Title:
Green roofing apparatus, system and method
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The present invention teaches apparatus, systems and methods for green roofing comprising interlocking and nesting panels on which vegetation can be grown before the system is installed. Systems may be installed on flat or pitched surfaces. The present invention also teaches apparatus, systems and methods for affixing green roofs to a roofing surface and apparatus, systems and methods for the irrigation of green roofs.



Inventors:
Garner, Greg (Burford, CA)
Ardron, Keith (Guelph, CA)
Sisler, Neil (Brantford, CA)
Pearce, Kaaren (Burford, CA)
Application Number:
11/055630
Publication Date:
10/20/2005
Filing Date:
02/11/2005
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/95
International Classes:
A01G1/00; E04B1/38; E04B7/00; E04C2/32; E04C2/54; E04C5/00; E04D3/40; E04D11/00; E04D13/00; (IPC1-7): E04D3/40; E04B1/38; E04B7/00; E04C2/32; E04C2/54; E04C5/00; E04D13/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
POON, PETER M
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BERESKIN & PARR LLP/S.E.N.C.R.L., s.r.l. (TORONTO, ON, CA)
Claims:
1. A roofing panel comprising: a carrier having a web with a top portion; an anchor layer positioned adjacent the top portion of the web; and a plurality of water retention compartments formed in the web.

2. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein the anchor layer is affixed to the top portion of the web.

3. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein at least some of the water retention compartments have a volume of at least about 5 ml.

4. The roofing panel of claim 3 wherein at least some of the water retention compartments have a volume of less than about 250 ml.

5. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein the water retention compartments have a volume of at least about 5 ml.

6. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein the water retention compartments have a volume of between about 5 ml and about 250 ml.

7. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein at least some of the water retention compartments have a substantially circular cross-section in a plane parallel to the top surface, and wherein at least some of the water retention compartments have a diameter greater than 1 cm measured at the top surface.

8. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein a first group of water retention compartments is formed adjacent a first edge of the carrier and a second group of water retention compartments is formed adjacent a second edge of the carrier, and wherein the first group of water retention compartments is configured to nest in the second group of water retention compartments of another such roofing panel.

9. The roofing panel of claim 8 wherein the anchor layer extends over the first group of water retention compartments but does not extend over the second group of water retention compartments.

10. The roofing panel of claim 8 wherein a third group of water retention compartments is formed adjacent a third edge of the carrier and a fourth group of water retention compartments is formed adjacent a fourth edge of the carrier, and wherein the third group of water retention compartments is configured to nest in the fourth group of water retention compartments of another such roofing panel.

11. The roofing panel of claim 10 wherein the anchor layer extends over the first group of water retention compartments but does not extend over the second group of water retention compartments.

12. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein a first group of water retention compartments is formed adjacent a first edge of the carrier and a second group of water retention compartments is formed adjacent a second edge of the carrier, and wherein the first group of water retention compartments comprise male interlocking means and the second group of water retention compartments comprise female interlocking means, and wherein the first group of water retention compartments is configured to interlock in the second group of water retention compartments of another such roofing panel.

13. The roofing panel of claim 12 wherein a third group of water retention compartments is formed adjacent a third edge of the carrier and a fourth group of water retention compartments is formed adjacent a fourth edge of the carrier, and wherein the third group of water retention compartments comprise male interlocking means and the fourth group of water retention compartments comprise female interlocking means, and wherein the third group of water retention compartments is configured to interlock in the fourth group of water retention compartments of another such roofing panel.

14. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein drainage means are formed in the carrier.

15. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein the anchor layer covers at least a portion of the top portion of the web.

16. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein the anchor layer is affixed directly to the carrier.

17. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein a porous filter is disposed intermediate the anchor layer and the carrier.

18. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein the anchor layer is affixed to the carrier by means selected from the group consisting of welds, mechanical fasteners, chemical bonds, and heat bonds.

19. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein the anchor layer comprises a plurality of fibers forming a porous three dimensional structure.

20. The roofing panel of claim 1 wherein the anchor layer comprises rock wool.

21. The roofing panel of claim 1 further comprising growth medium, wherein the growth medium is disposed in the anchor layer.

22. The roofing panel of claim 1 further comprising vegetation, wherein the vegetation comprises roots, and wherein the roots are disposed in the anchor layer.

23. A roofing system comprising: a plurality of roofing panels installed on an underlying surface, wherein each of the roofing panels comprises a carrier having a web with a top portion, an anchor layer positioned adjacent the top portion of the web, and a plurality of water retention compartments formed in the web.

24. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein the anchor layer of each roofing panel is affixed to the to the top portion of the web of the roofing panel.

25. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein each a first roofing panel includes a first group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a first edge of the carrier of the first roofing panel and a second roofing panel includes a second group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a second edge of the carrier of the second roofing panel, and wherein the first group of water retention compartments is configured to nest in the second group of water retention compartments.

26. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein each of at least two of the roofing panels includes a first group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a first edge of the carrier and a second group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a second edge of the carrier, and wherein the first group of water retention compartments is configured to nest in the second group of water retention compartments of another such roofing panel.

