are operated in such a system. Furthermore, in the case of solar systems, which, because of the cost, make the price of obtaining the heat high, the expensively acquired thermal energy is made more expensive by using the precious energy of electrical power for circulating it, with impact on the environment.

Furthermore, phase change material (PCM) devices are known, distinguished by high heat density. The PCM devices are likewise charged and discharged by heat exchangers in a circulating process. On account of the low thermal conductivity of phase change materials, these heat exchangers likewise contain material-intensive banks of tubes with heat directing plates.

Although increased use of such PCM devices would increase storage density, this would be at the expense of exacerbating the aforementioned disadvantages.

Also known are service-water storage reservoirs that are installed in buffer storage reservoirs. However, these service-water storage reservoirs must be configured to be relatively large, so that considerable service water may be in a temperature range that is conducive for the spread of Legionnaires' disease. Furthermore, the expenditure on material for such service-water storage reservoirs is likewise unnecessarily great on account of the size.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is accordingly an object of the invention to provide a storage heat exchanger, related operating methods and use of the storage heat exchanger which overcome the above-mentioned disadvantages of the prior art devices and methods of this general type. The invention is based on the object of forming the storage heat exchanger in such a way that greater amounts of heat can be cost-effectively stored. The storage efficiency being improved and materials used economically and predominantly for the heat storage, while avoiding the disadvantages of known heat storage and heat exchange for heat discharge and for heat generation. Further objects are to make the decentralized configuration of storage heat exchangers possible in a simple and cost-effective manner, and also to achieve a high heat storage density. Furthermore, functional versatility of the storage heat exchanger is to be achieved, so that materials and devices can be repeatedly used and the tapping of versatile heat sources is made possible as well as the storage of the heat from these sources. Furthermore, the heat sources and sinks are to be supported, so that they can be operated with high efficiency or with a high degree of utilization.

With the foregoing and other objects in view there is provided, in accordance with the invention, a storage heat exchanger for heating systems. The storage heat exchanger contains a housing, and a heat storage reservoir disposed in the housing and containing a medium container having walls and at least one storage medium for receiving supplied heat and surrounded by the medium container. For heat exchange, the storage medium being in thermal contact with a further medium or performs heat conduction with the further medium through the walls of the medium container, a boundary of the storage medium, and/or the housing.

According to the invention, the object is achieved by the fact that the heat in the heating system is stored in at least one storage heat exchanger with at least one storage medium, such as a fluid, phase-change or chemical storage medium, the heat absorption and/or heat discharge taking place at least for a certain time via at least one boundary of the heat-storing media and/or at least one medium container and/or at least one medium housing.

Here, the storage heat exchanger can only store heat or only discharge heat or only absorb heat or perform combinations of the aforementioned functions, so that it can serve as a storage reservoir and as a direct heat sink and also as a direct heat source.

The invention also relates to a method for operating a storage that is analogously based on the same object as the storage heat exchanger. The object is achieved by influencing or maintaining at least one of the basic thermal functions of the storage heat exchanger, such as moving—such as exchanging or transferring for charging and/or providing on standby—or storing; with regard to the flow and/or the state.

The invention also relates to a use of devices and methods of the storage heat exchanger in heating system components, such as heat exchange control devices, storage reservoirs or heat exchange intensifying devices.

Further examples of heating components for which the devices and methods can be made usable are charging and/or provision-on-standby devices, solid-substance storage heat exchangers, storage heat exchangers for controlled ventilation and/or underground storage heat exchangers, solar air storage collectors or fresh-water stations.

The substance productivity of the materials used is increased, i.e. the devices, and consequently the substances, have a multiple function, so that, with use of little material, high functionality is achieved with regard to storage capacity, heat exchange and the management of these functions for the use of regenerative forms of energy and further heat sources. Consequently, it is possible to dispense with components in comparison with the conventional operation of storage reservoirs. Here, the storage heat exchanger supports the efficiency and degree of utilization of heat sources and sinks, the storage heat exchanger itself having a high efficiency.

Functional diversity is thereby achieved, so that solar heating support or heating is supported. With a high heat storage density and decentralized heat storage, these functions are likewise made easier. Charging and provision-on-standby devices improve the management of the storage reservoir and also the functions of the exchange systems. In this case, the generation of inexpensive heat is also made possible.

To achieve these advantages, a series of problems had to be solved. To be specific, finding devices and methods which allow this functional diversity to be based on standard solutions, so that it becomes possible in the first place. Taking into account technological boundary conditions in the specific embodiments. Further technological problem solutions are stated in the description.

Other features which are considered as characteristic for the invention are set forth in the appended claims.

Although the invention is illustrated and described herein as embodied in a storage heat exchanger, related operating methods and use of the storage heat exchanger, it is nevertheless not intended to be limited to the details shown, since various modifications and structural changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the invention and within the scope and range of equivalents of the claims.

The construction and method of operation of the invention, however, together with additional objects and advantages thereof will be best understood from the following description of specific embodiments when read in connection with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic, plan view of a storage heat exchanger for heat storage according to the invention;

FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic, sectional view of the storage heat exchanger for heat storage taken along the line II-II shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic, plan view of a storage heat exchanger with a charging and provision-on-standby device for fluid and gas;

FIG. 4 is a diagrammatic, sectional view of the storage heat exchanger with the charging and provision-on-standby device for fluid and gas taken along the line IV-IV shown in FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a diagrammatic, sectional view of the storage heat exchanger with a charging and provision-on-standby device for a fluid and gas;

FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic, plan view of the storage heat exchanger with integrated storage heat exchangers;

FIG. 7 is a diagrammatic, sectional view of the storage heat exchanger with integrated storage heat exchangers taken along the line VII-VII shown in FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a diagrammatic, plan view of the storage heat exchanger with external extension;

FIG. 9 is a diagrammatic, sectional view of the storage heat exchanger with external extension taken along line IX-IX shown in FIG. 8;

FIG. 10 is a diagrammatic, plan view of a storage heat exchanger with an exchanging area;

FIG. 11 is a diagrammatic, sectional view of the storage heat exchanger with the exchanging area.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring now to the figures of the drawing in detail and first, particularly, to FIGS. 1 and 2 thereof, there is shown a configuration of a storage heat exchanger according to the defined object. The storage heat exchanger has a tank with fluid 4, which can discharge heat via its bounding walls 34 to an air conducting layer 2. Heat can be charged or discharged via fluid supply and discharge lines 9, 12 by a fluid circulating system. The air conductor 2 is bounded by insulation 1.

