Title:
Anchoring device
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
An anchor device having a primary central element made from a tube or rod and one or several holding arm(s), pointing in the direction of insertion, which is fixed to the primary element through a transversal revolving connection and a wire connecting the outer part of the holding arms counting from its revolving connection and the second extremity of the wire connected directly or indirectly to the primary central element. When introduced into the ground the holding element is held in a folded position against the central element. When the anchor device has been introduced to a chosen depth into the ground the holding element is released and forced to turn outwards by its shape and the torque exerted on the holding element in relation to its revolving connection during insertion. The turning force is improved by the shape of the arm or by pushing it outwards by a built in part in the device or a separate tool. When further inserted into the ground the holding arm or arms will be pressed outwards and forced to turn further outwards. Further intrusion will force the holding element to turn outwards to its holding position, where the wire is stretched and locked directly or indirectly to the central element. A separate wire supporting a mast or other outside object can be connected to the anchor to its central element or to a sleeve guided on the central element.



Inventors:
Lagercrantz, Fredrik Bror Bengt (Skultuna, SE)
Application Number:
10/972134
Publication Date:
07/14/2005
Filing Date:
10/25/2004
Assignee:
Fredrik Lagercrantz (Skultuna, SE)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E02D5/80; (IPC1-7): E04C5/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
KATCHEVES, BASIL S
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Mr. Fredrik Lagercrantz (Skultuna, SE)
Claims:
1. An anchoring device, serving as anchor or holding device, comprising a central element, which may be a central straight element or a central extended element made from a tube or rod or profile and a holding and fixing arm or arms connected to the central element, directly or indirectly via a second element, which may have the shape of a sleeve or profile, through a transversal revolving joint, which permits the holding and fixing arm(s) to take a passive position close to and against the central element, pointing from the revolving joint/s towards the first extremity of the central element in the direction of insertion, and an active position turned in the revolving joint around its/their point of fixation outwards from the central element, characterised by a first connection of a wire/wires to the holding and fixing arm/s in the middle or outer part of the holding and fixing arm/s in relation to the point of the revolving joint and a second point of connection of the same wire/s to the central element directly in part of the central element such as a track in a guiding plate or indirectly via a second element such as a sleeve or profile guided on the outside or inside of the central element, positioned towards the second extremity of the central element, and that a stretching of the wire/s away from the holding and fixing arm/s will give the wire/s a tension, which keeps/keep the holding and fixing arm(s) turned around its/their revolving joint in a position pointing outwards from the central element and after insertion into a material, in an active position and in that position serve as blocking and fixing arm(s) and make the device serve as a fixing or holding device in the ground or material in which it has been inserted and that the holding and fixing arm/s will turn outwards from the central element during insertion into the material into which it is inserted and the unit serve as a holding or fixing anchor or device, which may be connected via a separate wire or rod to a mast or other outside element.

2. An anchoring device according to claim 1, characterised by a second element made from a tube or rod or profile guided inside or outside the central element, which can slide along the central element in order to prolong it in the direction opposite to the direction of insertion, and that the holding and fixing arm/s is/are designed with an element like a cross beam or hook or peg in its/their outer end from the joint of the holding and fixing arm/s, which can serve to block the holding and fixing arm/s in its/their folded position against the central element by the central element itself or the second element or a special rod-like tool, placed inside the central element during the first part of insertion into the ground, and that the blocking of the holding and fixing arm/s can be released by turning or pulling the central element or turning or pulling an inner tube or rod inside the central element or by turning or pulling the special rod-like tool and permit a continued insertion by pushing or hitting the anchor device into the ground, during which operation the holding and fixing arm/s can turn outwards during insertion to a holding position.

3. An anchoring device according to claim 1 device, characterised by a/the holding and fixing arm/s with an outer extremity from the point of connection to the central element, which is bent or with a guiding shape, which pushes/push or guides/guide the extremity of the arm/s outwards from the central element, when pushed into a material such as the ground.