27. The roofing system of claim 26 wherein each of the at least two of the roofing panels comprises a third group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a third edge of the carrier and a fourth group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a fourth edge of the carrier, and wherein the third group of water retention compartments is configured to nest in the fourth group of water retention compartments of another such roofing panel.

28. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein at least one roofing panel comprises a first group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a first edge of the carrier and a second group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a second edge of the carrier, and wherein the first group of water retention compartments comprise male interlocking means and the second group of water retention compartments comprise female interlocking means, and wherein the first group of water retention compartments is configured to interlock in the second group of water retention compartments of another such roofing panel.

29. The roofing system of claim 23 further comprising a connective carrier having a first group of water retention compartments and second group of water retention compartments wherein at least part of the carrier of a first roofing panel is nested in the first group of water retention compartments and at least part of the carrier of a second roofing panel is nested in the second group of water retention compartments.

30. The roofing system of claim 28 wherein the at least one roofing panel comprises a third group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a third edge of the carrier and a fourth group of water retention compartments formed adjacent a fourth edge of the carrier, and wherein the third group of water retention compartments comprise male interlocking means and the fourth group of water retention compartments comprise female interlocking means, and wherein the third group of water retention compartments is configured to interlock in the fourth group of water retention compartments of another such roofing panel.

31. The roofing system of claim 23 further comprising fasteners, wherein the fasteners couple at least a first roofing panel to a second roofing panel.

32. The roofing system of claim 23 further comprising an edge detail and fasteners, wherein the edge detail borders at least a portion of at least one roofing panel, and wherein a first set of fasteners couples the edge detail to the underlying surface.

33. The roofing system of claim 32 wherein a second set of fasteners couples at least one roofing panel to the edge detail.

34. The roofing system of claim 23 further comprising irrigation means for providing water to at least a portion of the roofing system.

35. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein drainage means are formed in the carrier of at least one roofing panel.

36. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein the anchor layer covers at least a portion of the top portion of the web of at least one roofing panel.

37. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein the anchor layer is affixed directly to the carrier of at least one roofing panel.

38. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein a porous filter is disposed intermediate the anchor layer and the carrier of at least one roofing panel.

39. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein the anchor layer is affixed to the carrier of at least one roofing panel by means selected from the group consisting of welds, mechanical fasteners, chemical bonds, and heat bonds.

40. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein the anchor layer of at least one roofing panel comprises a plurality of fibers forming a porous three dimensional structure.

41. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein the anchor layer of at least one roofing panel comprises rock wool.

42. The roofing system of claim 23 further comprising vegetation, wherein the vegetation comprises roots, and wherein the roots are at least partially disposed in the anchor layer of at least one roofing panel.

43. The roofing system of claim 42 further comprising an erosion control mesh covering position where an erosion control mesh covers at least one roofing panel.

44. The roofing system of claim 23 wherein at least some of the roofing panels comprise a growth medium disposed in the anchor layer of such roofing panels.

45. The roofing system of claim 44 further comprising vegetation, wherein the vegetation comprises roots, and wherein the roots are at least partially disposed in the growth medium of at least some of the roofing panels.

46. The roofing system of claim 42 further comprising an erosion control mesh covering position where an erosion control mesh covers at least one roofing panel.

47. The roofing system of claim 23 further comprising a substrate sock positioned on one or more roofing panels, wherein the substrate sock contains a growth medium.

48. The roofing system of claim 23 further comprising a peak attachment adapter for receiving the carrier of a roofing panel.

49. The roofing system of claim 48 wherein the peak attachment adapter has a top flap, a bottom flap and a centre portion that define a cavity for receiving the carrier of a roofing panel and wherein the bottom flap is capable of attachment to the underlying surface.

50. The roofing system of claim 48 wherein the peak attachment means has a first cavity for receiving the carrier of a first roofing panel and a second cavity for receiving the carrier of a second roofing panel, and wherein the peak attachment means is flexible to allow the first roofing panel to sit on a first underlying surface and to allow the second roofing panel to sit on a second underlying surface.

51. The roofing system of claim 50 wherein the first underlying surface is at an angle to the second underlying surface.

52. The roofing system of claim 51 wherein the first cavity is defined by a first top flap, a first bottom flap and a centre portion and the second cavity is defined by a second top flap, a second bottom flop and the centre portion and wherein the peak attachment means is flexible adjacent said centre portion.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the field of green roofing. More particularly, the invention relates to apparatus, systems and methods for green roofing.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Green roofing involves the installation of green space on the rooftops of buildings and on other structures. A green roof extends the lifespan of traditional roofing materials, reduces building cooling and heating energy costs, manages storm water runoff, improves air quality, and creates a more esthetically pleasing environment.

Notwithstanding the benefits of green roofing, there has been relatively little prior development in the field. A typical green roof includes a waterproof membrane disposed on the surface of a roof, a drainage layer comprising gravel or another suitable material, a filter membrane, growth medium that may be loose or contained, for example, in a mat made of rock wool, and vegetation such as herbs, grasses, mosses, wild plants and flowers, and other plants.