By use of two openable and closable flaps 8, 11, a defined stream of air can be produced through the air-heat exchanging area 2, driven by heat exchange. The air-heat exchange can be controlled in a way dependent on the temperature of the rooms by controlling the opening widths of the flaps by a temperature-dependent expansion element 6 acting via an adjusting element 7. A separation 10 of the air supply 11 and the air discharge 12 at the flaps makes it possible for a flow of air to circulate around the entire storage heat exchanger.

In a simple configuration of the storage heat exchanger, it could be filled only with a storage fluid. To increase the heat storage density, however, it is appropriate to integrate further storage heat exchangers with phase change materials 3 in the fluid storage heat exchanger 4. These storage heat exchangers 3 may contain, for example, packaging containers such as cans and be filled with paraffin, which has a phase change temperature of typical heating temperatures, for example 40° C. As a result, the storage heat exchanger has a high storage capacity at this temperature.

This gives rise to the problem that paraffin conducts the heat poorly, so that great charging or discharging times are produced when charging or discharging the heat, or high temperatures would be required. This problem is solved on the one hand by the surrounding fluid likewise having a corresponding storage capacity, and consequently allowing inactive times to be used for charging and discharging. On the other hand, the thermal conductivity in the PCM heat exchanger 3 is improved by incorporated heat conducting materials. This may be for example a mesh wire 41 laid in a meandering form, which is inexpensive and ensures a defined heat conduction with respect to waste materials (FIG. 4). The use of small PCM heat exchangers 3 and the grouping of such containers into packs 56 with intermediate spaces for the storage fluid can likewise eliminate this problem.

The cost-effectiveness of such PCM heat exchangers 3 can be further improved by using containers which are open on one side and stacking them one on top of the other with the open side downward in groups and fixing them in the fluid storage heat exchanger. It is then also possible, for example, for old cans to be used.

In the case of such storage heat exchangers 3, compressive forces are produced by the change in volume of the phase change materials when there are changes in the heat, so that the packaging containers would no longer withstand the pressure. This is solved on the one hand by using small packaging containers, which have a greater compressive stability, and/or by a pressure equalization, so that the external pressure of the fluid storage heat exchanger is transferred inward into the PCM heat exchanger 3, and as a result only small pressure differences can occur. The pressure equalization can be achieved by membranes or compliant surface areas or compliant tubes being installed in the PCM heat exchanger 3. This also allows the volume expansion of the phase change materials to be transferred to the surrounding fluid, so that no cavities are created in the PCM heat exchanger and the thermal conductivity of the PCM heat exchanger is improved.

The storage heat exchanger according to FIGS. 1 and 2 can be used for example in place of radiators or as secondary heating elements of relatively large storage heat exchangers. In comparison with normal radiators, there is the advantage that energy obtained regeneratively or by heat recovery or by cooling components or machines can be stored decentrally in the rooms of a building. As a result, the material is used in two ways, to be specific as a way of bounding heat storage spaces and for heat exchange during heating. Furthermore, the losses of the storage heat exchanger are used for heating the room. By contrast with storage reservoirs used today, the possibility of decentralized configuration allows the spaces of radiators and parts of living spaces or rooms that cannot otherwise be put to use to be used for the storage of thermal energy.

Additional advantageous developments of the invention are shown in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5. FIGS. 3-5 include the following three views: plan view, sectional view IV-IV and sectional view V-V. Here, the storage heat exchanger with charging and provision-on-standby devices for a fluid 33, 37, 35, 38, shown in FIG. 4 is upgraded to a universal stratified storage heat exchanger and radiator. This allows not only storage for heating heat but also heat for service water, rain water, rapid heating or preheating to be performed cost-effectively and heat from fluid and air collectors, from heat recovery and from cooling of machines and components to be stored. This can be used for the purpose of further lowering primary energy consumption and/or making solar systems more cost-effective.

The storage heat exchanger again contains a fluid storage heat exchanger 4 with integrated PCM heat exchangers 3. In the case of a stratified storage heat exchanger, however, it is appropriate for the phase change materials to have change-of-state temperatures adapted to the functions of the layers, so that the greatest heat storage density is available at the typically required temperatures for a function. This prevents unnecessary high temperature generation, which would lead to increased losses and would reduce the efficiency of the regenerative energy production. The layers adapted by the change-of-state temperatures improve efficiency of the regenerative heat production by the large storage volume at the temperatures specifically required, so that for example a lower supply of radiation from the sun can be used more intensively or heat pumps can operate with a better work coefficient than in the case of PCM devices with a change-of-state temperature adapted to the function with the highest temperature. An arrangement of different change-of-state temperatures not only in layers but also in groups, so as to produce for example overlapping layers or layers with a number of change-of-state temperatures, has the effect of increasing the flexibility of dimensioning the heat storage volume for specific functions.

The charging and discharging of the storage heat exchanger via the fluid takes place by the relocatable elements 33, 35, 37, 38, which are connected to flexible supply lines or discharge lines 30 and to flows or returns 28, 29, 39, 40.

Such a charging and provision-on-standby device has the advantage that it is stratified not only in the layer of the fed-in fluid, which has the same temperature as the supplied fluid, but also in any other desired layer.