4. An anchoring device according to claim 1, characterised by a central element made from a tube or profile, and a second element made from a tube, guided outside the central element, and the holding and fixing arm connected to the second element, and a guiding with seals on the inside of the outer end of the second element and a guiding with seals on the inner end of the second element giving it a hydraulic function for pulling the central element into the second element in order to simplify the extraction of the fixing device out of the ground after use as a fixing device in the ground.

5. An anchoring device, according to claim 1, characterised by a central element, made from a rod or tube or profile with one sharp or pointed first extremity for penetrating a material such as the ground, and one second flat or blunt extremity with a head in the opposite direction, and one or several holding or fixing arm(s) connected to the central element via a transversal revolving joint/s on a secondy sleeve surrounding the central element, and wire/s connecting said holding and fixing arm(s) in its/their outer part to the central element via a secondary sleeve, positioned around the central element directly under the head, and that the second element can slide along the central element to an upper position close to the head, and that the secondary sleeve can slide along the central element to a low position towards the pointed extremity of the central element, and lock against movement upwards towards the blunt extremity by a locking device, such as an edge on the central element, when the central element is pulled outwards in the direction of the flat or blunt extremity through the secondary sleeve into a prolonged position and that the second element can slide towards the flat or blunt extremity of the central element and thereby stretch the holding wire/s connecting the holding and fixing arms to the central element and lock the holding and fixing arm/s in a position pointing out from the central element and that the unit will serve as a holding or fixing device when introduced into the ground or other material.

6. An anchoring device according to claim 1 characterised by a second element in the shape of a sleeve or profil, surrounding part of said holding and fixing arm and/or said central element and that the second element in its position towards the holding and fixing arm/s is blocking it/them against turning outwards during the first part of insertion and that the second element is connected to a wire/wires connecting it to the fixing and holding arm/s, and that a displacement of said sleeve in the direction of the second extremity of the central element, opposite to the direction of insertion into the surface, creates a stretching of the wire and a tension, which keeps the holding and fixing arm/s in an active position, pointing outwards from the central element and in that position serve as holding and fixing anchoring device, and that an external wire can be connected to said second element and/or second second element via a connecting plate.

7. An anchoring device according to claim 1 characterised by a wire of steel or other high strength material with a diameter between 0,1 mm and 20 mm.

8. An anchoring device according to claim 1 characterised by holding and fixing arm/s with a U-shape, V-shape or a semicircular shape or a combination of said forms so that the holding and fixing arm(s) may take a position adjoining to the central element.

9. An anchoring device according to claim 1 characterised by a holding and fixing arm/s, which is/are connected to the central element with a rotating joint situated on the inner extremity of the holding and fixing arm/s and with its centre of rotation on the opposite side of the central element in relation to the position of the holding and fixing arm/s, with the purpose of getting a torque, which will turn the holding and fixing arm/s outwards from the central element when forced to penetrate into the ground.

10. An anchoring device according to claim 1 characterised by an endplate on the outer extremity of the holding and fixing arm/s, which will make the device penetrate into the ground when simultaneously rotated and pushed, keeping the holding and fixing arm/s in position against the central element during rotation and thus keeping and locking the holding and fixing arm/s in an inactive position and when further pushed straight into the ground the holding and fixing arm/s will be released and guided outwards by the angle of the plate/s into an active holding position in the ground.

11. An anchoring device according to claim 1, characterised by a central element and a second element made from a rod or a profile or sleeve, serving to lengthen the central element with a constriction at the inner extremity of the hollow element guided outside the other element and a corresponding swelling of the extremity of the other element preventing one element from sliding out over the other element more than the length of the elements will permit.

12. An anchoring device according to claim 1 serving as a holding and fixing element to a mast or other outside element.

13. An anchoring device according to claim 2 serving as a holding and fixing element to a mast or other outside element.

14. Pole or antennae or a mast secured to the ground or other supporting material, by means of an anchor device according to claim 1.

