Title:
Wall repair system and method
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A basement wall repair system and method employs columns mounted vertically across the failed section of the wall. The columns are mounted at their top ends to the sill plate and the ceiling members, or joists, of the building and at their bottom ends to the building floor. An angle is installed on the side of the sill plate along the length of the sill plate. A threaded member is installed on the angle at each point at which a column will be mounted. Each column has an opening through which a threaded member is inserted. A nut is threaded onto the end of the threaded member and tightened against the column to cause the column to exert force against the failed section of the wall to stabilize the wall. The earth outside the wall can be excavated upon installation of the system to allow tightening of the nut until the wall is at or nearly at its original position. Shelving can be provided, if desired, on the columns.



Inventors:
Reed, William E. (Worthington, PA, US)
Application Number:
11/073033
Publication Date:
09/22/2005
Filing Date:
03/04/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E02D37/00; E04G23/00; (IPC1-7): E04G23/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
GLESSNER, BRIAN E
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Andrew J. Cornelius (Pittsburgh, PA, US)
Claims:
1. A system for repairing a bowed section of a wall comprising: at least one stabilizing member mounted across the bowed section of the wall; and an adjuster that can be manipulated to cause said stabilizing member to exert force on the bowed section.

2. The system recited by claim 1 wherein said stabilizing member is a column.

3. The system recited by claim 1 wherein said stabilizing member is oriented substantially vertically.

4. The system recited by claim 2 wherein said column is mounted at one end to a support above the wall and at the remaining end to a floor.

5. The system recited by claim 2 wherein said adjuster can be manipulated to move on end of said column toward the wall to cause the column to exert force on the bowed section of the wall.

6. A system for repairing a bowed section of a wall comprising: a column that is mounted at its top end to a support above the wall and at its bottom end to the floor of a building; and an adjuster that can be manipulated to move said top end of said column toward the wall to cause said column to exert force against the bowed section of the wall.

7. The system recited by claim 6 wherein said adjuster is a threaded member onto which an adjusting member has been threaded.

8. The system recited by claim 7 wherein said adjusting member is a nut.

9. The system recited by claim 8 further comprising shelving mounted to said columns.

10. A system for repairing a bowed section of a building foundation wall comprising: an angle mounted to the sill plate of the building; at least one column mounted at its top end to said angle and at its bottom end to the floor; a threaded member mounted to said angle, said top end of said column being slidably mounted to one end of said threaded member; and an adjusting member that is threaded onto said end of said threaded member, said adjusting member being adapted to be threaded against said top end of said column to cause said column to exert force against the bowed section.

11. The system recited by claim 10 wherein said adjusting member is a nut.

12. The system recited by claim 11 further comprising shelving mounted to said column.

13. A method for repairing a bowed section of a wall comprising the steps of: installing at least one stabilizing member across the bowed section of the wall; installing an adjuster that can be manipulated to cause said stabilizing member to exert force on the bowed section, and manipulating said adjuster to cause said stabilizing member to exert force on the bowed section.

14. The method recited by claim 13 wherein said stabilizing member is a column.

15. The method recited by claim 13 wherein said stabilizing member is oriented substantially vertically.

16. The method recited by claim 14 wherein said column is mounted at one end to a support above the wall and at the remaining end to a floor.

17. The method recited by claim 14 wherein said adjuster can be manipulated to move on end of said column toward the wall to cause the column to exert force on the bowed section of the wall.

18. A method for repairing a bowed section of a wall comprising the steps of: installing a column at its top end to a support above the wall and at its bottom end to the floor of a building; installing an adjuster that can be manipulated to move said top end of said column toward the wall to cause said column to exert force against the bowed section of the wall; and manipulating said adjuster to move said top end of said column toward the wall to cause said column to exert force against the bowed section of the wall.

19. The method recited by claim 18 wherein said adjuster is a threaded member onto which an adjusting member has been threaded.

20. The method recited by claim 19 wherein said adjusting member is a nut.

21. The method recited by claim 20 further comprising the step of installing shelving to said columns.

22. A method for repairing a bowed section of a building foundation wall comprising the steps of: mounting an angle to the sill plate of the building; mounting at least one column at its top end to said angle and at its bottom end to the floor; mounting a threaded member to said angle, said top end of said column being slidably mounted to one end of said threaded member; threading an adjusting member onto said end of said threaded member, said adjusting member being adapted to be threaded against said top end of said column to cause said column to exert force against the bowed section; and threading said adjusting member onto said end of said threaded member to cause said column to exert force against the bowed section.