Apart from the charging and provision-on-standby devices for fluid, charging and provision-on-standby devices for air 44, 45, 48, 49 are also installed in the storage heat exchanger in FIG. 5. They can be constructed and operated in precisely the same way as those for fluid, with the differences stated below. A significant problem with charging and provision-on-standby devices for air is that instances of air convection can take place more readily in air conductions due to leakages and losses at the insulations, which makes the stratification of the storage more unstable and, over a prolonged time, destroys it. This problem is solved by air conductors 26, 27 being made narrow, so that no great rolls of air can be produced. Furthermore, the subdivision of the air conductors 26, 27 into vertically separate segments 36 prevents the undesired air convection.

The arrangement of the relocatable elements 48, 44 at the outer edges of the air conductor 26 has the effect that the air flows through the segments are enclosed by the two elements 48, 44.

As a result, the charging and provision-on-standby devices for air behave in precisely the same way as those for fluid and can perform the same functions. With the advantage that heat from external elements, such as air collectors, air cooling systems of machines or air from heated components can be stored cost-effectively.

The charging and provision-on-standby device for air can perform not only the functions of the device for fluid but also that of controlling the room temperature while at the same time preserving the temperature level of the layers in the storage heat exchanger. This also solves the problem that relatively expensive solar collectors would have to be used for charging large storage heat exchangers with regenerative energy. The charging and provision-on-standby device is suitable for example for charging solar air collectors or for heat recovery or cooling with air, while the stratification is retained or produced. This allows the primary energy demand to be lowered further and more regenerative energy to be produced, since air systems last longer, are more simple and inexpensive and can be used for the preheating of the storage heat exchanger, and fluid solar collectors produce the higher required temperature level.

FIGS. 6 and 7 show further variations of the storage heat exchanger in plan view and in sectional view. The storage heat exchanger differs in comparison with FIGS. 3 and 4 in that the storage heat exchanger in FIGS. 3 and 4 discharges and absorbs its heat by the exchange and storage fluid or air, while the storage heat exchanger in FIGS. 6 and 7 contains further storage heat exchangers, whereby the heat can be charged or discharged by further media, such as service water, rain water, waste water, cooling fluid, frost protecting fluid or corrosion protecting fluid.

The storage heat exchanger 50 may be, for example, a service-water storage heat exchanger, which takes over the heat from the exchange and storage fluid via its walls 34. The service-water storage heat exchanger differs in comparison with conventional service-water storage reservoirs in that the inflowing service water is conducted in the storage heat exchanger in a rotational motion, so that the heat exchange is intensified. This is achieved on the one hand by the supply line being conducted tangentially along the circular flow in the storage heat exchanger and the service water being drawn in the center of the storage heat exchanger. The circular flow is driven by the flow in the supply line. Further intensification of the heat exchange can be achieved by the outflowing service water being returned by a pump to the inlet of the storage heat exchanger if it is not sufficiently warm. As a result, the service water is repeatedly introduced into the storage heat exchanger, whereby the heat absorption is increased. Furthermore, the rotational flow is increased by the increased pressure of the pump, so that an improved heat absorption is likewise obtained. A further increase in the rotational flow, and consequently the heat exchange, can be achieved by drivers 52, which are coupled by a ring 51. The supply line directed at the drivers has the effect that they are driven through the flow and intensify the rotational flow. Balancing of the driver device, so that it is in suspension and in equilibrium, as well as completely rounded corners and edges, make it possible to dispense with a bearing, so that limescale deposits can have little influence on the function of the drivers. Vortexing structures on the heat exchanger wall and/or on the drivers allow further intensification of the heat exchange to take place. All these measures and devices allow the service water content of the storage heat exchanger to be kept small, so that the risk of microbial contamination and formation of Legionella bacteria in the service water is virtually ruled out. By omitting individual heat-exchange intensifying measures, such as for example the feedback pump, or by using the hot-water standby pump as a feedback pump, possibly by increasing the storage heat exchanger volume, this service water heating with the proposed storage heat exchanger has the same convenience as external fresh-water stations but avoids the heat losses and losses of efficiency that exist in the case of externally disposed fresh-water stations by virtue of the additional circulating pump. Furthermore, the adaptation to different service water capacities of different buildings or households is possible in a simple manner by such storage heat exchangers being coupled and connected one behind the other.

A storage heat exchanger 53 corresponds in this configuration to the storage heat exchanger 52, but can be used for example for increasing the service water capacity or for heating cistern water. The heating of cistern water is appropriate, for example, for washing with cistern water, such as laundry washing or washing operations in factories. Laundry washing with cistern water dispenses with the need for expensive washing machines with high efficiency classes, whereby the investment in cistern heating can be financed. The ecological effect, however, is greater energy-saving, use of regenerative energy, saving of expensively prepared fresh water.

Storage heat exchangers 54 contain PCM heat exchangers such as those already described in FIGS. 1 to 4.

A storage heat exchanger 55 contains the storage heat exchanger tank and integrated PCM heat exchangers. Such a storage heat exchanger can be used for example for heat exchange with cooling liquids from machines, fuel cells or components, so that such heat occurring can be stored at low cost. The integration of PCM heat exchangers in the cooling storage heat exchanger makes possible cooling storage heat exchangers with large heat storage density, so that a great heat exchanging capacity is achieved by large heat exchanger surface areas of the cooling storage heat exchanger and of the integrated PCM heat exchangers. The high storage capacity of the storage heat exchanger makes it possible in the case of energy that is not occurring constantly but periodically, such as cyclically operated machines, breaks in energy in the case of solar energy etc., for the stored energy to be discharged during the breaks, whereby the heat exchange surface areas can be configured not for peak capacity but for an average capacity. This also has the effect of establishing the cost-effectiveness of the storage of cooling energy.