Typically, a green roof is installed directly on the surface of a roof. There are several problems associated with these current technologies. The vegetation of green roofs installed directly on the surface of a roof is typically grown from seed on the roof after the other components of the green roof are installed. This growing period results in increased maintenance costs, loss of growth medium from wind erosion and other natural forces, and delays the realization of benefits from the green roof. Green roofs installed in this fashion are also typically permanent fixtures and, as such, render repairs to the underlying roof very expensive. In addition to these problems, green roofs installed directly on the surface of a roof typically lack water retention means other than those inherent in the vegetation and growth medium. This results in less efficient management of storm water runoff, as well as increasing the maintenance required by the green roof during dry seasons, such as watering.

Thus, there is a need for an improved green roofing apparatus, system, and method.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In a broad aspect of the invention, there is provided a roofing panel comprising a carrier having a web with a top portion, an anchor layer positioned adjacent the top portion of the web, and a plurality of water retention compartments formed in the web.

In another broad aspect of the invention the anchor layer is affixed to the top portion of the web.

In another broad aspect of the invention, there is provided a roofing system comprising a plurality of roofing panels installed on an underlying surface. Each of the roofing panels comprises a carrier having a web with a top portion, an anchor layer positioned adjacent the top portion of the web, and a plurality of water retention compartments formed in the web.

In another broad aspect of the invention the anchor layer of each roofing panel of the system is affixed to the to the top portion of the web of the roofing panel.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a top view of a green roofing panel.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a green roofing panel.

FIG. 3 is a top view of another embodiment of a green roofing panel.

FIG. 4 is a top view of another embodiment of a green roofing panel.

FIG. 5 is a top view of another embodiment of a green roofing panel.

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of another embodiment of a green roofing panel.

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a green roofing panel.

FIG. 8 is a top view of a green roofing panel having drainage means.

FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view of a green roofing panel having drainage means.

FIG. 10 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a carrier.

FIG. 11 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a carrier.

FIG. 12 is a top view of a green roofing panel having drains.

FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a drain.

FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of interlocking water retention compartments.

FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view of interlocking water retention compartments.

FIG. 16 is a perspective view of a water retention compartment.

FIG. 17 is a perspective view of another embodiment of a water retention compartment.

FIG. 18 is a cross-sectional view of nesting water retention compartments.

FIG. 19 is a cross-sectional view of nesting water retention compartments.

FIG. 20 is a top view of another embodiment of a carrier.

FIG. 21 is a cross-sectional view of a green roofing panel having a filter.

FIG. 22 is a top view of a green roofing system.

FIG. 23 is a cross-sectional view of a green roofing system.

FIG. 24 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 25 is a cross-sectional view of an installed green roofing system.

FIG. 26 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 26B is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 27 is a cross-sectional view of an edge detail.

FIG. 28 is a cross-sectional view of a green roofing system installed with an edge detail.

FIG. 29 is a top view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 30 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 31 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 32 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 33 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 34 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 35 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 36 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 37 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 38 is a cross-sectional view of a green roofing system installed with a tension system.

FIG. 39 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 39B is a perspective view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 39C is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 40 is a top view of a green roofing system with irrigation means.

FIG. 41 is a cross-sectional view of a green roofing system with irrigation means.

FIG. 42 is a side view of a bracket.

FIG. 43 is a top view of a green roofing system with irrigation means and sprinklers.

FIG. 44 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a green peak attachment adapter.

FIG. 45 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

FIG. 46 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of a green roofing system.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

Reference is first made to FIGS. 1 and 2. FIG. 1 is a top view of a green roofing panel 100 according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of panel 100 as viewed from the line 2-2. Panel 100 is shaped and sized in order to fit the area in which it is to be installed. Typically, panel 100 is rectangular having first sides 102 between 0.5 m and 100 m in length and second sides 104 between 0.5 m and 4 m in length. Panel 100 includes a carrier 108 and an anchor layer 106. Carrier 108 is formed of a web 110 with a plurality of water retention compartments 112 formed in web 110.

Typically, a system comprising several panels 100 is used to grow vegetation on the roof of a building. Vegetation is grown in anchor layer 106, and water retention compartments 112 serve to store water supplied to the system for consumption by vegetation.

As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, anchor layer 106 is affixed to carrier 108. Anchor layer 106 can be affixed to carrier 108 by any suitable means including, but not limited to, chemical bonds, heat bonds, mechanical bonds, and mechanical fasteners such as rivets, stitching, clips, screws, nuts, or bolts, and combinations thereof. Anchor layer 106 is positioned on carrier 108 such that one or more water retention compartments 112 are left uncovered by anchor layer 106.

Reference is next made to FIG. 3, which illustrates a panel 300 according to the invention. Panel 300 is similar to panel 100 and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. Panel 300 has an anchor layer 306 positioned on a carrier 308 such that the anchor layer 306 is bordered by two rows of exposed water retention compartments 312 on all four sides.

Reference is next made to FIG. 4, which illustrates a panel 400 according to the invention. Panel 400 is similar to panel 100 and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. Panel 400 has an anchor layer 406 positioned on a carrier 408 such that anchor layer 406 is bordered by four rows of water retention compartments 412 on two adjacent sides.