15. Pole or antennae or a mast secured to the ground or other supporting material, by means of an anchor device according to claim 2.

16. Use of an anchor device according to claim 1 to secure fix or anchor any of a pole, mast or antenna.

17. Use of an anchor device according to claim 2 to secure fix or anchor any of a pole, mast or antenna.

18. Use of an anchor device according to claim 1 to serve as a general fixation.

19. Use of an anchor device according to claim 2 to serve as a general fixation

20. Use of an anchor device according to claim 5 to serve as a general fixation.

Description:

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a general element for anchoring.

Even if devices or arrangement adapted for anchoring of this kind may have a general application and extensive use, the invention, in the following description, will be illustrated and described for applications which are mainly suitable for devices which are adapted to and designed to be inserted into the ground.

More specifically the following description will illustrate the characteristics of the invention when applied to a device for anchoring in the ground where said device is positioned with a section over the ground.

Devices for anchoring have been developed for attaching wires subject to tension, such as staying masts or antennas of different types, but devices of this kind may also be used for staying or supporting other means or as a general fixation. The same technique can be used to anchor or fix or hold two separate elements to one another.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Methods and arrangements for anchoring of different types and principles are known. Thus devices and arrangements of anchoring are already known that have been designed to be introduced into a section of the ground and they are adapted to serve as a device for fixation of an apparatus, element or mast positioned above the ground. However most known devices have limitations or drawbacks, which make them unsuitable for many applications.

As examples of the present state of technology in this field reference can be made to the following patent publications: U.S. Pat. No. 1,577,708, U.S. Pat. No. 3,279,136, GB-A-315 553 and U.S. Pat. No. 3,785,104.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

Technical Problems

Considering the circumstances that a person skilled in this art has to evaluate in order to present a solution to one or several posed technical problems it is on one side a necessity to understand all measures and combination of measures and/or the sequence of actions needed to bring about the complete function and security and on the other side a necessity to choose the relevant mean or means requested for doing so, and it is probable, for this reason, that the technical problems related to the accomplishment of the invention are relevant.

When considering the present state of art in this field as described above, it must be considered a technical problem to realise the importance of and the advantages of the arrangement which will create the conditions, which will make it possible to bring the arrangement down into the ground and in such a position in the ground that it will be possible to manoeuvre the holding or fixing element, in the state of a rigid lever, to turn around a shaft transversal to the extension of the arrangement pointing outwards from the arrangement to an activated state and thus a fixing and holding position.

There is also a technical problem in creating such conditions for an arrangement with a holding and fixing device, and thereby creating prerequisites to be able to loosen the arrangement from the ground situated under the mentioned section of the ground, by bringing an activated fixing or holding element which is locked in its fixed position into an unlocked position with a degree of freedom to move during extraction and loosen from its holding position.

Then there is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and the advantages connected in letting the forces be taken up by a wire or cord arranged between a central element, which can be inserted into the ground or other material, and a holding and fixing arm/s in a turned out position pointing outwards from the central primary element.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages of giving the mentioned wire or cord an adapted length, corresponding to or slightly exceeding a chosen distance between a chosen point of attachment on the central element and a chosen point of attachment on the mentioned holding and fixing arm/s.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in letting the holding and fixing arm/s be locked in its/their folded position against the primary element during the first part of insertion.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in making the holding and fixing arm begin to turn outwards during insertion in a predetermined position.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in creating such prerequisites that a forced and controlled displacement of the mentioned guided holding and fixing arm/s is achieved pointing in a direction outwards from the primary element to an activated position pointing outwards from the primary element.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in creating such prerequisites that a wire can be connected between the holding and fixing arm and the central straight element.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in creating such prerequisites that a wire connecting the holding and fixing arm to the central straight element is not damaged during insertion.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in creating such prerequisites that a wire connecting the holding and fixing arm to the central element will stretch or can be tightened during and after intrusion in order to secure the holding and fixing arm in its outer and holding position.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in creating such prerequisites that a wire connecting the holding and fixing arm to the central straight element is automatically tightened by the pulling force.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in designing the anchor device with a cross section and design, which simplifies the insertion into the ground, and yet is resistant to strain exerted on its different parts when used.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance and advantage connected in letting said wire consist of a high strength wire preferably between 1 and 10 mm for the specific application of a ground anchor.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the holding element take the shape of an arm, which is rigid against bending.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in positioning the rotating axis of the holding and fixing arm transversal to the direction of the primary element and situated preferably on the opposite side or towards the opposite side of the primary element from the position of the holding and fixing arm.