The use of storage heat exchangers with heat exchange intensification, such as the storage heat exchangers 50, 53, or the installation of these heat-exchange intensifying devices in the storage heat exchanger 55, or the series connection of storage heat exchangers of the type 55 and 50, may also be appropriate for heat-exchanging applications such as cooling, service water or cistern water in order to adapt the capacity and minimize the investment.

Storage heat exchangers 57, 58 with or without heat exchange intensification may be, for example, for the preheating of the service water and cistern water or for the preheating of buffer spaces or components or sides of components. This achieves cooling to a low temperature in the vicinity of the heat recovery'storage heat exchanger 59, whereby good heat recovery efficiency is achieved. The preheating reduces temperature differences between heatable rooms. As a result, less thermal energy of a higher temperature potential is required. However, higher temperature potentials require more booster heating energy or more expensive investments in solar production or lower work coefficients in the case of heat pumps, so that primary energy or costs can be saved by preheating. If the preheating heat exchangers are installed in such a way that they can also be used for cooling components, and consequently solar energy can be additionally produced, such a configuration is cost-effective while making allowance for the ecology.

The storage heat exchanger 59 serves for heat recovery, for example from waste water. The waste water is directed into the storage heat exchanger if the inflowing waste water is warmer than that in the storage heat exchanger, and serves in the storage heat exchanger as a storage fluid. In the case of the application for waste-water heat recovery, the economic advantage of a storage heat exchanger is particularly significant, since here there are long inactive times when no waste water occurs. This allows the heat exchange surface area to be made small, since during the inactive times the heat exchange to the preheating heat exchangers 58, 57 can take place over time. The storage heat exchanger for waste water then only has to be configured in terms of volume to be of such a size that an average volume, such as for example from taking a shower, can be received, in order to achieve acceptable efficiency at low costs.

FIGS. 8 and 9 show a storage heat exchanger as from FIGS. 3 and 4, but with the modular extension of storage capacity with further PCM heat exchangers 3, which are disposed in a surrounding manner, and the insulation 1 surrounding the entire storage heat exchanger in FIGS. 8 and 9.

For better heat conduction, the surrounding PCM heat exchangers 3 may lie in heat-conducting materials 64, such as sand, gravel or stones, and in this way forms a surrounding solid-substance storage heat exchanger. The heat conduction takes place from the fluid storage heat exchanger 63 via heat conducting bridges, which lie for example in the air conductors 65, 66 or in the area of direct contact 60 with respect to the fluid storage heat exchanger 63.

This arrangement according to the invention has the advantage that storage heat exchangers with virtually any desired thermal capacity can be constructed in a modular manner. Furthermore, the charging and provision-on-standby devices for air and fluid 61, 62 can also be used for the surrounding solid-substance storage heat exchanger. This allows short-term and long-term heat storage reservoirs and combined short-term/long-term heat storage reservoirs to be constructed.

Combined short-term/long-term heat storage reservoirs and long-term heat storage reservoirs have the problem that the large thermal capacity, and with it the large thermal conductivity, cause stratified temperatures to even out and relatively considerable thermal energy to be necessary for maintaining the stratified temperature, which is also not always available regeneratively. This problem is solved by layers or segments of the storage heat exchanger being separated by insulations, so that the temperatures are maintained for longer and cannot be evened out to approximate those of other segments or layers. The charging and discharging of the layers and segments can be performed with charging and provision-on-standby devices for air and fluid, which are positioned over flaps or hatches in the insulated layers and segments. The switching on and off of the insulations, for example positionable insulations, which can be positioned toward or away from heat conducting bridges, performs the function of maintaining the temperature of the layers or segments and of charging and discharging layers and segments. Many materials are suitable for the insulation of the solid-substance storage heat exchanger. Fluid-resistant and impermeable insulations must be used for insulations in the fluid storage heat exchanger. It is proposed here to use foam glass or cork, which are sealed. Encapsulated insulations are also suitable.

Insulation of layers and segments brings the advantage in comparison with separate storage reservoirs or storage heat exchangers that the outer insulation can be reduced, and the losses remain within the storage heat exchanger, and charging and provision-on-standby devices for air and fluid can be repeatedly used. Furthermore, this type of construction has the advantage that it is possible to depart from slender and high forms of construction in favor of better maintaining stratification, and better adaptation to local conditions is made possible in this way. FIGS. 10 and 11 show the extension of the storage heat exchanger in FIGS. 3 and 4 by the addition of an exchanging area 70. The upstream arrangement of an exchanging area makes it possible for heat to be absorbed from or discharged into the storage heat exchanger under open-loop or closed-loop control. The exchanging area has heat-exchanging boundaries and an insulation 69 with respect to the storage heat exchanger. The exchanging fluid 4 can be exchanged between the storage heat exchanger 4 and the exchanging area 70 by use of connections 68, 79, driven by the heat exchange in the exchanging area. In the simplest case, a connection can be thermostatically controlled, so that the room temperature is regulated. However, this does not cause discharging or charging appropriate for the layers. The connection of the exchanging area to a charging and provision-on-standby device for fluid allows discharging or charging appropriate for the layers and the regulation of the room temperature to take place.

In the case of heat being discharged to a room, it is possible for example for the position of the upper charging and provision-on-standby device for a fluid 75 to be controlled with respect to room temperature. For example by a two-position controller, which positions the charging and provision-on-standby device for fluid 75 upward when the temperature is too low and downward when the temperature is too high. The lower charging and provision-on-standby device for fluid 77 can be controlled by a motor to enter the layer which has the same temperature as the fluid flowing back. However, prevention of the flow driven by heat exchange is also possible, by the charging and provision-on-standby device for fluid being positioned upward, so that a bypass is created or the flow breaks off as a result of inadequate lifting-up force of the cold fluid.