Reference is next made to FIG. 5, which illustrates a panel 500 according to the invention. Panel 500 is similar to panel 100 and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. Panel 500 has an anchor layer 506 positioned on a carrier 508 such that all water retention compartments 512 are covered by anchor layer 506.

Typically, anchor layer 106 is porous sheet of regular or irregular three-dimensional mesh or screen. For example, anchor layer 106 may be a sheet of intertwined fibers, wire, or coated wire. Anchor layer 106 can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, plastics such as such as polyester, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polypropylene, wires made of metals such as steel and copper, organic materials such as hemp, rockwool, wood fibers, and coconut fibers, and combinations thereof.

Anchor layer 106 may have any dimensions suitable for a particular embodiment. In one embodiment, anchor layer 106 is between 0.1 cm and 20 cm thick.

Carrier 108 can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, rubber, and plastics such as polyester, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, carrier 108 is made of a plastic that is sufficiently flexible such that panel 100 can be rolled by hand and cut with hand tools.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 6 and 7. FIG. 6 is a perspective view of another embodiment of a green roofing panel 600 according to the present invention. FIG. 7 is cross-sectional view of a portion of panel 600. Panel 600 is similar to panel 100 and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals.

As shown in FIG. 6, an anchor layer 606 is affixed to a carrier 608 by rivets 614, but may be attached by other suitable fasteners such as plastic welding (shown at 615) stitching, clips, screws, nuts, or bolts, and combinations thereof, for example. In the embodiments shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, anchor layer 606 is made of a porous material of tightly intertwined fibers commonly referred to as rock wool. In use, anchor layer 606 provides a means for supporting the growth of vegetation. Typically, the roots of vegetation propagate into, and become entangled in, anchor layer 606. By this, anchor layer 606 provides physical support to the vegetation. Anchor layer 606 also retains water and nutrients that are supplied to it and in turn supplies the water and nutrients to the vegetation. Anchor layer 606 may also be impregnated with a growth medium or covered in growth medium. Growth medium may be chosen from a variety of materials. For example, many soils, sands, and gravels may be used. As well, clay, gravel, fertilizer, peat, compost, super-absorbent polymers, and combinations thereof may be used in other embodiments, for example.

Plastic welding 615 is formed using an plastic injection welder such the Drader Injectiweld manufactured by Drader Injectiweld, Inc. of Edmonton, Canada. In practice, molten plastic such as polyethylene or polypropylene, for example, is injected into holes disposed in anchor layer 606 in fluid communication with carrier 610. Once the plastic has cured, anchor layer 606 and carrier 610 are connected by plastic weld 615.

In some embodiments, carrier 108 is water impermeable and has no drainage means, it can act as a waterproofing layer.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 8 and 9, which illustrate various alternatives for carrier 108, shown at 808. Carrier 808 is similar to carrier 108 and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. Carrier 808 has drainage means 816. Drainage means 816 can be on web 810, or in Water retention compartments 812, or both. In some embodiments drainage means 816 are holes penetrated through web 810, or water retention compartments 812, or both. The location, number and dimensions of drainage means 816 are determined by design parameters such as climate, water or drainage requirements for the green roofing system, and the ability of the underlying roof to support the weight of water held by the green roofing system. For example, in wet climates, greater drainage can be accomplished with a greater number of holes or larger holes or both. The location of drainage means 816 in water retention compartments 812 also controls drainage. The closer drainage means 816 are to the bottom of water retention compartment 812 the less water will be retained.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 10 and 11, which illustrate perspective views of further embodiments of carrier 108, shown at 1008 and 1108 respectively, corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. Carriers 1008, 1108 have drainage means 1016, 1116, but are otherwise similar to carrier 108 and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals.

Also shown in FIGS. 10 and 11 are different arrangements of rows of water retention compartments 1012, 1112. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 11, the water retention compartments 1112 are arranged in a side-by-side configuration. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 10, water retention compartments 1012 are arranged in a staggered configuration. In other embodiments, different arrangements are also possible, for example.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 12 and 13. FIG. 12 illustrates a top view of another embodiment of green roofing panel 1200 having drains 1218. Panel 1200 is similar to panel 100 and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. FIG. 13 is a perspective view of drain 1218 with a cap. 1219. Sections of panel 1200 are removed such that drains 1218 can be installed. The number, dimensions, and locations of drains 1218 are determined based on the expected precipitation. Drains 1218 are particularly suited to wet climates, and for locations where the temperature drops below freezing. Drain 1218 is a pipe 1220 with one or more drain holes 1222 penetrated through its walls. The length of drain 1218 depends on design parameters, but drain 1218 should extend from underlying surface 2224 beyond the expected height of growth medium 2226 (shown in FIG. 23). Pipe 1220 can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, rubbers, plastics and metals.