23. The method recited by claim 22 wherein said adjusting member is a nut.

24. The method recited by claim 23 further comprising the step of mounting shelving to said column.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of copending U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/550,011, filed Mar. 4, 2004, by the same inventor.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to building repair and, more particularly, to a method and system for repairing cracked or displaced walls.

Water tends to accumulate in the soil outside building foundation walls, which creates a hydrostatic pressure that is exerted on the wall toward the interior of the building. The pressure can, and often does, build to a level that causes the wall to fail. When the failure occurs, a crack forms in the wall, and the wall bulges inward, which causes the crack to widen. Often, the soil outside the wall also will displace the top of the wall inward. The failed wall is unsightly and structurally unstable. The hydrostatic pressure that caused the failure can cause further bulging, and can cause the top of the wall to begin or continue sliding inward.

A variety of approaches are used to stabilize or repair a failed foundation wall. The wall can be completely reconstructed in its original location. Assuming that proper building materials and techniques are employed, this method is very effective. This approach requires excavating and removing the earth from the exterior of the wall, and completely rebuilding the wall. The procedure is very expensive, takes a long time to implement, is disruptive to the owner of the building during the reconstruction process, and creates a great deal of debris that finds its way into the living areas of the building. If excavation outside the building is not possible or practical, the process cannot be implemented.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,189,891 describes a method for anchoring and straightening a cracked foundation wall. The method involves excavating a hole in the earth a short distance from the wall, inserting a threaded metal shaft from the interior of the building through a crack in the wall and through the earth remaining between the hole and the crack in the wall. The threaded end of the shaft that is in the excavated hole is inserted through a hole in a plate and the plate is slid along the shaft toward the building until it contacts the wall of the hole. A nut is threaded onto that end of the shaft and tightened against the plate. The threaded end of the shaft that is in the interior of the building is inserted through a hole in another plate and the plate is slid along the shaft toward the failed wall of the building until it contacts the crack in the wall. A nut is threaded onto that end of the shaft and tightened against the plate. A wrench is used to tighten the nut in the interior of the building, which tends to draw the two plates together. The patent states that this action causes the wall to move toward the excavated hole to bring the wall back to its original position. As with the wall reconstruction procedure, it may be difficult or impossible to excavate the required hole due to obstructions or boundary restrictions. Also, the resistance provided by the soil may be insufficient to establish a stable position for the wall. Further, the top end of the wall may continue to slide inwardly because it is not reinforced.

Therefore, there exists a need for a wall repair system that does not require exterior excavation, and that effectively stabilizes the position of a failed wall.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a system for repairing a failed wall. The system includes at least one stabilizing member mounted across the bowed section of the wall and an adjuster that can be manipulated to cause the stabilizing member to exert force on the bowed section. Preferably, the stabilizing member is a column, is oriented substantially vertically, is mounted at one end to a support above the wall and at the remaining end to the floor, and the adjuster can be manipulated to move on end of the column toward the wall to cause the column to exert force on the bowed section of the wall.

The present invention also provides a system for repairing a bowed section of a wall including a column that is mounted at its top end to a support above the wall and at its bottom end to the floor of a building and an adjuster that can be manipulated to move the top end of the column toward the wall to cause the column to exert force against the bowed section of the wall. Preferably, the adjuster is a threaded member onto which an adjusting member has been threaded, and the adjusting member can be a nut. The system can include shelving mounted to the columns.

The present invention also provides a system for repairing a bowed section of a building foundation wall including an angle mounted to the sill plate of the building, at least one column mounted at its top end to the angle and at its bottom end to the floor, a threaded member mounted to the angle, the top end of the column being slidably mounted to one end of the threaded member, and an adjusting member that is threaded onto the end of the threaded member, the adjusting member being adapted to be threaded against the top end of the column to cause the column to exert force against the bowed section. Preferably, the adjusting member is a nut. The system can include shelving mounted to the column.