In the case of heat absorption via the exchanging area, for example by an absorbent coating and a transparent facing, and exposure to solar radiation, the upper charging and provision-on-standby device for fluid is controlled in accordance with the supplied temperature to enter the layer with the corresponding temperature. The lower charging and provision-on-standby device for fluid is positioned for the closed-loop or open-loop control of the temperature of the flow pipe.

The object is achieved by storage heat exchangers in heating systems with configurations in which the heat is stored in at least one storage heat exchanger with fluid or phase change media or a chemical storage medium, and boundaries are used for the heat exchange. Here, the heat-storing media properties and/or the change of state of substances and/or chemically reversible compounds are used for the heat storage. Therefore, solid, liquid, vaporous or crystalline states of aggregation may occur in the storage heat exchanger. Storage heat exchangers in which the heat exchange of the media takes place directly via at least one boundary 34 or via disposed elements of the storage heat exchanger are particularly cost-effective, since on the one hand boundary walls retain the storage medium or media and at the same time the heat exchange takes place via them. High storage capacity is achieved by the use of arranged exchanging and/or storing units. For example by surrounding solid storage substances or PCM heat exchangers, which can likewise be additionally used for the heat exchange. For example for charging and provision on standby from further storage heat exchangers and/or for the direct heating of the room air or the air from the controlled ventilation. In the prior art, complex heat exchangers such as radiators, water/air heat exchangers etc. are used for this purpose, but are no longer necessary with the storage heat exchangers according to the invention.

Further storing and/or exchanging units, such as storage heat exchangers, storage reservoirs, heat exchangers or storage media 3, are arranged with respect to the storage heat exchanger, such as they are integrated, surrounding, built on or interconnected. The arrangement of further exchanging and/or storing units allows the storage heat exchanger according to the invention to be used more flexibly and constructed in a more modular form than storage reservoirs in the prior art, and existing storage masses to be used, and also heat from different sources to be used. The surrounding arrangement is also beneficial. The arrangement of storage reservoirs and heat exchangers may also be appropriate.

A significant development of the storage heat exchanger is achieved by the exchanging media and/or storing media being at least one of the following substances: gas, fluid or solid substance 64, phase change material 3; chemical storage substance. Appropriate applications in the case of gas are air, room air 2, exhaust gas and inert gas. For fluid media, water 4, service water 50, cistern water 53, waste water 59, cooling fluid 55, heating fluid, water with frost protecting agent, water with corrosion protecting agents or oil come into consideration. In the case of solid substances 64, sand, gravel, stones, concrete, earth or scrap materials are advantageous. The filling of intermediate spaces in grouped spatial formations 3 with media 4, 64 makes heat exchange, insulation and use of the intermediate spaces as storage capacity possible. In comparison with the prior art, where a number of insulated storage reservoirs are set up in a cylindrical form, the available space is used better by filling with storage media. Chemical storage media may be, for example, zeolites or salt hydrates, which convert into heat by dehydration.

Further advantageous developments of the storage heat exchanger are achieved by it containing at least one spatial formation with at least one inner space, such as a cylinder or sphere. Further examples of spatial formations are hollow formations, tanks or containers, tubes or pipes, channels, hollow cylinders, hollow spheres, segments of hollow spheres, hollow cuboids, hollow rings, segments of spheres, approximately spherical forms, sleeves, vessels, capsules, cylindrical disks, plates with spacing devices, packaging containers—such as cans for preserved food, cans for paint, gas canisters, glass containers or buckets—, containers produced on the principle of cans for preserved food, cans for paint or gas canisters. Storage heat exchangers with specifically adjusted properties, such as for example a small surface to minimize loss with a low heat exchange capacity, can be produced by choice of appropriate spatial formations. However, the use of spatial formations taken from standardized formations also increases the cost-effectiveness of heat storage.

Also advantageous is the grouping of the spatial formations 3 with common and/or separate boundaries, such as lying one inside the other 4, 3 or arranged in series against one another. The grouping in series against one another may take place in such a way that they lie next to one another and/or are stacked. The grouping in which they lie concentrically one inside the other is also beneficial. This achieves different possibilities for constructing storage heat exchangers, whereby adaptation to different thermal functions is made possible.

Grouped spatial formations, predominantly smaller ones, are appropriately combined into packs 56. This provides such spatial formations with stability for assembly and operation.

Particularly conducive for the heat transfer in spatial formations 3 and/or intermediate spaces 64 of grouped spatial formations is the introduction of heat conductors, such as wire fabric or sheets. Mesh wire 41 or wire nettings can be used as wire fabric. It is also possible to use wires if they can be strengthened. Further examples of heat conductors are metal plates, cans for preserved food, gas canisters, cans for paint or scrap metal. In the case of heat conduction in temperature spaces, fluid-filled pipes are also advantageous, since the heat convection of the fluid additionally moves heat. This makes it possible to use storage media with poor heat conduction with little space requirement for the heat conductors, and consequently high storage density of a storage heat exchanger.

Storage heat exchangers with at least one boundary of a spatial formation containing a thin wall of uniform material or a material mix, such as sheets or thin plates, with or without structural reinforcement, and/or a displacement space make the cost-effective configuration of different storage heat exchangers or arranged storage heat exchangers possible. For example, corrosion-resistant storage heat exchangers can be constructed in this way, the boundaries being produced with a thin high-grade steel plate and the structural reinforcements produced from less expensive materials.