There is also a technical problem in perceiving the importance of and advantages connected in letting the holding element get a semicircular or U-shaped or V-shaped cross section with a distance between the legs of the profile, which is slightly greater than the chosen diameter or broadness of the said bar-like central straight element.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the inserting of the arrangement be done by hitting or pushing and/or turning the device for anchoring and thereby pushing the device for anchoring, its central element and the holding or fixing arm/s, into the ground below the mentioned ground surface, during which the holding or fixing arm/s will stay in position with an orientation close to the primary element in an inactivated position.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the first end part for penetration of the mentioned primary element get a simplified shape of a screw or supplied with a detail having a screw-like shape or have a first edge of a combined spiral or shape of a screw line (FIG. 2-56).

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the design of the mentioned screw or spiral get a shape which keeps it passive against the central primary element during the first part of insertion, when the arrangement is forced through the earth by screwing and pressing.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the central primary element be prolonged in the direction opposite to the direction of intrusion.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the anchor be prolonged during insertion through a telescopic function between the central element and a rod or tube entering or circumscribing the central element.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the mentioned secondary element in the shape of a sleeve have a constriction in its extremity in the direction of the first extremity of the central element and that the central element has a flange and guiding in its extremity opposite to the penetrating end avoiding the secundary element from being able to slide and pass along, away from its position around the primary element.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the mentioned constriction and flange have a guiding surface sliding along the primary element and the inner surface of the sleeve in order to have a secure and smooth movement between the sleeve and the primary element.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the sliding surfaces of the constriction and the flange having seals to avoid leakage between the sleeve and the bar.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the primary central element or secondary element have an inlet for a liquid which permits to pressurize the chamber between the inner surface of the secondary element and the outer surface of the primary element making it possible to set under pressure the volume between the mentioned constriction and the mentioned flange between the secondary element and the primary element and thus pushing the elements together and pulling the primary element out of its position of fixation in the ground.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the holding and fixing arm/s have a semicircular or an angle cross-section or a U-Form permitting the holding and fixing arm to rest tight against the primary element during penetration of the ground.

There is a technical problem perceiving the importance of and advantage connected in letting the holding and fixing arm/s have a semicircular or an angle cross section or a U-form reinforcing the holding and fixing arm/s against bending.

SOLUTION

The device according to this invention, is based upon a design suitable for use as an anchoring device and can be regarded to consist mainly of a central element made from a tube or rod and a rigid holding and fixing arm or arms, connected to the central element through a joint, and that the holding and fixing arm or arms can be locked in its/their outer position by a wire connected to the upper part of the central element. The device is called anchor or an anchoring device.

The holding and fixing arm/s should be rigid because this will prevent a successive partial loosening because of local concentration of pressure against the ground. A local concentration of the pressure will cause a deformation in the ground in this specific point, which in turn will move the point of highest concentration to a different point of the holding and fixing arm. The point of highest relative pressure, will always deform and result in a continued deformation of a flexible arm. The deformation would move along a flexible arm with the successive deformation. A flexible arm could work itself up through the ground, when subject to deformation due to variation in pressure along the arm.