The present invention also provides a method for repairing a failed wall. The method includes the steps of installing at least one stabilizing member across the bowed section of the wall and installing an adjuster that can be manipulated to cause the stabilizing member to exert force on the bowed section. Preferably, the stabilizing member is a column, is oriented substantially vertically, is mounted at one end to a support above the wall and at the remaining end to a floor, and the adjuster can be manipulated to move on end of the column toward the wall to cause the column to exert force on the bowed section of the wall.

The present invention also provides a method for repairing a bowed section of a wall including the steps of installing a column that is mounted at its top end to a support above the wall and at its bottom end to the floor of a building and installing an adjuster that can be manipulated to move the top end of the column toward the wall to cause the column to exert force against the bowed section of the wall. Preferably, the adjuster is a threaded member onto which an adjusting member has been threaded, and the adjusting member can be a nut. The method can include the step of installing shelving mounted to the columns.

The present invention also provides a method for repairing a bowed section of a building foundation wall including the steps of mounting an angle to the sill plate of the building, mounting at least one column at its top end to the angle and at its bottom end to the floor, mounting a threaded member to the angle, the top end of the column being slidably mounted to one end of the threaded member, and threading an adjusting member onto the end of the threaded member against the top end of the column to cause the column to exert force against the bowed section. Preferably, the adjusting member is a nut. The method can include the step of installing shelving mounted to the column.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

The following preferred embodiment of the present invention can be understood better if reference is made to the drawing, in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a system provided by the present invention installed in a basement to stabilize a cracked load bearing wall;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of part of the upper section of the system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of part of the lower section of the system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 4A is a side elevational view, partially cut away of one of the vertical support columns of the system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 4B is a side elevational view, partially in section, of part of the column shown in FIG. 4A, which shows the details of the top of the system;

FIG. 4C is a side elevational view, partially in section, showing the details of the bottom end of the column shown in FIG. 4A;

FIG. 5A is a perspective view of the upper section of a system similar to the one shown in FIG. 1 that has been installed to stabilize a non-bearing wall;

FIG. 5B is a side elevational view of the upper end of the system shown in FIG. 5A;

FIG. 6A is a front elevational view showing the mounting of the all thread to the angle in a top mount installation;

FIG. 6B is a front elevational view showing the mounting of the all thread to the angle in a bottom mount installation;

FIG. 7A is a side elevational view of a part of the upper section of the system shown in FIG. 1 showing the detail of a top mount configuration;

FIG. 7B is a side elevational view of a part of the upper section of the system shown in FIG. 1 showing the detail of a bottom mount configuration;

FIG. 7C is a side elevational view showing an alternate method of mounting the top of the column to the angle in a top mount configuration;

FIG. 7D is a side elevational view showing an alternate method of mounting the top of the column to the angle in a bottom mount configuration;

FIG. 8A is a perspective view of a column of the type used in the system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 8B is a rear elevational view of the column shown in FIG. 8A;

FIG. 8C is a side elevational view of the column shown in FIG. 8A;

FIG. 9A is a perspective view of the all thread and the components for mounting the all thread to the angle using the technique shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 9B is a top plan view of the plate and all thread shown in FIG. 9A;

FIG. 9C is an end view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 9B;

FIG. 9D is a side elevational view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 9B;

FIG. 10A is an exploded view of the components used to mount the bottom end of a column of the type used in the system shown in FIG. 1 to the floor;

FIG. 10B is a top plan view of the plate shown in FIG. 10A;

FIG. 10C is a side view of the plate shown in FIG. 10A;

FIG. 10D is an end view of the plate shown in FIG. 10A;

FIG. 11A is an exploded view of the shelf bracket and mounting components for the system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 11B is a side view of the shelf bracket shown in FIG. 11A;

FIG. 11C is a bottom plan view of the bracket shown in FIG. 11B;

FIG. 11D is an end view of the bracket shown in FIG. 11B;

FIG. 12A is an exploded view of an alternate shelf bracket and mounting components;

FIG. 12B is a side view of the shelf bracket shown in FIG. 12A; and

FIG. 12C is a top plan view of the shelf bracket shown in FIG. 12B.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