Storage heat exchangers with structural reinforcements or containing a stabilizing packing assembly of retaining elements, such as clamping elements or supporting elements, allow the use of regenerative elements with low-cost stabilization of these elements. For example, the use of wooden struts which are held together by secured steel packaging strips. Examples of clamping elements which can be used are woven fabrics, meshes, nettings or strips, predominantly steel packaging strip. Rings, struts or piles are proposed for supporting elements. Pressure-tolerating configuration of the storage heat exchangers, such as in a pressure-adapting or pressure-equalizing manner, is also advantageous. As a result, the storage heat exchanger is also capable of adapting to expansion and capable of accepting expansion volume. As a result, arranged storage heat exchangers can be constructed in a pressure-communicating manner. Furthermore, pressures from the heating system can be absorbed or discharged, whereby simpler heating systems can be constructed in comparison with the prior art. Also advantageous is pressure toleration of the kind that for example arranged storage heat exchangers build up pressures generated by the expansion or are already preloaded with pressures, so that the heat storage of higher temperatures than at boiling temperatures under atmospheric pressure is made possible. Pressure toleration containing at least one compliant element makes the simple configuration of heating systems with pressure-tolerating and pressure-communicating properties possible. Membranes, preferably containing silicone mats, or flexibly mounted surface areas, such as with corrugated devices, elastic bodies, such as an elastic bag or elastic tube, come into consideration for compliant elements. Particularly advantageous are displacement spaces and displacement receiving spaces, such as a gas pocket, area under vacuum, fluid area or atmosphere, since no additional components are required and existing tanks or containers can be used. The combination with different compliant elements is also appropriate in the case of grouped storage heat exchangers. Storage heat exchangers can be operated without heat insulation, for example if they are integrated in insulated storage reservoirs or spaces. With the storage heat exchangers fitted behind or in heat insulation 1, this insulation being transparent or opaque or partly transparent and opaque, the storage heat exchanger becomes suitable for more universal use. For example, part of the boundary can absorb or discharge radiant heat directly, while another part of the boundary exchanges heat by convection.

With the decentralized arrangement of the storage heat exchangers, they also require an adapted fluid run-out preventer, as can be achieved with a fluid collecting device with or without fluid discharge, a moisture monitor, a loss of fluid monitor or a fluid level monitor. The combination of such fluid run-out preventers also allows increased stages of run-out prevention to be achieved.

The integration of a heating system or booster heating system, such as combustion spaces, in the storage heat exchanger or the direct coupling with the storage heat exchanger, so that the exchange of the fluid driven by heat exchange can take place, dispenses with the need for circulation driven by external energy, for example in the case of booster heating. However, heat losses must be avoided by insulated partitioning of the integrated combustion spaces. Such integration or coupling is also advantageous for using the heat of the exhaust gas by the gas-conducting exchange areas of the storage heat exchanger, which are also capable of insulating partitioning, for example by relocatable elements. With the aid of storage heat exchangers which contain phase change media 3 of the same and/or different change-of-state temperatures, storing areas with high storage capacity at the typical temperatures in use can be realized, whereby the heat losses are minimized in comparison with the prior art, where a change-of-state temperature with the maximum temperature in use is chosen, and lower heat generating temperatures can be used. In the case of storage heat exchangers which have to maintain the temperature over a prolonged time and which are connected to heat-exchanging or heat-conducting media, different change-of-state temperatures would create the problem that a high heat flow would take place at low thermal potentials, so that higher temperature levels would be discharged first, destroying temperature levels which would have to be re-produced. This problem is solved with the aid of the temperature spaces according to the invention.

The storage heat exchanger is advantageously characterized by the filling of at least one spatial formation and/or a pack of spatial formations 3 with phase change media. This allows phase change areas to be filled and also constructed in a filled manner, whereby it is also possible for example for a storage heat exchanger to be extended at a subsequent time. Storage heat exchangers in which the spatial formations with the same change-of-state temperatures of the phase change media are grouped together can be combined to form temperature spaces, whereby the advantages of the latter are obtained. Storage heat exchangers which are characterized in that the grouping of phase change media is configured with change-of-state temperatures with typical average values or maximum values for the function for which they are to be used, such as heating or service water, have a high storage capacity at the typical temperatures of these functions for which they are to be used, so that the heat generation manages with a lower temperature level on average, which minimizes the losses and lowers the generating costs, for example also by heat recovery. Further examples of functions for which they are to be used are cistern water, preheating, rapid heating, heat recovery and cooling.

Storage heat exchangers, in which the heat conduction can be changed in a way allowing insulation or with conduction, allow the movement of heat, i.e. the heat transfer or the heat exchange within the storage heat exchanger between temperature spaces, exchanging areas or media. The movement of heat is also possible to external heat exchangers, storage heat exchangers or storage reservoirs. The fact that the heat conduction can be changed results in that it can be interrupted or else can be controlled under closed-loop and open-loop control, whereby temperature levels can be established, maintained or avoided. The capability of insulating or changing the heat conduction is provided by positionable or detachable or foldable insulations 8, 11, partitions or heat conducting devices—such as insulating curtains, foam glass, cork panels, metal sheets, metal sheets with insulation, encapsulated and joined-together gas spaces, —and/or gas spaces which can be filled with and emptied of fluid, heat conduction leading into gas spaces, with release and blockage of the convection from the gas space, heat conduction leading into fluid spaces with release and blockage of the convection from the fluid space. This new possibility of moving heat allows for example heat exchangers that are at risk from frost simply to store heat in a storage heat exchanger, the heat conduction being prevented in the case of frost protection.

It is beneficial for material saving and efficiency that room air is heated directly by convection and/or thermal radiation from the storage heat exchanger. This allows a storage reservoir also to act at the same time as a radiator.

It is conducive for the cost-effective storage, charging and provision on standby of heat for the gas-conducting areas of the storage heat exchanger 2 to be flowed through by media from external elements, such as from controlled ventilation or machines which can be cooled. Other examples of this are air from air collectors, air from coolers, air from equipment and exhaust gas from machines. Here, charging and provision-on-standby devices, such as zone-controllable flows around the heat-exchanging boundaries, exchanging areas or changeable heat conduction ensure charging and provision on standby with the gas media at an appropriate temperature.