The force transmitting wire connecting the holding and fixing arm/s to the central element should be flexible in order to facilitate the insertion into the ground and pass obstacles such as stones or roots. It will not be obstructed by an uneven structure. Because of its flexibility it will take up the force and yet pass obstacles along an unstraight line.

The mentioned primary element could preferably have a sharpened or an inclined cutting of the first extremity intended to penetrate the ground.

Further the invention describes a guided second part of the central element, which can be well adapted to surround the mentioned primary element, such as a sleeve or a guide inside the primary element such as a rod or profile in order to prolong the element for anchoring.

During insertion into the ground the rigid holding and fixing arm is forced to start turning outwards in the ground in a controlled position and to a controlled extent by its design and/or the design of the first extremity of the central element and/or the inner rod or tube and/or the design of a corresponding special tool used for insertion.

The invention is based on an arrangement, which can be considered to consist of a central element from a tube or bar and a holding and fixing arm or arms, which can take an inactive position along the central element and an active position pointing out from the central element.

The mentioned holding and fixing arm or arms could preferably have a pointed first extremity, which is bent or pointing outwards or cut obliquely, which is facilitating the penetration and turning outwards into the ground.

A sliding second element could be designed to be guided within or outside a section between the first and second extremity of the central element and serve as a prolongation of the central element and a second fixation of the wire.

The mentioned holding arm or arms are fixed to the central element through a transversal revolving connection in order to hold an inactive position along and adjacent to the primary element and an active holding position pointing out from the central element.

In order to solve one or several of the mentioned technical problems the present invention points out that the known technique must be complemented with a wire connecting the holding and fixing arm or arms in its/their outer part, directly or indirectly, to the central element with a wire with a length, which is chosen to be equal or somewhat exceeding the distance between the points of fixation to the central element and the holding and fixing arm/s, when the arm is in a position against the central element. In an inserted position with the holding and fixing arm in its outer position the pulling force is mainly taken up by the wire and transferred from the holding and fixing arm to the central element or to a second element, which may be in the shape of a sleeve guided around the central element or to a rod or profile guided inside the central element.

The holding and fixing arm/s is/are connected directly or indirectly to the primary element through a transversal revolving joint positioned on the middle part of the central element with the tip of the holding and fixing arm/s pointing in the direction of intrusion, thus permitting the holding and fixing arm to turn outwards from the central element during intrusion after relieving any blocking of its/their position against the central element.

After intrusion into the ground and with the holding and fixing arm/s in its/their outer position and the wire between the holding and fixing arm/s and the central element tightened and secured, the mentioned assembly will give a resistance against pulling out from the ground and thus serve as a ground anchor or generally as a holding and fixing device.

Within the range of the present invention it is proposed that the wire should be a cord or wire of high strength material such as steel and that the diameter of the wire for the application as ground anchor should preferably be between 4 and 10 mm.

The positioning of the revolving joint of the holding and fixing arm or arms can be positioned on the extremity, close to the extremity of the primary element or on a sleeve guided on the outside of the primary element, combined with a design of the free extremity of the holding and fixing arm or arms for intrusion, which is inclined in order to achieve an outward turning movement of the holding and fixing arm or arms, when the primary element is pushed down into the ground.

Further it is advised that the holding and fixing arm or arms should have the shape of an arm with a transversal revolving joint of the arm situated on the opposite side of the central element from the position of the holding and fixing arm.

Further it is advised that holding and fixing arm or arms have a U-shaped, V-shaped or semicircular section with a distance between the legs of the profile, which is slightly exceeding the diameter of the primary element.

More specifically the present invention shows one special arrangement, when a turning or rotating movement of the mentioned central element will drill the ground anchor with its holding and fixing arm or arms and with or without a second element such as a sleeve circumscribing the central element, through the ground into a section of the ground and during this first part of the operation the holding and fixing arm or arms stay/s in an inactive position close to the central element.