FIGS. 1 through 4 show a wall repair system 10 that is provided by the present invention, which has been installed in a basement to stabilize the cracked wall 12 of a house. While the sizing of the components provided herein are typical of a repair system 10 for a residential foundation wall, sizing of the components for use with any type of building can be determined easily by those of ordinary skill in the art. System 10, as shown in FIGS. 1 through 4, is used to stabilize a failed wall 12 that is a load bearing wall. That is, joists 18 of the house run perpendicularly to wall 12 and their ends rest on top of wall 12. Therefore, wall 12 bears some of the load of the structure above it. Slight modifications must be made to system 10 where the failed wall is not a load bearing wall, since the joists will run parallel to the wall. Although these modifications will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art, and will vary with the construction of the building, a typical case will be described herein.

Hydrostatic pressure caused by the accumulation of water in the soil on the exterior of wall 12 has caused wall 12 to fail by cracking at 14 and bowing inward. System 10 is mounted to the floor 16, ceiling joists 18, and sill plate 20. The major structural components of system 10 are vertical columns 24, which are the structural components of system 10 that prevent further bowing of wall 12, wall angle 22, which provides a mount for the top ends of columns 24, and base blocks 26, which provide the mounting for the bottom ends of columns 24.

Wall angle 22 is a ¼ inch by 2″ by 3″ angle. Wall angle 22 is mounted to sill 20 using ½ inch by 4 inch lag bolts 28. Angle 22 is mounted to joists 18 using ½ inch by 4 inch lag bolts 30. Preferably, wall angle 22 extends continuously along the entire length of failed wall 12, and extends at least about 30 inches beyond the top end of each of the leftmost and rightmost columns 24 of system 10. The top end 32 of each column 24 is mounted to wall angle 22 using a ¼ inch by 2 inch by 4 inch steel plate 34, a pair of ½ inch by 1½ inch Grade 5 bolts 36, a ¾ inch by 9 inch NC Grade 5 all thread (a bolt without a head) 38, a ¾ inch flat washer 40 and a ¾ inch NC nut 42. End 44 of all thread 38 is welded to top surface 46 of plate 34.

FIG. 6A shows the top mount method of mounting top end 32 of column 24 to angle 22. Using the top mount method, surface 54 of plate 34 is bolted to the top surface 48 of angle 22 using bolts 36, which are inserted through holes 56 of plate 34 and corresponding holes (not shown) formed in angle 22, and threaded into nuts 60. The top mount method is preferred, and can be used unless there is an obstruction above angle 22 that prevents proper placement of any of the components. Where such an obstruction exists, the bottom mount method, shown in FIG. 6B, should be employed. With the bottom mount method, surface 54 of plate 34 is bolted to surface 58 of angle 22. All threads 38 are used to mount the top end 32 of each column 24 to angle 22 using bolts 36, which are inserted through holes 56 of plate 34 and corresponding holes (not shown) formed in angle 22, and threaded into nuts 60. As can be seen from FIGS. 6A and 6B, the bottom mount method can employ a shorter column 24 than the top mount method.

Each column 24 is a ¼ inch by 3 inch by 5 inch length of steel tubing having a generally rectangular cross section that has been cut to an appropriate length. End 32 of each column 24 defines an elongated hole 50 through which an all thread 38 is inserted. End 32 of each column 24 is secured to an all thread 38 by threading washer 40 and nut 42 onto end 52 of all thread 38. Each bottom end 62 of columns 24 is mounted to floor 16 using a 2 inch by 4 inch by 1 inch steel base block 26 that define a pair of ⅝ inch holes 64, and a pair of ½ inch by 6 inch self threading concrete anchor bolts 66, which are threaded through holes 64 and into floor 16. Base block 26 is sized to fit within bottom end 62 of column 24.

FIGS. 7C and 7D show an alternate method of mounting end 32 of column 24 to angle 22 that does not require use of plate 34. With the method shown in FIGS. 7C and 7D, each end 68 of all thread 38 is welded directly to the top surface 48 of angle 22 for a top mount configuration, or the bottom surface 58 of angle 22 for a bottom mount configuration, rather than to plate 34.