In the prior art, stratifying devices are only known for fluid media. Storage heat exchangers with at least one charging and/or provision-on-standby device FIGS. 3, 4: 33, 37, 35, 38; FIGS. 3, 4; FIGS. 8, 9: 61, 62 for at least two media FIGS. 3, 4: 3, 4; FIGS. 8, 9: 3, 63, 64 or for gas 44, 45, 48, 49 or for solid substances 64 or for phase change materials make possible temperature spaces in different storage media on the one hand and the charging and provision on standby of any desired temperature levels with different media. This is conducive to flexibility, in particular of regenerative heating systems.

Apart from the known thermal function of charging and provision-on-standby devices, to be specific stratification in a storage reservoir, the charging and provision-on-standby device FIGS. 3, 4: 33, 37, 35, 38; FIGS. 3, 4: section IV-IV; FIGS. 8, 9; 61, 62 allows at least one of the thermal functions, such as charging, discharging, maintaining, generating, changing or controlling temperature spaces; mixing or provision on standby at an appropriate temperature or an appropriate volume; interconnecting, receiving or controlling discharge under closed-loop or open-loop control to be performed. As a result, the charging and/or provision-on-standby devices of the storage heat exchanger are multiply used, whereby the cost-effectiveness of regenerative heat generation in particular is further increased. It is advantageous for charging and/or provision-on-standby devices FIGS. 3, 4: 33, 37, 35, 38; FIGS. 3, 4: section IV-IV; FIGS. 8, 9: 61, 62 to be fed with heat or cold from at least one storage heat exchanger or heat exchanger or flow of medium. This allows direct and/or indirect charging and provision on standby to be realized, whereby system separations are also made possible, for example of a waste-water system and a heating system.

Storage heat exchangers in which the charging device also serves as a provision-on-standby device are likewise more cost-effective as a result of multiple use. This can take place for example by the charging and provision-on-standby device being able to operate in two directions of flow and being operated in circulation or with a counter-running mode.

Storage heat exchangers by use of a charging and/or provision-on-standby device FIGS. 3, 4: section IV-IV with the aid of a variable, selectable, heat-exchanging surface area in or on the storage heat exchanger allow gas media in particular to be charged and provided on standby at an appropriate temperature. However, such devices having the defined thermal functions which also allow heat from fluid media and solid media to be provided.

The fact that the variable, selectable, heat-exchanging surface area is subdivided by separated segments 36 which are flowed through variably by virtue of at least one relocatable element 44, 45, 48, 49 allows undesired convection to be prevented during inactivity in the case of flowing media. As a result, temperature spaces are maintained during inactivity.

The subdivision of storage heat exchangers into at least one exchanging area FIGS. 10, 11: 71 and at least one predominately storing area 4, 3 likewise allows the charging and provision on standby with the thermal functions. Such a configuration is particularly advantageous in the case of direct discharge to a room.

The fact that the exchanging area is located inside or outside 70 the storing area or at the bounding wall of the storage heat exchanger or outside the storage heat exchanger allows for example the heat discharge from a storage heat exchanger to take place flexibly into a number of rooms.

With the movement of heat over boundaries of the storage heat exchanger there also takes place a movement of heat within the storage heat exchanger. For the defined movement of heat within the storage heat exchanger or for maintaining the temperature level and for charging and provision on standby of heat, the storing and exchanging area is provided with a flow-separating and/or heat-insulating partition 69, it also being possible for the latter to be configured in a pressure-maintaining manner. The fact that the exchanging area can be controlled by closed-loop or open-loop control allows defined amounts of heat and temperature levels to be charged and provided on standby in a simple way. The closed-loop or open-loop control can be achieved with at least one thermostatically controlled connection 68, 79 between the areas or with a charging and provision-on-standby device.

Storage heat exchangers in which the exchanging area 70 is provided with a solar-absorbing layer and/or at least one facing, such as a transparent facing or a relocatable partition, can also be used for producing solar heat. With the advantage that the exchanging area can also be used for heating rooms if the transparent facing contains a transparent heat insulation.

The systematic use of the bounding walls of the storage heat exchanger takes place by the heat exchange of the storage heat exchanger being intensified, such as with surface-enlarging structures and/or vortexing structures. This may take place for example on both sides of the heat-exchanging boundaries, so that both media improve the heat transfer. Storage heat exchangers in which the intensification according to the invention FIGS. 6, 7 takes place by media conduction, such as rotational movement or return movement, can be made small, for example with respect to the fluid volume. This is particularly advantageous in the case of fresh-water storage heat exchangers, where the media conduction can additionally also take place through the lines, so that sufficient hot fresh water is available at the tapping points even after inactivity.

Storage heat exchangers which are characterized in that the supplying of the medium takes place tangentially along the geometrical conduction of the medium are distinguished by the fact that a media conduction can be achieved by the flow, without any further operating energy. With the aid of drivers 52, which perform or intensify the conduction of the medium, a further improvement in the media conduction, and with it the heat exchange, is achieved. The drivers can also be driven with the aid of the flow supplied.

Drivers which are configured in an immersed 52 or suspended manner and are free from edges can move in the storage heat exchanger without bearings or other components that need maintenance. This is also achieved by the drivers being connected 51.

The fact that the storage capacity or the spatial formations are of a modular construction, such as by tanks which can be combined in groups or tanks which can be joined, allows the decentralized arrangement of storage heat exchangers to be made easier, whereby rooms in buildings can be used better for storing heat. In the prior art, numbers of storage reservoirs are used for this purpose or, in the case of larger storage reservoirs, are welded together on site or transported by large transporters and put into place by cranes. This is cost-intensive and not very favorable for exchange or repair. Storage heat exchangers in which at least one spatial formation or a pack of spatial formations 3 is or are set up or stacked in or around or in the vicinity of a storage heat exchanger and/or the storage heat exchanger is constructed around the spatial formations or packs of spatial formations make it possible to achieve a modularity with which storage heat exchangers can be modeled according to requirements.