In another embodiment (not shown) pipe 1220 is a shaped porous mesh. The mesh can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, rubbers, plastics and metals.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 14 and 15, which illustrate cross-sectional views of interlocking water retention compartments 1412A and 1412B, of panels 1400A and 1400B, respectively. Water retention compartments 1412A, 1412B are similar to water retention compartments 112, and panels 1400 are similar to panels 100, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In some embodiments, water retention compartments 1412A, 1412B are formed such that the outer surface has a first interlocking member 1428 and the inner surface has a second interlocking member 1430. Water retention compartments 1412A, 1412B are interlocked by pressing first interlocking member 1428 of one water retention compartment 1412A into second interlocking member 1430 of another water retention compartment 1412B. Interlocked water retention compartments 1412A, 1412B can be pulled apart. In some embodiments water retention compartments 1412A, 1412B can be interlocked by an interference fit.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 16 and 17. FIG. 16 is a perspective view of water retention compartment 1612. FIG. 17 illustrates a side view of another embodiment of water retention compartment 1712. Water retention compartments 1612 and 1712 are similar to water retention compartments 112, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals.

Water retention compartments 112 can be any practical size or shape. The volume of a water retention compartment 112 may range from 5 ml to 250 ml.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 18 and 19, which show cross-sectional views of an embodiment of nesting water retention compartments 1812A and 1812B, of two separate panels 1800A and 1800B, respectively. Water retention compartments 1812A, 1812B are similar to water retention compartments 112, and panels 1800A, 1800B are similar to panels 100, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. Water retention compartments 1812A, 1812B are formed such that the outer surface of a water retention compartment 1812A is receivable by another water retention compartment 1812B, as shown. In this way panels 1800A and 1800B can be connected to each other by overlapping panel 1800B with panel 1800A such that a row of water retention compartments 1812A in panel 1800A nest in a corresponding row of water retention compartments 1812B in panel 1800B. Optionally, panels 1800A and 1800B may be affixed to each other by fasteners 1832, as shown in FIGS. 18 and 19. Suitable fasteners include rivets, staples, stitching, clips, screws, nuts and bolts, and combinations thereof, for example. Chemical bonds, heat bonds, and other adhesives such as plastic welding may also be used to affix separate panels 1800A and 1800B to each other.

Reference is now made to FIG. 20. FIG. 20 illustrates a top view of another embodiment of carrier 2008. Carrier 2008 is similar to carrier 108, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment one or more water retention compartments 2012A are of lesser volume than remaining water retention compartments 2012B such that interlocking first interlocking members 2028 (not shown) with second interlocking members 2030 (not shown) is facilitated.

Reference is now made to FIG. 21. FIG. 21 illustrates a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of panel 100, shown at 2100. Panel 2100 is similar to panel 100, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. A filter 2134 is disposed between a carrier 2108 and an anchor layer 2106.

In this embodiment, anchor layer 2106 and filter 2134 can be affixed to each other and to carrier 2108 by any suitable means including, but not limited to, chemical bonds, heat bonds, and mechanical fasteners such as rivets or stitching, and by plastic welding. Anchor layer 2106 and filter 2134 are positioned on carrier 2108 such that one or more water retention compartments 2112 are left uncovered by anchor layer 2106 and filter 2134.

Filter 2134 may be of any suitable water permeable material that impedes the passage of growth medium 2226 (FIG. 23), such materials include, but are not limited to, polyester, cotton, rock-wool, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments filter 2134 is a woven material. Filter 2134 may have any practical dimensions as design parameters permit. In one embodiment filter 2134 is between 0.01 mm and 80 mm thick.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 22 and 23. FIG. 22 illustrates a top view of an embodiment of a green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention. In this embodiment, green roofing system 2236 is partially installed and covers an underlying surface 2224 surrounded by a curb 2238. FIG. 23 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a portion of green roofing system 2236. Green roofing system 2236 includes panels 2200A and 2200B but more panels may be used, growth medium 2226, and vegetation 2240. Green roofing system 2236 may be used with all embodiments of green roofing panels 100.

Panels 2200A and 2200B are connected by interlocking, or nesting, water retention compartments 2212 as described above. Water retention compartments 2212 of panel 2200A are interlocked (or nested) with corresponding water retention compartments 2212 of panel 2200B. As many or as few water retention compartments 2212 may be interlocked (or nested) as are required to securely install green roofing system 2236.

Growth medium 2226 may be any medium suitable for growing vegetation 2240 including, but not limited to, soil, sand, clay, gravel, fertilizer, peat, compost, super-absorbent polymers, and combinations thereof.

Vegetation 2240 includes, but is not limited to, herbs, grasses, mosses, wild plants, wild flowers, other plants, and combinations thereof.

Green roofing system 2236 may be installed on any suitable surface including, but not limited to, flat roofs, pitched roofs, and vertical walls.

In some embodiments (not shown) green roofing system 2236 comprises bubble foil disposed between panel 2200 and underlying surface 2224. Bubble foil acts as an insulator and a vapor barrier. In some embodiments bubble foil is rFOIL marketed by TVM Building Products of Ontario, Canada.

Reference is now made to FIG. 46. FIG. 46 is a perspective view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2436 according to the present invention. The components of green roofing system 4636 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. As shown, adjacent panels 4600A, 4600B are nested in a connective carrier 4608. This configuration is suitable for situations where it is preferable not to overlap panels 4600.