If desired by the building owner, system 10 can be provided with metal shelf brackets 70 (see FIGS. 11A, 11B, 11C and 11D), which are adapted to support horizontal shelving. Each bracket 70 defines a pair of holes 72 that are sized to admit a pin 74 that, in conjunction with cotter pin 76, is used to mount bracket 70 to a column 24. Each column 24 defines a pair of holes 78 that can be aligned with holes 72 in a bracket 70 to allow pin 76 to pass completely through column 24 and bracket 70. The holes 78 of all columns 24 should be so placed that they form one or more level, horizontal rows that will correspond with the shelving after it is placed on the brackets that are mounted at holes 78. Each bracket 70 defines a flat panel 80 on which the shelving is supported when brackets 70 have been mounted to columns 24, and a pair of side panels 82 that depend downwardly from panel 80. Panels 80 and 82 form a generally U-shaped channel 84. Panel 80 defines a rectangular cutout 86 that is sized to fit closely around column 24 to allow placement of column 24 within cutout 86 and alignment of holes 78 and holes 72 to permit pin 76 to pass completely through column 24 and bracket 70. Pin 74 is secured in place by passing the long leg 108 of cotter pin 76 through hole 110 formed in pin 74. Bracket 70 includes a rod coupler 88 with a bolt 90, which can be used to level shelving supported by bracket 70. Coupler 88 depends downwardly from panel 80 of bracket 70, and defines a threaded opening 112 into which bolt 90 can be threaded. The inclination of bracket 70 can be changed by threading bolt 90 further into or out of opening 112.

FIGS. 12A, 12B and 12C show a rod bracket 92, which provides an alternative to bracket 70 for mounting shelving to columns 24. Bracket 92 includes a mount 94 that defines a front panel 96 and a pair of side panels 98. A shelf supporting rod 100 is mounted to front panel 96 in any suitable way, for example, by welding. Each side panel 98 defines a hole 102. Panel 94 and panels 98 define a channel 104 that is sized to fit closely around column 24 to allow placement of column 24 within channel 104 and alignment of holes 78 and holes 102 to permit pin 106 to pass completely through column 24 and bracket 92. Pin 106 is secured in place by passing the long leg 114 of a cotter pin 116 through hole 118 formed in pin 106.

To install system 10 to stabilize a failed, cracked wall 12, it is first necessary to determine the location of each of the columns 24. Each column will extend from floor 16 to above the sill plate 20, with the 3 inch side 120 against wall 12. Ideally, columns 24 are spaced along wall 12 on 5′4″ centers. If obstacles or a lack of clear space prevent ideal spacing of columns 24 to be achieved, the spacing of columns 24 may be less than 5′4″. However, increasing the spacing to more than 5′4″ could cause failure of system 10. To finally determine the placement of columns 24, the layout of angle 22 needs to be determined, since it could influence the placement of columns 24. Preferably, angle 22 extends continuously along the top of wall 12 throughout the entire length of wall 12, to approximately 30 inches past the outermost columns 24. If a continuous angle 22 cannot be so installed due to obstacles or other causes, angle 22 may be pieced, so long as at least one bolt 28 and one bolt 30 is installed on each side of each column 24. The 2 inch side 122 of angle 22 is mounted to sill plate 20, and the 3 inch side 124 of angle 22 is mounted to joists 18. Side 122 extends downwardly past the top of most foundation walls, which prevents the top of the wall 12 from sliding inward on sill plate 20.

Next, it is necessary to establish the points along sill plate 20 at which the top ends 32 of columns 24 will be mounted to angle 22 when it is installed, and then plumb down from each such point to determine the mounting location for each base block 26. Base blocks 26 are then mounted at these points, leaving approximately the thickness of the column 24 (¼ inch) plus a ⅛ inch gap between wall 12 and base block 26. If the wall 12 is severely bowed, base block 26 can be spaced further from wall 12 to make the orientation of each column 24 more vertical when it is installed.

The angle 22 is then installed to sill plate 20 and joists 18 using bolts 28 and 30. The all threads 38, which have been welded to plates 34, are installed on angle 22 using bolts 36 and nuts 60.