The integration of storage heat exchangers or spatial formations or internal components is made easier by the storage heat exchanger tank being able to be joined together from a number of parts, such as slotted together or fitted together.

It is advantageous in this respect that tubes or channels which can be pushed one into the other are set up on a base part, and a cover part is placed onto the pushed out tubes or channels. This makes it possible for the construction to be performed from the bottom up, so that internal components can be put into place with few obstacles.

With the aid of the fact that the parts are pressed together by inwardly directed forces, such as with clamping rings, predominantly packaging steel strips, and/or are held together by outwardly directed forces such as with pressing rings, the pressing force adjustment mechanism of at least one pressing ring being adjustable by a closable lead-through, with seals being provided between the holding-together surface areas, solves the problem of sealing such tanks that can be joined.

Customary methods for operating a storage heat exchanger relate in that the storage heat exchanger is charged or discharged by media flows and the thermal state between media is evened out. According to the invention, the method for operating a storage heat exchanger is characterized in that at least one of the basic thermal functions of the storage heat exchanger, such as moving, such as exchanging or transferring for charging and or provision on standby; storing; are influenced or maintained with respect to the flow and/or state.

The method which extends the basic thermal functions for moving and storing by adding heat-conducting and/or heat-radiating functions makes the storage heat exchanger suitable for more universal use, since, with the heat-radiating function for example, it can also heat areas which are open to the atmosphere. Heat-conducting structural elements can also be utilized at low cost by the heat conduction, by the method for charging and provision on standby and also for storing.

By extending the method by allowing the basic thermal functions of the storage heat exchanger to take place with at least one medium, it is possible for example for heat from waste water or cooling liquids to be adapted in the storage heat exchanger for heating a building, and consequently to be used in a simple manner.

The method brings further advantages by the fact that the moving can be changed, such as switched or subjected to closed-loop control. Other examples of the changeability are that it can be subjected to open-loop control, monitoring, interruption, continuation, diversion, through-direction, distribution, outward or inward transfer or positioning. This ensures the versatile use of the storage heat exchanger, such as for example as a heating heat exchanger and storage reservoir and absorber.

The method that the changeability takes place by charging and or provision-on-standby devices brings with it not only multiple use of the charging and provision-on-standby device but also multiple use of drivers for these devices and of open-loop and closed-loop control devices. Realization by use of different configurations provides the optimum cost-benefit ratio, in particular with regard to the media respectively used. Examples of changeable charging and provision-on-standby devices are an exchanging area, relocatable flexible conducting devices, changeable insulations, changeable heat conducting devices, changeable temperature spaces, changeable absorber surface areas, relocatable storage heat exchangers or relocatable heat exchangers.

The method that the changes take place dependently on media temperatures and/or differential media temperatures ensures the respective optimum in the different operating modes of the storage heat exchanger.

The method that the media are temperature-controlled under closed-loop and/or open/loop control, such as by charging and provision-on-standby devices or speed-controllable flow drives, such as fans, pumps or positions of valve openings, ensures the heat supply or heat removal of the areas in the storage heat exchanger and of the external components.

The method in which the moving is used for extended thermal functions, such as heat production, storage, distribution, recovery, cooling or preheating, of sources and sinks close to buildings, such as underground storage heat exchangers or machines, is particularly advantageous, since it allows a heat circuit to be produced in a building, making it possible to dispense with generated energy. Other examples of sources and sinks close to buildings are underground heat exchangers, controlled ventilation, components, rooms, buildings, storage masses, ground, solar collectors, storage heat exchangers, heating boilers, furnaces, flues, motors, fuel cells or heat pumps.

The method according to which the moving takes place by solar generators with different efficiencies and/or temperature levels makes the simultaneous preheating and heating possible to achieve optimum functional temperatures, and thereby low-cost generation of solar heat.

Appropriate for the low-cost transport of the media is the method in which the exchange is performed with media in a fluid form or gas form in a forward and backward flow through a line.

The method that a heat source or sink for the exchange contains a compliant element, or is in connection with a compliant element, makes the inward connection flow possible and also the storage of energy for return flow.

The method in which energy stored by one direction of flow, such as different fluid levels, positive pressure or negative pressure, is used for the counter-flow makes it possible for the heat to be transported at low operating cost out of and into the storage heat exchanger. The charging and provision-on-standby devices can be used during the transport as diverters, so that heat from different temperature spaces can be transported with the one-pipe connection in the different transporting directions.

For maintaining the temperature level, and for low-loss storage and for further thermal functions, the method is advantageously extended by adding temperature spaces to the basic thermal functions, such as segments and dishes, and temperature levels can be maintained and/or changed. Further advantageous temperature spaces are spatial formations, grouped spatial formations, layers and storage heat exchangers. The changeability of temperature spaces are such that they can be charged, discharged, mixed, switched, controlled by closed-loop or open-loop control, monitored, interrupted, continued, diverted, directed-through, distributed, outwardly or inwardly transferred or positioned.

The method that the temperature spaces can be maintained and/or changed by heat insulation economizes on heat insulating material and equipment for charging and provision on standby in comparison with storage batteries, since such a device is sufficient in the case of a storage heat exchanger with temperature spaces.

Also appropriate is the method that the temperature spaces are located in at least one of the media. This allows all the media to be used for temperature spaces.

The method that the temperature spaces are arranged in a grouped manner, i.e. that they are disposed in series one against the other, stacked or packed, allows types of storage heat exchangers that are independent of heat convection to be constructed, and consequently better adaptation to local circumstances.

With the method that the basic thermal functions can be extended by adding external storage capacities and/or heat exchanging surface areas, such as solid masses or fluid masses, low-cost storage and heating is made possible in particular by regenerative forms of energy using the functional possibilities of the storage heat exchanger.