This application (FIG. 2-56) of the present invention shows the design of the first penetrating part of the anchoring device, which has a design corresponding to the beginning of a screw like shape, like an edge or a screw like shape.

Further it is advised that adjacent to the point of fixation of the wire, the penetrating extremity of the holding and fixing arm is given a shape like a spiral or screw, which can be made by shaping a bent plate or the edge of a plate unit.

The invention further shows that the mentioned extremity for intrusion with an edge or beginning of a spiral or screw like shape should have an inclination which keeps the mentioned holding and fixing arm or arms tight against the central element during the rotating movement through the ground. (FIG. 2-56). When pushed straight down the holding and fixing arm or arms will turn outwards into a holding position.

Further it is shown that a crossbeam or hole (FIG. 6-57) on the inner part of the holding and fixing arm or arms will serve to keep the holding and fixing arm or arms in position against the central element by an inner rod or tube as long as the tip of the rod or tube is kept on the inside of the holding crossbeam.

ADVANTAGES

The advantages, which are specific for this invention, and the special significant features are that conditions have been created for a simple insertion of a device or an arrangement, which can serve as an anchor for holding devices above the material in which it has been inserted, giving a secure fixation, which is possible to verify, combined with a possibility to retract the anchor, when desirable, by pulling after having slackened the holding wire.

The invention gives the possibility to offer an anchoring device with a ridged arm or arms, which can be brought to an active holding locked position for securing the anchoring device in the ground or take an inactive position adjacent to the central element by slackening the tension in the wire and pull it upwards and thereby removing it from its holding position in the ground. It must be observed that the holding and fixing arm or arms, when the tension of the wire is released by slackening the wire, can take a position pointing in the direction of insertion in order to facilitate the removal of the anchoring device after use.

More specifically the invention is based on the use of a wire between the central element directly or indirectly through a sleeve or rod guided by the central element and the holding and fixing arm/s, which is fixed to the central element through a transversal revolving joint. The wire can be stretched and locked keeping the holding and fixing arm or arms in its/their active outer position and thus securing the anchor in the ground.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION WITH DRAWINGS

Initially it must be emphasized that the following description of applications of the invention, an anchoring device, which are designed in accordance with the significant features of the invention and, which are exemplified and clarified in the adjoining illustrations, FIG. 1 to FIG. 6, have been described by using a specific terminology chosen with the object of clarifying the idea and principles of the invention.

It must be noted however that the words and expressions chosen should not be considered a limitation of the use to the chosen terminology but it should be understood that every chosen word and terminology must be interpreted so that it embraces all equivalent technical terms, which have the same or mainly the same function in order to achieve the same or mainly the same object or/and technical effect.

In the FIGS. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 alternative applications of the anchor are shown.

In the figures the corresponding parts have been given the same reference numbers for simplifying the description.

A number of applications of preferred embodiments exposing the significant features of the present invention will now be described with reference to the enclosed drawings. The drawings will show examples of a number of possible applications:

FIG. 1 (FIG. 1a-1c)

This application shows a version of the invention with a central element(10) made from a rod with a first pointed extremity for penetration into the ground and a holding and fixing arm (50), which is fixed to the central element (10) through a transversal revolving joint (51) and a wire (60) connecting the outer part of the holding and fixing arm (50), counting from its revolving joint (51), and the second extremity of the wire (60) connected to a second element (20), which can move upwards towards the second blunt extremity of the central element (10). When introduced into the ground the holding and fixing arm (50) is in a folded position against the central element (10). When the anchor is being introduced into the ground, the holding and fixing arm (10) will turn outwards by the inclined extremity of its outer part and it will be forced to turn outwards. Further intrusion will force the holding and fixing arm (50) to turn outwards to its holding position and the wire (60) will stretch as the second element (20) is moved upwards, when stopped by the surface of the ground. The external wires connecting to a mast or other external element should be connected to the plate (43) on the sleeve. The second element (20) can also be locked to the central element (10) with for instance a peg and the external wires connected directly to the central element.