Then, columns 24 need to be cut to the proper length. This is done by measuring the distance between the floor at each base block the floor 16 at each block 26 to the center line of each all thread 38 (regardless of whether it is a top mount or bottom mount installation). The columns 24 are then cut to the proper length. For each column 24, the bottom end 62 is slid over the corresponding base block 26 until block 26 is within the bottom end 62 and bottom end 62 rests on floor 16. The corresponding all thread 38 is inserted through opening 50, and washer 40 and nut 42 are threaded onto end 52 of all thread 38, and nut 42 is tightened using a suitable wrench.

After all columns 24 are so installed, each nut 42 is tightened again to eliminate any loose connections. At this point, system 10, by means of columns 20, is exerting a force on wall 12 that will prevent it from bowing inwardly any further. Nuts 42 can be tightened again as the earth outside wall 12 dries and shrinks, as it usually does in the summer. This process may have to be repeated, depending on the severity of the bow, to move wall 12 toward its original position. If, upon installation, it is desired to return the wall 12 to its original position, or nearly to its original position, the earth outside wall 12 can be excavated, and nuts 42 can be tightened until columns 24 have moved wall 12 to its original position, at which point the excavated hole can be backfilled

If it is desired to install shelving on columns 24 once wall 12 has been stabilized, holes 78 can be drilled in columns 24, and brackets 70 or 92 installed on columns 24 using pins 74 or 106. If brackets 70 are employed, bolt 90 on each coupler 88 can be threaded further into or out of opening 112 to lower or raise end 126 of brackets 70. Shelving can then be laid on top of surface 80 of brackets 70.

Where the failed wall is a non-bearing wall in that the joists supporting the floor above run parallel to the failed wall, rather than perpendicular to it, the procedure is the same as that for the load bearing wall described above, with the following exceptions.

FIGS. 5A and 5B show the top section of a part of a system 200 that is used to stabilize the cracked non-bearing wall 12 of a building. System 200 is identical to system 10 with the exception of the manner in which the upper surface 48 of angle 22 is mounted to the joists 18. The joists 18 of non-bearing walls provide no points at which the top surface 48 of angle 22 can be mounted directly to joists 18. This problem is addressed by installing solid blocking 202 that extends from the outside rim joist 204, which rests on top of the sill plate 20 into the next inward joist 206. This blocking should be on 2′ center lines. The blocking 202 can be of the same material as the joists 18, and provides mounts for angle 22. Angle 22 should also have additional bracing at its ends, and, optionally, at intervals along its length. The bracing at each corner can be achieved by using bolts 214 to mount a ½ inch by 2 inch flat iron 212 or the equivalent at one end 210 to lower surface 58 of angle 22, and at its other end 211 to surface 59 of an angle 23 that has been mounted to the wall that abuts failed wall 12 in the corner of the foundation. Angles 22 and 23 are anchored together at their ends 216 and 218 in any suitable fashion, for example, using bolts 220 and a gusset 217. Additional bracing (not shown) of a similar nature can be provided along the length of angle 22 at approximately 5′ intervals. This bracing can take the form of additional flat irons like flat iron 212 that are mounted to be either perpendicular or at a diagonal (like flat iron 212) to the failed wall 12. If the flat irons are mounted to be perpendicular to angle 22, at approximately each 5′ interval throughout the length of angle 22, one end of a flat iron should be bolted to surface 58 of angle 22 and the other end should be bolted to the bottom of joist 206 perpendicular to angle 22. Additional bracing can be provided by extending the flat iron to a solid anchor point such as a bearing wall or a steel beam. In this case, the flat iron should be bolted to each joist under which it passes. If the diagonal approach is chosen, flat irons (not shown) like flat iron 212 should be mounted at their ends at approximately 5′ intervals throughout the length of angles 22 and 23 to both angles 22 and 23, just as iron 212 is mounted to angles 22 and 23. The first iron would be mounted approximately 5′ from the inwardly from ends 210 and 211 of iron 212. This results in irons that are mounted in parallel relation to each other. As with the perpendicular approach, the irons should be bolted to the joists under which they pass.

If the foundation wall height is over 8′6″ and/or the backfill material is further than 7′ above the top of the basement floor 16, system 10 may need to be strengthened by, for example, providing columns 24 with thicker walls, placing columns 24 closer together than is recommended above, or providing stronger attachment points. These modifications will depend on the particular conditions encountered, and will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art.