Reference is now made to FIG. 24. FIG. 24 is a perspective view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2436 according to the present invention. The components of green roofing system 2436 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. As shown, green roofing system 2436 comprises multiple panels 2400 installed on an underlying surface 2424.

In the embodiment shown in FIG. 24, a waterproof roofing membrane 2442 is shown intermediate green roofing panels 2400 and underlying surface 2424. In some applications, it is desirable to have a waterproof membrane 2442 positioned directly under green roofing panels 2400. Such membranes 2442 may also serve as a root barrier to prevent unwanted propagation of roots from vegetation 2440, especially in cases where drainage means 2416 are employed. Alternatively, a separate membrane (not shown) may be employed as a root barrier. In other embodiments, such as where a green roofing system is installed on a wooden deck, for example, the roofing membrane 2442 may be not be in direct contact with panels 2400. Drains 2418 are also shown in the embodiment shown in FIG. 24.

As shown in FIG. 24, green roofing system 2436 is bordered by an edge detail 2444. Edge detail 2444 serves to define the outer edge of green roofing system 2436 and supports green roofing system 2436 on underlying surface 2424. Edge detail 2444 may be made of aluminum, galvanized steel, plastic, wood or another suitable material.

An erosion control mesh 2445 is also shown in the embodiment of green roofing system 2436 illustrated in FIG. 24. Erosion control mesh 2445 is placed over panels 2400, and is used to cover green roofing system 2436 as required to provide additional support to vegetation 2440 as it grows through openings 2447 of erosion control mesh 2445. Erosion control mesh 2445 can be made from a variety of plastics and metals and typically will have openings ranging from 1 cm to 25 cm. The erosion control mesh 2445 with openings 2447 outside of this range may also be used. The size of suitable openings 2447 depends on the types of vegetation 2440 grown. The dimensions of erosion control mesh 2445 are variable, but typically sheets between 1 mm and 10 mm in thickness and 0.5 m to 2 m in width will be cut from a roll in lengths as needed.

Reference is now made to FIG. 25. FIG. 25 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of green roofing system 2536 installed on an underlying surface 2524. The components of green roofing system 2536 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. A panel 2500 is bent and affixed to a curb 2538 by fasteners 2546. Fasteners 2546 can be any suitable fasteners depending on the characteristics of curb 2538. For example, fasteners 2546 include nails, screws, concrete nails, lags, nuts, bolts, and combinations thereof. Roofing sealant (not shown) is disposed between panel 2500 and curb 2538. In another embodiment (not shown), green roofing system 2536 is affixed to underlying surface 2524 by fasteners 2546 and may or may not be affixed to curb 2538.

A perspective view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown in FIG. 26 at 2636. The components of green roofing system 2636 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. FIG. 26 shows an edge detail 2644 affixed to a paving stone 2648 by fasteners 2646 (not shown). Also, as shown, a flashing 2650 covers panels a 2600 and a curb 2638 and adds additional structural integrity to green roofing system 2636. Typically flashing 2650 will be made of aluminum, galvanized steel, or plastic, however, in other embodiments other materials may be used.

Also shown in FIG. 26 is a substrate 2651 containing growth medium 2626. A cross sectional view of multiple substrate socks 2651 is shown in the embodiment of green roofing system 2636 illustrated in FIG. 26B. Substrate sock 2651 can be made from a variety of porous synthetic and natural materials. For example substrate sock 2651 may be woven from a plastic such as polyester, or a natural material such as hemp. Typically, substrate sock 2651 will have a generally tubular shape ranging with a diameter of 2 cm or more. In one embodiment, substrate socks with a diameter ranging from 10 cm to 60 cm is used. A substrate sock may dimensions outside of these ranges. The length of substrate sock 2651 will vary depending on the required application, but will typically be 50 cm or longer. For example, an embodiment may have a plurality of substrate socks ranging from 0.5 m to 25 m in length. In other embodiments, a substrate sock may have a length outside these ranges. Substrate sock 2651 can serve a variety of functions. For example, substrate sock 2651 can be used to weigh down green roofing panels 2600 in order to mitigate against uplift forces on panels 2600 created by wind. For this purpose, substrate sock 2651 will typically be positioned around the outer edges of green roofing system 2636 closest to the edge of underlying surface 2624. Substrate sock 2651 also serves another means in which for vegetation 2640 to grow. By virtue of the porous structure of substrate sock 2651, vegetation 2640 is able to grow in growth medium 2626 in substrate sock 2651 and at least partially cover substrate sock 2651. Substrate sock 2651 can also serve to create landscaping effects.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 27 and 28. FIG. 27 is a cross-sectional view of an embodiment of an edge detail 2744. FIG. 28 illustrates a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a green roofing system 2736 interlocked with edge detail 2744 installed on an underlying surface 2724. The components of green roofing system 2736 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. Edge detail 2744 has interlocking means 2754 corresponding with a first interlocking member 1428 and a second interlocking member 1430 of panels 1400 such that edge detail 2744 and panels 1400 can be interlocked. Edge detail 2744 surrounds outer edge of green roofing system 2736. Edge detail 2744 can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, rubber and plastics such as polyester, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and metals such as aluminum and galvanized steel, and combinations thereof.