FIG. 2 (FIG. 2a-2e)

This application shows a version with an outside sleeve (20), which serves to prolong the anchor. The inner extremity of the central element (12) and the inner extremity of the sleeve (22) have guides with seals, in order to serve as a hydraulic cylinder, which can be used to pull the expanded anchor together, when pulling it out from its fixed position in the ground. The holding force exerted by the ground is taken up by the holding and fixing arm (50) in its outer position and transferred to the wire (60).

The bottom plate (56) on the extremity of the holding and fixing arm (50) serves as a cutting edge, when the anchor is turned and pushed into the ground. It also serves as a guiding plate (56) outwards when pushed straight downwards. When the anchor is further pushed down into the ground the holding and fixing arm (50) will turn outwards into the ground. The wire (60) will secure it in its outer position. During the turning operation the central element (10) is locked to the second element (20) either by a locking pin or an external tool (not shown).

FIG. 2b shows a view of the holding and fixing arm (50) and the central element (10), when the anchor is in its folded position.

A first partial intrusion into the ground is done by turning and thereby screwing the central element (10) and the holding and fixing arm (50) into the ground. This is done by using a special tool inserted inside the central element (10) through the top of the second element. During this operation the holding and fixing arm (50) is kept in position against an inclined surface (12) on the extremity of the central element. The resulting force during turning will keep the holding and fixing arm (50) folded and tight against the central element (10).

By applying a force directly in the direction of intrusion on to the central element (10), made from a rod or tube, it will penetrate into the ground. The force will push the central element (10) into the ground. When the second element (20) reaches the surface of the ground it will be held back and the central element (10) will move further into the ground and in relation to the second element (20).

During this operation of insertion the holding and fixing arm (50) will turn outwards guided by the angle of the endplate (56).

As the anchor is further introduced into the ground, the second element (20) is held back when the flange (21) is getting in contact with the ground and the wire (60) is stretched by turning the sleeve (34). In this position the wire (60) will be stretched and take up the force applied to the endplate (43).

The application shown in FIG. 2a, 2b and 2d describes an alternative with a central element with a second element (20) with a telescopic function, which is used in order to extent the length of the anchor during insertion into the ground. A separate tool, made from a rod, is used to insert the anchoring device into the ground. The tool also locks the central element to the sleeve in order to avoid rotation between the two parts during intrusion.

FIG. 3 (FIG. 3a-3f)

This application shows a version with a second element (20), which can slide along the central element FIG. 3a-10). A tool according to FIG. 3g built up from a separate straight, pointed rod, which is set inside the anchor during insertion and used for inserting the anchor into the ground. During the first part of insertion, the tip of the tool is entering under a crossbeam (58) in the holding and fixing arm (50) keeping it in its folded position against the central element. When the holding and fixing arm (50) should start to bend outwards from its position close to the central element (10) the tool FIG. 3g is lifted and turned half a turn in order to push the same crossbeam (58) outwards and thus force the holding and fixing arm to turn outwards. The holding and fixing arm (50) is further pushed outwards by ground material entering in between the central element and the holding and fixing arm (50) during the continued penetration through the ground. The movement outwards is also reinforced by the shape of the holding and fixing arm (50). The holding force is taken up by the wire (60) and transferred to the second element (20) with its holding plate (43).

When loosening the anchor, the wire is moved from a locked position in tracks in the guiding plates (23). With a slackened wire (60) the anchor can be pulled up from its position in the ground.

FIG. 4 (FIG. 4a-4f)

This application is shown in folded FIG. 4b and FIG. 4f and expanded position FIG. 4a. The anchor can be expanded to become a longer unit by pulling out the second element (20) and securing it to the central element (10) with a bolt (21). The wire (60) is stretched during and after insertion by pulling the sleeve (40) to its upper position. The holding and fixing arm (50) is held in its outer position by the wire (60) which is held in a stretched position by a sleeve (30), which can be secured to the inner tube (20) by a bolt (46). The anchor can be loosened by unlocking the sleeve (30) and slackening the wire (60).

A version of this design can be made using a longer central element without the possibility to expand. In this case the sleeve (30) is guided directly around the central component. The sleeve (30) may also be replaced by tracks in the guide plate, which are guiding and holding the wire (60).

FIG. 5 (FIG. 5a-5c)

The figure shows an application where the wires (60) are stretched first by pushing the central element (10) and then if necessary by turning the second element (20) and thereby winding the wire around the shaft of the second element (20). The holding force can be exerted on the flange (24) or it can be used to keep material between the arms (50a, 50b) and the flange (24) of the second element (20).

This application shows a central element (10) with two holding and fixing arms (50a, 50b) joined to a second element (20) and two wires (60). Both wires (60) are connected with one extremity to the flange (24) situated on the outer part of the second plate (20) and the other extremity of each wire (60) connected to each one of the holding and fixing arms (50a and 50b) to their outer part in relation to the point of revolving joint to the inner central element (10). The wires (60) have a length, which slightly exceeds the distance between the flange (24) and the point of fixation on the holding and fixing arms (50a and 50b) in a position, when the holding and fixing arms (50a and 50b) are pushed forward by the central element (10) in relation to the second element (20) and can rotate freely from the second element (20). By pushing the central element (10) into the second element (20) the holding and fixing arms (50a and 50b) will be pushed outwards from the second element (20). They will turn outwards by the shape of their tip when entering a material.

The wires can be further stretched by turning the head (30) of the second element and thus securing the holding and fixing arms (50a and 50b) in a turned out position. When the wires (60) are stretched, the turning of the holding and fixing arms (50a and 50b) outwards from their central position will be secured by a bolt or other means of securing the position of the central element (10) in the second element (20).

FIG. 5a shows a section with the holding and fixing arms (50a and 50b) in a straight position.

FIG. 5b shows the anchoring device in the same position in a different side view. FIG. 5c shows anchoring device in a fixed position with the holding and fixing arms (50a and 50b) in a secured holding position.

FIG. 6 (FIG. 6a-6c)

This application shows a version of the invention with a central element (10) made from a rod or tube and a holding and fixing arm (50), which is fixed to the central element (10) through a surrounding second element (20) in the shape of a sleeve and a transversal revolving joint (51) and a wire (60) connecting the outer part of the holding and fixing arm (50) counting from its revolving joint (51) and the second extremity of the wire connected to a second element (20), which is surrounding the central element (10) on its upper part opposite the direction of insertion. During the first part of insertion into the ground the holding and fixing arm (50) is locked in a folded position against the central element (10) by the tip of the central element (10). When the anchoring device has been introduced to a chosen depth into the ground, the central element (10) is pulled upwards until the secondary sleeve (40), which is joined to the holding and fixing arm (50) reaches the extremity of the central element (10) and locks against a notch. The anchor is then pushed further down. The holding and fixing arm/s (50) will be pressed outwards by its/their inclined extremity and forced to turn outwards. Further insertion will force the holding and fixing arm (50) to turn outwards to its holding position. The wire (60) will stretch when the second element (20) reaches the ground surface during insertion. The holding force from an external separate wire can be applied to the bent element (43) intended for fixation and connected to a mast or other object. FIG. 6a shows the ground anchor in a folded position with the wire (60) in a released position.

After the holding and fixing arm (50) has turned outwards, a further insertion into the ground will force the mentioned holding and fixing arm (50) to turn further outwards into a locking position. The depth of insertion after unlocking the holding and fixing arm (50) from its folded position should be adapted in order to reach a final outer position of the holding and fixing arm (50), which will allow the wire (60) to be stretched and the holding and fixing arm (50) locked in an outer position in the final holding and fixing position.