Ballast 2756 placed in ballast zone 2758 affixes green roofing system 2736 to underlying surface 2724. Ballast 2756 includes, but is not limited to, gravel, cinder blocks, brick, crushed stone, sand, river-rock, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, edge detail 2744 is affixed to underlying surface 2724 by fasteners 2746 (not shown). In some other embodiments ballast 2756 is placed at various locations on green roofing system 2736.

Reference is now made to FIG. 29, which shows a top view of an embodiment of nested panels 2900. Panels 2900 are similar to panels 100, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. As shown, panels 2900 have been cut to so as to accommodate an angled joint 2960. Panels 2900 may be cut to almost any shape so as to accommodate a particular geometry of an underlying surface 2924. For example, panels 2900 could be cut so as to fit around chimneys or air ducts located on underlying surface 2924. As shown in FIG. 29, panels 2900 along angled joint 2960 do not overlap each other. Instead, an edge detail 2944A and 2944B (shown in heavy broken lines) are disposed under panels 2900 (as described above) and abut to form angled joint 2960, as shown. While an angled joint 2960 is shown in FIG. 29, it will be obvious to one skilled in the art that similar panels 2900 can be made to accommodate almost any geometry.

Reference is made to FIG. 30, which shows a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 at 3036 according to the present invention. The components of green roofing system 3036 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment growth medium 3026 is disposed in water retention compartments 3012, as shown. Growth medium 3026 may serve several purposes. If less water retention capacity is desirable, for example, gravel may be used to partially fill the volume of water retention compartments 3012. In other applications, growth medium may be chosen based on the nutrient requirements of vegetation.

A cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 3136 in FIG. 31. The components of green roofing system 3136 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment an edge detail 3144 is affixed to an underlying surface 3124 by fastener 3146, and a panel 3100 abuts edge detail 3144 and fastener 3146.

A cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 3236 in FIG. 32. The components of green roofing system 3236 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment, a paving stone 3262 is disposed on a panel 3200 adjacent a divider plate 3264. Divider plate 3264 is affixed to a carrier 3208 by a fastener 3232 as shown. Typically divider plate 3264 will be made of aluminum, galvanized steel, or plastic, however, in other embodiments other materials may be used.

A cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 3336 in FIG. 33. The components of green roofing system 3336 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment anchor layers 3306 are disposed on opposite sides of a divider plate 3364, and divider plate 3364 is affixed to a carrier 3308 by a fastener 3332 as shown. Additionally, growth medium 3326 is disposed on an anchor layer 3306 to provide additional support for vegetation 3340.

A cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 3436 in FIG. 34. The components of green roofing system 3436 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment, growth medium 3426 is disposed to form a hill 3466 on an anchor layer 3406 with vegetation 3440. Additionally, a roofing membrane 3442 is disposed intermediate a panel 3400 and an underlying surface 3424.

A cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 3536 in FIG. 35. The components of green roofing system 3436 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment, an erosion control mesh 3545 is shown with with vegetation 3440 growing through openings 3547.

A cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 3636 in FIG. 36. The components of green roofing system 3636 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment, a panel 3600 is secured to an anchor plate 3672 by a fastener 3646A and anchor plate 3672 is secured to an underlying surface 3624 by fasteners 3646B, as shown. A membrane 3642 is disposed intermediate underlying surface 3624 and a carrier 3608. Fastener 3646A passes through membrane 3642, and fasteners 3646B remain under membrane 3642.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 40, 41, and 42. FIG. 40 illustrates a top view of green roofing system 4036 and irrigation means 4094. FIG. 41 illustrates a cross-sectional view of green roofing system 4036 and irrigation means 4094. FIG. 42 illustrates a side view of irrigation means 4094. Irrigation means 4094 include irrigation pipes 4096 and brackets 4098. Irrigation means 4094 may be used with all embodiments of green roofing system 4036.

Brackets 4098 are interlocked with panels 4900 and irrigation pipe 4096 is fastened to brackets 4098.

Irrigation pipe 4096 can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, rubbers, plastics and metals. Irrigation pipe 4096 has water outlets 40100. Irrigation pipe 4096 can be in any size or shape as design parameters permit.

In one embodiment irrigation pipe 4096 is cylindrical having a diameter between 0.5 cm and 20 cm. In another embodiment irrigation pipe 4096 is a commercially available soaker hose, which allows water to seep out through its outer walls.

Bracket 4098 includes a base 40102 and a clamp 40104. Base 40102 can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, rubber and plastics such as polyester, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and combinations thereof.

Base 40102 is interlocked with panel 4000. Base 40102 has interlocking member 40106. Base 40102 can be interlocked with panel 4000 by pressing interlocking member 40106 into second interlocking member 4030 of water retention compartment 4012. Interlocked base 40102 can be pulled out of water retention compartment 4012. In some embodiments base 40102 and panel 4000 can be interlocked by an interference fit.

Clamp 40104 can be any suitable mechanical fastening means. In some embodiments clamp 40104 is a cable zip-tie. In another embodiment clamp 40104 is a hose clamp.

Reference is now made to FIG. 43. FIG. 43 illustrates a top view of green roofing system 4336 and of another embodiment of irrigation means 4336. Irrigation means 4336 comprise sprinklers 43108. Sprinklers 43108 may be any suitable type including, but not limited to, spray head, rotor head, oscillating, pop-up, and combinations thereof. Irrigation pipes 4396 in this embodiment may or may not have water outlets 40100.

A perspective view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 3936 in FIG. 39. The components of green roofing system 3936 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment, green roofing system 3936 is installed on a pitched underlying surface 3924. Panels 3900 overlap and are affixed to underlying surface 3924 by fasteners 3946. In the embodiment shown, panels 3900 overlap in a shingled fashion such that the panels 3900 are generally installed moving up the pitch of underlying surface 3924, i.e. so that upper panels 3900A overlap adjacent lower panels 3900B. Installing roofing panels 3900 in this manner allows for panels 3900 to replace roofing shingles that would normally be installed on a pitched roof. Green roofing system 3936 is also supported by edge detail 3944, which is affixed to underlying surface 3924 by fasteners 3946 (not shown).

Additionally a peak attachment adapter 3962 is disposed intermediate carrier 3908 and anchor layer 3906 of panels 3900 abutting at the peak of underlying surfaces 3924A. 3924B, as shown. Peak attachment adapter 3962 is also shown in FIGS. 39B and 44. FIG. 39B is a perspective view an embodiment of green roofing system 3936 shown in FIG. 39, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals, but also includes a side brace 3970. FIG. 44 is perspective view of peak attachment adapter 3962. Peak attach adapter 3962 has top flaps 39118A, 39188B which cover and are attach to a portion of carriers 3908A, 3908B, and is affixed to carriers 3908 by fasteners 3932 (not shown). Peak attachment adapter 3962 also includes bottom flaps 39120A, 39120B, which attach to underlying surfaces 3924A, 3924B with fasteners 3946. As shown, carrier 3908 is received in a cavity defined between top flap 39118 and bottom flap 39120. Peak attachment adapter 3962 further comprises a centre portion 39122 and flex grooves 39124, which facilitate bending of peak attachment adapter 3962 to accommodate the attachment angel between underlying surfaces 3924A, 3924B. Typically attachment adapter 3962 will be made of aluminum, galvanized steel, or plastic, however, in other embodiments other materials may be used.

Reference is now made to FIG. 39C, which is a cross-sectional view showing side brace 3970 illustrated in FIG. 39B. As shown, side brace 3970 is used to affix panel 3900 to underlying surface 3924. As shown, side brace 3970 is affixed to underlying surface 3924 by fasteners 3946, and is disposed intermediate anchor layer 3906 and carrier 3908. Side brace 3970 is affixed to carrier 3908 by bond 3971, as shown. Bond 3971 may be a chemical bond, a heat bond, or plastic weld, for example. Typically, side brace 3970 will be made of aluminum, galvanized steel, or plastic, however, in other embodiments other materials may be used.

A cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 3736 in FIG. 37. The components of green roofing system 3736 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment, system 3736 is shown mounted to an inclined underlying surface 3724 in proximity to a gutter 3774. An anchor 3706 is supported by an end plate 3776, which is attached to a carrier 3708 by fastener 3732, and carrier 3708 is affixed to an under plate 3778 by fastener 3746A. As shown, under plate 3778 is affixed to underlying surface 3724 by fasteners 3746B and 3746C.

Reference is now made to FIG. 38. FIG. 38 illustrates a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of green roofing system 3836 installed on an underlying surface 3824 with tension system 3880. The components of green roofing system 3836 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. Tension systems 3880 are installed around the outer edge of green roofing system 3836 as required to secure installation. Tension system 3880 includes an edge detail 3844 comprising a bracing means 3882 attached to a tightening bracket 3884. Tightening bracket 3884 is attached to a mechanical fastener 3886 affixed to a face 3888 of underlying surface 3824. Tightening bracket 3884 comprises male threaded rods 3890 and a female linkage 3892. By turning female linkage 3892, tension is applied to green roofing system 3836 as required to secure installation. Male threaded rods 3890 and female linkage 3892 can be made of any suitable material including, but not limited to, metal and plastics.

A perspective view of another embodiment of green roofing system 2236 according to the present invention is shown at 4536 in FIG. 45. The components of green roofing system 4536 are similar to those of system 2236, and corresponding components are identified with similar reference numerals. In this embodiment, green roofing system 4536 is installed on a pitched underlying surface 4524 abutting a parapet 45128. As shown, in this embodiment a peak attachment adapter 4562 is attached to a carrier 4508 and an underlying surface 4524 by fasteners 4546. In this embodiment, peak attachment adapter 4562 comprises a top flap 45118A attached to carrier 4508 and a top flap 45118B attached to underlying surface 4524, a centre portion 45122 is also attached to parapet 45128 by fasteners 4546.

The invention has been described with regard to a number of embodiments. However, it will be understood by persons skilled in the art that other variations and modifications may be made without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the claims appended hereto.